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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1206
Aristophanes, Clouds, 223-509


πρῶτον μὲν ὅ τι δρᾷς ἀντιβολῶ κάτειπέ μοι.SOCRATES: Mortal, what do you want with me? STREPSIADES: First, what are you doing up there? Tell me, I beseech you. SOCRATES: I traverse the air and contemplate the sun. STREPSIADES: Thus 'tis not on the solid ground, but from the height of this basket, that you slight the gods, if indeed.... SOCRATES: I have to suspend my brain and mingle the subtle essence of my mind with this air, which is of the like nature, in order to clearly penetrate the things of heaven. I should have discovered nothing, had I remained on the ground to consider from below the things that are above; for the earth by its force attracts the sap of the mind to itself. 'Tis just the same with the water-cress. STREPSIADES: What? Does the mind attract the sap of the water-cress? Ah! my dear little Socrates, come down to me! I have come to ask you for lessons. SOCRATES: And for what lessons? STREPSIADES: I want to learn how to speak. I have borrowed money, and my merciless creditors do not leave me a moment's peace; all my goods are at stake. SOCRATES: And how was it you did not see that you were getting so much into debt? STREPSIADES: My ruin has been the madness for horses, a most rapacious evil; but teach me one of your two methods of reasoning, the one whose object is not to repay anything, and, may the gods bear witness, that I am ready to pay any fee you may name.
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ἀλλά με δίδαξον τὸν ἕτερον τοῖν σοῖν λόγοινSOCRATES: By which gods will you swear? To begin with, the gods are not a coin current with us. STREPSIADES: But what do you swear by then? By the iron money of Byzantium? SOCRATES: Do you really wish to know the truth of celestial matters? STREPSIADES: Why, truly, if 'tis possible. SOCRATES: ... and to converse with the clouds, who are our genii? STREPSIADES: Without a doubt. SOCRATES: Then be seated on this sacred couch. STREPSIADES: I am seated. SOCRATES: Now take this chaplet. STREPSIADES: Why a chaplet? Alas! Socrates, would you sacrifice me, like Athamas?
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ὥσπερ με τὸν ̓Αθάμανθ' ὅπως μὴ θύσετε.SOCRATES: No, these are the rites of initiation. STREPSIADES: And what is it I am to gain? SOCRATES: You will become a thorough rattle-pate, a hardened old stager, the fine flour of the talkers.... But come, keep quiet. STREPSIADES: By Zeus! You lie not! Soon I shall be nothing but wheat-flour, if you powder me in this fashion. SOCRATES: Silence, old man, give heed to the prayers.... Oh! most mighty king, the boundless air, that keepest the earth suspended in space, thou bright Aether and ye venerable goddesses, the Clouds, who carry in your loins the thunder and the lightning, arise, ye sovereign powers and manifest yourselves in the celestial spheres to the eyes of the sage. STREPSIADES: Not yet! Wait a bit, till I fold my mantle double, so as not to get wet. And to think that I did not even bring my travelling cap! What a misfortune! SOCRATES: Come, oh! Clouds, whom I adore, come and show yourselves to this man, whether you be resting on the sacred summits of Olympus, crowned with hoar-frost, or tarrying in the gardens of Ocean, your father, forming sacred choruses with the Nymphs; whether you be gathering the waves of the Nile in golden vases or dwelling in the Maeotic marsh or on the snowy rocks of Mimas, hearken to my prayer and accept my offering. May these sacrifices be pleasing to you. CHORUS: Eternal Clouds, let us appear, let us arise from the roaring depths of Ocean, our father; let us fly towards the lofty mountains, spread our damp wings over their forest-laden summits, whence we will dominate the distant valleys, the harvest fed by the sacred earth, the murmur of the divine streams and the resounding waves of the sea, which the unwearying orb lights up with its glittering beams. But let us shake off the rainy fogs, which hide our immortal beauty and sweep the earth from afar with our gaze. SOCRATES: Oh, venerated goddesses, yes, you are answering my call! (To Strepsiades.) Did you hear their voices mingling with the awful growling of the thunder? STREPSIADES: Oh! adorable Clouds, I revere you and I too am going to let off my thunder, so greatly has your own affrighted me. Faith! whether permitted or not, I must, I must shit!
