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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1208
Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 677-678
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24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 2.3, 6.7-6.11, 7.9-7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִן־הַמִּנְחָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה׃ 6.7. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה הַקְרֵב אֹתָהּ בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פְּנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.8. וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ מִסֹּלֶת הַמִּנְחָה וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־הַלְּבֹנָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּנְחָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אַזְכָּרָתָהּ לַיהוָה׃ 6.9. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִמֶּנָּה יֹאכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מַצּוֹת תֵּאָכֵל בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד יֹאכְלוּהָ׃ 6.11. כָּל־זָכָר בִּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן יֹאכֲלֶנָּה חָק־עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ׃ 7.9. וְכָל־מִנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תֵּאָפֶה בַּתַּנּוּר וְכָל־נַעֲשָׂה בַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת וְעַל־מַחֲבַת לַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתָהּ לוֹ תִהְיֶה׃ 2.3. But that which is left of the meal-offering shall be Aaron’s and his sons’; it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire." 6.7. And this is the law of the meal-offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, in front of the altar." 6.8. And he shall take up therefrom his handful, of the fine flour of the meal-offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meal-offering, and shall make the memorial-part thereof smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 6.9. And that which is left thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat; it shall be eaten without leaven in a holy place; in the court of the tent of meeting they shall eat it." 6.10. It shall not be baked with leaven. I have given it as their portion of My offerings made by fire; it is most holy, as the sin-offering, and as the guilt-offering." 6.11. Every male among the children of Aaron may eat of it, as a due for ever throughout your generations, from the offerings of the LORD made by fire; whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy." 7.9. And every meal-offering that is baked in the oven, and all that is dressed in the stewing-pan, and on the griddle, shall be the priest’s that offereth it." 7.10. And every meal-offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another."
2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.11. וַאֲרוֹן אֱלֹהִים נִלְקָח וּשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־עֵלִי מֵתוּ חָפְנִי וּפִינְחָס׃ 4.11. And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of ῾Eli, Ĥofni and Pineĥas, were slain."
3. Homer, Odyssey, 14.434-14.437, 14.446 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Pindar, Nemean Odes, 7.42-7.43 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 246-249, 148 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

148. ὁ δ' ὤμοσε σπένδων βοηθήσειν ἔχων
6. Aristophanes, Birds, 849-903, 848 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

848. ἐγὼ δ' ἵνα θύσω τοῖσι καινοῖσιν θεοῖς
7. Aristophanes, Clouds, 274 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

274. ὑπακούσατε δεξάμεναι θυσίαν καὶ τοῖς ἱεροῖσι χαρεῖσαι.
8. Aristophanes, Peace, 1013-1014, 1023-1126, 1172-1178, 1186, 1229, 1253, 1264, 1275, 1290, 433, 976, 1009 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1009. τένθαις πολλοῖς: κᾆτα Μελάνθιον
9. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 1137-1138, 633-676, 678-763, 768, 820, 1136 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1136. εἴ μοι πορίσας ἄρτον τιν' εὖ πεπεμμένον
10. Euripides, Andromache, 1101-1117, 1100 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1100. ἡμεῖς δὲ μῆλα, φυλλάδος Παρνασίας
11. Euripides, Electra, 714-726, 785-814, 713 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

713. θυμέλαι δ' ἐπίτναντο χρυ- 713. The altars of beaten gold were set out; and through the town the
12. Euripides, Helen, 1576 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1576. βοῆς κελευστοῦ φθέγμαθ' ὡς ἠκούσαμεν.
13. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 923-930, 922 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

