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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1085
Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.23


nanAt once I set about acquiring those things myself or procuring them zealously through friends, while sparing no expense. Then the high-priest escorted by a band of devotees led me to the nearest baths, saying the occasion required it. When I had bathed according to the custom, he asked favour of the gods, and purified me by a ritual cleansing, sprinkling me with water. Then in the early afternoon he led me to the shrine again, and placed me at the Goddess' feet. He gave me certain orders too sacred for open utterance then, with all the company as witnesses, commanded me to curb my desire for food for the ten days following, to eat of no creature, and drink no wine. I duly observed all this with reverence and restraint, and now came the evening destined for my appearance before the Goddess. The sun was setting, bringing twilight on, when suddenly a crowd flowed towards me, to honour me with sundry gifts, in accord with the ancient and sacred rite. All the uninitiated were ordered to depart, I was dressed in a new-made robe of linen and the high-priest, taking me by the arm, led me into the sanctuary's innermost recess. And now, diligent reader, you are no doubt keen to know what was said next, and what was done. I'd tell you, if to tell you, were allowed; if you were allowed to hear then you might know, but ears and tongue would sin equally, the latter for its profane indiscretion, the former for their unbridled curiosity. Oh, I shall speak, since your desire to hear may be a matter of deep religious longing, and I would not torment you with further anguish, but I shall speak only of what can be revealed to the minds of the uninitiated without need for subsequent atonement, things which though you have heard them, you may well not understand. So listen, and believe in what is true. I reached the very gates of death and, treading Proserpine's threshold, yet passed through all the elements and returned. I have seen the sun at midnight shining brightly. I have entered the presence of the gods below and the presence of the gods above, and I have paid due reverence before them.


nanThis done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

64 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.8-3.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.2-16.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאַל־יָבֹא בְכָל־עֵת אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֶל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֹן וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.2. וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי׃ 16.3. כִּי־בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תִּטְהָרוּ׃ 16.3. בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה׃ 16.2. and the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the veil, before the ark-cover which is upon the ark; that he die not; for I appear in the cloud upon the ark-cover." 16.3. Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering."
3. Homer, Odyssey, 9.219 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 3.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.14. וְרוּחַ נְשָׂאַתְנִי וַתִּקָּחֵנִי וָאֵלֵךְ מַר בַּחֲמַת רוּחִי וְיַד־יְהוָה עָלַי חָזָקָה׃ 3.14. So a spirit lifted me up, and took me away; and I went in bitterness, in the heat of my spirit, and the hand of the LORD was strong upon me."
5. Empedocles, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Herodotus, Histories, 2.81, 2.123 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this. 2.123. These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. ,The Egyptians were the first who maintained the following doctrine, too, that the human soul is immortal, and at the death of the body enters into some other living thing then coming to birth; and after passing through all creatures of land, sea, and air, it enters once more into a human body at birth, a cycle which it completes in three thousand years. ,There are Greeks who have used this doctrine, some earlier and some later, as if it were their own; I know their names, but do not record them.
7. Lysias, Orations, 6.51 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

870d. have wrought many murders,—in cases where men do or have done things concerning which they desire that no one should share their secret; consequently, if there are any who might expose their secret, they remove them by death, whenever they can do so by no other means. Concerning all these matters, the preludes mentioned shall be pronounced, and, in addition to them, that story which is believed by many when they hear it from the lips of those who seriously relate such things at their mystic rites,—that vengeance for such acts is exacted in Hades, and that those who return again to this earth are bound to pay
9. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

250b. Now in the earthly copies of justice and temperance and the other ideas which are precious to souls there is no light, but only a few, approaching the images through the darkling organs of sense, behold in them the nature of that which they imitate, and these few do this with difficulty. But at that former time they saw beauty shining in brightness, when, with a blessed company—we following in the train of Zeus, and others in that of some other god—they saw the blessed sight and vision and were initiated into that which is rightly called
10. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

45c. and they compressed the whole substance, and especially the center, of the eyes, so that they occluded all other fire that was coarser and allowed only this pure kind of fire to filter through. So whenever the stream of vision is surrounded by midday light, it flows out like unto like, and coalescing therewith it forms one kindred substance along the path of the eyes’ vision, wheresoever the fire which streams from within collides with an obstructing object without. And this substance, having all become similar in its properties because of its similar nature
11. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 39.3, 71.1-71.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

39.3. And in those days a whirlwind carried me off from the earth, And set me down at the end of the heavens. 71.1. And it came to pass after this that my spirit was translated And it ascended into the heavens: And I saw the holy sons of God. They were stepping on flames of fire: Their garments were white [and their raiment], And their faces shone like snow. 71.1. And with them the Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool, And His raiment indescribable. 71.2. And I saw two streams of fire, And the light of that fire shone like hyacinth, And I fell on my face before the Lord of Spirits. 71.3. And the angel Michael [one of the archangels] seized me by my right hand, And lifted me up and led me forth into all the secrets, And he showed me all the secrets of righteousness. 71.4. And he showed me all the secrets of the ends of the heaven, And all the chambers of all the stars, and all the luminaries, Whence they proceed before the face of the holy ones. 71.5. And he translated my spirit into the heaven of heavens, And I saw there as it were a structure built of crystals, And between those crystals tongues of living fire.
13. Cicero, In Vatinium, 13.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.11. He was caught up lest evil change his understanding or guile deceive his soul.
15. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.20.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.20.6.  After this he passed from the midst of men into the company of the gods and received from Isis and Hermes sacrifices and every other highest honour. These also instituted rites for him and introduced many things of a mystic nature, magnifying in this way the power of the god.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

76. For he has not chosen to be beheld by the eyes of the body, perhaps because it was not consistent with holiness for what is mortal to touch what is everlasting, or perhaps because of the weakness of our sight; for it would never have been able to stand the rays which are poured forth from the living God, since it cannot even look straight at the rays of the sun. XVII.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 63, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.15 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. And know that this way is wisdom. For the mind being guided by wisdom, while the road is straight and level and easy, proceeds along it to the end; and the end of this road is the knowledge and understanding of God. But every companion of the flesh hates and repudiates, and endeavours to corrupt this way; for there is no one thing so much at variance with another, as knowledge is at variance with the pleasure of the flesh. Accordingly, the earthly Edom is always fighting with those who wish to proceed by this road
21. Vergil, Aeneis, 6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

