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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1085
Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.30


nanOnce the persuasive force of this divine dream had registered with me, I neither ignored the matter nor procrastinated, but swiftly told the priest of my vision. Then I once more submitted to the abstention from meat required, adding of my own will to the ten days prescribed by the enduring tradition, and met the cost of all the preparations and equipment required with no regard for my actual resources, rather without stint from pure religious zeal. Yet I felt not a moment's regret for all the effort and expense, since heaven favoured me through its beneficent grace with a steady income from my practice of the law. Finally, a few days later, Osiris, greatest of the gods, highest among the greatest, mightiest among the highest, lord of the mightiest, appeared to me in dream, and not in some semblance other than his own, but greeting me face to face, in sacred utterance urging me to win fame as now in the courts through my advocacy, without fear of the slanders provoked by my assiduous study of the laws of Rome. Furthermore, I was not to serve him as a minor member of the flock, but as one his college of pastophori, the shrine-bearers, and a member of the quinquennial council. Once again then I shaved my head completely, and not hiding my baldness covertly, but displaying it proudly wherever I passed, I performed with joy the duties of that venerable priesthood, founded in the days of Sulla.END


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 9.693 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. New Testament, Acts, 16.16-16.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.16. It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 16.19. But when her masters saw that the hope of their gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas, and dragged them into the marketplace before the rulers. 16.20. When they had brought them to the magistrates, they said, "These men, being Jews, are agitating our city 16.21. and set forth customs which it is not lawful for us to accept or to observe, being Romans. 16.22. The multitude rose up together against them, and the magistrates tore their clothes off of them, and commanded them to be beaten with rods. 16.23. When they had laid many stripes on them, they threw them into prison, charging the jailer to keep them safely 16.24. who, having received such a charge, threw them into the inner prison, and secured their feet in the stocks.
3. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 80, 9, 77 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

77. As for the robes, those of Isis Cf. 352 b, supra . are variegated in their colours; for her power is concerned with matter which becomes everything and receives everything, light and darkness, day and night, fire and water, life and death, beginning and end. But the robe of Osiris has no shading or variety in its colour, but only one single colour like to light. For the beginning is combined with nothing else, and that which is primary and conceptual is without admixture; wherefore, when they have once taken off the robe of Osiris, they lay it away and guard it, unseen and untouched. But the robes of Isis they use many times over; for in use those things that are perceptible and ready at hand afford many disclosures of themselves and opportunities to view them as they are changed about in various ways. But the apperception of the conceptual, the pure, and the simple, shining through the soul like a flash of lightning, affords an opportunity to touch and see it but once. Cf. Plato, Letters, vii. 344 b. For this reason Plato Plato, Symposium, 210 a. and Aristotle call this part of philosophy the epoptic Cf. Life of Alexander, chap. vii. (668 a). or mystic part, inasmuch as those who have passed beyond these conjectural and confused matters of all sorts by means of Reason proceed by leaps and bounds to that primary, simple, and immaterial principle; and when they have somehow attained contact with the pure truth abiding about it, they think that they have the whole of philosophy completely, as it were, within their grasp. 77. As for the robes, those of Isis are variegated in their colours; for her power is concerned with matter which becomes everything and receives everything, light and darkness, day and night, fire and water, life and death, beginning and end. But the robe of Osiris has no shading or variety in its colour, but only one single colour like to light. For the beginning is combined with nothing else, and that which is primary and conceptual is without admixture; wherefore, when they have once taken off the robe of Osiris, they lay it away and guard it, unseen and untouched. But the robes of Isis they use many times over; for in use those things that are perceptible and ready at hand afford many disclosures of themselves and opportunities to view them as they are changed about in various ways. But the apperception of the conceptual, the pure, and the simple, shining through the soul like a flash of lightning, affords an opportunity to touch and see it but once. For this reason Plato and Aristotle call this part of philosophy the epoptic or mystic part, inasmuch as those who have passed beyond these conjectural and confused matters of all sorts by means of Reason proceed by leaps and bounds to that primary, simple, and immaterial principle; and when they have somehow attained contact with the pure truth abiding about it, they think that they have the whole of philosophy completely, as it were, within their grasp.
4. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 49.45-49.46, 50.15-50.31, 50.34, 50.38-50.62, 50.64-50.66, 50.69-50.102 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Apuleius, Apology, 55 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Apuleius, Florida, 17-18, 20, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 1.1, 2.4, 2.28, 3.2-3.11, 6.22-6.23, 6.29, 8.24, 8.27-8.30, 9.8-9.10, 9.27, 10.30-10.34, 11.1-11.29 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.1. When midnight came, after I had slept awhile, I awoke with sudden fear, and saw the moon shining bright, as when it is full, and seeming as though it leapt out of the sea. I thought to myself that this was the time when the goddess had most power and force, and when all human affairs are governed by her providence. Not only all tame and domestic beasts, but also all wild and savage beasts are under her protection. I considered that all bodies in the heavens, the earth and the seas are by her waxing increased and by her waning diminished. Since I was weary of all my cruel fortune and calamity, I found good hope and remedy. Though it was very late, I though I could be delivered from all my misery, by invocation and prayer, to the excellent beauty of the goddess, whom I saw shining before my eyes. Wherefore, shaking off drowsy sleep, I arose with a joyful face and, moved by a great desire to purify myself, I plunged seven times into the water of the sea. This number of seven is agreeable to holy and divine things, as the worthy and sage philosopher Pythagoras declared. Then, with a weeping countece, I made this prayer to the powerful goddess: 11.1. Then came the great company of men and women who had taken divine orders and whose garments glistened all the streets over. The women had their hair anointed and their heads covered with linen. But the men had their crowns shaven, which were like earthly stars of the goddess. They held in their hands instruments of brass, silver and gold, which rendered a pleasant sound. The principal priests, who were appareled with white surpluses hanging down to the ground, bore the relics of the powerful goddess. One carried in his hand a light, not unlike to those which we used in our houses, except that in the middle of it there was a bole which rendered a brighter flame. The second, attired like the other, bore in his hand an altar which the goddess herself named the succor of nations. The third held a tree of palm, with leaves of gold, and the verge of Mercury. The fourth showed a token of equity in his left hand, which was deformed in every place, signifying more equity then by the right hand. The same priest carried a round vessel of gold in the form of a cap. The fifth bore a van, wrought with springs of gold, and another carried a vessel for wine. 11.2. “O blessed queen of heaven, you are the Lady Ceres, who is the original and motherly nurse of all fruitful things on earth. You, after finding your daughter Proserpina, through the great joy which you presently conceived, made barren and unfruitful ground be plowed and sown. And now you dwell in the land of Eleusis. Or else you are the celestial Venus who, in the beginning of the world coupled together all kind of things with engendered love. By an eternal propagation of humankind, you are now worshipped within the temples of Paphos. You are also the sister of the god Phoebus, who nourishes so many people by the generation of beasts, and are now adored at the sacred places of Ephesus. You are terrible Proserpina, by reason of the deadly cries that you wield. You have the power to stop and put away the invasion of the hags and ghosts that appear to men, and to keep them down in the closures of the earth. You are worshipped in diverse ways, and illuminate all the borders of the earth by your feminine shape. You nourish all the fruits of the world by your vigor and force. By whatever name or fashion it is lawful to call you, I pray you to end my great travail and misery, and to deliver me from wretched fortune, which has so long pursued me. Grant peace and rest, if it pleases you, to my adversities, for I have endured too much labor and peril. Remove from me the shape of an ass and render to me my original form. And if I have offended in any point your divine majesty, let me rather die than live, for I am full weary of my life.” 11.2. One night the great priest appeared to me, presenting his lap full of treasure. And when I demanded what it signified, he answered, that it was sent to me from the country of Thessaly, and that a servant of mine named Candidus was arrived likewise. When I was awoke, I mused to myself what this vision should portend, considering that I had never any servant called by that name. But whatever it signified, this I verily thought: that it foretold gain and prosperous fortune. While I was thus astonished, I went to the temple and tarried there until the opening of the gates. Then I went in and began to pray before the face of the goddess. The priest prepared and set the divine things of each altar and pulled out the fountain and holy vessel with solemn supplication. Then they began to sing the matins of the morning, signifying the hour of the prime. By and by behold, there arrived the servant whom I had left in the country, when Fotis by error made me an ass. He brought my horse whom he had recovered by certain signs and tokens which I had put on its back. Then I perceived the interpretation of my dream: by the promise of gain, my white horse was restored to me, which was signified by the argument of my servant Candidus. 