922. Victims to purify the house were stationed before the altar of Zeus, for Heracles had slain and cast from his halls the king of the land.
14. Herodotus, Histories, 1.107-1.108, 2.39, 7.8-7.18 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.107. Afterwards, Cyaxares died after a reign of forty years (among which I count the years of the Scythian domination) and his son Astyages inherited the sovereignty. Astyages had a daughter, whom he called Mandane: he dreamed that she urinated so much that she filled his city and flooded all of Asia . He communicated this vision to those of the Magi who interpreted dreams, and when he heard what they told him he was terrified; ,and presently, when Mandane was of marriageable age, he feared the vision too much to give her to any Mede worthy to marry into his family, but married her to a Persian called Cambyses, a man whom he knew to be wellborn and of a quiet temper: for Astyages held Cambyses to be much lower than a Mede of middle rank. 1.108. But during the first year that Mandane was married to Cambyses, Astyages saw a second vision. He dreamed that a vine grew out of the genitals of this daughter, and that the vine covered the whole of Asia . ,Having seen this vision, and communicated it to the interpreters of dreams, he sent to the Persians for his daughter, who was about to give birth, and when she arrived kept her guarded, meaning to kill whatever child she bore: for the interpreters declared that the meaning of his dream was that his daughter's offspring would rule in his place. ,Anxious to prevent this, Astyages, when Cyrus was born, summoned Harpagus, a man of his household who was his most faithful servant among the Medes and was administrator of all that was his, and he said: ,“Harpagus, whatever business I turn over to you, do not mishandle it, and do not leave me out of account and, giving others preference, trip over your own feet afterwards. Take the child that Mandane bore, and carry him to your house, and kill him; and then bury him however you like.” ,“O King,” Harpagus answered, “never yet have you noticed anything displeasing in your man; and I shall be careful in the future, too, not to err in what concerns you. If it is your will that this be done, then my concern ought to be to attend to it scrupulously.” 2.39. After leading the marked beast to the altar where they will sacrifice it, they kindle a fire; then they pour wine on the altar over the victim and call upon the god; then they cut its throat, and having done so sever the head from the body. ,They flay the carcass of the victim, then invoke many curses on its head, which they carry away. Where there is a market, and Greek traders in it, the head is taken to the market and sold; where there are no Greeks, it is thrown into the river. ,The imprecation which they utter over the heads is that whatever ill threatens those who sacrifice, or the whole of Egypt, fall upon that head. ,In respect of the heads of sacrificed beasts and the libation of wine, the practice of all Egyptians is the same in all sacrifices; and from this ordice no Egyptian will taste of the head of anything that had life. 7.8. After the conquest of Egypt, intending now to take in hand the expedition against Athens, Xerxes held a special assembly of the noblest among the Persians, so he could learn their opinions and declare his will before them all. When they were assembled, Xerxes spoke to them as follows: ,“Men of Persia, I am not bringing in and establishing a new custom, but following one that I have inherited. As I learn from our elders, we have never yet remained at peace ever since Cyrus deposed Astyages and we won this sovereignty from the Medes. It is the will of heaven; and we ourselves win advantage by our many enterprises. No one needs to tell you, who already know them well, which nations Cyrus and Cambyses and Darius my father subdued and added to our realm. ,Ever since I came to this throne, I have considered how I might not fall short of my predecessors in this honor, and not add less power to the Persians; and my considerations persuade me that we may win not only renown, but a land neither less nor worse, and more fertile, than that which we now possess; and we would also gain vengeance and requital. For this cause I have now summoned you together, that I may impart to you what I intend to do. ,It is my intent to bridge the Hellespont and lead my army through Europe to Hellas, so I may punish the Athenians for what they have done to the Persians and to my father. ,You saw that Darius my father was set on making an expedition against these men. But he is dead, and it was not granted him to punish them. On his behalf and that of all the Persians, I will never rest until I have taken Athens and burnt it, for the unprovoked wrong that its people did to my father and me. ,First they came to Sardis with our slave Aristagoras the Milesian and burnt the groves and the temples; next, how they dealt with us when we landed on their shores, when Datis and Artaphrenes were our generals, I suppose you all know. ,For these reasons I am resolved to send an army against them; and I reckon that we will find the following benefits among them: if we subdue those men, and their neighbors who dwell in the land of Pelops the Phrygian, we will make the borders of Persian territory and of the firmament of heaven be the same. ,No land that the sun beholds will border ours, but I will make all into one country, when I have passed over the whole of Europe. ,I learn that this is the situation: no city of men or any human nation which is able to meet us in battle will be left, if those of whom I speak are taken out of our way. Thus the guilty and the innocent will alike bear the yoke of slavery. ,This is how you would best please me: when I declare the time for your coming, every one of you must eagerly appear; and whoever comes with his army best equipped will receive from me such gifts as are reckoned most precious among us. ,Thus it must be done; but so that I not seem to you to have my own way, I lay the matter before you all, and bid whoever wishes to declare his opinion.” So spoke Xerxes and ceased. 