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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2301
Cicero, On Duties, 1.144


Talis est igitur ordo actionum adhibendus, ut, quem ad modum in oratione constanti, sic in vita omnia sint apta inter se et convenientia; turpe enimn valdeque vitiosum in re severa convivio digna aut delicatum aliquem inferre sermonem. Bene Pericles, cum haberet collegam in praetura Sophoclem poëtam iique de communi officio convenissent et casu formosus puer praeteriret dixissetque Sophocles: O puerum pulchrum, Pericle! At enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere. Atqui hoc idem Sophocles si in athletarum probatione dixisset, iusta reprehensione caruisset. Tanta vis est et loci et temporis. Ut, si qui, cum causam sit acturus, in itinere aut in ambulatione secum ipse meditetur, aut si quid aliud attentius cogitet, non reprehendatur, at hoc idem si in convivio faciat, inhumanus videatur inscitia temporis. Such orderliness of conduct is, therefore, to be observed, that everything in the conduct of our life shall balance and harmonize, as in a finished speech. For it is unbecoming and highly censurable, when upon a serious theme, to introduce such jests as are proper at a dinner, or any sort of loose talk. When Pericles was associated with the poet Sophocles as his colleague in command and they had met to confer about official business that concerned them both, a handsome boy chanced to pass and Sophocles said: "Look, Pericles; what a pretty boy!" How pertinent was Pericles's reply: "Hush, Sophocles, a general should keep not only his hands but his eyes under control." And yet, if Sophocles had made this same remark at a trial of athletes, he would have incurred no just reprimand. So great is the significance of both place and circumstance. For example, if anyone, while on a journey or on a walk, should rehearse to himself a case which he is preparing to conduct in court, or if he should under similar circumstances apply his closest thought to some other subject, he would not be open to censure: but if he should do that same thing at a dinner, he would be thought ill-bred, because he ignored the proprieties of the occasion. <


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, On Duties, 1.15, 1.93-1.94 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.15. Formam quidem ipsam, Marce fili, et tamquam faciem honesti vides, quae si oculis cerneretur, mirabiles amores, ut ait Plato, excitaret sapientiae. Sed omne, quod est honestum, id quattuor partium oritur ex aliqua: aut enim in perspicientia veri sollertiaque versatur aut in hominum societate tuenda tribuendoque suum cuique et rerum contractarum fide aut in animi excelsi atque invicti magnitudine ac robore aut in omnium, quae fiunt quaeque dicuntur, ordine et modo, in quo inest modestia et temperantia. Quae quattuor quamquam inter se colligata atque implicata sunt, tamen ex singulis certa officiorum genera nascuntur, velut ex ea parte, quae prima discripta est, in qua sapientiam et prudentiam ponimus, inest indagatio atque inventio veri, eiusque virtutis hoc munus est proprium. 1.93. Sequitur, ut de una reliqua parte honestatis dicendum sit, in qua verecundia et quasi quidam ornatus vitae, temperantia et modestia omnisque sedatio perturbationum animi et rerum modus cernitur. Hoc loco continetur id, quod dici Latine decorum potest; Graece enim pre/pon dicitur. Huius vis ea est, ut ab honesto non queat separari; 1.94. nam et, quod decet, honestum est et, quod honestum est, decet; qualis autem differentia sit honesti et decori, facilius intellegi quam explanari potest. Quicquid est enim, quod deceat, id tum apparet, cum antegressa est honestas. Itaque non solum in hac parte honestatis, de qua hoc loco disserendum est, sed etiam in tribus superioribus quid deceat apparet. Nam et ratione uti atque oratione prudenter et agere, quod agas, considerate omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli, errare, labi, decipi tam dedecet quam delirare et mente esse captum; et iusta omnia decora sunt, iniusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora. Similis est ratio fortitudinis. Quod enim viriliter animoque magno fit, id dignum viro et decorum videtur, quod contra, id ut turpe, sic indecorum. 1.93.  We have next to discuss the one remaining division of moral rectitude. That is the one in which we find considerateness and self-control, which give, as it were, a sort of polish to life; it embraces also temperance, complete subjection of all the passions, and moderation in all things. Under this head is further included what, in Latin, may be called decorum (propriety); for in Greek it is called πρέπον. Such is its essential nature, that it is inseparable from moral goodness; for what is proper is morally right, and what is morally right is proper. 1.94.  The nature of the difference between morality and propriety can be more easily felt than expressed. For whatever propriety may be, it is manifested only when there is pre-existing moral rectitude. And so, not only in this division of moral rectitude which we have now to discuss but also in the three preceding divisions, it is clearly brought out what propriety is. For to employ reason and speech rationally, to do with careful consideration whatever one does, and in everything to discern the truth and to uphold it — that is proper. To be mistaken, on the other hand, to miss the truth, to fall into error, to be led astray — that is as improper as to be deranged and lose one's mind. And all things just are proper; all things unjust, like all things immoral, are improper. The relation of propriety to fortitude is similar. What is done in a manly and courageous spirit seems becoming to a man and proper; what is done in a contrary fashion is at once immoral and improper.
3. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Ovid, Tristia, 4.10.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Vergil, Aeneis, 8.710 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed
9. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 5.16.9, 5.78.25, 10.20, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 5.16.9, 5.78.25, 10.20, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Musonius Rufus, Fragments, 4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Persius, Satires, 1.32-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Persius, Saturae, 1.32-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Gellius, Attic Nights, 19.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.125-7.126 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.125. Furthermore, the wise man does all things well, just as we say that Ismenias plays all airs on the flute well. Also everything belongs to the wise. For the law, they say, has conferred upon them a perfect right to all things. It is true that certain things are said to belong to the bad, just as what has been dishonestly acquired may be said, in one sense, to belong to the state, in another sense to those who are enjoying it.They hold that the virtues involve one another, and that the possessor of one is the possessor of all, inasmuch as they have common principles, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his work On Virtues, Apollodorus in his Physics according to the Early School, and Hecato in the third book of his treatise On Virtues. 7.126. For if a man be possessed of virtue, he is at once able to discover and to put into practice what he ought to do. Now such rules of conduct comprise rules for choosing, enduring, staying, and distributing; so that if a man does some things by intelligent choice, some things with fortitude, some things by way of just distribution, and some steadily, he is at once wise, courageous, just, and temperate. And each of the virtues has a particular subject with which it deals, as, for instance, courage is concerned with things that must be endured, practical wisdom with acts to be done, acts from which one must abstain, and those which fall under neither head. Similarly each of the other virtues is concerned with its own proper sphere. To wisdom are subordinate good counsel and understanding; to temperance, good discipline and orderliness; to justice, equality and fair-mindedness; to courage, constancy and vigour.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
banquet, with ion of chios Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 25
boys, sophocles love of Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
catasterismi (piso) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
cicero, on poetry as part of conversation Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
cicero Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
fleet, athenian Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
friendship / amicitia Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
ion of chios Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 25
ligurinus, and recitations Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
macer Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
martial, on reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
melissus, and the samian revolt Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24
mission to Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 25
musonius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
ovid, and reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
panaetius Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
pericles, and sophocles Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
philosopher, melissus as Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24
philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
piso, calpurnius, catasterismi Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
plato Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
pliny the younger, on recitations Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
poetry, and reading aloud Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
politician, sophocles as Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
politics Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
posidonius Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
prudence Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
quinn, kenneth, on oral performance Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
quotation, aloud Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
recitation, and ligurinus Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
samos, vs. athens Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
self-control Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
seneca the younger, on reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
shame Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
society / societas Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
spurinna Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
strategy, of sophocles Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 24, 25
sōphrosynē Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
temperance Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
theophrastus Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 79
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
virtus feminarum' Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 470
visit to Jouanna, Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context (2018) 25