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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2165
Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.20.1-69.20.3


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nan1.  Thus Tarquin was deprived of his power, after ruling twenty-five years; and the Romans turned to Brutus and chose him ruler. In order, however, that the rule of one man might not suggest the kingly power, they elected also, as joint-ruler with him, the husband of Lucretia, Tarquinius Collatinus. He was believed to be hostile to the tyrants because of the outrage done to his wife. Now from Tarquin there came envoys to Rome to discuss his restoration; but when they found they were making no progress, . . . Some of these conspirators put to death by Brutus were relatives of Collatinus, who was angry on their account. Accordingly, Brutus so aroused the people against Collatinus that they all but slew him with their own hands; however, they did not do this, but forced him to resign his office. In his place they elected as Brutus' colleague Publius Valerius, whose cognomen was Publicola; this appellation, translated, means Friend of the People, or Most Democratic.,1.  All crowds judge measures by the men who direct them, and of whatever sort they perceive the men to be, they believe that the measures are of the same sort.,2. Every one prefers the untried to the well known, attaching great hope to the uncertain in comparison with what has already gained his hatred.,3a. All changes are very dangerous, and especially do those in governments work the greatest and most numerous evils to both individuals and states. Sensible men, therefore, choose to remain under the same forms continually, even if they be not the best, rather than by changing, now to one, now to another, to be continually unsettled.,8. Every person comes to possess wishes and desires according to his fortunes, and whatever his circumstances be, of like nature are also the opinions he acquires.,9. The business of kingship, more than any other, demands not merely excellence of character, but also great understanding and experience, and it is not possible without these qualities for the man who takes hold of it to show moderation. Many, for example, as if raised unexpectedly to some great height, have not endured their elevation, but being overcome with giddiness, have fallen and not only brought disaster to themselves but at the same time shattered all the interests of their subjects.,11. Dio, Book III. "It is done not merely by the actual men who rule them, but also by those who share the power with those rulers.",4. Dio, Book III. "Whose father also ruled you blamelessly.",5a. Dio, Book III. "Of the fact that he loves you, you could obtain no better proof than his eagerness to live among you.",5b. Dio, Book III. "And he is particularly anxious to recover the property that was originally his.",6. Dio, Book III. "But how would it pay anybody to do this?",7. Dio, Book III. "Even as Romulus also enjoined upon us.",10. And with regard to the future, base your judgment upon what they have done, but do not be deceived by the false professions they make when suppliants. For unholy deeds proceed in every case from a man's real purpose, yet any one may concoct creditable phrases. Judge, accordingly, by what a man has done, not by what he says he will do.,1.  Dio, Book III. "The women made lamentation for a whole year.",2. Valerius, the colleague of Brutus, although he had proved himself the most democratic of men, came near being murdered by the multitude with their own hands; for they suspected him of being eager to become sole sovereign. And they would indeed have slain him, had he not quickly anticipated their action by courting their favour. For upon entering the assembly he lowered the fasces, which he had formerly carried upright, and took away the axes that were bound up with them. After he had in this way assumed an attitude of the deepest humility, he kept a sad countenance for some time, and wept bitterly; and when he at last managed to utter a sound, he spoke in a low, fearful voice, with the suggestion of a quaver.,2a. For to Marcus, when he had proceeded up to the Capitol and was offering vows to the gods in view of the present state of affairs . . .,3. The temple of Jupiter was dedicated by Horatius, as determined by lot, although Valerius made the declaration that his son was dead, and arranged to have this news brought to him during the very performance of his sacred office, in order that Horatius, under the blow of the misfortune and because in general it was impious for any one in grief to fulfil the duties of priest, should yield to him the dedication of the structure.,4.  Horatius, although he did not doubt the report, — for it was noised abroad by many trustworthy persons, — did not, however, surrender his ministry; on the contrary, after bidding them leave unburied the body of his son, as if it were a stranger's, in order that it might not seem to concern his sacred office, he then performed all the necessary ceremonies. ◂ previous next â–¸ Images with borders lead to more information. The thicker the border, the more information. (Details here.) 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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

5 results
