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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1427
Augustine, Confessions, 6.2.2
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.5. לֹא־יקרחה [יִקְרְחוּ] קָרְחָה בְּרֹאשָׁם וּפְאַת זְקָנָם לֹא יְגַלֵּחוּ וּבִבְשָׂרָם לֹא יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרָטֶת׃ 21.5. They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corners of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh."
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.117. Such, then, is the dress of the high priest. But we must not omit to mention the signification which it conceals beneath both in its whole and in its parts. In its whole it is a copy and representation of the world; and the parts are a representation of the separate parts of the world.
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.181-3.186 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;
5. New Testament, Hebrews, 7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. New Testament, Luke, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness.
7. Augustine, Confessions, 6.1.1, 6.3.4, 9.12.32 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 13.7-13.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Augustine, De Libero Arbitrio, 1.2.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

10. Augustine, The City of God, 8.27, 10.16, 18.46 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.27. But, nevertheless, we do not build temples, and ordain priests, rites, and sacrifices for these same martyrs; for they are not our gods, but their God is our God. Certainly we honor their reliquaries, as the memorials of holy men of God who strove for the truth even to the death of their bodies, that the true religion might be made known, and false and fictitious religions exposed. For if there were some before them who thought that these religions were really false and fictitious, they were afraid to give expression to their convictions. But who ever heard a priest of the faithful, standing at an altar built for the honor and worship of God over the holy body of some martyr, say in the prayers, I offer to you a sacrifice, O Peter, or O Paul, or O Cyprian? For it is to God that sacrifices are offered at their tombs - the God who made them both men and martyrs, and associated them with holy angels in celestial honor; and the reason why we pay such honors to their memory is, that by so doing we may both give thanks to the true God for their victories, and, by recalling them afresh to remembrance, may stir ourselves up to imitate them by seeking to obtain like crowns and palms, calling to our help that same God on whom they called. Therefore, whatever honors the religious may pay in the places of the martyrs, they are but honors rendered to their memory, not sacred rites or sacrifices offered to dead men as to gods. And even such as bring there food - which, indeed, is not done by the better Christians, and in most places of the world is not done at all - do so in order that it may be sanctified to them through the merits of the martyrs, in the name of the Lord of the martyrs, first presenting the food and offering prayer, and thereafter taking it away to be eaten, or to be in part bestowed upon the needy. But he who knows the one sacrifice of Christians, which is the sacrifice offered in those places, also knows that these are not sacrifices offered to the martyrs. It is, then, neither with divine honors nor with human crimes, by which they worship their gods, that we honor our martyrs; neither do we offer sacrifices to them, or convert the crimes of the gods into their sacred rites. For let those who will and can read the letter of Alexander to his mother Olympias, in which he tells the things which were revealed to him by the priest Leon, and let those who have read it recall to memory what it contains, that they may see what great abominations have been handed down to memory, not by poets, but by the mystic writings of the Egyptians, concerning the goddess Isis, the wife of Osiris, and the parents of both, all of whom, according to these writings, were royal personages. Isis, when sacrificing to her parents, is said to have discovered a crop of barley, of which she brought some ears to the king her husband, and his councillor Mercurius, and hence they identify her with Ceres. Those who read the letter may there see what was the character of those people to whom when dead sacred rites were instituted as to gods, and what those deeds of theirs were which furnished the occasion for these rites. Let them not once dare to compare in any respect those people, though they hold them to be gods, to our holy martyrs, though we do not hold them to be gods. For we do not ordain priests and offer sacrifices to our martyrs, as they do to their dead men, for that would be incongruous, undue, and unlawful, such being due only to God; and thus we do not delight them with their own crimes, or with such shameful plays as those in which the crimes of the gods are celebrated, which are either real crimes committed by them at a time when they were men, or else, if they never were men, fictitious crimes invented for the pleasure of noxious demons. The god of Socrates, if he had a god, cannot have belonged to this class of demons. But perhaps they who wished to excel in this art of making gods, imposed a god of this sort on a man who was a stranger to, and innocent of any connection with that art. What need we say more? No one who is even moderately wise imagines that demons are to be worshipped on account of the blessed life which is to be after death. But perhaps they will say that all the gods are good, but that of the demons some are bad and some good, and that it is the good who are to be worshipped, in order that through them we may attain to the eternally blessed life. To the examination of this opinion we will devote the following book. 10.16. What angels, then, are we to believe in this matter of blessed and eternal life?