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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12
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33 results
1. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus, 25 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Brutus, 43, 262 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, Brutus, 43, 262 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

262. tum Brutus: Orationes quidem eius mihi vehementer probantur. Compluris autem legi atque etiam commentarios (compluris autem legi) ...commentarii Stangl , quos idem scripsit rerum suarum. Valde quidem quos idem Stangl : quos Bake : quosdam L , inquam, probandos; nudi enim sunt, recti et venusti, omni ornatu orationis tamquam veste detracta detracto Lambinus . Sed dum voluit alios habere parata, unde sumerent qui vellent scribere historiam, ineptis gratum fortasse fecit, qui illa volent illa volent Suefon. : volunt illa L calamistris inurere: sanos quidem homines a scribendo deterruit; nihil est enim enim est BHM in historia pura et inlustri brevitate dulcius. Sed ad eos, si placet, qui vita excesserunt, revertamur.
4. Cicero, On Invention, 1.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.49. conparabile autem est, quod in rebus diversis similem aliquam rationem continet. eius partes sunt tres: imago, conlatio, exemplum. imago est oratio demonstrans corporum aut naturarum simi- litudinem. conlatio est oratio rem cum re ex simili- tudine conferens. exemplum est, quod rem auctoritate aut casu alicuius hominis aut negotii confirmat aut in- firmat. horum exempla et descriptiones in praeceptis elocutionis cognoscentur. Ac fons quidem confirmationis, ut facultas tulit, apertus est nec minus dilucide, quam rei natura fere- bat, demonstratus est; quemadmodum autem quaeque constitutio et pars constitutionis et omnis contro- versia, sive in ratione sive in scripto versabitur, tractari debeat et quae in quamque argumentationes conve- niant, singillatim in secundo libro de uno quoque ge- nere dicemus. in praesentia tantummodo numeros et modos et partes argumentandi confuse et permixtim dispersimus; post discripte et electe in genus quodque causae, quid cuique conveniat, ex hac copia digeremus.
5. Cicero, On Laws, 1.5-1.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, On Duties, 1.64-1.65 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.64. Sed illud odiosum est, quod in hac elatione et magnitudine animi facillime pertinacia et nimia cupiditas principatus innascitur. Ut enim apud Platonem est, omnem morem Lacedaemoniorum inflammatum esse cupiditate vincendi, sic, ut quisque animi magnitudine maxime excellet, ita maxime vult princeps omnium vel potius solus esse. Difficile autem est, cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem, quae est iustitiae maxime propria. Ex quo fit, ut neque disceptatione vinci se nec ullo publico ac legitimo iure patiantur, exsistuntque in re publica plerumque largitores et factiosi, ut opes quam maximas consequantur et sint vi potius superiores quam iustitia pares. Sed quo difficilius, hoc praeclarius; nullum enim est tempus, quod iustitia vacare debeat. 1.65. Fortes igitur et magimi sunt habendi, non qui faciunt, sed qui propulsant iniuriam. Vera autem et sapiens animi magnitudo honestum illud, quod maxime natura sequitur, in factis positum, non in gloria iudicat principemque se esse mavult quam videri; etenim qui ex errore imperitae multitudinis pendet, hic in magnis viris non est habendus. Facillime autem ad res iniustas impellitur, ut quisque altissimo animo est, gloriae cupiditate; qui locus est sane lubricus, quod vix invenitur, qui laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis non quasi mercedem rerum gestarum desideret gloriam. 1.64.  But the mischief is that from this exaltation and greatness of spirit spring all too readily self-will and excessive lust for power. For just as Plato tells us that the whole national character of the Spartans was on fire with passion for victory, so, in the same way, the more notable a man is for his greatness of spirit, the more ambitious he is to be the foremost citizen, or, I should say rather, to be sole ruler. But when one begins to aspire to pre-eminence, it is difficult to preserve that spirit of fairness which is absolutely essential to justice. The result is that such men do not allow themselves to be constrained either by argument or by any public and lawful authority; but they only too often prove to be bribers and agitators in public life, seeking to obtain supreme power and to be superiors through force rather than equals through justice. But the greater the difficulty, the greater the glory; for no occasion arises that can excuse a man for being guilty of injustice. 1.65.  So then, not those who do injury but those who prevent it are to be considered brave and courageous. Moreover, true and philosophic greatness of spirit regards the moral goodness to which Nature most aspires as consisting in deeds, not in fame, and prefers to be first in reality rather than in name. And we must approve this view; for he who depends upon the caprice of the ignorant rabble cannot be numbered among the great. Then, too, the higher a man's ambition, the more easily he is tempted to acts of injustice by his desire for fame. We are now, to be sure, on very slippery ground; for scarcely can the man be found who has passed through trials and encountered dangers and does not then wish for glory as a reward for his achievements.