1. New Testament, Acts, 17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 6.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Suetonius, Tiberius, 37.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Tacitus, Annals, 2.42.2, 6.41, 12.49 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.41.  About this date, the Cietae, a tribe subject to Archelaus of Cappadocia, pressed to conform with Roman usage by making a return of their property and submitting to a tribute, migrated to the heights of the Tauric range, and, favoured by the nature of the country, held their own against the unwarlike forces of the king; until the legate Marcus Trebellius, despatched by Vitellius from his province of Syria with four thousand legionaries and a picked force of auxiliaries, drew his lines round the two hills which the barbarians had occupied (the smaller is known as Cadra, the other as Davara) and reduced them to surrender — those who ventured to make a sally, by the sword, the others by thirst. Meanwhile, with the acquiescence of the Parthians, Tiridates took over Nicephorium, Anthemusias, and the other cities of Macedonian foundation, carrying Greek names, together with the Parthic towns of Halus and Artemita; enthusiasm running high, as Artabanus, with his Scythian training, had been execrated for his cruelty and it was hoped that Roman culture had mellowed the character of Tiridates. 12.49.  The procurator of Cappadocia was Julius Paelignus, a person made doubly contemptible by hebetude of mind and grotesqueness of body, yet on terms of the greatest intimacy with Claudius during the years of retirement when he amused his sluggish leisure with the society of buffoons. The Paelignus had mustered the provincial militia, with the avowed intention of recovering Armenia; but, while he was plundering our subjects in preference to the enemy, the secession of his troops left him defenceless against the barbarian incursions, and he made his way to Radamistus, by whose liberality he was so overpowered that he voluntarily advised him to assume the kingly emblem, and assisted at its assumption in the quality of sponsor and satellite. Ugly reports of the incident spread; and, to make it clear that not all Romans were to be judged by the standard of Paelignus, the legate Helvidius Priscus was sent with a legion to deal with the disturbed situation as the circumstances might require. Accordingly, after crossing Mount Taurus in haste, he had settled more points by moderation than by force, when he was ordered back to Syria, lest he should give occasion for a Parthian war.
5. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 55.10, 57.17, 57.17.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55.10. 1.  Augustus limited the number of people to be supplied with grain, a number not previously fixed, to two hundred thousand; and, as some say, he distributed largess of sixty denarii to each man.,1a. How the Forum of Augustus was dedicated.,1b. How the Temple of Mars therein was dedicated.,2.  . . . to Mars, and that he himself and his grandsons should go there as often as they wished, while those who were passing from the class of boys and were being enrolled among the youths of military age should invariably do so; that those who were sent out to commands abroad should make that their starting-point;,3.  that the senate should take its votes there in regard to the granting of triumphs, and that the victors after celebrating them should dedicate to this Mars their sceptre and their crown; that such victors and all others who receive triumphal honours should have their statues in bronze erected in the Forum;,4.  that in case military standards captured by the enemy were ever recovered they should be placed in the temple; that a festival should be celebrated besides the steps of the temple by the cavalry commanders of each year; that a nail should be driven into it by the censors at the close of their terms;,5.  and that even senators should have the right of contracting to supply the horses that were to compete in the Circensian games, and also to take general charge of the temple, just as had been provided by law in the case of the temples of Apollo and of Jupiter Capitolinus.,6.  These matters settled, Augustus dedicated this temple of Mars, although he had granted to Gaius and Lucius once for all the right to consecrate all such buildings by virtue of a kind of consular authority that they exercised in the time-honoured manner. And they did, in fact, have the management of the Circensian games on this occasion, while their brother Agrippa took part along with the boys of the first families in the equestrian exercise called "Troy.",7.  Two hundred and sixty lions were slaughtered in the Circus. There was a gladiatorial combat in the Saepta, and a naval battle between the "Persians" and the "Athenians" was given on the spot where even to‑day some relics of it are still pointed out.,8.  These, it will be understood, were the names given to the contestants; and the "Athenians" prevailed as of old. Afterwards water was let into the Circus Flaminius and thirty-six crocodiles were there slaughtered. Augustus, however, did not serve as consul during all these days, but after holding office for a short time, gave the title of the consulship to another.,9.  These were the celebrations in honour of Mars. To Augustus himself a sacred contest was voted in Neapolis, the Campanian city, nominally because he had restored it when it was prostrated by earthquake and fire, but in reality because its inhabitants, alone of the Campanians, tried in a manner to imitate the customs of the Greeks.,10.  He also was given the strict right to the title of "Father"; for hitherto he had merely been addressed by that title without the formality of a decree. Moreover, he now for the first time appointed two prefects over the Praetorians, Quintus Ostorius Scapula and Publius Salvius Aper, — for I, too, apply this name "prefect" solely to them, of all who exercise a similar office, inasmuch as it has won its way into general use.,11.  Pylades, the dancer, gave a festival, though he did not perform any of the work himself, since he was very old, but merely wore the insignia of office and provided the cost of the entertainment; and the praetor Quintus Crispinus also gave one. I mention this only because it was on this occasion that knights and women of distinction were brought upon the stage.,12.  of this, however, Augustus took no account; but when he at length discovered that his daughter Julia was so dissolute in her conduct as actually to take part in revels and drinking bouts at night in the Forum and on the very rostra, he became exceedingly angry.,13.  