22. Anon., 2 Baruch, 51.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 25.3 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 36.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36.2. διὰ τούτου ἀτενίζομεν a)teni/twmen A "lat us fir our gaze." εἰς τὰ ὕψη τῶν οὐρανῶν, διὰ τούτου ἐνοπτριζόμεθα τὴν ἄμωμον καὶ ὑπερτάτην ὄψιν αὐτοῦ, διὰ τούτου ἠνεῴχθησαν ἡμῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ τῆς καρδίας, διὰ τούτου ἡ ἀσύνετος καὶ ἐσκοτωμένη διάνοια ἡμῶν ἀναθάλλει εἰς τὸ φῶς, διὰ τούτου ἠθέλησεν ὁ δεσπότης τῆς ἀθανάτου γνώσεως ἡμᾶς γεύσασθαι, ὃς Heb. 1, 3, 4 ὦν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ, τοσούτῳ μείζων ἐστὶν ἀγγέλων, ὅσῳ διαφορώτερον ὄνομα Heb. 1, 7; Pa 104, 4 κεκληρονόμηκεν.
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. 3. Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil;
27. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 6.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. New Testament, 1 John, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. Beloved, now we are children of God, and it is not yet revealed what we will be. But we know that, when he is revealed, we will be like him; for we will see him just as he is.
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.
30. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.7-1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come.
31. New Testament, Acts, 19.23-19.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.23. About that time there arose no small stir concerning the Way. 19.24. For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen 19.25. whom he gathered together, with the workmen of like occupation, and said, "Sirs, you know that by this business we have our wealth. 19.26. You see and hear, that not at Ephesus alone, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul has persuaded and turned away many people, saying that they are no gods, that are made with hands. 19.27. Not only is there danger that this our trade come into disrepute, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be counted as nothing, and her majesty destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worships. 19.28. When they heard this they were filled with anger, and cried out, saying, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians! 19.29. The whole city was filled with confusion, and they rushed with one accord into the theater, having seized Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel. 19.30. When Paul wanted to enter in to the people, the disciples didn't allow him. 19.31. Certain also of the Asiarchs, being his friends, sent to him and begged him not to venture into the theater. 19.32. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another, for the assembly was in confusion. Most of them didn't know why they had come together. 19.33. They brought Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him forward. Alexander beckoned with his hand, and would have made a defense to the people. 19.34. But when they perceived that he was a Jew, all with one voice for a time of about two hours cried out, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians! 19.35. When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus, what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus? 19.36. Seeing then that these things can't be denied, you ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rash. 19.37. For you have brought these men here, who are neither robbers of temples nor blasphemers of your goddess. 19.38. If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a matter against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls. Let them press charges against one another. 19.39. But if you seek anything about other matters, it will be settled in the regular assembly. 19.40. For indeed we are in danger of being accused concerning this day's riot, there being no cause. Concerning it, we wouldn't be able to give an account of this commotion. 19.41. When he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 22.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.
33. New Testament, Galatians, 4.12-4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. I beg you, brothers, become as I am,for I also have become as you are. You did me no wrong 4.13. but youknow that because of weakness of the flesh I preached the gospel to youthe first time. 4.14. That which was a temptation to you in my flesh,you didn't despise nor reject; but you received me as an angel of God,even as Christ Jesus. 4.15. What was the blessing you enjoyed? For I testify to you that,if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me. 4.16. So then, have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? 4.17. They zealously seek you in no good way. No, they desire toalienate you, that you may seek them. 4.18. But it is always good tobe zealous in a good cause, and not only when I am present with you. 4.19. My little children, of whom I am again in travail untilChrist is formed in you-- 4.20. but I could wish to be present withyou now, and to change my tone, for I am perplexed about you.
34. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3, 12.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 12.14. Follow after peace with all men, and the sanctification without which no man will see the Lord
35. New Testament, Romans, 3.18, 8.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered.
36. New Testament, John, 1.12, 1.14, 12.45, 14.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 12.45. He who sees me sees him who sent me. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?'
37. New Testament, Mark, 14.32-14.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.32. They came to a place which was named Gethsemane. He said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray. 14.33. He took with him Peter, James, and John, and began to be greatly troubled and distressed. 14.34. He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch. 14.35. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire. 14.37. He came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn't you watch one hour? 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 14.39. Again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. 14.40. Again he returned, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and they didn't know what to answer him. 14.41. He came the third time, and said to them, "Sleep on now, and take your rest. It is enough. The hour has come. Behold, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
38. New Testament, Matthew, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God.
39. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Suetonius, Augustus, 93 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.3-2.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.4. In their days they only argued about  laying of hands. There were five pairs. three of the first pairs said not to lay on hands and two of the other pairs said to lay on hands. Three were Nesi'im (princes) and two (of them) were the heads of courts. The words of R. Meir. R. Judah said Simon ben Shetah was Nasi (prince) and Judah ben Tabbai the head of the court....Said R. Yose: Originally there were no arguments in Israel. Rather, a 71 member court sat in the chamber of hewn stone and other courts of 23 existed in the cities of Erez Yisrael. And two courts of 3 apiece were in Jerusalem, one on the temple mount and one in Hayil. When one of them was necessary [a person] goes to the court in his city. No court (in his city)--[the person] goes to the court near his city. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court on the temple mount. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court in Hayil. If they heard they say to him; if not these and these arrive at the court in the chamber of hewn stone (And the court of the chamber of hewn stone even though it is 71, it can never have less than 23. If one of them needs to leave, he sees if there will be 23 he may leave; if not, he may not leave until there are 23. They would sit from the offering of the morning sacrifice until the offering of the afternoon sacrifice. And on sabbaths and Holidays they would enter the Beit Midrash on the temple mount.) If they heard they say to them, and if not, they establish a quorum and take a roll. If the majority says impure it is impure. If the majority says pure it is pure. From there the Halakhah (law) goes out widespread in Israel. When there increased the students of Shammai and Hillel who did not properly apprentice, conflict increased in Israel and it became as though there were two Torahs. And for there they would sit and inspect. Whoever was wise and humble and abundant and sin-fearing and mature and getting along with other people they make him a judge in his city. After being made a judge in his city they could elevate and set him on the temple mount and from there they could elevate and seat him in Hayil and from there they can elevate and seat him in the chamber of hewn stone and from there they sit and inspect the lineages of the priests and levites. A priest in whom has been found a blemish wears black and wraps in black, exits and leaves. One in whom not a blemish is found wears white and wraps in white, enters and serves with his brothers the priests. They would make a holiday that not a blemish was found among the children of Aaron. And he would bring a tenth of an Eifah of his own flour and do the service with his own hands even though it is not his priestly shift. A high priest and a regular priest who served before bringing their tenth of an Eifah their service is acceptable. 
42. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 5.8, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 5.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 2.12, 8.24, 8.27-8.30, 9.8-9.10, 9.13, 9.37-9.38, 10.30-10.34, 11.1-11.22, 11.15.1, 11.24-11.30, 11.25.3-11.25.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.1. When midnight came, after I had slept awhile, I awoke with sudden fear, and saw the moon shining bright, as when it is full, and seeming as though it leapt out of the sea. I thought to myself that this was the time when the goddess had most power and force, and when all human affairs are governed by her providence. Not only all tame and domestic beasts, but also all wild and savage beasts are under her protection. I considered that all bodies in the heavens, the earth and the seas are by her waxing increased and by her waning diminished. Since I was weary of all my cruel fortune and calamity, I found good hope and remedy. Though it was very late, I though I could be delivered from all my misery, by invocation and prayer, to the excellent beauty of the goddess, whom I saw shining before my eyes. Wherefore, shaking off drowsy sleep, I arose with a joyful face and, moved by a great desire to purify myself, I plunged seven times into the water of the sea. This number of seven is agreeable to holy and divine things, as the worthy and sage philosopher Pythagoras declared. Then, with a weeping countece, I made this prayer to the powerful goddess: 11.1. Then came the great company of men and women who had taken divine orders and whose garments glistened all the streets over. The women had their hair anointed and their heads covered with linen. But the men had their crowns shaven, which were like earthly stars of the goddess. They held in their hands instruments of brass, silver and gold, which rendered a pleasant sound. The principal priests, who were appareled with white surpluses hanging down to the ground, bore the relics of the powerful goddess. One carried in his hand a light, not unlike to those which we used in our houses, except that in the middle of it there was a bole which rendered a brighter flame. The second, attired like the other, bore in his hand an altar which the goddess herself named the succor of nations. The third held a tree of palm, with leaves of gold, and the verge of Mercury. The fourth showed a token of equity in his left hand, which was deformed in every place, signifying more equity then by the right hand. The same priest carried a round vessel of gold in the form of a cap. The fifth bore a van, wrought with springs of gold, and another carried a vessel for wine. 11.2. “O blessed queen of heaven, you are the Lady Ceres, who is the original and motherly nurse of all fruitful things on earth. You, after finding your daughter Proserpina, through the great joy which you presently conceived, made barren and unfruitful ground be plowed and sown. And now you dwell in the land of Eleusis. Or else you are the celestial Venus who, in the beginning of the world coupled together all kind of things with engendered love. By an eternal propagation of humankind, you are now worshipped within the temples of Paphos. You are also the sister of the god Phoebus, who nourishes so many people by the generation of beasts, and are now adored at the sacred places of Ephesus. You are terrible Proserpina, by reason of the deadly cries that you wield. You have the power to stop and put away the invasion of the hags and ghosts that appear to men, and to keep them down in the closures of the earth. You are worshipped in diverse ways, and illuminate all the borders of the earth by your feminine shape. You nourish all the fruits of the world by your vigor and force. By whatever name or fashion it is lawful to call you, I pray you to end my great travail and misery, and to deliver me from wretched fortune, which has so long pursued me. Grant peace and rest, if it pleases you, to my adversities, for I have endured too much labor and peril. Remove from me the shape of an ass and render to me my original form. And if I have offended in any point your divine majesty, let me rather die than live, for I am full weary of my life.” 11.2. One night the great priest appeared to me, presenting his lap full of treasure. And when I demanded what it signified, he answered, that it was sent to me from the country of Thessaly, and that a servant of mine named Candidus was arrived likewise. When I was awoke, I mused to myself what this vision should portend, considering that I had never any servant called by that name. But whatever it signified, this I verily thought: that it foretold gain and prosperous fortune. While I was thus astonished, I went to the temple and tarried there until the opening of the gates. Then I went in and began to pray before the face of the goddess. The priest prepared and set the divine things of each altar and pulled out the fountain and holy vessel with solemn supplication. Then they began to sing the matins of the morning, signifying the hour of the prime. By and by behold, there arrived the servant whom I had left in the country, when Fotis by error made me an ass. He brought my horse whom he had recovered by certain signs and tokens which I had put on its back. Then I perceived the interpretation of my dream: by the promise of gain, my white horse was restored to me, which was signified by the argument of my servant Candidus. 11.3. When I had ended this prayer and discovered my complaints to the goddess, I happened to fall asleep. By and by appeared a divine and venerable face, worshipped even by the gods themselves. Then, little by little, I seemed to see the whole figure of her body, mounting out of the sea and standing before me. Wherefore I intend to describe her divine semblance, if the poverty of human speech will allow me, or if her divine power gives me eloquence to do so. First she had a great abundance of hair dispersed and scattered about her neck. On the crown of her head she bore many garlands interlaced with flowers. In the middle of her forehead was a compass like mirror, or resembling the light of the moon. In one of her hands she bore serpents, in the other, blades of grain. Her vestment was of fine silk of diverse colors, sometimes yellow, sometimes rosy, sometimes the color of flame. Her robe (which troubled my spirit sorely) was dark and obscure, and pleated in most subtle fashion at the skirts of her garments. Its fringe appeared comely. 11.3. In this way the divine majesty persuaded me in my sleep. Whereupon I went to the priest and declared all that I had seen. Then I fasted for ten days, according to the custom, and of my own free will I abstained longer than I had been commanded. And verily I did not repent of the pain I had gone through and of the charges I had undertaken. This was because the divine providence had seen to it that I gained much money in pleading of causes. Finally, after a few days, the great god Osiris appeared to me at night, not disguised in any other form, but in his own essence. He commanded me to be an advocate in the court, and not fear the slander and envy of ill persons who begrudged me by for the religion which I had attained by much labor. Moreover, he would not suffer that I should be any longer of the number of his priests, but he allotted me to one of the higher positions. And after he appointed me a place within the ancient temple, which had been erected in the time of Sulla, I executed my office in great joy and with a shaved head. 11.4. Here and there the stars were seen, and in the middle of them was placed the moon which shone like a flame of fire. Round about the robe was a coronet or garland made with flowers and fruits. In her right hand she had a rattle of brass which gave a pleasant sound, in her left hand she bore a cup of gold, and from its mouth the serpent Aspis lifted up his head, with a swelling throat. Her odoriferous feet were covered with shoes interlaced and wrought with the palm of victory. Thus the divine shape, breathing out the pleasant spice of fertile Arabia, did not disdain to utter these words to me with her divine voice: 11.5. “Behold, Lucius, I have come! Your weeping and prayers have moved me to succor you. I am she who is the natural mother of all things, mistress and governess of all the elements, the initial progeny of worlds, chief of powers divine, queen of heaven! I am the principal of the celestial gods, the light of the goddesses. At my will the planets of the heavens, the wholesome winds of the seas, and the silences of hell are disposed. My name and my divinity is adored throughout all the world in diverse manners. I am worshipped by various customs and by many names. The Phrygians call me the mother of the gods. The Athenians, Minerva. The Cyprians, Venus. The Cretans, Diana. The Sicilians, Proserpina. The Eleusians, Ceres. Some call me Juno, other Bellona, and yet others Hecate. And principally the Aethiopians who dwell in the Orient, and the Aegyptians who are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine and by their proper ceremonies are accustomed to worship me, call me Queen Isis. Behold, I have come to take pity of your fortune and tribulation. Behold, I am present to favor and aid you. Leave off your weeping and lamentation, put away all your sorrow. For behold, the day which is ordained by my providence is at hand. Therefore be ready to attend to my command. This