7. Cicero, De Oratore, 1.13-1.15, 2.36, 2.51-2.56, 2.59, 2.62-2.64 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.13. Ac ne illud quidem vere dici potest aut pluris ceteris inservire aut maiore delectatione aut spe uberiore aut praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri. Atque ut omittam Graeciam, quae semper eloquentiae princeps esse voluit, atque illas omnium doctrinarum inventrices Athenas, in quibus summa dicendi vis et inventa est et perfecta, in hac ipsa civitate profecto nulla umquam vehementius quam eloquentiae studia viguerunt. 1.14. Nam postea quam imperio omnium gentium constituto diuturnitas pacis otium confirmavit, nemo fere laudis cupidus adulescens non sibi ad dicendum studio omni enitendum putavit; ac primo quidem totius rationis ignari, qui neque exercitationis ullam vim neque aliquod praeceptum artis esse arbitrarentur, tantum, quantum ingenio et cogitatione poterant, consequebantur; post autem auditis oratoribus Graecis cognitisque eorum litteris adhibitisque doctoribus incredibili quodam nostri homines di s cendi studio flagraverunt. 1.15. Excitabat eos magnitudo, varietas multitudoque in omni genere causarum, ut ad eam doctrinam, quam suo quisque studio consecutus esset, adiungeretur usus frequens, qui omnium magistrorum praecepta superaret; erant autem huic studio maxima, quae nunc quoque sunt, exposita praemia vel ad gratiam vel ad opes vel ad dignitatem; ingenia vero, ut multis rebus possumus iudicare, nostrorum hominum multum ceteris hominibus omnium gentium praestiterunt. 2.36. Historia vero testis temporum, lux veritatis, vita memoriae, magistra vitae, nuntia vetustatis, qua voce alia nisi oratoris immortalitati commendatur? Nam si qua est ars alia, quae verborum aut faciendorum aut legendorum scientiam profiteatur; aut si quisquam dicitur nisi orator formare orationem eamque variare et distinguere quasi quibusdam verborum sententiarumque insignibus; aut si via ulla nisi ab hac una arte traditur aut argumentorum aut sententiarum aut denique discriptionis atque ordinis, fateamur aut hoc, quod haec ars profiteatur, alienum esse aut cum alia aliqua arte esse commune: sed si in hac una est ea ratio atque doctrina, non, si qui aliarum artium bene locuti sunt, eo minus id est huius unius proprium; 2.51. 'Plane' inquit Catulus 'adsentior.' 'Age vero,' inquit Antonius 'qualis oratoris et quanti hominis in dicendo putas esse historiam scribere?' 'Si, ut Graeci scripserunt, summi,' inquit Catulus; 'si, ut nostri, nihil opus est oratore; satis est non esse mendacem.' 'Atqui, ne nostros contemnas,' inquit Antonius, 'Graeci quoque ipsi sic initio scriptitarunt, ut noster Cato, ut Pictor, ut Piso; 2.52. erat enim historia nihil aliud nisi annalium confectio, cuius rei memoriaeque publicae retinendae causa ab initio rerum Romanarum usque ad P. Mucium pontificem maximum res omnis singulorum annorum mandabat litteris pontifex maximus referebatque in album et proponebat tabulam domi, potestas ut esset populo cognoscendi, eique etiam nunc annales maximi nomitur. 2.53. Hanc similitudinem scribendi multi secuti sunt, qui sine ullis ornamentis monumenta solum temporum, hominum, locorum gestarumque rerum reliquerunt; itaque qualis apud Graecos Pherecydes, Hellanicus, Acusilas fuit aliique permulti, talis noster Cato et Pictor et Piso, qui neque tenent, quibus rebus ornetur oratio—modo enim huc ista sunt importata—et, dum intellegatur quid dicant, unam dicendi laudem putant esse brevitatem. 2.54. Paulum se erexit et addidit maiorem historiae sonum vocis vir optimus, Crassi familiaris, Antipater; ceteri non exornatores rerum, sed tantum modo narratores fuerunt.' 'Est,' inquit Catulus 'ut dicis; sed iste ipse Caelius neque distinxit historiam varietate colorum neque verborum conlocatione et tractu orationis leni et aequabili perpolivit illud opus; sed ut homo neque doctus neque maxime aptus ad dicendum, sicut potuit, dolavit; vicit tamen, ut dicis, superiores.' 2.55. 'Minime mirum,' inquit Antonius 'si ista res adhuc nostra lingua inlustrata non est; nemo enim studet eloquentiae nostrorum hominum, nisi ut in causis atque in foro eluceat; apud Graecos autem eloquentissimi homines remoti a causis forensibus cum ad ceteras res inlustris tum ad historiam scribendam maxime se applicaverunt: namque et Herodotum illum, qui princeps genus hoc ornavit, in causis nihil omnino versatum esse accepimus; atqui tanta est eloquentia, ut me quidem, quantum ego Graece scripta intellegere possum, magno opere delectet; et post illum Thucydides omnis dicendi artificio mea sententia facile vicit; 2.56. qui ita creber est rerum frequentia, ut verborum prope numerum sententiarum numero consequatur, ita porro verbis est aptus et pressus, ut nescias, utrum res oratione an verba sententiis inlustrentur: atqui ne hunc quidem, quamquam est in re publica versatus, ex numero accepimus eorum, qui causas dictitarunt; et hos ipsos libros tum scripsisse dicitur, cum a re publica remotus atque, id quod optimo cuique Athenis accidere solitum est, in exsilium pulsus esset; 2.59. Haec cum ille dixisset, 'quid est,' inquit 'Catule?' Caesar; 'ubi sunt, qui Antonium Graece negant scire? Quot historicos nominavit! Quam scienter, quam proprie de uno quoque dixit!' 'Id me hercule' inquit Catulus 'admirans illud iam mirari desino, quod multo magis ante mirabar, hunc, cum haec nesciret, in dicendo posse tantum.' 'Atqui, Catule,' inquit Antonius 'non ego utilitatem aliquam ad dicendum aucupans horum libros et non nullos alios, sed delectationis causa, cum est otium, legere soleo. 