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δενδροκόμους, ἵναSTREPSIADES: What cruel fate! What a torture the bugs will this day put me to! SOCRATES: Ponder and examine closely, gather your thoughts together, let your mind turn to every side of things; if you meet with a difficulty, spring quickly to some other idea; above all, keep your eyes away from all gentle sleep. STREPSIADES: Oh, woe, woe! oh, woe, woe! SOCRATES: What ails you? why do you cry so? STREPSIADES: Oh! I am a dead man! Here are these cursed Corinthians advancing upon me from all corners of the couch; they are biting me, they are gnawing at my sides, they are drinking all my blood, they are twitching off my testicles, they are exploring all up my back, they are killing me! SOCRATES: Not so much wailing and clamour, if you please. STREPSIADES: How can I obey? I have lost my money and my complexion, my blood and my slippers, and to cap my misery, I must keep awake on this couch, when scarce a breath of life is left in me. SOCRATES: Well now! what are you doing? are you reflecting? STREPSIADES: Yes, by Poseidon! SOCRATES: What about?
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παρθένοι ὀμβροφόροιSOCRATES: No scoffing; do not copy those accursed comic poets. Come, silence! a numerous host of goddesses approaches with songs. CHORUS: Virgins, who pour forth the rains, let us move toward Attica, the rich country of Pallas, the home of the brave; let us visit the dear land of Cecrops, where the secret rites are celebrated, where the mysterious sanctuary flies open to the initiate.... What victims are offered there to the deities of heaven! What glorious temples! What statues! What holy prayers to the rulers of Olympus! At every season nothing but sacred festivals, garlanded victims, are to be seen. Then Spring brings round again the joyous feasts of Dionysus, the harmonious contests of the choruses and the serious melodies of the flute. STREPSIADES: By Zeus! Tell me, Socrates, I pray you, who are these women, whose language is so solemn; can they be demigoddesses? SOCRATES: Not at all. They are the Clouds of heaven, great goddesses for the lazy; to them we owe all, thoughts, speeches, trickery, roguery, boasting, lies, sagacity. STREPSIADES: Ah! that was why, as I listened to them, my mind spread out its wings; it burns to babble about trifles, to maintain worthless arguments, to voice its petty reasons, to contradict, to tease some opponent. But are they not going to show themselves? I should like to see them, were it possible. SOCRATES: Well, look this way in the direction of Parnes; I already see those who are slowly descending. STREPSIADES: But where, where? Show them to me. SOCRATES: They are advancing in a throng, following an oblique path across the dales and thickets. STREPSIADES: 'Tis strange! I can see nothing. SOCRATES: There, close to the entrance.
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ὡς οὐ καθορῶ. παρὰ τὴν εἴσοδον. ἤδη νυνὶ μόλις οὕτως.STREPSIADES: Hardly, if at all, can I distinguish them. SOCRATES: You must see them clearly now, unless your eyes are filled with gum as thick as pumpkins. STREPSIADES: Aye, undoubtedly! Oh! the venerable goddesses! Why, they fill up the entire stage. SOCRATES: And you did not know, you never suspected, that they were goddesses? STREPSIADES: No, indeed; methought the Clouds were only fog, dew and vapour. SOCRATES: But what you certainly do not know is that they are the support of a crowd of quacks, both the diviners, who were sent to Thurium, the notorious physicians, the well-combed fops, who load their fingers with rings down to the nails, and the braggarts, who write dithyrambic verses, all these are idlers whom the Clouds provide a living for, because they sing them in their verses. STREPSIADES: 'Tis then for this that they praise "the rapid flight of the moist clouds, which veil the brightness of day" and "the waving locks of the hundred-headed Typho" and "the impetuous tempests, which float through the heavens, like birds of prey with aerial wings, loaded with mists" and "the rains, the dew, which the clouds outpour." As a reward for these fine phrases they bolt well-grown, tasty mullet and delicate thrushes. SOCRATES: Yes, thanks to these. And is it not right and meet? STREPSIADES: Tell me then why, if these really are the Clouds, they so very much resemble mortals. This is not their usual form. SOCRATES: What are they like then?