7.9. After him Mardonius said: “Master, you surpass not only all Persians that have been but also all that shall be; besides having dealt excellently and truly with all other matters, you will not suffer the Ionians who dwell in Europe to laugh at us, which they have no right to do. ,It would be strange indeed if we who have subdued and made slaves of Sacae and Indians and Ethiopians and Assyrians and many other great nations, for no wrong done to the Persians but of mere desire to add to our power, will not take vengeance on the Greeks for unprovoked wrongs. ,What have we to fear from them? Have they a massive population or abundance of wealth? Their manner of fighting we know, and we know how weak their power is; we have conquered and hold their sons, those who dwell in our land and are called Ionians and Aeolians and Dorians. ,I myself have made trial of these men, when by your father's command I marched against them. I marched as far as Macedonia and almost to Athens itself, yet none came out to meet me in battle. ,Yet the Greeks are accustomed to wage wars, as I learn, and they do it most senselessly in their wrongheadedness and folly. When they have declared war against each other, they come down to the fairest and most level ground that they can find and fight there, so that the victors come off with great harm; of the vanquished I say not so much as a word, for they are utterly destroyed. ,Since they speak the same language, they should end their disputes by means of heralds or messengers, or by any way rather than fighting; if they must make war upon each other, they should each discover where they are in the strongest position and make the attempt there. The Greek custom, then, is not good; and when I marched as far as the land of Macedonia, it had not come into their minds to fight. ,But against you, O king, who shall make war? You will bring the multitudes of Asia, and all your ships. I think there is not so much boldness in Hellas as that; but if time should show me wrong in my judgment, and those men prove foolhardy enough to do battle with us, they would be taught that we are the greatest warriors on earth. Let us leave nothing untried; for nothing happens by itself, and all men's gains are the fruit of adventure.” 7.10. Thus Mardonius smoothed Xerxes' resolution and stopped. The rest of the Persians held their peace, not daring to utter any opinion contrary to what had been put forward; then Artabanus son of Hystaspes, the king's uncle, spoke. Relying on his position, he said, ,“O king, if opposite opinions are not uttered, it is impossible for someone to choose the better; the one which has been spoken must be followed. If they are spoken, the better can be found; just as the purity of gold cannot be determined by itself, but when gold is compared with gold by rubbing, we then determine the better. ,Now I advised Darius, your father and my brother, not to lead his army against the Scythians, who have no cities anywhere to dwell in. But he hoped to subdue the nomadic Scythians and would not obey me; he went on the expedition and returned after losing many gallant men from his army. ,You, O king, are proposing to lead your armies against far better men than the Scythians—men who are said to be excellent warriors by sea and land. It is right that I should show you what danger there is in this. ,You say that you will bridge the Hellespont and march your army through Europe to Hellas. Now suppose you happen to be defeated either by land or by sea, or even both; the men are said to be valiant, and we may well guess that it is so, since the Athenians alone destroyed the great army that followed Datis and Artaphrenes to Attica. ,Suppose they do not succeed in both ways; but if they attack with their ships and prevail in a sea-fight, and then sail to the Hellespont and destroy your bridge, that, O king, is the hour of peril. ,It is from no wisdom of my own that I thus conjecture; it is because I know what disaster once almost overtook us, when your father, making a highway over the Thracian Bosporus and bridging the river Ister, crossed over to attack the Scythians. At that time the Scythians used every means of entreating the Ionians, who had been charged to guard the bridges of the Ister, to destroy the way of passage. ,If Histiaeus the tyrant of Miletus had consented to the opinion of the other tyrants instead of opposing it, the power of Persia would have perished. Yet it is dreadful even in the telling, that one man should hold in his hand all the king's fortunes. ,So do not plan to run the risk of any such danger when there is no need for it. Listen to me instead: for now dismiss this assembly; consider the matter by yourself and, whenever you so please, declare what seems best to you. ,A well-laid plan is always