2.62. Sed illuc redeo: videtisne, quantum munus sit oratoris historia? Haud scio an flumine orationis et varietate maximum; neque eam reperio usquam separatim instructam rhetorum praeceptis; sita sunt enim ante oculos. Nam quis nescit primam esse historiae legem, ne quid falsi dicere audeat? Deinde ne quid veri non audeat? Ne quae suspicio gratiae sit in scribendo? Ne quae simultatis? 2.63. Haec scilicet fundamenta nota sunt omnibus, ipsa autem exaedificatio posita est in rebus et verbis: rerum ratio ordinem temporum desiderat, regionum descriptionem; vult etiam, quoniam in rebus magnis memoriaque dignis consilia primum, deinde acta, postea eventus exspectentur, et de consiliis significari quid scriptor probet et in rebus gestis declarari non solum quid actum aut dictum sit, sed etiam quo modo, et cum de eventu dicatur, ut causae explicentur omnes vel casus vel sapientiae vel temeritatis hominumque ipsorum non solum res gestae, sed etiam, qui fama ac nomine excellant, de cuiusque vita atque natura; 2.64. verborum autem ratio et genus orationis fusum atque tractum et cum lenitate quadam aequabiliter profluens sine hac iudiciali asperitate et sine sententiarum forensibus aculeis persequendum est. Harum tot tantarumque rerum videtisne nulla esse praecepta, quae in artibus rhetorum reperiantur? In eodem silentio multa alia oratorum officia iacuerunt, cohortationes, praecepta, consolationes, admonita, quae tractanda sunt omnia disertissime, sed locum suum in his artibus, quae traditae sunt, habent nullum.
8. Cicero, Republic, 3.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.34. August. C.D. 22.6 nullum bellum suscipi a civitate optima nisi aut pro fide aut pro salute. 3.34. Sed his poenis quas etiam stultissimi sentiunt, egestate, exilio, vinculis, verberibus, elabuntur saepe privati oblata mortis celeritate, civitatibus autem mors ipsa poena est, quae videtur a poena singulos vindicare; debet enim constituta sic esse civitas, ut aeterna sit. Itaque nullus interitus est rei publicae naturalis ut hominis, in quo mors non modo necessaria est, verum etiam optanda persaepe. Civitas autem cum tollitur, deletur, extinguitur, simile est quodam modo, ut parva magnis conferamus, ac si omnis hic mundus intereat et concidat.
9. Cicero, Letters, 1.19.10, 1.20.6, 2.1.1-2.1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Letters, 1.19.10, 1.20.6, 2.1.1-2.1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Letters, 1.19.10, 1.20.6, 2.1.1-2.1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 5.12.2, 5.12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Cicero, Letters, 1.19.10, 1.20.6, 2.1.1-2.1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Polybius, Histories, 2.61, 12.15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.61. 1.  To take another instance, Phylarchus, while narrating with exaggeration and elaboration the calamities of the Mantineans, evidently deeming it a historian's duty to lay stress on criminal acts,,2.  does not even make mention of the noble conduct of the Megalopolitans at nearly the same date, as if it were rather the proper function of history to chronicle the commission of sins than to call attention to right and honourable actions,,3.  or as if readers of his memoirs would be improved less by account of good conduct which we should emulate than by criminal conduct which we should shun.,4.  He tells us how Cleomenes took the city, and before doing any damage to it, sent at once a post to the Megalopolitans at Messene offering to hand back their own native country to them uninjured on condition of their throwing in their lot with him. So much he lets us know, wishing to show the magimity of Cleomenes and his moderation to his enemies,,5.  and he goes on to tell how when the letter was being read out they would not allow the reader to continue until the end, and how they came very near stoning the letter-bearers.,6.  So far he makes everything quite clear to us, but he deprives us of what should follow and what is the special virtue of history, I mean praise and honourable mention of conduct noteworthy for its excellence.,7.  And yet he had an opportunity ready to his hand here. For if we consider those men to be good who by speeches and resolutions only expose themselves to war for the sake of their friends and allies, and if we bestow not only praise but lavish thanks and gifts on those who have suffered their country to be laid waste and their city besieged,,8.  what should we feel for the Megalopolitans? Surely the deepest reverence and the highest regard.,9.  In the first place they left their lands at the mercy of Cleomenes, next they utterly lost their city owing to their support of the Achaeans,,10.  and finally, when quite unexpectedly it was put in their power to get it back undamaged, they preferred to lose their land, their tombs, their temples, their homes, and their possessions, all in fact that is dearest to men, rather than break faith with their allies.,11.  What more noble conduct has there ever been or could there be? To what could an author with more advantage call the attention of his readers, and how could he better stimulate them to loyalty to their engagements and to true and faithful comradeship?,12.  But Phylarchus, blind, as it seems to me, to the most noble actions and those most worthy of an author's attention, has not said a single word on the subject. 12.15.9.  But Timaeus, blinded by his own malice, has chronicled with hostility and exaggeration the defects of Agathocles and has entirely omitted to mention his shining qualities, being unaware that it is just as mendacious for a writer to conceal what did occur as to report what did not occur. I myself, while refraining in order to spare him from giving full expression to my hostility to Timaeus, have omitted nothing less to the object I had in view. . . . .
15. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Letter To Pompeius Geminus, 4-6, 3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Sallust, Catiline, 3.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.5, 1.1.18, 9.6.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. 1. Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; 1.1. For that it was a seditious temper of our own that destroyed it; and that they were the tyrants among the Jews who brought the Roman power upon us, who unwillingly attacked us, and occasioned the burning of our holy temple; Titus Caesar, who destroyed it, is himself a witness, who, during the entire war, pitied the people who were kept under by the seditious, and did often voluntarily delay the taking of the city, and allowed time to the siege, in order to let the authors have opportunity for repentance. 1.1. But still he was not able to exclude Antiochus, for he burnt the towers, and filled up the trenches, and marched on with his army. And as he looked upon taking his revenge on Alexander, for endeavoring to stop him, as a thing of less consequence, he marched directly against the Arabians 1.2. and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humor of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums, but nowhere the accurate truth of the facts 1.2. as also how our people made a sedition upon Herod’s death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius; and what places the Jews assaulted in a hostile manner in the first sallies of the war. 1.2. These honorary grants Caesar sent orders to have engraved in the Capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice, and of the virtue of Antipater.
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him.
20. New Testament, Philippians, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;
21. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.139-7.141 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. For it is not Histories that I am writing, but Lives; and in the most illustrious deeds there is not always a manifestation of virtue or vice, nay, a slight thing like a phrase or a jest often makes a greater revelation of character than battles where thousands fall, or the greatest armaments, or sieges of cities.
23. Plutarch, On The Malice of Herodotus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Plutarch, Dion, 36.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Plutarch, Lycurgus, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. Xenophon, also, Reip. Lac. x. 8. Lycurgus is said to have lived in the times of the Heracleidae. makes an impression of simplicity in the passage where he says that Lycurgus lived in the time of the Heracleidae. For in lineage, of course, the latest of the Spartan kings were also Heracleidae; but Xenophon apparently wishes to use the name Heracleidae of the first and more immediate descendants of Heracles, so famous in story. However, although the history of these times is such a maze, I shall try, in presenting my narrative, to follow those authors who are least contradicted, or who have the most notable witnesses for what they have written about the man.
26. Plutarch, Pericles, 13.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Suetonius, Iulius, 56.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tacitus, Agricola, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Lucian, How To Write History, 12-13, 39-41, 61, 63, 7, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.11, 7.33 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.11. To Arrianus. I know you are always delighted when the senate behaves in a way befitting its rank, for though your love of peace and quiet has caused you to withdraw from Rome, your anxiety that public life should be kept at a high level is as strong as it ever was. So let me tell you what has been going on during the last few days. The proceedings are memorable owing to the commanding position of the person most concerned; they will have a healthy influence because of the sharp lesson that has been administered; and the importance of the case will make them famous for all time. Marius Priscus, on being accused by the people of Africa, whom he had governed as proconsul, declined to defend himself before the senate and asked to have judges assigned to hear the case. * Cornelius Tacitus and myself were instructed to appear for the provincials, and we came to the conclusion that we were bound in honesty to our clients to notify the senate that the charges of inhumanity and cruelty brought against Priscus were too serious to be heard by a panel of judges, inasmuch as he was accused of having received bribes to condemn and even put to death innocent persons. Fronto Catius spoke in reply, and urged that the prosecution should be confined within the law dealing with extortion Well, the witnesses who were summoned came to Rome, viz., Vitellius Honoratus and Flavius Martianus. Honoratus was charged with having bribed Priscus to the tune of three hundred thousand sesterces to exile a Roman knight and put seven of his friends to death; Martianus was accused of having given Priscus seven hundred thousand sesterces to sentence a single Roman knight to still more grievous punishment, for he was beaten with rods, condemned to the mines, and then strangled in prison. Honoratus - luckily for him - escaped the investigation of the senate by dying; Martianus was brought before them when Priscus was not present. Consequently Tuccius Cerealis, a man of consular rank, pleaded senatorial privileges and demanded that Priscus should be informed of the attendance of Martianus, either because he thought that Priscus by being present would have a better chance of awakening the compassion of the senate or to increase the feeling against him, or possibly, and I think this was his real motive, because strict justice demanded that both should defend themselves against a charge that affected them both, and that both should be punished if they could not rebut the accusation. The subject was postponed to the next meeting of the senate, and a very august assembly it was. The Emperor presided in his capacity as consul; besides, the month of January brings crowds of people to Rome and especially senators, † and moreover the importance of the case, the great notoriety it had obtained, which had been increased by the delays that had taken place, and the ingrained curiosity of all men to get to know all the details of an unusually important matter, had made everybody flock to Rome from all quarters. You can imagine how nervous and anxious we were in having to speak in such a gathering and in the presence of the Emperor on such an important case. It was not the first time that I had pleaded in the senate, and there is nowhere where I get a more sympathetic hearing, but then the novelty of the whole position seemed to afflict me with a feeling of nervousness I had never felt before. For in addition to all that I have mentioned above I kept thinking of the difficulties of the case and was oppressed by the feeling that Priscus, the defendant, had once held consular rank and been one of the seven regulators of the sacred feasts, and was now deprived of both these dignities. † So I found it a very trying task to accuse a man on whom sentence had already been passed, for though the shocking offences with which he was charged weighed heavily against him, he yet was protected to a certain extent by the commiseration felt for a man already condemned to punishment that one might have thought final. However, as soon as I had pulled myself together and collected my thoughts, I began my address, and though I was nervous I was on the best of terms with my audience. I spoke for nearly five hours, for, in addition to the twelve water-clocks - the largest I could get - which had been assigned to me, I obtained four others. And, as matters turned out, everything