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ἀπόκριναί νυν ἅττ' ἂν ἔρωμαι. λέγε νυν ταχέως ὅ τι βούλει.STREPSIADES: I don't know exactly; well, they are like great packs of wool, but not like women — no, not in the least.... And these have noses. SOCRATES: Answer my questions. STREPSIADES: Willingly! Go on, I am listening. SOCRATES: Have you not sometimes seen clouds in the sky like a centaur, a leopard, a wolf or a bull? STREPSIADES: Why, certainly I have, but what then? SOCRATES: They take what metamorphosis they like. If they see a debauchee with long flowing locks and hairy as a beast, like the son of Xenophantes, they take the form of a Centaur in derision of his shameful passion. STREPSIADES: And when they see Simon, that thiever of public money, what do they do then? SOCRATES: To picture him to the life, they turn at once into wolves. STREPSIADES: So that was why yesterday, when they saw Cleonymus, who cast away his buckler because he is the veriest poltroon amongst men, they changed into deer. SOCRATES: And today they have seen Clisthenes; you see ... they are women.
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χαίρετε τοίνυν ὦ δέσποιναι: καὶ νῦν, εἴπερ τινὶ κἄλλῳSTREPSIADES: Hail, sovereign goddesses, and if ever you have let your celestial voice be heard by mortal ears, speak to me, oh! speak to me, ye all-powerful queens. CHORUS: Hail! veteran of the ancient times, you who burn to instruct yourself in fine language. And you, great high-priest of subtle nonsense, tell us your desire. To you and Prodicus alone of all the hollow orationers of today have we lent an ear — to Prodicus, because of his knowledge and his great wisdom, and to you, because you walk with head erect, a confident look, barefooted, resigned to everything and proud of our protection. STREPSIADES: Oh! Earth! What august utterances! how sacred! how wondrous! SOCRATES: That is because these are the only goddesses; all the rest are pure myth. STREPSIADES: But by the Earth! is our Father, Zeus, the Olympian, not a god? SOCRATES: Zeus! what Zeus? Are you mad? There is no Zeus. STREPSIADES: What are you saying now? Who causes the rain to fall? Answer me that! SOCRATES: Why, 'tis these, and I will prove it. Have you ever seen it raining without clouds? Let Zeus then cause rain with a clear sky and without their presence! STREPSIADES: By Apollo! that is powerfully argued! For my own part, I always thought it was Zeus pissing into a sieve. But tell me, who is it makes the thunder, which I so much dread? SOCRATES: 'Tis these, when they roll one over the other.
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αὗται βροντῶσι κυλινδόμεναι. τῷ τρόπῳ ὦ πάντα σὺ τολμῶν;STREPSIADES: But how can that be? you most daring among men! SOCRATES: Being full of water, and forced to move along, they are of necessity precipitated in rain, being fully distended with moisture from the regions where they have been floating; hence they bump each other heavily and burst with great noise. STREPSIADES: But is it not Zeus who forces them to move? SOCRATES: Not at all; 'tis aerial Whirlwind. STREPSIADES: The Whirlwind! ah! I did not know that. So Zeus, it seems, has no existence, and 'tis the Whirlwind that reigns in his stead? But you have not yet told me what makes the roll of the thunder? SOCRATES: Have you not understood me then? I tell you, that the Clouds, when full of rain, bump against one another, and that, being inordinately swollen out, they burst with a great noise. STREPSIADES: How can you make me credit that? SOCRATES: Take yourself as an example. When you have heartily gorged on stew at the Panathenaea, you get throes of stomach-ache and then suddenly your belly resounds with prolonged growling. STREPSIADES: Yes, yes, by Apollo! I suffer, I get colic, then the stew sets a-growling like thunder and finally bursts forth with a terrific noise. At first, 'tis but a little gurgling pappax, pappax! then it increases, papapappax! and when I seek relief, why, 'tis thunder indeed, papapappax! pappax!! papapappax!!! just like the clouds. SOCRATES: Well then, reflect what a noise is produced by your belly, which is but small. Shall not the air, which is boundless, produce these mighty claps of thunder?