day which shall come after this night is dedicated to my service by an eternal religion. My priests and ministers are accustomed, after the tempests of the sea have ceased, to offer in my name a new ship as a first fruit of my navigation. I command you not to profane or despise the sacrifice in any way. 11.6. “The great priest shall carry this day, following in procession by my exhortation, a garland of roses next the rattle in his right hand. Follow my procession amongst the people and, when you come to the priest, make as though you would kiss his hand. But snatch at the roses, whereby I will put away the skin and shape of an ass. This kind of beast I have long abhorred and despised. But above all things beware that you do not doubt or fear any of those things as being hard and difficult to bring to pass. For in the same hour as I have come to you, I have commanded the priest, by a vision, of what he shall do. And all the people by my command shall be compelled to give you place and say nothing! Moreover, do not think that, amongst so fair and joyful ceremonies and in so good a company, any person shall abhor your ill-favored and deformed figure, or that any man shall be so hardy as to blame and reprove your sudden restoration to human shape. They will not conceive any sinister opinion about this deed. And know this for certain: for the rest of your life, until the hour of death, you shall be bound and subject to me! And think it not an injury to be always subject to me, since by my means and benefit you shall become a man. You shall live blessed in this world, you shall live gloriously by my guidance and protection. And when you descend to hell, you shall see me shine in that subterranean place, shining (as you see me now) in the darkness of Acheron, and reigning in the deep profundity of Styx. There you shall worship me as one who has been favorable to you. And if I perceive that you are obedient to my command, an adherent to my religion, and worthy my divine grace, know you that I will prolong your days above the time that the fates have appointed, and the celestial planets have ordained.” 11.7. When the divine image had spoken these words, she vanished away! By and by, when I awoke, I arose with the members of my body mixed with fear, joy and sweat. I marveled at the clear presence of the powerful goddess and, being sprinkled with the water of the sea, I recounted in order her admonitions and divine commands. Soon after, when the darkness was chased away and the clear and golden sun rose, behold, I saw the streets filled with people going in a religious sort and in great triumph. All things seemed that day to be joyful. Every beast and house, and indeed the very day itself seemed to rejoice. For after a frosty morning a hot and temperate rose and the little birds, thinking that the spring time had come, chirped and sang melodiously to the mother of stars, the parent of times, and mistress of all the world! The fruitful trees rejoiced at their fertility. The barren and sterile were contented to provide shadows. All rendering sweet and pleasant sounds with their branches. The seas were quiet from winds and tempests. In heaven the clouds had been chased away, and the sky appeared fair and clear with its proper light. 11.8. Behold, then more and more there appeared the parades and processions. The people were attired in regal manner and singing joyfully. One was girded about the middle like a man of arms. Another was bare and spare, and had a cloak and high shoes like a hunter! Another was attired in a robe of silk and socks of gold, having his hair laid out and dressed like a woman! There was another who wore leg harnesses and bore a shield, a helmet, and a spear like a martial soldier. After him marched one attired in purple, with vergers before him like a magistrate! After him followed one with a cloak, a staff, a pair of sandals, and a gray beard, signifying that he was a philosopher. After him came one with a line, betokening a fowler. Another came with hooks, declaring him a fisherman. I saw there a meek and tame bear which, dressed like a matron, was carried on a stool. An ape, with a bonnet on his head and covered with a Phrygian garment, resembled a shepherd, and bore a cup of gold in his hand. There was an ass, which had wings glued to his back and followed an old man: you would judge the one to be Pegasus, and the other Bellerophon. 11.9. Amongst the pleasures and popular delights which wandered hither and thither, you might see the procession of the goddess triumphantly marching forward. The women, attired in white vestments and rejoicing because they wore garlands and flowers upon their heads, bedspread the road with herbs which they bare in their aprons. This marked the path this regal and devout procession would pass. Others carried mirrors on their backs to testify obeisance to the goddess who came after. Other bore combs of ivory and declared by the gesture and motions of their arms that they were ordained and ready to dress the goddess. Others dropped balm and other precious ointments as they went. Then came a great number of men as well as women with candles, torches, and other lights, doing honor to the celestial goddess. After that sounded the musical harmony of instruments. Then came a fair company of youths, appareled in white vestments, singing both meter and verse a comely song which some studious poet had made in honor of the Muses. In the meantime there arrived the blowers of trumpets, who were dedicated to the god Serapis. Before them were officers who prepared room for the goddess to pass. 11.11. By and by, after the goddess, there followed gods on foot. There was Anubis, the messenger of the gods infernal and celestial, with his face sometimes black, sometimes faire, lifting up the head of a dog and bearing in his left hand his verge, and in his right hand the branches of a palm tree. After whom followed a cow with an upright gait, representing the figure of the great goddess. He who guided her marched on with much gravity. Another carried the secrets of their religion closed in a coffer. There was one who bore on his stomach a figure of his god, not formed like any beast, bird, savage thing or humane shape, but made by a new invention. This signified that such a religion could not be discovered or revealed to any person. There was a vessel wrought with a round bottom, having on the one side pictures figured in the manner of the Egyptians, and on the other side was an ear on which stood the serpent Aspis, holding out his scaly neck. 11.12. Finally came he who was appointed to my good fortune, according to the promise of the goddess. For the great priest, who bore the restoration of my human shape by the command of the goddess, approached ever closer bearing in his left hand the rattle, and in the other a garland of roses to give me. This was to deliver me from cruel fortune, which was always my enemy after I had suffered so much calamity and pain and had endured so many perils. I did not approach hastily, though I was seized by sudden joy, lest I disturb the quiet procession by my eagerness. But going softly through the press of the people (which gave way to me on every side) I went up to the priest. 11.13. The priest, having been advised the night before, stood still and holding out his hand, and thrust out the garland of roses into my mouth. I (trembling) devoured it with a great eagerness. And as soon as I had eaten them, I found that the promise made to me had not been in vain. For my deformed face changed, and first the rugged hair of my body fell off, my thick skin grew soft and tender, the hooves of my feet changed into toes, my hands returned again, my neck grew short, my head and mouth became round, my long ears were made little, my great and stony teeth grew more like the teeth of men, and my tail, which had burdened me most, disappeared. Then the people began to marvel. The religious honored the goddess for so evident a miracle. They wondered at the visions which they saw in the night, and the ease of my restoration, whereby they rendered testimony of so great a benefit that I had received from the goddess. 11.14. When I saw myself in such a state, I stood still a while and said nothing. I could not tell what to say, nor what word I should speak first, nor what thanks I should render to the goddess. But the great priest, understanding all my fortune and misery through divine warning, commanded that someone should give me garments to cover myself with. However, as soon as I was transformed from an ass to my humane shape, I hid my private parts with my hands as shame and necessity compelled me. Then one of the company took off his upper robe and put it on my back. This done, the priest looked upon me and with a sweet and benign voice said: 11.15. “O my friend Lucius, after the enduring so many labors and escaping so many tempests of fortune, you have at length come to the port and haven of rest and mercy. Your noble linage, your dignity, your education, or any thing else did not avail you. But you have endured so many servile pleasures due to the folly of youth. Thusly you have had an unpleasant reward for your excessive curiosity. But however the blindness of Fortune has tormented you in various dangers, so it is now that, unbeknownst to her, you have come to this present felicity. Let Fortune go and fume with fury in another place. Let her find some other matter on which to execute her cruelty. Fortune has no power against those who serve and honor our goddess. What good did it do her that you endured thieves, savage beasts, great servitude, dangerous waits, long journeys, and fear of death every day? Know that now you are safe and under the protection of her who, by her clear light, brightens the other gods. Wherefore rejoice and take a countece appropriate to your white garment. Follow the parade of this devout and honorable procession so that those who do not worship the goddess may see and acknowledge their error. Behold Lucius, you are delivered from so great miseries by the providence of the goddess Isis. Rejoice therefore and triumph in the victory over fortune. And so that you may live more safe and sure, make yourself one of this holy order. Dedicate your mind to our religion and take upon yourself the voluntary yoke of ministry. And when you begin to serve and honor the goddess, then you shall feel the fruit of your liberty.” 