He had surmised even before this time that she was not leading a straight life, but refused to believe it. For those who hold positions of command, it appears, are acquainted with everything else better than with their own affairs; and although their own deeds do not escape the knowledge of their associates, they have no precise information regarding what their associates do.,14.  In the present instance, when Augustus learned what was going on, he gave way to a rage so violent that he could not keep the matter to himself, but went so far as to communicate it to senate. As a result Julia was banished to the island of Pandateria, lying off Campania, and her mother Scribonia voluntarily accompanied her.,15.  of the men who had enjoyed her favours, Iullus Antonius, on the ground that his conduct had been prompted by designs upon the monarchy, was put to death along with other prominent persons, while the remainder were banished to islands. And since there was a tribune among them, he was not tried until he had completed his term of office.,16.  As a result of this affair many other women, too, were accused of similar behaviour, but the emperor would not entertain all the suits; instead, he set a definite date as a limit and forbade all prying into what had occurred previous to that time. For although in the case of his daughter he would show no mercy, remarking that he would rather have been Phoebe's father than hers, he nevertheless was disposed to spare the rest. This Phoebe had been a freedwoman of Julia's and her accomplice, and had voluntarily taken her own life before she could be punished. It was for this that Augustus praised her.,17.  Gaius assumed command of the legions on the Ister with peaceful intent. Indeed, he fought no war, not because no war broke out, but because he was learning to rule in quiet and safety, while the dangerous undertakings were regularly assigned to others.,18.  When the Armenians revolted and the Parthians joined with them, Augustus was distressed and at a loss what to do. For he himself was not fit for campaigning by reason of age, while Tiberius, as has been stated, had already withdrawn, and he did not dare send any other influential man; as for Gaius and Lucius, they were young and inexperienced in affairs. Nevertheless, under the stress of necessity, he chose Gaius, gave him the proconsular authority and a wife, — in order that he might also have the increased dignity that attached to a married man, — and appointed advisers to him.,19.  Gaius accordingly set out and was everywhere received with marks of distinction, as befitted one who was the emperor's grandson and was even looked upon as his son. Even Tiberius went to Chios and paid court to him, thus endeavouring to clear himself of suspicion; indeed, he humiliated himself and grovelled at the feet, not only of Gaius, but also of all the associates of Gaius. And Gaius, after going to Syria and meeting with no great success, was wounded.,20.  When the barbarians heard of Gaius' expedition, Phrataces sent men to Augustus to explain what had occurred and to demand the return of his brothers on condition of his accepting peace. The emperor sent him a letter in reply, addressed simply to "Phrataces," without the appellation of "king," in which he directed him to lay aside the royal name and to withdraw from Armenia. Thereupon the Parthian, so far from being cowed, wrote back in a generally haughty tone, styling himself "King of Kings" and addressing Augustus simply as "Caesar." Tigranes did not at once send any envoys, but when Artabazus somewhat later fell ill and died, he sent gifts to Augustus, in view of the fact that his rival had been removed,,21.  and though he did not mention the name "king" in his letter, he really did petition Augustus for the kingship. Influenced by these considerations and at the same time fearing the war with the Parthians, the emperor accepted the gifts and bade him go with good hopes to Gaius in Syria. . . . others who marched against them from Egypt, and did not yield until a tribune from the pretorian guard was sent against them. This man in the course of time checked their incursions, with the result that for a long period no senator governed the cities in this region. 57.17. 1.  The following year Gaius Caecilius and Lucius Flaccus received the title of consuls. And when some brought Tiberius money at the beginning of the year, he would not accept it and published an edict regarding this very practice, in which he used a word that was not Latin.,2.  After thinking it over at night he sent for all who were experts in such matters, for he was extremely anxious to have his diction irreproachable. Thereupon one Ateius Capito declared: "Even if no one has previously used this expression, yet now because of you we shall all cite it as an example of classical usage." But a certain Marcellus replied: "You, Caesar, can confer Roman citizenship upon men, but not upon words.",3.  And the emperor did this man no harm for his remark, in spite of its extreme frankness. His anger was aroused, however, against Archelaus, the king of Cappadocia, because this prince, after having once grovelled before him in order to gain his assistance as advocate when accused by his subjects in the time of Augustus,,4.  had afterwards slighted him on the occasion of his visit to Rhodes, yet had paid court to Gaius when the latter went to Asia. Therefore Tiberius now summoned him on the charge of rebellious conduct and left his fate to the decision of the senate, although the man was not only stricken in years, but also a great sufferer from gout, and was furthermore believed to be demented.,5.  As a matter of fact, he had once lost his mind to such an extent that a guardian was appointed over his domain by Augustus; nevertheless, at the time in question he was no longer weak-witted, but was merely feigning, in the hope of saving himself by this expedient. And he would now have been put to death, had not someone in testifying against him stated that he had once said: "When I get back home, I will show him what sort of sinews I possess." So great a shout of laughter went up at this — for the man was not only unable to stand, but could not even sit up — that Tiberius gave up his purpose of putting him to death.,6.  