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ἀλλ' ὁ κεραυνὸς πόθεν αὖ φέρεται λάμπων πυρί, τοῦτο δίδαξονSTREPSIADES: But tell me this. Whence comes the lightning, the dazzling flame, which at times consumes the man it strikes, at others hardly singes him. Is it not plain, that 'tis Zeus hurling it at the perjurers? SOCRATES: Out upon the fool! the driveller! he still savours of the golden age! If Zeus strikes at the perjurers, why has he not blasted Simon, Cleonymus and Theorus? Of a surety, greater perjurers cannot exist. No, he strikes his own Temple, and Sounion, the promontory of Athens, and the towering oaks. Now, why should he do that? An oak is no perjurer. STREPSIADES: I cannot tell, but it seems to me well argued. What is the thunder then? SOCRATES: When a dry wind ascends to the Clouds and gets shut into them, it blows them out like a bladder; finally, being too confined, it bursts them, escapes with fierce violence and a roar to flash into flame by reason of its own impetuosity. STREPSIADES: Forsooth, 'tis just what happened to me one day. 'Twas at the feast of Zeus! I was cooking a sow's belly for my family and I had forgotten to slit it open. It swelled out and, suddenly bursting, discharged itself right into my eyes and burnt my face. CHORUS: Oh, mortal! you, who desire to instruct yourself in our great wisdom, the Athenians, the Greeks will envy you your good fortune. Only you must have the memory and ardour for study, you must know how to stand the tests, hold your own, go forward without feeling fatigue, caring but little for food, abstaining from wine, gymnastic exercises and other similar follies, in fact, you must believe as every man of intellect should, that the greatest of all blessings is to live and think more clearly than the vulgar herd, to shine in the contests of words. STREPSIADES: If it be a question of hardiness for labour, of spending whole nights at work, of living sparingly, of fighting my stomach and only eating chick-pease, rest assured, I am as hard as an anvil. SOCRATES: Henceforward, following our example, you will recognize no other gods but Chaos, the Clouds and the Tongue, these three alone. STREPSIADES: I would not speak to the others, even if I should meet them in the street; not a single sacrifice, not a libation, not a grain of incense for them! CHORUS: Tell us boldly then what you want of us; you cannot fail to succeed, if you honour and revere us and if you are resolved to become a clever man.