- those who wish to be worshipped with religious rites and observances, and require that men sacrifice to them; or those who say that all this worship is due to one God, the Creator, and teach us to render it with true piety to Him, by the vision of whom they are themselves already blessed, and in whom they promise that we shall be so? For that vision of God is the beauty of a vision so great, and is so infinitely desirable, that Plotinus does not hesitate to say that he who enjoys all other blessings in abundance, and has not this, is supremely miserable. Since, therefore, miracles are wrought by some angels to induce us to worship this God, by others, to induce us to worship themselves; and since the former forbid us to worship these, while the latter dare not forbid us to worship God, which are we to listen to? Let the Platonists reply, or any philosophers, or the theurgists, or rather, periurgists, - for this name is good enough for those who practise such arts. In short, let all men answer - if, at least, there survives in them any spark of that natural perception which, as rational beings, they possess when created, - let them, I say, tell us whether we should sacrifice to the gods or angels who order us to sacrifice to them, or to that One to whom we are ordered to sacrifice by those who forbid us to worship either themselves or these others. If neither the one party nor the other had wrought miracles, but had merely uttered commands, the one to sacrifice to themselves, the other forbidding that, and ordering us to sacrifice to God, a godly mind would have been at no loss to discern which command proceeded from proud arrogance, and which from true religion. I will say more. If miracles had been wrought only by those who demand sacrifice for themselves, while those who forbade this, and enjoined sacrificing to the one God only, thought fit entirely to forego the use of visible miracles, the authority of the latter was to be preferred by all who would use, not their eyes only, but their reason. But since God, for the sake of commending to us the oracles of His truth, has, by means of these immortal messengers, who proclaim His majesty and not their own pride, wrought miracles of surpassing grandeur, certainty, and distinctness, in order that the weak among the godly might not be drawn away to false religion by those who require us to sacrifice to them and endeavor to convince us by stupendous appeals to our senses, who is so utterly unreasonable as not to choose and follow the truth, when he finds that it is heralded by even more striking evidences than falsehood? As for those miracles which history ascribes to the gods of the heathen - I do not refer to those prodigies which at intervals happen from some unknown physical causes, and which are arranged and appointed by Divine Providence, such as monstrous births, and unusual meteorological phenomena, whether startling only, or also injurious, and which are said to be brought about and removed by communication with demons, and by their most deceitful craft - but I refer to these prodigies which manifestly enough are wrought by their power and force, as, that the household gods which Æneas carried from Troy in his flight moved from place to place; that Tarquin cut a whetstone with a razor; that the Epidaurian serpent attached himself as a companion to Æsculapius on his voyage to Rome; that the ship in which the image of the Phrygian mother stood, and which could not be moved by a host of men and oxen, was moved by one weak woman, who attached her girdle to the vessel and drew it, as proof of her chastity; that a vestal, whose virginity was questioned, removed the suspicion by carrying from the Tiber a sieve full of water without any of it dropping: these, then, and the like, are by no means to be compared for greatness and virtue to those which, we read, were wrought among God's people. How much less can we compare those marvels, which even the laws of heathen nations prohibit and punish - I mean the magical and theurgic marvels, of which the great part are merely illusions practised upon the senses, as the drawing down of the moon, that, as Lucan says, it may shed a stronger influence on the plants? And if some of these do seem to equal those which are wrought by the godly, the end for which they are wrought distinguishes the two, and shows that ours are incomparably the more excellent. For those miracles commend the worship of a plurality of gods, who deserve worship the less the more they demand it; but these of ours commend the worship of the one God, who, both by the testimony of His own Scriptures, and by the eventual abolition of sacrifices, proves that He needs no such offerings. If, therefore, any angels demand sacrifice for themselves, we must prefer those who demand it, not for themselves, but for God, the Creator of all, whom they serve. For thus they prove how sincerely they love us, since they wish by sacrifice to subject us, not to themselves, but to Him by the contemplation of whom they themselves are blessed, and to bring us to Him from whom they themselves have never strayed. If, on the other hand, any angels wish us to sacrifice, not to one, but to many, not, indeed, to themselves, but to the gods whose angels they are, we must in this case also prefer those who are the angels of the one God of gods, and who so bid us to worship Him as to preclude our worshipping any other. But, further, if it be the case, as their pride and deceitfulness rather indicate, that they are neither good angels nor the angels of good gods, but wicked demons, who wish sacrifice to be paid, not to the one only and supreme God, but to themselves, what better protection against them can we choose than that of the one God whom the good angels serve, the angels who bid us sacrifice, not to themselves, but to Him whose sacrifice we ourselves ought to be? 18.46. While Herod, therefore, reigned in Judea, and C sar Augustus was emperor at Rome, the state of the republic being already changed, and the world being set at peace by him, Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judah, man manifest out of a human virgin, God hidden out of God the Father. For so had the prophet foretold: Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which, being interpreted, is, God with us. He did many miracles that He might commend God in Himself, some of which, even as many as seemed sufficient to proclaim Him, are contained in the evangelic Scripture. The first of these is, that He was so wonderfully born, and the last, that with His body raised up again from the dead He ascended into heaven. But the Jews who slew Him, and would not believe in Him, because it behooved Him to die and rise again, were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly rooted out from their kingdom, where aliens had already ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so that indeed there is no place where they are not), and are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. And very many of them, considering