11.3. When I had ended this prayer and discovered my complaints to the goddess, I happened to fall asleep. By and by appeared a divine and venerable face, worshipped even by the gods themselves. Then, little by little, I seemed to see the whole figure of her body, mounting out of the sea and standing before me. Wherefore I intend to describe her divine semblance, if the poverty of human speech will allow me, or if her divine power gives me eloquence to do so. First she had a great abundance of hair dispersed and scattered about her neck. On the crown of her head she bore many garlands interlaced with flowers. In the middle of her forehead was a compass like mirror, or resembling the light of the moon. In one of her hands she bore serpents, in the other, blades of grain. Her vestment was of fine silk of diverse colors, sometimes yellow, sometimes rosy, sometimes the color of flame. Her robe (which troubled my spirit sorely) was dark and obscure, and pleated in most subtle fashion at the skirts of her garments. Its fringe appeared comely. 11.3. In this way the divine majesty persuaded me in my sleep. Whereupon I went to the priest and declared all that I had seen. Then I fasted for ten days, according to the custom, and of my own free will I abstained longer than I had been commanded. And verily I did not repent of the pain I had gone through and of the charges I had undertaken. This was because the divine providence had seen to it that I gained much money in pleading of causes. Finally, after a few days, the great god Osiris appeared to me at night, not disguised in any other form, but in his own essence. He commanded me to be an advocate in the court, and not fear the slander and envy of ill persons who begrudged me by for the religion which I had attained by much labor. Moreover, he would not suffer that I should be any longer of the number of his priests, but he allotted me to one of the higher positions. And after he appointed me a place within the ancient temple, which had been erected in the time of Sulla, I executed my office in great joy and with a shaved head. 11.4. Here and there the stars were seen, and in the middle of them was placed the moon which shone like a flame of fire. Round about the robe was a coronet or garland made with flowers and fruits. In her right hand she had a rattle of brass which gave a pleasant sound, in her left hand she bore a cup of gold, and from its mouth the serpent Aspis lifted up his head, with a swelling throat. Her odoriferous feet were covered with shoes interlaced and wrought with the palm of victory. Thus the divine shape, breathing out the pleasant spice of fertile Arabia, did not disdain to utter these words to me with her divine voice: 11.5. “Behold, Lucius, I have come! Your weeping and prayers have moved me to succor you. I am she who is the natural mother of all things, mistress and governess of all the elements, the initial progeny of worlds, chief of powers divine, queen of heaven! I am the principal of the celestial gods, the light of the goddesses. At my will the planets of the heavens, the wholesome winds of the seas, and the silences of hell are disposed. My name and my divinity is adored throughout all the world in diverse manners. I am worshipped by various customs and by many names. The Phrygians call me the mother of the gods. The Athenians, Minerva. The Cyprians, Venus. The Cretans, Diana. The Sicilians, Proserpina. The Eleusians, Ceres. Some call me Juno, other Bellona, and yet others Hecate. And principally the Aethiopians who dwell in the Orient, and the Aegyptians who are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine and by their proper ceremonies are accustomed to worship me, call me Queen Isis. Behold, I have come to take pity of your fortune and tribulation. Behold, I am present to favor and aid you. Leave off your weeping and lamentation, put away all your sorrow. For behold, the day which is ordained by my providence is at hand. Therefore be ready to attend to my command. This day which shall come after this night is dedicated to my service by an eternal religion. My priests and ministers are accustomed, after the tempests of the sea have ceased, to offer in my name a new ship as a first fruit of my navigation. I command you not to profane or despise the sacrifice in any way. 11.6. “The great priest shall carry this day, following in procession by my exhortation, a garland of roses next the rattle in his right hand. Follow my procession amongst the people and, when you come to the priest, make as though you would kiss his hand. But snatch at the roses, whereby I will put away the skin and shape of an ass. This kind of beast I have long abhorred and despised. But above all things beware that you do not doubt or fear any of those things as being hard and difficult to bring to pass. For in the same hour as I have come to you, I have commanded the priest, by a vision, of what he shall do. And all the people by my command shall be compelled to give you place and say nothing! Moreover, do not think that, amongst so fair and joyful ceremonies and in so good a company, any person shall abhor your ill-favored and deformed figure, or that any man shall be so hardy as to blame and reprove your sudden restoration to human shape. They will not conceive any sinister opinion about this deed. And know this for certain: for the rest of your life, until the hour of death, you shall be bound and subject to me! And think it not an injury to be always subject to me, since by my means and benefit you shall become a man. You shall live blessed in this world, you shall live gloriously by my guidance and protection. And when you descend to hell, you shall see me shine in that subterranean place, shining (as you see me now) in the darkness of Acheron, and reigning in the deep profundity of Styx. There you shall worship me as one who has been favorable to you. And if I perceive that you are obedient to my command, an adherent to my religion, and worthy my divine grace, know you that I will prolong your days above the time that the fates have appointed, and the celestial planets have ordained.” 