to my mind most profitable; even if it is thwarted later, the plan was no less good, and it is only chance that has baffled the design; but if fortune favor one who has planned poorly, then he has gotten only a prize of chance, and his plan was no less bad. ,You see how the god smites with his thunderbolt creatures of greatness and does not suffer them to display their pride, while little ones do not move him to anger; and you see how it is always on the tallest buildings and trees that his bolts fall; for the god loves to bring low all things of surpassing greatness. Thus a large army is destroyed by a smaller, when the jealous god sends panic or the thunderbolt among them, and they perish unworthily; for the god suffers pride in none but himself. ,Now haste is always the parent of failure, and great damages are likely to arise; but in waiting there is good, and in time this becomes clear, even though it does not seem so in the present. ,This, O king, is my advice to you. But you, Mardonius son of Gobryas, cease your foolish words about the Greeks, for they do not deserve to be maligned. By slandering the Greeks you incite the king to send this expedition; that is the end to which you press with all eagerness. Let it not be so. ,Slander is a terrible business; there are two in it who do wrong and one who suffers wrong. The slanderer wrongs another by accusing an absent man, and the other does wrong in that he is persuaded before he has learned the whole truth; the absent man does not hear what is said of him and suffers wrong in the matter, being maligned by the one and condemned by the other. ,If an army must by all means be sent against these Greeks, hear me now: let the king himself remain in the Persian land, and let us two stake our children's lives upon it; you lead out the army, choosing whatever men you wish and taking as great an army as you desire. ,If the king's fortunes fare as you say, let my sons be slain, and myself with them; but if it turns out as I foretell, let your sons be so treated, and you likewise, if you return. ,But if you are unwilling to submit to this and will at all hazards lead your army overseas to Hellas, then I think that those left behind in this place will hear that Mardonius has done great harm to Persia, and has been torn apart by dogs and birds in the land of Athens or of Lacedaemon, if not even before that on the way there; and that you have learned what kind of men you persuade the king to attack.” 7.11. Thus spoke Artabanus. Xerxes answered angrily, “Artabanus, you are my father's brother; that will save you from receiving the fitting reward of foolish words. But for your cowardly lack of spirit I lay upon you this disgrace, that you will not go with me and my army against Hellas, but will stay here with the women; I myself will accomplish all that I have said, with no help from you. ,May I not be the son of Darius son of Hystaspes son of Arsames son of Ariaramnes son of Teispes son of Cyrus son of Cambyses son of Teispes son of Achaemenes, if I do not have vengeance on the Athenians; I well know that if we remain at peace they will not; they will assuredly invade our country, if we may infer from what they have done already, for they burnt Sardis and marched into Asia. ,It is not possible for either of us to turn back: to do or to suffer is our task, so that what is ours be under the Greeks, or what is theirs under the Persians; there is no middle way in our quarrel. ,Honor then demands that we avenge ourselves for what has been done to us; thus will I learn what is this evil that will befall me when I march against these Greeks—men that even Pelops the Phrygian, the slave of my forefathers, did so utterly subdue that to this day they and their country are called by the name of their conqueror.” 7.12. The discussion went that far; then night came, and Xerxes was pricked by the advice of Artabanus. Thinking it over at night, he saw clearly that to send an army against Hellas was not his affair. He made this second resolve and fell asleep; then (so the Persians say) in the night he saw this vision: It seemed to Xerxes that a tall and handsome man stood over him and said, ,“Are you then changing your mind, Persian, and will not lead the expedition against Hellas, although you have proclaimed the mustering of the army? It is not good for you to change your mind, and there will be no one here to pardon you for it; let your course be along the path you resolved upon yesterday.” 7.13. So the vision spoke, and seemed to Xerxes to vanish away. When day dawned, the king took no account of this dream, and he assembled the Persians whom he had before gathered together and addressed them thus: ,“Persians, forgive me for turning and twisting in my purpose; I am not yet come to the fullness of my wisdom, and I am never free from people who exhort me to do as I said. It is true that when I heard Artabanus' opinion my youthful spirit immediately boiled up, and I burst out with an unseemly and wrongful answer to one older than myself; but now I see my fault and will follow his judgment. ,Be at peace, since I have changed my mind about marching against Hellas.” 7.14. When the Persians heard that, they rejoiced and made obeisance to him. But when night came on, the same vision stood again over Xerxes as he slept, and said, “Son of Darius, have you then plainly renounced your army's march among the Persians, and made my words of no account, as though you had not heard them? Know for certain that, if you do not lead out your army immediately, this will be the outcome of it: as you became great and mighty in a short time, so in a moment will you be brought low again.” 