11.16. After the great priest had prophesied in this manner, he, regaining his breath, made a conclusion of his words. Then I went amongst the rest of the company and followed the procession. Everyone of the people knew me and, pointing at me with their fingers, spoke in this way, “Behold him who was this day transformed into a man by the power of the sovereign goddess. Verily he is blessed and most blessed, who has merited such great grace from heaven both because of the innocence of his former life. He has been reborn in the service of the goddess. In the meantime, little by little we approached near to the sea cost, near that place where I lay the night before, still an ass. Thereafter the images and relics were disposed in order. The great priest was surrounded by various pictures according to the fashion of the Aegyptians. He dedicated and consecrated with certain prayers a fair ship made very cunningly, and purified it with a torch, an egg, and sulfur. The sail was of white linen cloth on which was written certain letters which testified that the navigation would be prosperous. The mast was of a great length, made of a pine tree, round and very excellent with a shining top. The cabin was covered over with coverings of gold, and the whole ship was made of citron tree, very fair. Then all the people, religious as well as profane, took a great number of baskets filled with odors and pleasant smells and threw them into the sea, mingled with milk, until the ship was filled with many gifts and prosperous devotions. Then, with a pleasant wind, the ship was launched out into the deep. But when they had lost the sight of the ship, every man carried again that he brought, and went toward the temple in like procession and order as they had come to the sea side. 11.17. When we had come to the temple, the great priest and those who were assigned to carry the divine images (but especially those who had long been worshippers of the religion) went into the secret chamber of the goddess where they placed the images in order. This done, one of the company, who was a scribe or interpreter of letters, in the manner of a preacher stood up on a chair before the holy college and began to read out of a book. He began pronounce benedictions upon the great emperor, the senate, the knights, and generally to all the Roman people, and to all who are under the jurisdiction of Rome. These words following signified the end of their divine service and that it was lawful for every man to depart. Whereupon all the people gave a great shout and, filled with much joy, bore all kind of herbs and garlands of flowers home to their houses, kissing and embracing the steps where the goddess had passed. However, I could not do as the rest did, for my mind would not allow me to depart one foot away. This was how eager I was to behold the beauty of the goddess, remembering the great misery I had endured. 11.18. In the meantime news was carried into my country (as swift as the flight of birds or as the blast of winds) of the grace and benefit which I received from the goddess, and of my story, worthy to be remembered. Then my parents, friends, and servants of our house, understanding that I was not dead (as they had been falsely informed), came with great diligence to see me, as though I were man raised from death to life. And I, who never thought I would see them again, was as joyful as they were, accepting and taking in good part their honest gifts and oblations so as to buy such things as were necessary for my body. 11.19. After I had related to them of all my former miseries and present joys, I went before the face of the goddess and hired a house within the cloister of the temple so that I might continually be ready to serve of the goddess. I also wanted to be in continual contact with the company of the priests so that I could become wholly devoted to the goddess, and become an inseparable worshipper of her divine name. It happened that the goddess often appeared to me in the night, urging and commanding me to take the order of her religion. But I, though I greatly desired to do so, was held back because of fear. I considered her discipline was hard and difficult, the chastity of the priests intolerable, and the life austere and subject to many inconveniences. Being thus in doubt, I refrained from all those things as seeming impossible. 11.21. This done, I retired to the service of the goddess in hope of greater benefits. I considered that I had received a sign and token whereby my courage increased more and more each day to take up the orders and sacraments of the temple. Thus I often communed with the priest, desiring him greatly to give me the degree of the religion. But he, a man of gravity and well-renowned in the order of priesthood, deferred my desire from day to day. He comforted me and gave me better hope, just like as parents who commonly bridle the desires of their children when they attempt or endeavor any unprofitable thing. He said that the day when any one would be admitted into their order is appointed by the goddess. He said that the priest who would minister the sacrifice is chosen by her providence, and the necessary charges of the ceremonies is allotted by her command. Regarding all these things he urged me to attend with marvelous patience, and he told me that I should beware either of too much haste or too great slackness. He said that there was like danger if, being called, I should delay or, not being called. I should be hasty. Moreover he said that there were none in his company either of so desperate a mind or who were so rash and hardy that they would attempt anything without the command of the goddess. If anyone were to do so, he should commit a deadly offence, considering how it was in the power of the goddess to condemn and save all persons. And if anyone should be at the point of death and on the path to damnation, so that he might be capable of receiving the secrets of the goddess, it was in her power by divine providence to reduce him to the path of health, as though by a certain kind of regeneration. Finally he said that I must attend the celestial precept, although it was evident and plain that the goddess had already vouchsafed to call and appoint me to her ministry. He urged me to refrain from profane and unlawful foods just like those priests who had already been received. This was so that I might come more apt and clean to the knowledge of the secrets of religion. 11.22. I obeyed these words and, attentive with meek and laudable silence, I daily served at the temple. In the end the wholesome gentleness of the goddess did not deceive me, for in the night she appeared to me in a vision. She showed me that the day had come which I had wished for so long. She told me what provision and charges I should attend to, and how she had appointed her principal priest Mithras to be minister with me in my sacrifices.When I heard these divine commands I greatly rejoiced. I arose before dawn to speak with the great priest, whom I happened to see coming out of his chamber. Then I saluted him and thought that I should ask for his counsel with a bold courage. But as soon as he perceived me, he began first to say: “O Lucius, now I know well that you are most happy and blessed, whom the divine goddess accepts with such mercy. Why do you delay? Behold, it is the day which you desired, when you shall receive at my hands the order of religion and know the most pure secrets of the gods.” Whereupon the old man took me by the hand and led me to the gate of the great temple. Immediately upon entering he made a solemn celebration and, after morning sacrifice had ended, he brought books out of the secret place of the temple. These were partly written in unknown characters, and partly painted with figures of beasts declaring briefly every sentence. The heads and tails of some were turned in the shape of a wheel and were strange and impossible for profane people to read. There he interpreted to me such things as were necessary for the use and preparation of my order. 