11.7. When the divine image had spoken these words, she vanished away! By and by, when I awoke, I arose with the members of my body mixed with fear, joy and sweat. I marveled at the clear presence of the powerful goddess and, being sprinkled with the water of the sea, I recounted in order her admonitions and divine commands. Soon after, when the darkness was chased away and the clear and golden sun rose, behold, I saw the streets filled with people going in a religious sort and in great triumph. All things seemed that day to be joyful. Every beast and house, and indeed the very day itself seemed to rejoice. For after a frosty morning a hot and temperate rose and the little birds, thinking that the spring time had come, chirped and sang melodiously to the mother of stars, the parent of times, and mistress of all the world! The fruitful trees rejoiced at their fertility. The barren and sterile were contented to provide shadows. All rendering sweet and pleasant sounds with their branches. The seas were quiet from winds and tempests. In heaven the clouds had been chased away, and the sky appeared fair and clear with its proper light. 11.8. Behold, then more and more there appeared the parades and processions. The people were attired in regal manner and singing joyfully. One was girded about the middle like a man of arms. Another was bare and spare, and had a cloak and high shoes like a hunter! Another was attired in a robe of silk and socks of gold, having his hair laid out and dressed like a woman! There was another who wore leg harnesses and bore a shield, a helmet, and a spear like a martial soldier. After him marched one attired in purple, with vergers before him like a magistrate! After him followed one with a cloak, a staff, a pair of sandals, and a gray beard, signifying that he was a philosopher. After him came one with a line, betokening a fowler. Another came with hooks, declaring him a fisherman. I saw there a meek and tame bear which, dressed like a matron, was carried on a stool. An ape, with a bonnet on his head and covered with a Phrygian garment, resembled a shepherd, and bore a cup of gold in his hand. There was an ass, which had wings glued to his back and followed an old man: you would judge the one to be Pegasus, and the other Bellerophon. 11.9. Amongst the pleasures and popular delights which wandered hither and thither, you might see the procession of the goddess triumphantly marching forward. The women, attired in white vestments and rejoicing because they wore garlands and flowers upon their heads, bedspread the road with herbs which they bare in their aprons. This marked the path this regal and devout procession would pass. Others carried mirrors on their backs to testify obeisance to the goddess who came after. Other bore combs of ivory and declared by the gesture and motions of their arms that they were ordained and ready to dress the goddess. Others dropped balm and other precious ointments as they went. Then came a great number of men as well as women with candles, torches, and other lights, doing honor to the celestial goddess. After that sounded the musical harmony of instruments. Then came a fair company of youths, appareled in white vestments, singing both meter and verse a comely song which some studious poet had made in honor of the Muses. In the meantime there arrived the blowers of trumpets, who were dedicated to the god Serapis. Before them were officers who prepared room for the goddess to pass. 11.11. By and by, after the goddess, there followed gods on foot. There was Anubis, the messenger of the gods infernal and celestial, with his face sometimes black, sometimes faire, lifting up the head of a dog and bearing in his left hand his verge, and in his right hand the branches of a palm tree. After whom followed a cow with an upright gait, representing the figure of the great goddess. He who guided her marched on with much gravity. Another carried the secrets of their religion closed in a coffer. There was one who bore on his stomach a figure of his god, not formed like any beast, bird, savage thing or humane shape, but made by a new invention. This signified that such a religion could not be discovered or revealed to any person. There was a vessel wrought with a round bottom, having on the one side pictures figured in the manner of the Egyptians, and on the other side was an ear on which stood the serpent Aspis, holding out his scaly neck. 11.12. Finally came he who was appointed to my good fortune, according to the promise of the goddess. For the great priest, who bore the restoration of my human shape by the command of the goddess, approached ever closer bearing in his left hand the rattle, and in the other a garland of roses to give me. This was to deliver me from cruel fortune, which was always my enemy after I had suffered so much calamity and pain and had endured so many perils. I did not approach hastily, though I was seized by sudden joy, lest I disturb the quiet procession by my eagerness. But going softly through the press of the people (which gave way to me on every side) I went up to the priest. 11.13. The priest, having been advised the night before, stood still and holding out his hand, and thrust out the garland of roses into my mouth. I (trembling) devoured it with a great eagerness. And as soon as I had eaten them, I found that the promise made to me had not been in vain. For my deformed face changed, and first the rugged hair of my body fell off, my thick skin grew soft and tender, the hooves of my feet changed into toes, my hands returned again, my neck grew short, my head and mouth became round, my long ears were made little, my great and stony teeth grew more like the teeth of men, and my tail, which had burdened me most, disappeared. Then the people began to marvel. The religious honored the goddess for so evident a miracle. They wondered at the visions which they saw in the night, and the ease of my restoration, whereby they rendered testimony of so great a benefit that I had received from the goddess. 