7.15. Greatly frightened by the vision, Xerxes leapt up from his bed, and sent a messenger to summon Artabanus. When he came, Xerxes said, “Artabanus, for a moment I was of unsound mind, and I answered your good advice with foolish words; but after no long time I repented, and saw that it was right for me to follow your advice. ,Yet, though I desire to, I cannot do it; ever since I turned back and repented, a vision keeps coming to haunt my sight, and it will not allow me to do as you advise; just now it has threatened me and gone. ,Now if a god is sending the vision, and it is his full pleasure that there this expedition against Hellas take place, that same dream will hover about you and give you the same command it gives me. I believe that this is most likely to happen, if you take all my apparel and sit wearing it upon my throne, and then lie down to sleep in my bed.” 7.16. Xerxes said this, but Artabanus would not obey the first command, thinking it was not right for him to sit on the royal throne; at last he was compelled and did as he was bid, saying first: ,“O king, I judge it of equal worth whether a man is wise or is willing to obey good advice; to both of these you have attained, but the company of bad men trips you up; just as they say that sea, of all things the most serviceable to men, is hindered from following its nature by the blasts of winds that fall upon it. ,It was not that I heard harsh words from you that stung me so much as that, when two opinions were laid before the Persians, one tending to the increase of pride, the other to its abatement, showing how evil a thing it is to teach the heart continual desire of more than it has, of these two opinions you preferred that one which was more fraught with danger to yourself and to the Persians. ,Now when you have turned to the better opinion, you say that, while intending to abandon the expedition against the Greeks, you are haunted by a dream sent by some god, which forbids you to disband the expedition. ,But this is none of heaven's working, my son. The roving dreams that visit men are of such nature as I shall teach you, since I am many years older than you. Those visions that rove about us in dreams are for the most part the thoughts of the day; and in these recent days we have been very busy with this expedition. ,But if this is not as I determine and it has something divine to it, then you have spoken the conclusion of the matter; let it appear to me just as it has to you, and utter its command. If it really wishes to appear, it should do so to me no more by virtue of my wearing your dress instead of mine, and my sleeping in your bed rather than in my own. ,Whatever it is that appears to you in your sleep, surely it has not come to such folly as to infer from your dress that I am you when it sees me. We now must learn if it will take no account of me and not deign to appear and haunt me, whether I am wearing your robes or my own, but will come to you; if it comes continually, I myself would say that it is something divine. ,If you are determined that this must be done and there is no averting it, and I must lie down to sleep in your bed, so be it; this duty I will fulfill, and let the vision appear also to me. But until then I will keep my present opinion.” 7.17. So spoke Artabanus and did as he was bid, hoping to prove Xerxes' words vain; he put on Xerxes' robes and sat on the king's throne. Then while he slept there came to him in his sleep the same dream that had haunted Xerxes; it stood over him and spoke thus: ,“Are you the one who dissuades Xerxes from marching against Hellas, because you care for him? Neither in the future nor now will you escape with impunity for striving to turn aside what must be. To Xerxes himself it has been declared what will befall him if he disobeys.” 7.18. With this threat (so it seemed to Artabanus) the vision was about to burn his eyes with hot irons. He leapt up with a loud cry, then sat by Xerxes and told him the whole story of what he had seen in his dream, and next he said: ,“O King, since I have seen, as much as a man may, how the greater has often been brought low by the lesser, I forbade you to always give rein to your youthful spirit, knowing how evil a thing it is to have many desires, and remembering the end of Cyrus' expedition against the Massagetae and of Cambyses' against the Ethiopians, and I myself marched with Darius against the Scythians. ,Knowing this, I judged that you had only to remain in peace for all men to deem you fortunate. But since there is some divine motivation, and it seems that the gods mark Hellas for destruction, I myself change and correct my judgment. Now declare the gods' message to the Persians, and bid them obey your first command for all due preparation. Do this, so that nothing on your part be lacking to the fulfillment of the gods' commission.” ,After this was said, they were incited by the vision, and when daylight came Xerxes imparted all this to the Persians. Artabanus now openly encouraged that course which he alone had before openly discouraged.
15. Menander, Dyscolus, 494 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 2.34 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 48.32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. Epigraphy, Lsam, 59, 24