that I thought before speaking would have proved an obstacle in the way of a good speech really helped me during my address. As for the Emperor, he showed me such kind attention and consideration - for it would be too much to call it anxiety on my behalf - that he frequently nodded to my freedman, who was standing just behind me, to give me a hint not to overtax my voice and lungs, when he thought that I was throwing myself too ardently into my pleading and imposing too great a burden on my slender frame. Claudius Marcellinus answered me on behalf of Martianus, and then the senate was dismissed and met again on the following day. For there was no time to begin a fresh speech, as it would have had to be broken off by the fall of night. On the following day, Salvius Liberalis, a man of shrewd wit, careful in the arrangement of his speeches, with a pointed style and a fund of learning, spoke for Marius, and in his speech he certainly brought out all he knew. Cornelius Tacitus replied to him in a wonderfully eloquent address, characterised by that lofty dignity which is the chief charm of his oratory. Then Fronto Catius made another excellent speech on Marius's behalf, and he spent more time in appeals for mercy than in rebutting evidence, as befitted the part of the case that he had then to deal with. The fall of night terminated his speech but did not break it off altogether, and so the proceedings lasted over into the third day. This was quite fine and just like it used to be for the senate to be interrupted by nightfall, and for the members to be called and sit for three days running. Cornutus Tertullus, the consul-designate, a man of high character and a devoted champion of justice, gave as his opinion that the seven hundred thousand sesterces which Marius had received should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Marius should be banished from Rome and Italy, and that Martianus should be banished from Rome, Italy, and Africa. Towards the conclusion of his speech he added the remark that the senate considered that, since Tacitus and myself, who had been summoned to plead for the provincials, had fulfilled our duties with diligence and fearlessness, we had acted in a manner worthy of the commission entrusted to us. The consuls-designate agreed, and all the consulars did likewise, until it was Pompeius Collega's turn to speak. He proposed that the seven hundred thousand sesterces received by Marius should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Martianus should be banished ‡ for five years, and that Marius should suffer no further penalty than that for extortion - which had already been passed upon him. Opinion was largely divided, and there was possibly a majority in favour of the latter proposal, which was the more lenient or less severe of the two, for even some of those who appeared to have supported Cornutus changed sides and were ready to vote for Collega, who had spoken after them. But when the House divided, those who stood near the seats of the consuls began to cross over to the side of Cornutus. Then those who were allowing themselves to be counted as supporters of Collega also crossed over, and Collega was left with a mere handful. He complained bitterly afterwards of those who had led him to make the proposal he did, especially of Regulus, who had failed to support him in the proposal that he himself had suggested. But Regulus is a fickle fellow, rash to a degree, yet a great coward as well. Such was the close of this most important investigation; but there is still another bit of public business on hand of some consequence, for Hostilius Firminus, the legate of Marius Priscus, who was implicated in the matter, had received a very rough handling. It was proved by the accounts of Martianus and a speech he made in the Council of the Town of Leptis that he had engaged with Priscus in a very shady transaction, that he had bargained to receive from Martianus 50,000 denarii and had received in addition ten million sesterces under the head of perfume money - a most disgraceful thing for a soldier, but one which was not at all inconsistent with his character as a man with well-trimmed hair and polished skin. It was agreed on the motion of Cornutus that the case should be investigated at the next meeting of the senate, but at that meeting he did not put in an appearance, either from some accidental reason or because he knew he was guilty. Well, I have told you the news of Rome, you must write and tell me the news of the country. How are your shrubs getting on, your vines and your crops, and those dainty sheep of yours? In short, unless you send me as long a letter I am sending you, you mustn't expect anything more than the scrappiest note from me in the future. Farewell. 7.33. To Tacitus. I venture to prophesy - and I know my prognostics are right - that your histories will be immortal, and that, I frankly confess, makes me the more anxious to figure in them. For if it is quite an ordinary thing for us to take care to secure the best painter to paint our portrait, ought we not also to be desirous of getting an author and historian of your calibre to describe our deeds ? That is why though it could hardly escape your careful eye, as it is to be found in the public records - I bring the following incident before your notice, and I do so in order to assure you how pleased I shall be, if you will lend your powers of description and the weight of your testimony to setting forth the way I behaved on an occasion when I reaped credit, owing to the dangers to which I exposed myself. The senate had appointed me to act with Herennius Senecio on behalf of the province of Baetica in the prosecution of Baebius Massa, * and, when Massa had been sentenced, it decreed that his property should be placed under public custody. Senecio came to me, after finding out that the consuls would be at liberty to hear petitions, and said My conduct on this occasion, whatever its worth may have been, will be made even more famous, more distinguished, and more noble if you describe it, although I do not ask of you to go beyond the strict letter of what actually occurred. For history ought never to transgress against truth, and an honourable action wants nothing more than to be faithfully recorded. Farewell. %%%
31. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 2.11, 7.33 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.11. To Arrianus. I know you are always delighted when the senate behaves in a way befitting its rank, for though your love of peace and quiet has caused you to withdraw from Rome, your anxiety that public life should be kept at a high level is as strong as it ever was. So let me tell you what has been going on during the last few days. The proceedings are memorable owing to the commanding position of the person most concerned; they will have a healthy influence because of the sharp lesson that has been administered; and the importance of the case will make them famous for all time. Marius Priscus, on being accused by the people of Africa, whom he had governed as proconsul, declined to defend himself before the senate and asked to have judges assigned to hear the case. * Cornelius Tacitus and myself were instructed to appear for the provincials, and we came to the conclusion that we were bound in honesty to our clients to notify the senate that the charges of inhumanity and cruelty brought against Priscus were too serious to be heard by a panel of judges, inasmuch as he was accused of having received bribes to condemn and even put to death innocent persons. Fronto Catius spoke in reply, and urged that the prosecution should be confined within the law dealing with extortion Well, the witnesses who were summoned came to Rome, viz., Vitellius Honoratus and Flavius Martianus. Honoratus was charged with having bribed Priscus to the tune of three hundred thousand sesterces to exile a Roman knight