In fact, the prince's condition was so serious that he was carried into the senate in a covered litter (for it was customary even for men, whenever one of them came there feeling ill, to be carried in reclining, and even Tiberius sometimes did so), and he spoke a few words leaning out of the litter.,7.  So it was that the life of Archelaus was spared for the time being; but he died shortly afterward from some other cause. After this Cappadocia fell to the Romans and was put in charge of a knight as governor. The cities in Asia which had been damaged by the earthquake were assigned to an ex-praetor with five lictors; and large sums of money were remitted from taxes and large sums were also given them by Tiberius.,8.  For not only did he refrain scrupulously from the possessions of others — so long, that is, as he practised any virtue at all — and would not even accept the inheritances that were left to him by testators who had relatives, but he actually contributed vast sums both to cities and to private individuals, and would not accept any honour or praise for these acts.,9.  When embassies came from cities or provinces, he never dealt with them alone, but caused a number of others to participate in the deliberations, especially men who had once governed these peoples. 57.17.7.  So it was that the life of Archelaus was spared for the time being; but he died shortly afterward from some other cause. After this Cappadocia fell to the Romans and was put in charge of a knight as governor. The cities in Asia which had been damaged by the earthquake were assigned to an ex-praetor with five lictors; and large sums of money were remitted from taxes and large sums were also given them by Tiberius.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acropolis (athens) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
aias, son of teukros, priest-dynast Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
altar Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
archelais Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
archelaos ii, client-king in cilicia Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
areopagus Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
ariobarzanes, king of the medes Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
armenia, and rough cilicia Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
armenia/armenians, orontid and artaxiad dynasty Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
artavasdes iv, armenian king Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
augustus, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
augustus Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
cappadocia, roman province Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
cappadocia/cappadocians, transformation into roman province Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
cassius dio Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
christianity / christians Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
cilicia/cilicians, client-kings in the julio-claudian period Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
city, sacred /\u2009holy city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
city Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
colonies/colonization, roman Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
cult Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
elite Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
erato, armenian queen Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
eschatology Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
gaius caesar, grandson of augustus Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
jews / judaism Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
kaisareia (tyana) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
kaisareia below mt. argaios (mazaka) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
komana (kumani), temple state and city in cappadocia Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
mazaka Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
memory Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
mysteries, eleusinian mysteries Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
neolithic/chalcolithic age (ca. Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
olba Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
paul Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
phasis river Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
priest(ess)/priesthood, teucrids Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
roma (as goddess) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
rome, romans Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
rome/romans, age of augustus Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
rome/romans, provincialization and parthian wars in the imperial period Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
sacralisation Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
space, sacred space /\u2009landscape Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
space, space as palimpsest' Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 37
temple state/land, hittite Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
tiberius emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
tigranes iv, armenian king Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
tigranes v, armenian king Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
tomb, cenotaph of gaius Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
tyana (tuwana) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
veranius, quintus, governor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326
vonones, armenian king Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 326