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ἡμᾶς τιμῶν καὶ θαυμάζων καὶ ζητῶν δεξιὸς εἶναι.STREPSIADES: Oh, sovereign goddesses, 'tis but a very small favour that I ask of you; grant that I may distance all the Greeks by a hundred stadia in the art of speaking. CHORUS: We grant you this, and henceforward no eloquence shall more often succeed with the people than your own. STREPSIADES: May the god shield me from possessing great eloquence! 'Tis not what I want. I want to be able to turn bad lawsuits to my own advantage and to slip through the fingers of my creditors. CHORUS: It shall be as you wish, for your ambitions are modest. Commit yourself fearlessly to our ministers, the sophists. STREPSIADES: This will I do, for I trust in you. Moreover there is no drawing back, what with these cursed horses and this marriage, which has eaten up my vitals. So let them do with me as they will; I yield my body to them. Come blows, come hunger, thirst, heat or cold, little matters it to me; they may flay me, if I only escape my debts, if only I win the reputation of being a bold rascal, a fine speaker, impudent, shameless, a braggart, and adept at stringing lies, an old stager at quibbles, a complete table of the laws, a thorough rattle, a fox to slip through any hole; supple as a leathern strap, slippery as an eel, an artful fellow, a blusterer, a villain; a knave with a hundred faces, cunning, intolerable, a gluttonous dog. With such epithets do I seek to be greeted; on these terms, they can treat me as they choose, and, if they wish, by Demeter! they can turn me into sausages and serve me up to the philosophers. CHORUS: Here have we a bold and well-disposed pupil indeed. When we shall have taught you, your glory among the mortals will reach even to the skies. STREPSIADES: Wherein will that profit me? CHORUS: You will pass your whole life among us and will be the most envied of men. STREPSIADES: Shall I really ever see such happiness? CHORUS: Clients will be everlastingly besieging your door in crowds, burning to get at you, to explain their business to you and to consult you about their suits, which, in return for your ability, will bring you in great sums. But, Socrates, begin the lessons you want to teach this old man; rouse his mind, try the strength of his intelligence.
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ἄγε δὴ κάτειπέ μοι σὺ τὸν σαυτοῦ τρόπονSOCRATES: Come, tell me the kind of mind you have; 'tis important I know this, that I may order my batteries against you in a new fashion. STREPSIADES: Eh, what! in the name of the gods, are you purposing to assault me then? SOCRATES: No. I only wish to ask you some questions. Have you any memory? STREPSIADES: That depends. if anything is owed me, my memory is excellent, but if I owe, alas! I have none whatever. SOCRATES: Have you a natural gift for speaking? STREPSIADES: For speaking, no; for cheating, yes. SOCRATES: How will you be able to learn then? STREPSIADES: Very easily, have no fear. SOCRATES: Thus, when I throw forth some philosophical thought anent things celestial, you will seize it in its very flight? STREPSIADES: Then I am to snap up wisdom much as a dog snaps up a morsel? SOCRATES: Oh! the ignoramus! the barbarian! I greatly fear, old man, 'twill be needful for me to have recourse to blows. Now, let me hear what you do when you are beaten. STREPSIADES: I receive the blow, then wait a moment, take my witnesses and finally summon my assailant at law. SOCRATES: Come, take off your cloak. STREPSIADES: Have I robbed you of anything? SOCRATES: No, but 'tis usual to enter the school without your cloak. STREPSIADES: But I am not come here to look for stolen goods. SOCRATES: Off with it, fool! STREPSIADES: Tell me, if I prove thoroughly attentive and learn with zeal, which of your disciples shall I resemble, do you think? SOCRATES: You will be the image of Chaerephon. STREPSIADES: Ah! unhappy me! I shall then be but half alive? SOCRATES: A truce to this chatter! follow me and no more of it. STREPSIADES: First give me a honey-cake, for to descend down there sets me all a-tremble; meseems 'tis the cave of Trophonius. SOCRATES: But get in with you! What reason have you for thus dallying at the door?
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Aristophanes, Birds, 1566-1693, 1565 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1565. τὸ μὲν πόλισμα τῆς Νεφελοκοκκυγίας
2. Aristophanes, Knights, 1179-1180, 1333, 1354, 268, 1178 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1178. ἡ δ' ̓Οβριμοπάτρα γ' ἑφθὸν ἐκ ζωμοῦ κρέας
3. Aristophanes, Clouds, 141-153, 173-174, 179, 181-182, 191-194, 200-222, 224-509, 518-803, 98, 998-999, 140 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

140. ἀλλ' οὐ θέμις πλὴν τοῖς μαθηταῖσιν λέγειν.
4. Aristophanes, Peace, 1275 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1275. ἀσπίδας; οὐ παύσει μεμνημένος ἀσπίδος ἡμῖν;
5. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 1146 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1146. μὴ μνησικακήσῃς, εἰ σὺ Φυλὴν κατέλαβες.