20. Epigraphy, Lscg, 23, 107

21. Epigraphy, Lss, 113

22. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1247, 776, 788, 1199

23. Epigraphy, Seg, 21.541, 33.115

24. Epigraphy, Ig Ii3, 416, 1189



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adyton Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 246
aegina Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
aegisthus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78
alcmene Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
ammon Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
amorgos Horster and Klöckner, Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period (2014) 60
amphiaraus Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
apollo, zoster Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
aristophanes Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, altar with cakes and other preliminary offerings Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, and question of sexes sleeping separately Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 630
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, asklepios accompanied by daughters Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, asklepios accompanied by serpents Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, lamps extinguished by temple servant Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, overlooked joke regarding ablutions(?) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, preliminary use of water Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, presence of companions for those incubating Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, problem of setting at athens or peiraeus Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185, 630
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, summary of scene Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238, 239
aristophaness plutus incubation scene, use of stibades Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238, 239
artemis, agrotera Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
asclepius, fellow deities and Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
asclepius, sanctuary at athens Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
asclepius, sanctuary at erythrae Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
asclepius, sanctuary at the piraeus Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
asclepius Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196; Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
asklepieia, bedding materials for incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
asklepieia, cake offerings Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
asklepieia, incubation in temple pronaos area Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
asklepieia, preliminary bloodless offerings and sacrifice Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
asklepieia, purity requirements for incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
asklepieia, question of sexes sleeping separately Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 630
asklepieia, use of seawater for purification Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
asklepieia, use of stibades for incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
asklepieia, uses and sources of water at asklepieia Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
asklepieia, written evidence for incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
asklepieia and lesser cult sites, delos Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
asklepios, accompanied by family members in dreams Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
asklepios, as physician or surgeon in dreams Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
asklepios, specific ailments cured, coughing up blood (hemoptysis) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
asklepios Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177; Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185, 238, 239; Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 403
athena itonia Horster and Klöckner, Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period (2014) 60
athens, deme erchia Horster and Klöckner, Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period (2014) 59
athens, deme phrearrhioi Horster and Klöckner, Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period (2014) 59
athens asklepieion, aelian anecdote about dog and thief Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
athens asklepieion, cistern near entrance Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
athens asklepieion, doric east stoa and incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 630
athens asklepieion, incubation by domninus (libanius pupil) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
athens asklepieion, incubation by plutarch Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
athens asklepieion, limited written evidence forincubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
athens asklepieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
atreus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78
body Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
bread Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
burkert, w. Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
cakes Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
cult Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 196; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
cult personnel (greek), propolos Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
curi Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
dedication Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
delos, asklepieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
demes Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
detienne, m. Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
dioskouroi Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
disease Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
divinities (greek and roman), iaso Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
divinities (greek and roman), panakeia Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
divinities (greek and roman), plutus Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238, 239
dream, incubation and Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 246
dream, passim, esp., epiphany dream Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
dream Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
dreams and visions, examples, herodotus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 387
epidauros Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
epidauros miracle inscriptions, testimonies with cautionary tales Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238
epidaurus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
euripides Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78
euthydemos of eleusis (priest of asclepius) Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
fart Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 45
foundation, of cults Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 196
gods, non-existent Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 403
halieis Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196
healing, healing cult Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
healing, miraculous healing Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
healing Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
healing miracle Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
hierophant Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
hydrotherapy, in cult of asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
iamata Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
illness Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
incubation, preliminary sacrifices Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
incubation, thanksgiving sacrifice after Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
incubation Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196; Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 246
incubation (greek), question of sexes sleeping separately Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 630
inscription Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
inscriptions Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196
jerusalem, temple Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
lehem hapanim Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
minhah Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
minoa Horster and Klöckner, Cult Personnel in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands from the Hellenistic to the Imperial Period (2014) 60
miracle, punitive Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 403
miracle /\u2009miraculous Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
miracles Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
neoptolemus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78
offenses Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 45
olympian gods Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 196
oracle (divine message) Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
oropos amphiareion, sexes sleeping separately Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 630
oropos amphiareion, uses of water Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
oropus Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
panhellenism Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 196
peiraeus asklepieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
pelasgios Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
plague Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
plato Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
plutarch Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60; Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
popanon Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64, 334
popular religion Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
priest/priestess Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
priest Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
priests, cakes and Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 334
priests, sacrificial prerogatives Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 314
priests and priestesses, of aglauros Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of ammon Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of amphiaraus Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of apollo zoster Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of asclepius, in city Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of athena polias Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of demeter at eleusis Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of diomus Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of dionysus in piraeus Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of hebe and alcmene at aixone Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of heracles, of mesogeioi Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of heraclidae at aixone Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of kalliste Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of poseidon pelasgios Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of thesmophoroi at melite Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses, of zeus soter of city Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
priests and priestesses Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
punishment, divine Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
purification Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
religion Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
ritual Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
sacred animals (greek), dogs at athens asklepieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 185
sacred animals (greek), serpents in aristophaness plutus scene Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 239
sacrifice, israelite Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 314, 334
sacrifice, preliminary Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
sacrifice, thanksgiving Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 64
sacrifice Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
sanctuary Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
shiloh Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 314
shouting' Lateiner and Spatharas, The Ancient Emotion of Disgust (2016) 45
sleep Chaniotis, Unveiling Emotions: Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World vol (2012) 177
snake Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
stibades (στιβάδες) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 238, 239
stoai (athens) Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
tegea Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194
thesmophoroi of melite Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 50
troizen Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 194, 196
van straten, f. Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
vernant, j.-p. Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 60
votive, relief Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
war, peloponnesian war Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben, Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity (2020) 125
xuthus Naiden, Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods (2013) 78