and put seven of his friends to death; Martianus was accused of having given Priscus seven hundred thousand sesterces to sentence a single Roman knight to still more grievous punishment, for he was beaten with rods, condemned to the mines, and then strangled in prison. Honoratus - luckily for him - escaped the investigation of the senate by dying; Martianus was brought before them when Priscus was not present. Consequently Tuccius Cerealis, a man of consular rank, pleaded senatorial privileges and demanded that Priscus should be informed of the attendance of Martianus, either because he thought that Priscus by being present would have a better chance of awakening the compassion of the senate or to increase the feeling against him, or possibly, and I think this was his real motive, because strict justice demanded that both should defend themselves against a charge that affected them both, and that both should be punished if they could not rebut the accusation. The subject was postponed to the next meeting of the senate, and a very august assembly it was. The Emperor presided in his capacity as consul; besides, the month of January brings crowds of people to Rome and especially senators, † and moreover the importance of the case, the great notoriety it had obtained, which had been increased by the delays that had taken place, and the ingrained curiosity of all men to get to know all the details of an unusually important matter, had made everybody flock to Rome from all quarters. You can imagine how nervous and anxious we were in having to speak in such a gathering and in the presence of the Emperor on such an important case. It was not the first time that I had pleaded in the senate, and there is nowhere where I get a more sympathetic hearing, but then the novelty of the whole position seemed to afflict me with a feeling of nervousness I had never felt before. For in addition to all that I have mentioned above I kept thinking of the difficulties of the case and was oppressed by the feeling that Priscus, the defendant, had once held consular rank and been one of the seven regulators of the sacred feasts, and was now deprived of both these dignities. † So I found it a very trying task to accuse a man on whom sentence had already been passed, for though the shocking offences with which he was charged weighed heavily against him, he yet was protected to a certain extent by the commiseration felt for a man already condemned to punishment that one might have thought final. However, as soon as I had pulled myself together and collected my thoughts, I began my address, and though I was nervous I was on the best of terms with my audience. I spoke for nearly five hours, for, in addition to the twelve water-clocks - the largest I could get - which had been assigned to me, I obtained four others. And, as matters turned out, everything that I thought before speaking would have proved an obstacle in the way of a good speech really helped me during my address. As for the Emperor, he showed me such kind attention and consideration - for it would be too much to call it anxiety on my behalf - that he frequently nodded to my freedman, who was standing just behind me, to give me a hint not to overtax my voice and lungs, when he thought that I was throwing myself too ardently into my pleading and imposing too great a burden on my slender frame. Claudius Marcellinus answered me on behalf of Martianus, and then the senate was dismissed and met again on the following day. For there was no time to begin a fresh speech, as it would have had to be broken off by the fall of night. On the following day, Salvius Liberalis, a man of shrewd wit, careful in the arrangement of his speeches, with a pointed style and a fund of learning, spoke for Marius, and in his speech he certainly brought out all he knew. Cornelius Tacitus replied to him in a wonderfully eloquent address, characterised by that lofty dignity which is the chief charm of his oratory. Then Fronto Catius made another excellent speech on Marius's behalf, and he spent more time in appeals for mercy than in rebutting evidence, as befitted the part of the case that he had then to deal with. The fall of night terminated his speech but did not break it off altogether, and so the proceedings lasted over into the third day. This was quite fine and just like it used to be for the senate to be interrupted by nightfall, and for the members to be called and sit for three days running. Cornutus Tertullus, the consul-designate, a man of high character and a devoted champion of justice, gave as his opinion that the seven hundred thousand sesterces which Marius had received should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Marius should be banished from Rome and Italy, and that Martianus should be banished from Rome, Italy, and Africa. Towards the conclusion of his speech he added the remark that the senate considered that, since Tacitus and myself, who had been summoned to plead for the provincials, had fulfilled our duties with diligence and fearlessness, we had acted in a manner worthy of the commission entrusted to us. The consuls-designate agreed, and all the consulars did likewise, until it was Pompeius Collega's turn to speak. He proposed that the seven hundred thousand sesterces received by Marius should be confiscated to the Treasury, that Martianus should be banished ‡ for five years, and that Marius should suffer no further penalty than that for extortion - which had already been passed upon him. Opinion was largely divided, and there was possibly a majority in favour of the latter proposal, which was the more lenient or less severe of the two, for even some of those who appeared to have supported Cornutus changed sides and were ready to vote for Collega, who had spoken after them. But when the House divided, those who stood near the seats of the consuls began to cross over to the side of Cornutus. Then those who were allowing themselves to be counted as supporters of Collega also crossed over, and Collega was left with a mere handful. He complained bitterly afterwards of those who had led him to make the proposal he did, especially of Regulus, who had failed to support him in the proposal that he himself had suggested. But Regulus is a fickle fellow, rash to a degree, yet a great coward as well. Such was the close of this most important investigation; but there is still another bit of public business on hand of some consequence, for Hostilius Firminus, the legate of Marius Priscus, who was implicated in the matter, had received a very rough handling. It was proved by the accounts of Martianus and a speech he made in the Council of the Town of Leptis that he had engaged with Priscus in a very shady transaction, that he had bargained to receive from Martianus 50,000 denarii and had received in addition ten million sesterces under the head of perfume money - a most disgraceful thing for a soldier, but one which was not at all inconsistent with his character as a man with well-trimmed hair and polished skin. It was agreed on the motion of Cornutus that the case should be investigated at the next meeting of the senate, but at that meeting he did not put in an appearance, either from some accidental reason or because he knew he was guilty. Well, I have told you the news of Rome, you must write and tell me the news of the country. How are your shrubs getting on, your vines and your crops, and those dainty sheep of yours? In short, unless you send me as long a letter I am sending you, you mustn't expect anything more than the scrappiest note from me in the future. Farewell. 