6. Aristophanes, Wasps, 1123-1164, 1122 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1122. οὔτοι ποτὲ ζῶν τοῦτον ἀποδυθήσομαι
7. Herodotus, Histories, 1.60 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.60. But after a short time the partisans of Megacles and of Lycurgus made common cause and drove him out. In this way Pisistratus first got Athens and, as he had a sovereignty that was not yet firmly rooted, lost it. Presently his enemies who together had driven him out began to feud once more. ,Then Megacles, harassed by factional strife, sent a message to Pisistratus offering him his daughter to marry and the sovereign power besides. ,When this offer was accepted by Pisistratus, who agreed on these terms with Megacles, they devised a plan to bring Pisistratus back which, to my mind, was so exceptionally foolish that it is strange (since from old times the Hellenic stock has always been distinguished from foreign by its greater cleverness and its freedom from silly foolishness) that these men should devise such a plan to deceive Athenians, said to be the subtlest of the Greeks. ,There was in the Paeanian deme a woman called Phya, three fingers short of six feet, four inches in height, and otherwise, too, well-formed. This woman they equipped in full armor and put in a chariot, giving her all the paraphernalia to make the most impressive spectacle, and so drove into the city; heralds ran before them, and when they came into town proclaimed as they were instructed: ,“Athenians, give a hearty welcome to Pisistratus, whom Athena herself honors above all men and is bringing back to her own acropolis.” So the heralds went about proclaiming this; and immediately the report spread in the demes that Athena was bringing Pisistratus back, and the townsfolk, believing that the woman was the goddess herself, worshipped this human creature and welcomed Pisistratus.
8. Plato, Greater Hippias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

285b. Soc. Then the Lacedaemonians in not giving you money and entrusting their sons to you, act contrary to law. Hipp. I agree to that; for you seem to be making your argument in my favour, and there is no need of my opposing it. Soc. Then my friends, we find that the Lacedaemonians are law-breakers, and that too in the most important affairs—they who are regarded as the most law-abiding of men. But then, for Heaven’s sake, Hippias, what sort of discourses are those for which they applaud you and which they enjoy hearing?
9. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

315c. eated high on a chair in the doorway opposite; and sitting around him on benches were Eryximachus, son of Acumenus, Phaedrus of Myrrhinous, Andron son of Androtion and a number of strangers,—fellow-citizens of Hippias and some others. They seemed to be asking him a series of astronomical questions on nature and the heavenly bodies, while he, seated in his chair, was distinguishing and expounding to each in turn the subjects of their questions. Nay more, Tantalus also did I there behold. Hom. Od. 11.582 —for you know Prodicus of Ceos is in Athens too:
10. Plautus, Amphitruo, 1054-1056, 1058, 1072, 1075-1076, 1053 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amphitryo Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
archaeology Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
aristophanes, clouds Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
aristophanes Castagnoli and Ceccarelli, Greek Memories: Theories and Practices (2019) 120
athena Castagnoli and Ceccarelli, Greek Memories: Theories and Practices (2019) 120
attica Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
audience, theatre Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
audience Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
basileia (personification) Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
chorus, in drama Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
cleon Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
clouds (personification) Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
crane Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
cult Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
demos (personification) Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
deus ex machina Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
dionysus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
disguise, of gods Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
dramaturgy Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
epiphany, passim – meaning, exclusive, epilogue epiphany Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
happy end Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
hero Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
hippias, of elis Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
impasse, dramatic Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
intellectual Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
jupiter Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
lifeworld, lifeworld experience Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
metics, at athens Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
new comedy Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
on high, staging of gods Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
paphlagon Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
parody Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
peisetaerus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
personification of abstract notions Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
phye Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
plato Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
plot Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
prometheus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
prophecy, foretelling the future Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
protagoras Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
sacrifice Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96
socrates Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
sophist, fifth-century Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
strepsiades Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 97
thetes, at athens Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87
thunderbolt Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 96, 97
zeugitai' Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels (2023) 87