11.14. When I saw myself in such a state, I stood still a while and said nothing. I could not tell what to say, nor what word I should speak first, nor what thanks I should render to the goddess. But the great priest, understanding all my fortune and misery through divine warning, commanded that someone should give me garments to cover myself with. However, as soon as I was transformed from an ass to my humane shape, I hid my private parts with my hands as shame and necessity compelled me. Then one of the company took off his upper robe and put it on my back. This done, the priest looked upon me and with a sweet and benign voice said: 11.15. “O my friend Lucius, after the enduring so many labors and escaping so many tempests of fortune, you have at length come to the port and haven of rest and mercy. Your noble linage, your dignity, your education, or any thing else did not avail you. But you have endured so many servile pleasures due to the folly of youth. Thusly you have had an unpleasant reward for your excessive curiosity. But however the blindness of Fortune has tormented you in various dangers, so it is now that, unbeknownst to her, you have come to this present felicity. Let Fortune go and fume with fury in another place. Let her find some other matter on which to execute her cruelty. Fortune has no power against those who serve and honor our goddess. What good did it do her that you endured thieves, savage beasts, great servitude, dangerous waits, long journeys, and fear of death every day? Know that now you are safe and under the protection of her who, by her clear light, brightens the other gods. Wherefore rejoice and take a countece appropriate to your white garment. Follow the parade of this devout and honorable procession so that those who do not worship the goddess may see and acknowledge their error. Behold Lucius, you are delivered from so great miseries by the providence of the goddess Isis. Rejoice therefore and triumph in the victory over fortune. And so that you may live more safe and sure, make yourself one of this holy order. Dedicate your mind to our religion and take upon yourself the voluntary yoke of ministry. And when you begin to serve and honor the goddess, then you shall feel the fruit of your liberty.” 11.16. After the great priest had prophesied in this manner, he, regaining his breath, made a conclusion of his words. Then I went amongst the rest of the company and followed the procession. Everyone of the people knew me and, pointing at me with their fingers, spoke in this way, “Behold him who was this day transformed into a man by the power of the sovereign goddess. Verily he is blessed and most blessed, who has merited such great grace from heaven both because of the innocence of his former life. He has been reborn in the service of the goddess. In the meantime, little by little we approached near to the sea cost, near that place where I lay the night before, still an ass. Thereafter the images and relics were disposed in order. The great priest was surrounded by various pictures according to the fashion of the Aegyptians. He dedicated and consecrated with certain prayers a fair ship made very cunningly, and purified it with a torch, an egg, and sulfur. The sail was of white linen cloth on which was written certain letters which testified that the navigation would be prosperous. The mast was of a great length, made of a pine tree, round and very excellent with a shining top. The cabin was covered over with coverings of gold, and the whole ship was made of citron tree, very fair. Then all the people, religious as well as profane, took a great number of baskets filled with odors and pleasant smells and threw them into the sea, mingled with milk, until the ship was filled with many gifts and prosperous devotions. Then, with a pleasant wind, the ship was launched out into the deep. But when they had lost the sight of the ship, every man carried again that he brought, and went toward the temple in like procession and order as they had come to the sea side. 11.17. When we had come to the temple, the great priest and those who were assigned to carry the divine images (but especially those who had long been worshippers of the religion) went into the secret chamber of the goddess where they placed the images in order. This done, one of the company, who was a scribe or interpreter of letters, in the manner of a preacher stood up on a chair before the holy college and began to read out of a book. He began pronounce benedictions upon the great emperor, the senate, the knights, and generally to all the Roman people, and to all who are under the jurisdiction of Rome. These words following signified the end of their divine service and that it was lawful for every man to depart. Whereupon all the people gave a great shout and, filled with much joy, bore all kind of herbs and garlands of flowers home to their houses, kissing and embracing the steps where the goddess had passed. However, I could not do as the rest did, for my mind would not allow me to depart one foot away. This was how eager I was to behold the beauty of the goddess, remembering the great misery I had endured. 11.18. In the meantime news was carried into my country (as swift as the flight of birds or as the blast of winds) of the grace and benefit which I received from the goddess, and of my story, worthy to be remembered. Then my parents, friends, and servants of our house, understanding that I was not dead (as they had been falsely informed), came with great diligence to see me, as though I were man raised from death to life. And I, who never thought I would see them again, was as joyful as they were, accepting and taking in good part their honest gifts and oblations so as to buy such things as were necessary for my body. 11.19. After I had related to them of all my former miseries and present joys, I went before the face of the goddess and hired a house within the cloister of the temple so that I might continually be ready to serve of the goddess. I also wanted to be in continual contact with the company of the priests so that I could become wholly devoted to the goddess, and become an inseparable worshipper of her divine name. It happened that the goddess often appeared to me in the night, urging and commanding me to take the order of her religion. But I, though I greatly desired to do so, was held back because of fear. I considered her discipline was hard and difficult, the chastity of the priests intolerable, and the life austere and subject to many inconveniences. Being thus in doubt, I refrained from all those things as seeming impossible. 