7.33. To Tacitus. I venture to prophesy - and I know my prognostics are right - that your histories will be immortal, and that, I frankly confess, makes me the more anxious to figure in them. For if it is quite an ordinary thing for us to take care to secure the best painter to paint our portrait, ought we not also to be desirous of getting an author and historian of your calibre to describe our deeds ? That is why though it could hardly escape your careful eye, as it is to be found in the public records - I bring the following incident before your notice, and I do so in order to assure you how pleased I shall be, if you will lend your powers of description and the weight of your testimony to setting forth the way I behaved on an occasion when I reaped credit, owing to the dangers to which I exposed myself. The senate had appointed me to act with Herennius Senecio on behalf of the province of Baetica in the prosecution of Baebius Massa, * and, when Massa had been sentenced, it decreed that his property should be placed under public custody. Senecio came to me, after finding out that the consuls would be at liberty to hear petitions, and said My conduct on this occasion, whatever its worth may have been, will be made even more famous, more distinguished, and more noble if you describe it, although I do not ask of you to go beyond the strict letter of what actually occurred. For history ought never to transgress against truth, and an honourable action wants nothing more than to be faithfully recorded. Farewell. %%%
32. Gregory of Nyssa, Life of Makrina, 22 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Papyri, P.Oxy., 71.4808



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adams, john Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
aetolia Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
alexander the great Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65, 148; Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
alternatives Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
ambitio Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
ambition Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
anacyclosis Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
ancestors Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
antony Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
aphthonius Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 62
appius claudius caecus Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
aratus Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
architect-autocrat relationship Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
arellius fuscus Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
aristotle Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114
atticus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 114, 115
auctoritas Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
augustus, dedicatee of de architectura Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
basil of caesarea Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 63
bene facere and bene dicere, conflation Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111
body, and character Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
body, and posterity Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109
body, metaphor for speech and text, latin Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
body, metaphor for speech and text Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
body, modest Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112
body, political Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111
body, reductive Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113
body, sufficient whole Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112
body, synoptic Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 115
body, textual, sharpness of focus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113
body Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 148
bona fama Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
book culture in late antiquity Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
brevitasbrevity Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111
caesar, c. iulius, historical ambitions Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
caesar Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
cappadocia Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 63
catulus Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 15
character (plutarchs and readers concern with) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
cicero, m. tullius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
cicero, man of the saeculum? Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
cicero, on liberties permitted in a monograph Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 346
cicero Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 15
ciceromarcus tullius cicero, and historiography Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
ciceromarcus tullius cicero, consulship Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109
ciceromarcus tullius cicero, modicum corpus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 332, 346, 526
cn. naevius Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
cogitatio and cogitata Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
colony Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 62, 63
commentarii, and res gestae Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
commentarii, memory and posterity Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
commentarii Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65, 111, 115; Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
commentarius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
consuls Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
corpus architecturae Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 115
court sittings, judges Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
criticism Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
cura, of augustus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
de architectura, and greek knowledge Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 114, 115
de architectura, diagnostic passages Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
de architectura, literariness and textuality Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 115
de architectura, prefaces Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
decorum Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112
demosthenes Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111
dinocrates macedonian architect Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
diodorus siculus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112, 115
dionysius of halicarnassus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 115
documents, official, in letter of aristeas Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
education and pedagogy, paideia, book culture in late antiquity and Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
edwards, mark Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
elaboration, literary, in greco-roman literature, in historiography Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
embellishment Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113
emperor and architect, relational paradigm Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
encyclopedias and encyclopedism Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109
envy Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
ethics, of architect Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
exemplum Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 299
explanations Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
flattery, flatterers Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
forma Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
fortune, contrasted with virtue Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
fortune, mis- Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
fortune, success/failure as result of Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
funerals Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