this, even before His passion, but chiefly after His resurrection, believed on Him, of whom it was predicted, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remt shall be saved. But the rest are blinded, of whom it was predicted, Let their table be made before them a trap, and a retribution, and a stumbling-block. Let their eyes be darkened lest they see, and bow down their back always. Therefore, when they do not believe our Scriptures, their own, which they blindly read, are fulfilled in them, lest perchance any one should say that the Christians have forged these prophecies about Christ which are quoted under the name of the sibyl, or of others, if such there be, who do not belong to the Jewish people. For us, indeed, those suffice which are quoted from the books of our enemies, to whom we make our acknowledgment, on account of this testimony which, in spite of themselves, they contribute by their possession of these books, while they themselves are dispersed among all nations, wherever the Church of Christ is spread abroad. For a prophecy about this thing was sent before in the Psalms, which they also read, where it is written, My God, His mercy shall prevent me. My God has shown me concerning mine enemies, that You shall not slay them, lest they should at last forget Your law: disperse them in Your might. Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as says the apostle, their offense is the salvation of the Gentiles. Romans 11:11 And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no avail in this matter of which we treat. But it was not enough that he should say, Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Your law, unless he had also added, Disperse them; because if they had only been in their own land with that testimony of the Scriptures, and not every where, certainly the Church which is everywhere could not have had them as witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were sent before concerning Christ.
11. Augustine, Sermons, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Julian (Emperor), Against The Galileans, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

13. Augustine, Letters, 22.5-22.6, 29.11 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
africa Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 143, 144
alypius Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 143
ambrose Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338; Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 147; Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
ambrose of milan Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 143, 144
art, medieval christian, depiction of jews Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
augustine of hippo Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 150; Kahlos, Religious Dissent in Late Antiquity, 350-450 (2019) 183, 188, 190
aurelius Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
aurelius of carthage Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 139, 141, 143
bertrand, louis Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
bishops and martyrs Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
bookbearers, depiction of jews as Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
brown, peter Kahlos, Religious Dissent in Late Antiquity, 350-450 (2019) 183, 190
carthage Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 141
clothing, signification of, in medieval christian art Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
cult of the martyrs, ambrose Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
cult of the martyrs, and paganism Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
cult of the martyrs, donatists Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
cult of the martyrs, excesses Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15, 16
cult of the martyrs, feasts Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 15
cult of the martyrs, monica Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15, 16
cult of the martyrs, north africa Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
cult of the martyrs, van bavel Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15, 16
cyprian of carthage Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 140
donatism, identity Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
donatism, texts, martyrdom Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
donatist Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 143
faustus of milevis Kahlos, Religious Dissent in Late Antiquity, 350-450 (2019) 190
feasts, martyrs Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15
ferrari, leo Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
identity and martyrdom Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
jerome Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
jews, as blind to identity of christ, depicted in art Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
john chrysostom Kahlos, Religious Dissent in Late Antiquity, 350-450 (2019) 183, 188
julian, emperor Kahlos, Religious Dissent in Late Antiquity, 350-450 (2019) 190
loan‐words Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 127
loveland, matthew Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
macarius Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
markus, r. a. Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
memory Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 147; Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
monica Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15, 16
north africa Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
paganism Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 16
priests, jewish, depiction in medieval jewish art Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 97
sandomirsky, s. and j. wilson Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
sherkat, darren and christopher ellison Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
sherkat, darren and john wilson Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
shrines, martyrs Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14, 15
singing' Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 147
teselle, eugene Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
texts, martyrdom Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
theodosius Beduhn, Augustine's Manichaean Dilemma, vol. 1 (2013) 338
unity Ployd, Augustine, Martyrdom, and Classical Rhetoric (2023) 14
young, robin darling Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 209