11.21. This done, I retired to the service of the goddess in hope of greater benefits. I considered that I had received a sign and token whereby my courage increased more and more each day to take up the orders and sacraments of the temple. Thus I often communed with the priest, desiring him greatly to give me the degree of the religion. But he, a man of gravity and well-renowned in the order of priesthood, deferred my desire from day to day. He comforted me and gave me better hope, just like as parents who commonly bridle the desires of their children when they attempt or endeavor any unprofitable thing. He said that the day when any one would be admitted into their order is appointed by the goddess. He said that the priest who would minister the sacrifice is chosen by her providence, and the necessary charges of the ceremonies is allotted by her command. Regarding all these things he urged me to attend with marvelous patience, and he told me that I should beware either of too much haste or too great slackness. He said that there was like danger if, being called, I should delay or, not being called. I should be hasty. Moreover he said that there were none in his company either of so desperate a mind or who were so rash and hardy that they would attempt anything without the command of the goddess. If anyone were to do so, he should commit a deadly offence, considering how it was in the power of the goddess to condemn and save all persons. And if anyone should be at the point of death and on the path to damnation, so that he might be capable of receiving the secrets of the goddess, it was in her power by divine providence to reduce him to the path of health, as though by a certain kind of regeneration. Finally he said that I must attend the celestial precept, although it was evident and plain that the goddess had already vouchsafed to call and appoint me to her ministry. He urged me to refrain from profane and unlawful foods just like those priests who had already been received. This was so that I might come more apt and clean to the knowledge of the secrets of religion. 11.22. I obeyed these words and, attentive with meek and laudable silence, I daily served at the temple. In the end the wholesome gentleness of the goddess did not deceive me, for in the night she appeared to me in a vision. She showed me that the day had come which I had wished for so long. She told me what provision and charges I should attend to, and how she had appointed her principal priest Mithras to be minister with me in my sacrifices.When I heard these divine commands I greatly rejoiced. I arose before dawn to speak with the great priest, whom I happened to see coming out of his chamber. Then I saluted him and thought that I should ask for his counsel with a bold courage. But as soon as he perceived me, he began first to say: “O Lucius, now I know well that you are most happy and blessed, whom the divine goddess accepts with such mercy. Why do you delay? Behold, it is the day which you desired, when you shall receive at my hands the order of religion and know the most pure secrets of the gods.” Whereupon the old man took me by the hand and led me to the gate of the great temple. Immediately upon entering he made a solemn celebration and, after morning sacrifice had ended, he brought books out of the secret place of the temple. These were partly written in unknown characters, and partly painted with figures of beasts declaring briefly every sentence. The heads and tails of some were turned in the shape of a wheel and were strange and impossible for profane people to read. There he interpreted to me such things as were necessary for the use and preparation of my order. 11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane. 11.24. When morning came, and that the solemnities were finished, I came forth sanctified with twelve robes and in a religious habit. I am not forbidden to speak of this since many persons saw me at that time. There I was commanded to stand upon a seat of wood which stood in the middle of the temple before the image of the goddess. My vestment was of fine linen, covered and embroidered with flowers. I had a precious cloak upon my shoulders hung down to the ground. On it were depicted beasts wrought of diverse colors: Indian dragons and Hyperborean griffins which the other world engenders in the form of birds. The priests commonly call such a habit a celestial robe. In my right hand I carried a lit torch. There was a garland of flowers upon my head with palm leaves sprouting out on every side. I was adorned like un the sun and made in fashion of an image such that all the people came up to behold me. Then they began to solemnize the feast of the nativity and the new procession, with sumptuous banquets and delicacies. The third day was likewise celebrated with like ceremonies with a religious dinner, and with all the consummation of the order. After I had stayed there a good space, I conceived a marvelous pleasure and consolation in beholding the image of the goddess. She at length urged me to depart homeward. I rendered my thanks which, although not sufficient, yet they were according to my power. However, I could not be persuaded to depart before I had fallen prostrate before the face of the goddess and wiped her steps with my face. Then I began greatly to weep and sigh (so uch so that my words were interrupted) and, as though devouring my prayer, I began to speak in this way: 11.25. “O holy and blessed lady, the perpetual comfort of humankind: you, by your bounty and grace, nourish all the world and listen with great affection to the adversities of the miserable. As a loving mother you take no rest, neither are you idle at any time in bestowing benefits and succoring all men on land as well as on the sea. You are she who puts