11.24. When morning came, and that the solemnities were finished, I came forth sanctified with twelve robes and in a religious habit. I am not forbidden to speak of this since many persons saw me at that time. There I was commanded to stand upon a seat of wood which stood in the middle of the temple before the image of the goddess. My vestment was of fine linen, covered and embroidered with flowers. I had a precious cloak upon my shoulders hung down to the ground. On it were depicted beasts wrought of diverse colors: Indian dragons and Hyperborean griffins which the other world engenders in the form of birds. The priests commonly call such a habit a celestial robe. In my right hand I carried a lit torch. There was a garland of flowers upon my head with palm leaves sprouting out on every side. I was adorned like un the sun and made in fashion of an image such that all the people came up to behold me. Then they began to solemnize the feast of the nativity and the new procession, with sumptuous banquets and delicacies. The third day was likewise celebrated with like ceremonies with a religious dinner, and with all the consummation of the order. After I had stayed there a good space, I conceived a marvelous pleasure and consolation in beholding the image of the goddess. She at length urged me to depart homeward. I rendered my thanks which, although not sufficient, yet they were according to my power. However, I could not be persuaded to depart before I had fallen prostrate before the face of the goddess and wiped her steps with my face. Then I began greatly to weep and sigh (so uch so that my words were interrupted) and, as though devouring my prayer, I began to speak in this way: 11.25. “O holy and blessed lady, the perpetual comfort of humankind: you, by your bounty and grace, nourish all the world and listen with great affection to the adversities of the miserable. As a loving mother you take no rest, neither are you idle at any time in bestowing benefits and succoring all men on land as well as on the sea. You are she who puts away all storms and dangers from man’s life by your right hand. Whereby also you restrain the fatal dispositions, appease the great tempests of fortune, and keep back the course of the stars. The celestial gods honor you and the infernal gods keep you in reverence. You encompass all the world, you give light to the sun, you govern the world, you strike down the power of hell. Because of you the times return and the planets rejoice, and the elements serve you. At your command the winds blow, the clouds increase, the seeds prosper, and the fruits prevail. The birds of the air, the beasts of the hill, the serpents of the den, and the fishes of the sea tremble at your majesty. But my spirit is not able to give you sufficient praise, my patrimony is unable to satisfy your sacrifice, my voice has no power to utter that which I think. No, not if I had a thousand mouths and so many tongues. However, as a good religious person and, according to my estate, I will always keep you in remembrance and close you within my breast.” When I had ended my prayer, I went to embrace the great priest Mithras, my spiritual father, and to demand his pardon, since I was unable to recompense the good which he had done to me. 11.26. After great greeting and thanks I departed from him to visit my parents and friends. And after a while, by the exhortation of the goddess, I made up my packet, and took shipping toward the city of Rome, where (with a favorable wind) I arrived about the twelfth day of December. And the greatest desire I had there was to make my daily prayers to the sovereign goddess Isis. She, because of the place where her temple was built, was called Campensis, and was continually adored of the people of Rome. Although I was her minister and worshipper, I was a stranger to her temple and unknown to her religion there. When a year had gone by, the goddess advised me again to receive this new order and consecration. I marveled greatly what it signified and what should happen, considering that I was a sacred person already. 11.27. But it happened that, while I reasoned with myself and while I examined the issue with the priests, there came a new and marvelous thought in my mind. I realized that I was only consecrated to the goddess Isis, but not sacred to the religion of great Osiris, the sovereign father of all the goddesses. Between them, although there was a religious unity and concord, yet there was a great difference of order and ceremony. And because it was necessary that I should likewise be a devotee of Osiris, there was no long delay. For the night after there appeared to me one of that order, covered with linen robes. He held in his hands spears wrapped in ivy and other things not appropriate to declare. Then he left these things in my chamber and, sitting in my seat, recited to me such things as were necessary for the sumptuous banquet for my initiation. And so that I might know him again, he showed me how the ankle of his left foot was somewhat maimed, which gave him a slight limp.Afterwards I manifestly knew the will of the god Osiris. When matins ended, I went from one priest to another to find the one who had the halting mark on his foot, according to my vision. At length I found it true. I perceived one of the company of the priests who had not only the token of his foot, but the stature and habit of his body, resembling in every point the man who appeared in the nigh. He was called Asinius Marcellus, a name appropriate to my transformation. By and by I went to him and he knew well enough all the matter. He had been admonished by a similar precept in the night. For the night before, as he dressed the flowers and garlands about the head of the god Osiris, he understood from the mouth of the image (which told the predestinations of all men) how the god had sent him a poor man of Madauros. To this man the priest was supposed to minister his sacraments so that he could receive a reward by divine providence, and the other glory for his virtuous studies. 11.28. Thus I was initiated into the religion, but my desire was delayed by reason of my poverty. I had spent a great part of my goods in travel and peregrination, but most of all the cost of living in the city of Rome had dwindled my resources. In the end, being often stirred forward with great trouble of mind, I was forced to sell my robe for a little money which was nevertheless sufficient for all my affairs. Then the priest spoke to me saying, “How is it that for a little pleasure you are not afraid to sell your vestments, yet when you enter into such great ceremonies you fear to fall into poverty? Prepare yourself and abstain from all animal meats, beasts and fish.” In the meantime I frequented the sacrifices of Serapis, which were done in the night. This gave me great comfort to my peregrination, and ministered to me more plentiful living since I gained some money by pleading in the courts in the Latin language. 11.29. Immediately afterwards I was called upon by the god Osiris and admonished to receive a third order of religion. Then I was greatly astonished, because I could not tell what this new vision signified or what the intent of the celestial god was. I began to suspect the former priests of having given me ill counsel, and I feared that they had not faithfully instructed me. While I was, as it were, incensed because of this, the god Osiris appeared to me the following night and gave me admonition, saying, “There is no reason why you should be afraid of these many orders of religion, or that something has been omitted. You should rather rejoice since as it has pleased the gods to call upon you three times, whereas most do not achieve the order even once. Wherefore you should think yourself happy because of our great benefits. And know that the initiation which you must now receive is most necessary if you mean to persevere in the worship of the goddess. You will be able to participate in solemnity on the festival day adorned in the blessed habit. This shall be a glory and source of renown for you.
45. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 39, 38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. It was with his eye on this Italian propaganda, too, that he took a further step. This was the institution of mysteries, with hierophants and torch bearers complete. The ceremonies occupied three successive days. On the first, proclamation was made on the Athenian model to this effect: ‘If there be any atheist or Christian or Epicurean here spying upon our rites, let him depart in haste; and let all such as have faith in the God be initiated and all blessing attend them.’ He led the litany with, ‘Christians, avaunt!’ and the crowd responded, ‘Epicureans, avaunt!’ Then was presented the child bed of Leto and birth of Apollo, the bridal of Coronis, Asclepius born. The second day, the epiphany and nativity of the God Glycon.
47. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 10.2, 38.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.38.7, 2.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.38.7. My dream forbade the description of the things within the wall of the sanctuary, and the uninitiated are of course not permitted to learn that which they are prevented from seeing. The hero Eleusis, after whom the city is named, some assert to be a son of Hermes and of Daeira, daughter of Ocean; there are poets, however, who have made Ogygus father of Eleusis . Ancient legends, deprived of the help of poetry, have given rise to many fictions, especially concerning the pedigrees of heroes. 2.14.1. Celeae is some five stades distant from the city, and here they celebrate the mysteries in honor of Demeter, not every year but every fourth year. The initiating priest is not appointed for life, but at each celebration they elect a fresh one, who takes, if he cares to do so, a wife. In this respect their custom differs from that at Eleusis, but the actual celebration is modelled on the Eleusinian rites. The Phliasians themselves admit that they copy the “performance” at Eleusis .
51. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 3.12-3.13 (2nd cent. CE