genos, of thaumaturgus Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 62, 63
glory Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
gratia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112, 148
hannibal Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
haste Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112
heroic songs Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
historiography Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
history, and pliny Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 330, 331, 332
history, and rhetoric Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 299
history and historiography, figured as body Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112
history and historiography, perpetua historia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112
homer Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
honor Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
hypomnema Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
importation motif Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
impostors Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
intellectual culture, rome Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 114, 115
intertextuality, plinian Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 330, 331, 332
judgment Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
julius caesar Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 15
knowledge, common bond Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112
l. caecilius metellus Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
l. livius andronicus Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
labor Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
latin christian poetry, purposes of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
latin christian poetry Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
laudatio funebris Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
letter of aristeas, historical reliability of Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
lists Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
livy Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 15; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
lucceius Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110; Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
lucian of samosata, how to write history Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 366
lucretius Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
ludi saeculares, surprisingly omitted in the 40s bce Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
lxx, alexandrian jews Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
lxx, origins, in letter of aristeas Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
m. fulvius nobilior Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
m. porcius cato censorius Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
m. tullius cicero Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
maiores Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
marchesi, ilaria Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
mcewen, indra kagis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109
mediocritas Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112
memoria posteris tradere formula Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
mimesis Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 62
moderation Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
moles, john Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 114, 115
montesquieu Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
museion, muses, temple of Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
myth, of translators Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
obscurity Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
omissions Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
paradigm, alexandrian, in letter of aristeas Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
paradigm, literary, narrative Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
periodization, rejected by caesar Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
periodization, rejected by cicero Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
pflips, heribert Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
philistus of syracuse, author of sicelica Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 115
platonism, republic Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 62
pliny the younger, as friend of tacitus Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 330
pliny the younger, as second cicero by implication Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
pliny the younger, cicero at book-ends and beginnings in Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
plots, aristotelian Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114
poets Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
politics, imperial Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 331
polybius, anacyclosis Hay, Saeculum: Defining Historical Eras in Ancient Roman Thought (2023) 110
pontifex maximus Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
probatio approval, judgment, progress, notions of Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
quintus tullius cicero Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 115
repetundae, res' Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
representation, of ruler Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 148
rome/romans Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
sallust Baumann and Liotsakis, Reading History in the Roman Empire (2022) 15; Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 291
scientia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 112, 148
scripture, as curriculum Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 63
sharpness of focus, textual virtue Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114
size Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 111
socrates Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
sosylus of sparta Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
style/stylistic (interest in) Chrysanthou, Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement (2018) 159
synopsis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114
syntaxis, associated with bodies Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 115
t. maccius plautus Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
tacitus, as friend of pliny Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 330
temples, of hercules musarum Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
ti. coruncanius Rüpke, The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti (2011) 91
translation Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 63
translators, of lxx, were egyptian jews Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
troy Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65
truth, ancient standards of, and narrative patterns Honigman, The Septuagint and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria: A Study in the Narrative of the Letter of Aristeas (2003) 74
tyrtaeus, universalism, qualitative Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114
varietas variety or vicissitude Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 113, 114, 115
virtue Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 281
vitruvius, and cicero Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
vitruvius, and history Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
vitruvius, doubts about reliability Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 109, 111
whitton, christopher Keeline, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2018) 332
woodman, a. j. Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 114, 115
writing and writers Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 65