away all storms and dangers from man’s life by your right hand. Whereby also you restrain the fatal dispositions, appease the great tempests of fortune, and keep back the course of the stars. The celestial gods honor you and the infernal gods keep you in reverence. You encompass all the world, you give light to the sun, you govern the world, you strike down the power of hell. Because of you the times return and the planets rejoice, and the elements serve you. At your command the winds blow, the clouds increase, the seeds prosper, and the fruits prevail. The birds of the air, the beasts of the hill, the serpents of the den, and the fishes of the sea tremble at your majesty. But my spirit is not able to give you sufficient praise, my patrimony is unable to satisfy your sacrifice, my voice has no power to utter that which I think. No, not if I had a thousand mouths and so many tongues. However, as a good religious person and, according to my estate, I will always keep you in remembrance and close you within my breast.” When I had ended my prayer, I went to embrace the great priest Mithras, my spiritual father, and to demand his pardon, since I was unable to recompense the good which he had done to me. 11.26. After great greeting and thanks I departed from him to visit my parents and friends. And after a while, by the exhortation of the goddess, I made up my packet, and took shipping toward the city of Rome, where (with a favorable wind) I arrived about the twelfth day of December. And the greatest desire I had there was to make my daily prayers to the sovereign goddess Isis. She, because of the place where her temple was built, was called Campensis, and was continually adored of the people of Rome. Although I was her minister and worshipper, I was a stranger to her temple and unknown to her religion there. When a year had gone by, the goddess advised me again to receive this new order and consecration. I marveled greatly what it signified and what should happen, considering that I was a sacred person already. 11.27. But it happened that, while I reasoned with myself and while I examined the issue with the priests, there came a new and marvelous thought in my mind. I realized that I was only consecrated to the goddess Isis, but not sacred to the religion of great Osiris, the sovereign father of all the goddesses. Between them, although there was a religious unity and concord, yet there was a great difference of order and ceremony. And because it was necessary that I should likewise be a devotee of Osiris, there was no long delay. For the night after there appeared to me one of that order, covered with linen robes. He held in his hands spears wrapped in ivy and other things not appropriate to declare. Then he left these things in my chamber and, sitting in my seat, recited to me such things as were necessary for the sumptuous banquet for my initiation. And so that I might know him again, he showed me how the ankle of his left foot was somewhat maimed, which gave him a slight limp.Afterwards I manifestly knew the will of the god Osiris. When matins ended, I went from one priest to another to find the one who had the halting mark on his foot, according to my vision. At length I found it true. I perceived one of the company of the priests who had not only the token of his foot, but the stature and habit of his body, resembling in every point the man who appeared in the nigh. He was called Asinius Marcellus, a name appropriate to my transformation. By and by I went to him and he knew well enough all the matter. He had been admonished by a similar precept in the night. For the night before, as he dressed the flowers and garlands about the head of the god Osiris, he understood from the mouth of the image (which told the predestinations of all men) how the god had sent him a poor man of Madauros. To this man the priest was supposed to minister his sacraments so that he could receive a reward by divine providence, and the other glory for his virtuous studies. 11.28. Thus I was initiated into the religion, but my desire was delayed by reason of my poverty. I had spent a great part of my goods in travel and peregrination, but most of all the cost of living in the city of Rome had dwindled my resources. In the end, being often stirred forward with great trouble of mind, I was forced to sell my robe for a little money which was nevertheless sufficient for all my affairs. Then the priest spoke to me saying, “How is it that for a little pleasure you are not afraid to sell your vestments, yet when you enter into such great ceremonies you fear to fall into poverty? Prepare yourself and abstain from all animal meats, beasts and fish.” In the meantime I frequented the sacrifices of Serapis, which were done in the night. This gave me great comfort to my peregrination, and ministered to me more plentiful living since I gained some money by pleading in the courts in the Latin language. 11.29. Immediately afterwards I was called upon by the god Osiris and admonished to receive a third order of religion. Then I was greatly astonished, because I could not tell what this new vision signified or what the intent of the celestial god was. I began to suspect the former priests of having given me ill counsel, and I feared that they had not faithfully instructed me. While I was, as it were, incensed because of this, the god Osiris appeared to me the following night and gave me admonition, saying, “There is no reason why you should be afraid of these many orders of religion, or that something has been omitted. You should rather rejoice since as it has pleased the gods to call upon you three times, whereas most do not achieve the order even once. Wherefore you should think yourself happy because of our great benefits. And know that the initiation which you must now receive is most necessary if you mean to persevere in the worship of the goddess. You will be able to participate in solemnity on the festival day adorned in the blessed habit. This shall be a glory and source of renown for you.
8. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. It was with his eye on this Italian propaganda, too, that he took a further step. This was the institution of mysteries, with hierophants and torch bearers complete. The ceremonies occupied three successive days. On the first, proclamation was made on the Athenian model to this effect: ‘If there be any atheist or Christian or Epicurean here spying upon our rites, let him depart in haste; and let all such as have faith in the God be initiated and all blessing attend them.’ He led the litany with, ‘Christians, avaunt!’ and the crowd responded, ‘Epicureans, avaunt!’ Then was presented the child bed of Leto and birth of Apollo, the bridal of Coronis, Asclepius born. The second day, the epiphany and nativity of the God Glycon.
9. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.14.1. Celeae is some five stades distant from the city, and here they celebrate the mysteries in honor of Demeter, not every year but every fourth year. The initiating priest is not appointed for life, but at each celebration they elect a fresh one, who takes, if he cares to do so, a wife. In this respect their custom differs from that at Eleusis, but the actual celebration is modelled on the Eleusinian rites. The Phliasians themselves admit that they copy the “performance” at Eleusis .
10. Tertullian, To Scapula, 4.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.43.11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Augustine, Letters, 102.32, 138.19 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(mithraic) Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 218, 333
actaeon, and diana Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297
advocati Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
aelius aristides, sacred tales Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 299
amon Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
analysis for rhetorical criminalization (arc) Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
animal, ass, donkey, mule Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
apollo Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
apuleius, as a middle platonist Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
apuleius, florida Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297, 298
apuleius, golden ass Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297, 298, 299
apuleius, metam. bk Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 15, 333
apuleius Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74; Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
aretalogy Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
aristotle Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
armenia Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
asclepius Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
assessor Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
atheism Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
athens Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
augustine Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
authority, religious Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
authority Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
bakhtin Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
belief Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
benefaction Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 295
body Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
christianity, opponents of Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
christians, christianity Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
christians Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
church Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
clothing codes Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
community, community formation Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
condemnation Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
contracts Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
conversion Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
courts, episcopal Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
courts, roman Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
criminal law and procedure Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
cult, mysteries, rituals, public/private Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
curses Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
cyprian of carthage Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
deity, viewed by human Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297, 298, 299
demeter Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
devotion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 295
divine-human relationships Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
divine being, fortune (fortuna) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
divine being, graces Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 295
divine being, heracles Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
divine being, isis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
divine being, osiris Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
dream Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
dying and rising (or death and resurrection) Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
economics, labor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
economics, money Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 295
economics, property, assets, goods Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294, 295
economics, reciprocal exchange Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 295
economics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
education Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
eleusis/eleusinian mysteries Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
eleusis Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
elite Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
epicur, epicurean views Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
epigraphy Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
epiphany, in golden ass Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297, 298, 299
eschatology, afterlife Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 295
eschatology, elysian fields Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 295
eusebius of caesarea Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
experience/experiential Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
feras Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
gift Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
goetes, religious charlatans/fraud Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
governor, court of Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
governor Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
grace Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
gratitude Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
graverini, l. Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
greece, greek tradition Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
greece, religion Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
greece Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
griffiths, j. Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297
groups, group formation Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
heart Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
hermes Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
hesiodus Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
homer Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
horus Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
identity Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
ignes Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
incarceration Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
injustice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
isis Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74; Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297
jamblichus Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
keleia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
konstan, d. Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
law, knowledge of Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
legal experts Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
love / eros Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
lucian of samosata Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
lucius Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
macedonia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
macrobius Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
magic Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
marriage Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
methodology, sociological criticism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
middle-platonism (middle platonism) Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
minoritization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
miracle Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
modernity Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
mysteries Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
nomikoi Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
numidia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
orators Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
oriental cults, use of term, ; and christianity Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
osiris Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
ovid Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
patronage Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
pausanias Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
performance Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
petitions Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
philosophy Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
phrygia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
plato Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
platonism, christian Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
platonism, middle Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
platonism/platonic Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
platonism Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
plutarch Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74; Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 140
police, sheriffs Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
preachers Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
priest Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
priesthood Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
proconsul Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
prometheus Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
prophecy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
re, e. Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 15
rebirth Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 218
reception Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
religion/religious tradition Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
religion passim, isis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
religion passim, mystery cults, initiation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
religion passim, osiris Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294, 295
religion passim, priest(hood) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294, 295
religion passim, sacrifice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 294
responsa Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
rhetoric, forensic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
rhetoric Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
ritual Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
rituals Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
rome, city Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 294
sabazius Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
sacrifices Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
salvation Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
sarapis Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
scribes Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
seneca the younger Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
serapis Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
silas Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
slavery Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
slavery (servant) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
snake Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
spirit, divine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 295
superstitio, illicita' Pinheiro Bierl and Beck, Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel (2013) 166
superstition Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
synagogue Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
tablets, curse Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 378
theology, egyptian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
theology, jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
theology Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 74
thessalonica Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
thrace Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
time Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 218
viewing, of deity by human Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297, 298, 299
violence Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176
zeus Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 176