3.12. THEN he ran up to Apollonius and addressed him in the Greek tongue; and so far this did not seem so remarkable, because all the inhabitants of the village spoke the Greek tongue. But when he addressed him by name and said Hail so and so, the rest of the party were filled with astonishment, though our sage only felt the more confidence in his mission: for he looked to Damis and said: We have reached men who are unfeignedly wise, for they seem to have the gift of foreknowledge. And he at once asked the Indian what he must do, because he was already eager for an interview: and the Indian replied:Your party must halt here, but you must come on just as you are, for the Masters themselves issue this command. 3.13. Theword Masters at once had a Pythagorean ring for the ears of Apollonius and he gladly followed the messenger.Now the hill the summit of which is inhabited by the sages is, according to the account of our travelers, of about the same height as the Acropolis of Athens; and it rises straight up from the plain, though its natural position equally secures it from attack, for the rock surrounds it on all sides. On many parts of this rock you see traces of cloven feet and outlines of beards and of faces, and here and there impressions of backs as of persons who had slipped and rolled down. For they say that Dionysus, when he was trying to storm the place together with Heracles, ordered the Pans to attack it, thinking that they would be strong enough to stand the shock; but they were thunderstruck by the sages and fell one, one way, and another, another; and the rocks as it were took the print of the various postures in which they fell and failed. And they say that they saw a cloud floating round the eminence on which the Indians live and render themselves visible or invisible at will. Whether there were any other gates to the eminence they say they did not know; for the cloud around it did not anywhere allow them to be seen, whether there was an opening in the rampart, or whether on the other hand it was a close-shut fortress.
52. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. הא בדברי תורה הא במשא ומתן בדברי תורה הוו במשא ומתן לא הוו.,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך בדרך ור' אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה לי פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא כך שניתי לכם ולא במרכבה ביחיד אלא א"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו רבי תרשיני לומר לפניך דבר אחד שלמדתני אמר לו אמור,מיד ירד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מעל החמור ונתעטף וישב על האבן תחת הזית אמר לו רבי מפני מה ירדת מעל החמור אמר אפשר אתה דורש במעשה מרכבה ושכינה עמנו ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו ואני ארכב על החמור מיד פתח ר"א בן ערך במעשה המרכבה ודרש וירדה אש מן השמים וסיבבה כל האילנות שבשדה פתחו כולן ואמרו שירה,מה שירה אמרו (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות עץ פרי וכל ארזים הללויה נענה מלאך מן האש ואמר הן הן מעשה המרכבה עמד רבן יוחנן ב"ז ונשקו על ראשו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולחקור ולדרוש במעשה מרכבה יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש אתה נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך אברהם אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך,וכשנאמרו הדברים לפני ר' יהושע היה הוא ורבי יוסי הכהן מהלכים בדרך אמרו אף אנו נדרוש במעשה מרכבה פתח רבי יהושע ודרש ואותו היום תקופת תמוז היה נתקשרו שמים בעבים ונראה כמין קשת בענן והיו מלאכי השרת מתקבצין ובאין לשמוע כבני אדם שמתקבצין ובאין לראות במזמוטי חתן וכלה,הלך רבי יוסי הכהן וסיפר דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ואשרי יולדתכם אשרי עיני שכך ראו ואף אני ואתם בחלומי מסובין היינו על הר סיני ונתנה עלינו בת קול מן השמים עלו לכאן עלו לכאן טרקלין גדולים ומצעות נאות מוצעות לכם אתם ותלמידיכם ותלמידי תלמידיכם מזומנין לכת שלישית,איני והתניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה הרצאות הן ר' יהושע הרצה דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ר"ע הרצה לפני ר' יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני ר"ע ואילו ר"א בן ערך לא קא חשיב דארצי וארצו קמיה קחשיב דארצי ולא ארצו קמיה לא קא חשיב והא חנניא בן חכינאי דלא ארצו קמיה וקא חשיב דארצי מיהא קמיה מאן דארצי.,ת"ר ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס ואלו הן בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבא אמר להם ר"ע כשאתם מגיעין אצל אבני שיש טהור אל תאמרו מים מים משום שנאמר (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני,בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים קטז, טו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה, טז) דבש מצאת אכול דייך פן תשבענו והקאתו אחר קיצץ בנטיעות רבי עקיבא יצא בשלום,שאלו את בן זומא מהו לסרוסי כלבא אמר להם (ויקרא כב, כד) ובארצכם לא תעשו כל שבארצכם לא תעשו שאלו את בן זומא בתולה שעיברה מהו לכ"ג מי חיישינן לדשמואל דאמר שמואל 14b. bThiscase is referring bto words of Torah,while bthatcase is referring bto commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they weretrustworthy; bwith regard to commerce, they were not. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, andhis student, bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him:Have bI not taught you: And one may notexpound the Design of the Divine Chariot bto an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord?Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me.In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. bHe said to him: Speak. /b, bImmediately, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrappedhis head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, band sat on a stone under an olive tree.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said:Is it bpossible thatwhile byou are expounding the Design of theDivine bChariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh beganto discuss bthe Design of theDivine bChariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and allthe trees bbegan reciting song. /b, bWhat song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord”(Psalms 148:7–14). bAn angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of theDivine bChariot,just as you expounded. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai stood and kissedRabbi Elazar ben Arakh bon his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a sonlike you, bwho knowshow bto understand, investigate, and expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. There are some who expoundthe Torah’s verses bwell but do not fulfillits imperatives bwell,and there are some bwho fulfillits imperatives bwell but do not expoundits verses bwell,whereas byou expoundits verses bwell and fulfillits imperatives bwell. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. /b,The Gemara relates: bAnd whenthese bmatters,this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, bwere recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice,when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the bheavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. /b, bRabbi Yosei the Priest went and recitedthese bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,who bsaidto him: bHappy areall of byou, and happy arethe mothers bwho gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this,students such as these. bAs for you and I,I saw bin my dreamthat bwe were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here,for blarge halls[iteraklin/b] band pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited tothe bthird group,those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence.,The Gemara poses a question: bIs that so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures.In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: bRabbi Yehoshua lecturedon these bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua;and bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not includedin the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥa. The Gemara explains: Those bwho lectured and werealso blectured to were included;but those bwho lectured and were not lectured to were not included.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’tthere bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, andyet bhe is included?The Gemara answers: Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai bactually lectured before one who lecturedin front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list.,§ bThe Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [ ipardes /i],i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, band they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; iAḥer /i,the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; band Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva,the senior among them, bsaid to them: When,upon your arrival in the upper worlds, byou reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water,although they appear to be water, bbecause it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7).,The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: bBen Azzai glimpsedat the Divine Presence band died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones”(Psalms 116:15). bBen Zoma glimpsedat the Divine Presence band was harmed,i.e., he lost his mind. bAnd with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it”(Proverbs 25:16). iAḥerchopped down the shootsof saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. bRabbi Akiva came out safely. /b,The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: bThey asked ben Zoma: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bcastrating a dog?The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. bHe said to them:The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor bshall you do so in your land”(Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to banyanimal bthat is in your land, you shall not dosuch a thing. bTheyalso basked ben Zoma:A woman considered bto be a virgin who became pregt, what isthe ihalakha /i? bA High Priestmay marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: bAre we concerned forthe opinion of bShmuel? Shmuel says: /b
53. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.43.11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.2474-4.2490 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

