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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1568
Augustine, The City Of God, 21.10


nanHere arises the question: If the fire is not to be immaterial, analogous to the pain of the soul, but material, burning by contact, so that bodies may be tormented in it, how can evil spirits be punished in it? For it is undoubtedly the same fire which is to serve for the punishment of men and of devils, according to the words of Christ: Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels; Matthew 25:41 unless, perhaps, as learned men have thought, the devils have a kind of body made of that dense and humid air which we feel strikes us when the wind is blowing. And if this kind of substance could not be affected by fire, it could not burn when heated in the baths. For in order to burn, it is first burned, and affects other things as itself is affected. But if any one maintains that the devils have no bodies, this is not a matter either to be laboriously investigated, or to be debated with keenness. For why may we not assert that even immaterial spirits may, in some extraordinary way, yet really be pained by the punishment of material fire, if the spirits of men, which also are certainly immaterial, are both now contained in material members of the body, and in the world to come shall be indissolubly united to their own bodies? Therefore, though the devils have no bodies, yet their spirits, that is, the devils themselves, shall be brought into thorough contact with the material fires, to be tormented by them; not that the fires themselves with which they are brought into contact shall be animated by their connection with these spirits, and become animals composed of body and spirit, but, as I said, this junction will be effected in a wonderful and ineffable way, so that they shall receive pain from the fires, but give no life to them. And, in truth, this other mode of union, by which bodies and spirits are bound together and become animals, is thoroughly marvellous, and beyond the comprehension of man, though this it is which is man. I would indeed say that these spirits will burn without any body of their own, as that rich man was burning in hell when he exclaimed, I am tormented in this flame, Luke 16:24 were I not aware that it is aptly said in reply, that that flame was of the same nature as the eyes he raised and fixed on Lazarus, as the tongue on which he entreated that a little cooling water might be dropped, or as the finger of Lazarus, with which he asked that this might be done - all of which took place where souls exist without bodies. Thus, therefore, both that flame in which he burned and that drop he begged were immaterial, and resembled the visions of sleepers or persons in an ecstasy, to whom immaterial objects appear in a bodily form. For the man himself who is in such a state, though it be in spirit only, not in body, yet sees himself so like to his own body that he cannot discern any difference whatever. But that hell, which also is called a lake of fire and brimstone, Revelation 20:10 will be material fire, and will torment the bodies of the damned, whether men or devils - the solid bodies of the one, aerial bodies of the others; or if only men have bodies as well as souls, yet the evil spirits, though without bodies, shall be so connected with the bodily fires as to receive pain without imparting life. One fire certainly shall be the lot of both, for thus the truth has declared.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 6.1090 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. New Testament, Matthew, 12.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.29. Or how can one enter into the house of the strong man, and plunder his goods, unless he first bind the strong man? Then he will plunder his house.
4. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

5. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 63 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6. Augustine, The City of God, 9.18, 13.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.18. As to the demons, these false and deceitful mediators, who, though their uncleanness of spirit frequently reveals their misery and malignity, yet, by virtue of the levity of their aerial bodies and the nature of the places they inhabit, do contrive to turn us aside and hinder our spiritual progress; they do not help us towards God, but rather prevent us from reaching Him. Since even in the bodily way, which is erroneous and misleading, and in which righteousness does not walk - for we must rise to God not by bodily ascent, but by incorporeal or spiritual conformity to Him - in this bodily way, I say, which the friends of the demons arrange according to the weight of the various elements, the aerial demons being set between the ethereal gods and earthy men, they imagine the gods to have this privilege, that by this local interval they are preserved from the pollution of human contact. Thus they believe that the demons are contaminated by men rather than men cleansed by the demons, and that the gods themselves should be polluted unless their local superiority preserved them. Who is so wretched a creature as to expect purification by a way in which men are contaminating, demons contaminated, and gods contaminable? Who would not rather choose that way whereby we escape the contamination of the demons, and are cleansed from pollution by the incontaminable God, so as to be associated with the uncontaminated angels?
7. Augustine, Retractiones, 1.16.2, 2.30 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Eunapius, Lives of The Philosophers, 457 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission fees, anxieties Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
admission fees, dangers in Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
admission fees, fire hazards Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
angel, intellectual nature Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 84
asceticism, ascetics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
asia minor Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
augustine, phenomenological method of Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117
augustine Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
christians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
contagion, infection Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
converts, conversion Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
cult statues (idols) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
demonic possession Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
demons, bodies of air Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117, 118
demons, capacities and methods of appearing to/in humans Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117, 118
demons Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
devil Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
disease, illness Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
divination Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
domes Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
embodiment Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 84
enemies (of the church) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
epicureanism, epicureans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
fall, humans vs demons Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 84
final judgement Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 84
fire Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
fire (as purification) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
greek language Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
hell Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
hellfire Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
iconoclastic controversy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
interior and structure, licentious atmosphere Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
jews, neighbors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
judaism, and graeco-roman culture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
latin Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
magic, miracles, and magicians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
magic Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
matrons Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
maziqim Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
miletus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
miracles, demonic Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117, 118
miracles Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117
monasticism and book-burning Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
nymphs Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
palestine (syria palaestina) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
plague Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
poetry, poets Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
polemics Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
porphyry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
qohelet rabbah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
rabbinic midrash Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
sacrifice Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 117, 118
saints Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
spirits Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
superstition Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 141
water Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
will, and embodiment Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 84
ḥanina, r.' Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243