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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1218
Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 28


nanSo long then as Perikles was at the head of the people, the government went on better, but on his death it became much worse. For then, for the first time, the people took for its leader a man who was not held in respect by such as entertained moderate views; whereas in former times it had always, without exception, been led by men of character. For it began with Solon, who was the first to come forward as the leader of the people; and next Peisistratus, who belonged to the nobles and upper class; and after the overthrow of the tyranny came Kleisthenes, who was of the house of the Alkmaeonidae, and had no party-leader in opposition to him after the banishment of Isagoras and his faction. After this Xanthippus was at the head of the people, while Miltiades represented the upper classes. Next came Themistokles and Aristides; after them Ephialtes was at the head of the democratic party, and Kimon, the son of Miltiades, at the head of the wealthy classes. Then Perikles represented the democratic party, and Thucydides, who was a connection by marriage of Kimon, the other side. On the death of Perikles, Nikias took the lead of the nobles, he who met his end in Sicily; and of the democratic party, Kleon, the son of Kleaenetus. He has the reputation of having, more than any other man, led the people astray by his impetuosity, and was the first to raise his voice to a shriek from the rostra and indulge in abusive language, and to harangue with his apron on, while everybody else respected the ordinary decencies of public speaking. After them Theramenes, the son of Hagnon, led the other side, while at the head of the people was Kleophon, the lyre-maker, who first introduced the payment of the two obols. For some time he distributed it, but afterwards Kallikrates, the Paeanian, put a stop to it, having first promised that he would add another obol to the two obols. Later on they were both condemned to death; for it is the custom of the masses, when they discover that they have been grossly deceived, to hate those who have led them on to do anything that is not right. And from Kleophon onward the leadership of the people successively passed without interruption to such men as were the most willing to act boldly and gratify the populace, looking only to the immediate present. For of those who conducted the government at Athens, and succeeded to the old rulers, Nikias and Thucydides and Theramenes appear to have approved themselves the best. In the case of Nikias and Thucydides almost all agree that they showed themselves to be not only good and honourable men, but also fit to govern, and that they administered the state in every respect in conformity with the national traditions. With regard to Theramenes, however, as disturbances in the forms of government occurred in his time, opinions differ. Still, he seems to such as do not express a mere off-hand opinion, not to have overthrown all these forms, as his accusers charge him with doing, but to have carried on all of them so long as they did not contravene the laws; thus acting like a man who was able to live under any form of government, which is indeed the duty of a good citizen, but who would not be a party to any that was contrary to the law, and so he became an object of hatred.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

5 results
1. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.20.2, 1.89, 1.100, 1.108, 1.126.3-1.126.12, 6.54-6.59, 8.48-8.49, 8.52-8.56, 8.65-8.69, 8.81-8.82, 8.84, 8.86, 8.89, 8.97 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.20.2. The general Athenian public fancy that Hipparchus was tyrant when he fell by the hands of Harmodius and Aristogiton; not knowing that Hippias, the eldest of the sons of Pisistratus, was really supreme, and that Hipparchus and Thessalus were his brothers; and that Harmodius and Aristogiton suspecting, on the very day, nay at the very moment fixed on for the deed, that information had been conveyed to Hippias by their accomplices, concluded that he had been warned, and did not attack him, yet, not liking to be apprehended and risk their lives for nothing, fell upon Hipparchus near the temple of the daughters of Leos, and slew him as he was arranging the Panathenaic procession. 1.126.6. Whether the grand festival that was meant was in Attica or elsewhere was a question which he never thought of, and which the oracle did not offer to solve. For the Athenians also have a festival which is called the grand festival of Zeus Meilichios or Gracious, viz. the Diasia. It is celebrated outside the city, and the whole people sacrifice not real victims but a number of bloodless offerings peculiar to the country. However, fancying he had chosen the right time, he made the attempt. 1.126.7. As soon as the Athenians perceived it, they flocked in, one and all, from the country, and sat down, and laid siege to the citadel.
2. Aeschines, Against Timarchus, 25, 21 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 10-13, 16-19, 2, 20-21, 23-27, 3, 34-41, 5-9, 1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Plutarch, Pericles, 18.1, 38.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.1. In his capacity as general, he was famous above all things for his saving caution; he neither undertook of his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril, nor did he envy and imitate those who took great risks, enjoyed brilliant good-fortune, and so were admired as great generals; and he was for ever saying to his fellow-citizens that, so far as lay in his power, they would remain alive forever and be immortals.
5. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.29.15. Here also are buried Conon and Timotheus, father and son, the second pair thus related to accomplish illustrious deeds, Miltiades and Cimon being the first; Zeno too, the son of Mnaseas and Chrysippus Stoic philosophers. of Soli, Nicias the son of Nicomedes, the best painter from life of all his contemporaries, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who killed Hipparchus, the son of Peisistratus; there are also two orators, Ephialtes, who was chiefly responsible for the abolition of the privileges of the Areopagus 463-1 B.C., and Lycurgus, A contemporary of Demosthenes. the son of Lycophron;


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
activity (ἐνέργεια) Kelsey, Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima (2021) 35
aeschines, against ctesiphon Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
aeschines, against timarchus Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
aeschylus Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
against neaera Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
agyrrhius Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
areopagus Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
argos Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
aristophon, as syndikos in demosthenes Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
aristophon, prosecutor Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
aristotle, aristotle, athenian constitution Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
aristotle Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
aristotle aristotle Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
aristotles constitution of the athenians (athenaion politeia) Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
ateleia(i) Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
athenaion politeia Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
athens Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
callistratus, in/and demosthenes Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
chabrias, and leodamas Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
chabrias, death of Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
chabrias, in demosthenes and aeschines Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
cimon Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
cleophon, used by aeschines Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
comedy, and politics Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
conon, and the walls Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
conon, in demosthenes Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
democratic ideology Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
diodorus siculus Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
discourse Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
goldhill, s. Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
imitation, of ancestors Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
imitation, of historical models Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
imitation, of other politicians Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
imitation, of statues poses Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
isocrates, and the past Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
leodamas Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
life/vital activity (ζωή, ζῆν) Kelsey, Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima (2021) 35
menn, s. Kelsey, Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima (2021) 35
oenophyta Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
oligarchic conspiracy/revolution (nan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
oratory Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
oropus trials Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
pericles, as model for others Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
pericles, political successors of Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
pericles Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
plutarch, on pericles Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
polis Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
praise Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
rhodes, p. Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
social war Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
solon, and aeschines Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
solon Zanker, The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity (1996) 350
soul (ψυχή), as subject of attributes Kelsey, Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima (2021) 35
soul (ψυχή), definition of Kelsey, Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima (2021) 35
sparta, spartans, in the pentecontaetia Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
statue of, in salamis Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
statue of solon Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
statues (honorific), in the salaminian agora Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 55
themistocles, in demosthenes Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
thucydides, and demosthenes Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
thucydides, on pericles Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
thucydides, on pericles successors Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
thucydides, son of melesias, manuscript traditionnan Rengakos and Tsakmakis, Brill's Companion to Thucydides (2006) 671
tragedy Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393
walls, city (of athens)' Westwood, The Rhetoric of the Past in Demosthenes and Aeschines: Oratory, History, and Politics in Classical Athens (2020) 108
wilson, p. Poet and Orator: A Symbiotic Relationship in Democratic Athens (2019)" 393