55. Plotinus, Enneads, (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Porphyry, Letter To Marcella, 13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

13. Thus can God best be reflected, who cannot be seen by the body, nor yet by an impure soul darkened with vice. For purity is God's beauty, and His light is the life-giving flame of truth. Every vice is deceived by ignorance, and turned astray by wickedness. Wherefore desire and ask of |38 God what is in accordance with His own will and nature, well assured that, inasmuch as a man longs after the body and the things of the body, in so far does he fail to know God, and is blind to the sight of God, even though all men should hold him as a god. Now the wise man, if known by only few, or, if thou wilt, unknown to all, yet is known by God. Let then thy mind follow after God and by likening itself unto Him reflect His image; let the soul follow the mind, and the body be subservient to the soul as far as may be, the pure body serving the pure soul. For if it be defiled by the emotions of the soul, the defilement reacts upon the soul itself.
57. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 10.20-10.21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

58. Anon., 2 Enoch, 8.1

59. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.36, 8.52

7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand.
60. Anon., Apocalypse of Moses, 40.1

61. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 30, 311, 16

16. Dis. This name was very appropriately bestowed upon him by our first ancestors, in order to signify that He through whom all things are endowed with life and come into being, is necessarily the ruler and lord of the Universe. Set all mankind an example of magimity by releasing those who are held in bondage.'
62. Anon., Chaldean Oracles, 116

63. Epigraphy, Didyma, 216

64. Epigraphy, I.Eleusis, 250, 175



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(mithraic) Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 218, 221, 310, 333, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342
abonou teichos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
achilles tatius Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
actaeon, and diana Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297
action, high intensity Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
adaptive strategies Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 338
aeschylus, prometheia Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
aeschylus Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
agency, and inference Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
agents, and belief Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
alexander of abonoteichus Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101, 102
allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
allegory, allegorical exegesis Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
allegory Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 337
ambiguity Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 337
animal, ass, donkey, mule Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
animals, asses Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101, 102
anxieties Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 336
apocalypse Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 173
apollo Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333, 341
apuleius, author of metamorphoses Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
apuleius, book 11 König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
apuleius, de platone, metamorphoses Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
apuleius, florida Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297
apuleius, golden ass Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297
apuleius, human and animal food König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
apuleius, metam. bk Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 15, 333, 336
apuleius, metamorphoses König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
apuleius, representation of landscape König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
apuleius Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5; Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101, 102; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
apuleius madaurensis, l. Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
apuleius of madauros Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 200
aristeas (narrator) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
armenia Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
ascent, heavenly Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 340
ascent Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101
ascent literature, visionary/mystical Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
ascetics, greco-roman König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
asclepius Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
assimilation to god/the son of god Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
atheism Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
athens Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
augustine Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
authority, religious Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
bakhtin Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
belief, and agents Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
belief, intensity of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
belief, nonreflective Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
belief, reflective Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
belief Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
benefaction Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 293
beroia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
black sea, landscape Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
cannibalism, and consumption of human flesh in fiction König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
cenchreai/cenchreae (corinth) Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 127
christianity Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8
christians, christianity Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
church Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
cleitophon, fictional hero Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
clothing Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
clothing codes Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
cognition, religious Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
cognitive science of religion (csr) Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
community, community formation Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
conversion, moral Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
conversion Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
corinth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
cosmological elements Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
cult, mysteries, rituals, public/private Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
cult Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 258
cupid Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
cyprian of carthage Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
definition Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
deity, viewed by human Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297
delos Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
demeter Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
devotion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291
dionysus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
divine being, isis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
divine being, osiris Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
dream Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291, 293
dualism, dualist Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
economics, debt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
economics, investment Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
economics, labor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291
economics, money Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291
economics, poverty Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
economics, property, assets, goods Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291, 293
economics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
education and religion Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
egypt, egyptian Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
egypt Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
eleusis Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
empedocles, and aeschylus Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
empedocles, influenced by mystic doctrine Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
empedocles Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195, 196
emperors, augustus Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8
epicur, epicurean views Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
epigraphy Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
epiphany, in golden ass Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297
eschatology, afterlife Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
ethical education, related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
eusebius of caesarea Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
exegesis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
experience/experiential Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 142
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
forgiveness Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
frescoes Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 140
garment, psychic/fleshly Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
gift Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
glory, doxa (δόξα) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
glory, of god Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
glykon new asklepios Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
gnosis, gnostic, gnosticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
goal/telos of philosophical life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
gods/goddesses, acts of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
goetes, religious charlatans/fraud Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
gold leaves Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
goodman, martin Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
gratitude Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 293
greece, greek tradition Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
greece, religion Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
greece Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
griffiths, j. Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 297
grossberg, asher Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
groups, group formation Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
happiness, joy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
heart Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
hekhalot literature Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 173
hellenism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
herodotus Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
high priest Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
holy of holies Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
identity Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166, 258
image of god Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
inference Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
initiation Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8; Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101, 102; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 258; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
injustice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
intelligible, realm Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
intentionality, doxastic states of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
interior and structure, names of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
intuition Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
iseum/isieion, pompei Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 140
isis, navigium isidis (festival) Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 127
isis Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 127; Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108; Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 296, 297; Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288; Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101, 102; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 258; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
italy Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
jesus christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
jewish society, law Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
keleia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
knowledge of god/truth Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
leucippe, fictional heroine Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
leukopetra Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
levites, like by like principle Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
liminal, liminality Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 340
livy Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
logos Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
logos of god Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
love, human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
love / eros Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
lucian of samosata Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
lucius, man and ass Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
lucius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 200; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166, 258
lucius (apuleius) Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 127
lustration Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 339
macedonia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
magic Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
maroneia Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
marriage Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
mediterranean Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
metaheret Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
metaphor Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8
metempsychosis Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 195
meter theon Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
methodology, sociological criticism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
miqveh Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
miracle Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333
mithras (isiac priest) Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 338
moderation König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 288
modernity Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
mystagogos Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 140
mysteries, mystery, lesemysterium Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
mysteries Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
mystery Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 123
mystery cult, cosmological elements in Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
mystery cults Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 239
mystery religions/cults Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
mystic initiation, clothing of Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
mystikos Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
nature, natural phenomena, sun Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
novel, ancient Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 336
novels Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101
numenius Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
numidia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
operating hours, used for religious rituals Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
opposition Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 341
orgia, orgiasmos, orgiazo Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 127
oriental cults, use of term, ; and christianity Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 333, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342
orphism Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 173
osiris Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 140; Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101
paradise traditions Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 239
paths, symbolic significance of Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
patronage Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
paul, pauline mysticism Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
paul the apostle Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
pausanias Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
performance Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
pherecydes Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
philippopolis Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
philo of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
philosophy, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
philosophy/philosophical Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 142
philosophy Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
phrygia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
piety Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
planets Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 340
plato, platonic, platonism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
plotinus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
porphyry Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
preachers Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
priene Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 310; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
priest Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
priesthood Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
processions Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
proclus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
prophecy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
proserpina Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
providence, divine Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 337, 338
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
psyche, beloved by cupid Bowersock, Fiction as History: Nero to Julian (1997) 108
ptolemy ii philadelphus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
purification, purify Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
purity, impurity, purification Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
pythagoreans Stroumsa, Hidden Widsom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (1996) 173
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
rabbis, coining new names and categories Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
rational Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 326
re, e. Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 15
rebirth Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 123, 218, 342
reich, ronny Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
reincarnation Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
religion, ancient Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
religion, cognitive science of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 82
religion, education and' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
religion, greco-roman Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 5
religion/religious tradition Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
religion passim, isis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
religion passim, mystery cults, initiation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
religion passim, myth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
religion passim, osiris Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 291, 293
religion passim, priest(hood) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
religion passim, sacrifice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 289, 293
resurrection Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 123
reveal, revelation Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
reverence Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 291
rhetoric, paradox Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
rhetoric Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 101
rhodes Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 310
rites of passage Seaford, Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays (2018) 196
ritual, chaldaean, therugic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
ritual, jewish Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
ritual, nudity Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346
ritual Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
rituals Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
rivers Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
robe Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
rome, city Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 346; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 293
rome Konig, The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture (2022) 176
sabazius Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
sacred dramas Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 140
sacred laws Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 310
sacrifice Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 221; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 100
sacrifices Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 159
salvation Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 123
samothrace Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 159
scholarship, pauline Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 314
second temple Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 124
secret, religious Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 339
secret Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8, 127
semiotics Belayche and Massa, Mystery Cults in Visual Representation in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (2021) 8
seneca the younger Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 166
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447