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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., Testament Of Gad, 6.2

nanFor in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him.

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31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 50.40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

50.40. As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah And the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD; So shall no man abide there, Neither shall any son of man dwell therein."
3. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 7.23 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.23. כָּל־זֹה נִסִּיתִי בַחָכְמָה אָמַרְתִּי אֶחְכָּמָה וְהִיא רְחוֹקָה מִמֶּנִּי׃ 7.23. All this have I tried by wisdom; I said: ‘I will get wisdom’; but it was far from me."
4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.5, 8.3, 95.5, 96.7, 99.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.5. not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.' Then sware they all together and bound themselves 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 99.11. Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol.
5. Anon., Jubilees, 11.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.6. and they began to capture cities, and to sell male and female slaves.
6. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.3. For as the sun is not defiled by shining on dung and mire, but rather drieth up both and driveth away the evil smell; so also the pure mind, though encompassed by the defilements of earth, rather cleanseth (them) and is not itself defiled.
7. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. Observe, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, And keep His law; Depart from wrath, And hate lying, That the Lord may dwell among you, And Beliar may flee from you.
8. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1, 6.3-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
9. Anon., Testament of Issachar, 4.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
11. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 2.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.6. As a man's strength, so also is his work; and as his mind, so also is his skill; and as his purpose, so also is his achievement; and as his heart, so also is his mouth; as his eye, so also is his sleep; as his soul, so also is his word, either in the law of the Lord or in the works of Beliar.
12. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 2.7, 4.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.7. The sixth is the sense of taste, with which cometh the eating of meats and drinks; and by it strength is produced, for in food is the foundation of strength. 4.6. For a pit unto the soul is the sin of fornication, separating it from God, and bringing it near to idols, because it deceiveth the mind and understanding, and leadeth young men into hades before their time.
13. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1-8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Anon., Testament of Judah, 20.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 9.5-9.6, 9.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.5. But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --' 9.6. and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.' 9.28. So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.'
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 8.5, 28.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment. 28.1. He that takes vengeance will suffer vengeance from the Lord,and he will firmly establish his sins. 28.1. In proportion to the fuel for the fire, so will be the burning,and in proportion to the obstinacy of strife will be the burning;in proportion to the strength of the man will be his anger,and in proportion to his wealth he will heighten his wrath.
17. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
18. New Testament, 1 John, 3.10-3.18, 4.7-4.11, 4.19-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. In this the children of God are revealed, and the children of the devil. Whoever doesn't do righteousness is not of God, neither is he who doesn't love his brother. 3.11. For this is the message which you heard from the beginning, that we should love one another; 3.12. unlike Cain, who was of the evil one, and killed his brother. Why did he kill him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 3.13. Don't be surprised, my brothers, if the world hates you. 3.14. We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brothers. He who doesn't love his brother remains in death. 3.15. Whoever hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life remaining in him. 3.16. By this we know love, because he laid down his life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers. 3.17. But whoever has the world's goods, and sees his brother in need, and closes his heart of compassion against him, how does the love of God remain in him? 3.18. My little children, let's not love in word only, neither with the tongue only, but in deed and truth. 4.7. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God, and knows God. 4.8. He who doesn't love doesn't know God, for God is love. 4.9. By this was God's love revealed in us, that God has sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 4.10. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins. 4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another. 4.19. We love Him, because he first loved us. 4.20. If a man says, "I love God," and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who doesn't love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen? 4.21. This commandment we have from him, that he who loves God should also love his brother.
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.1-13.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.4. Love is patient and is kind; love doesn't envy. Love doesn'tbrag, is not proud 13.5. doesn't behave itself inappropriately,doesn't seek its own way, is not provoked, takes no account of evil; 13.6. doesn't rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth; 13.7. bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, enduresall things. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love.
20. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.5, 2.19, 5.1-5.6, 5.8, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
21. New Testament, Galatians, 5.6, 5.13-5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.15. But if you bite anddevour one another, be careful that you don't consume one another.
22. New Testament, Philippians, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
23. New Testament, Romans, 8.29, 12.17, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
24. New Testament, John, 13.34-13.35, 15.12, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.17. I command these things to you, that you may love one another.
25. New Testament, Luke, 5.26, 6.27-6.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.26. Amazement took hold on all, and they glorified God. They were filled with fear, saying, "We have seen strange things today. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil.
26. New Testament, Mark, 2.5-2.10, 2.12, 2.23-2.28, 11.24-11.25, 12.29-12.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven you. 2.6. But there were some of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts 2.7. Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone? 2.8. Immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, said to them, "Why do you reason these things in your hearts? 2.9. Which is easier, to tell the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and take up your bed, and walk?' 2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 2.12. He arose, and immediately took up the mat, and went out in front of them all; so that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw anything like this! 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these.
27. New Testament, Matthew, 5.23-5.26, 5.43-5.48, 6.12-6.15, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 9.8. But when the multitudes saw it, they marveled and glorified God, who had given such authority to men.
28. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין שוברין את החרס ואין חותכין הנייר לצלות בו מליח,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים אבל מכבשין,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה ואין סומכין את הקדרה בבקעת וכן בדלת ואין מנהיגין את הבהמה במקל ביום טוב ורבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מתיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט משם דקא מתקן מנא,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים תני רב חייא בר יוסף קמיה דרב נחמן ואם אי אפשר לאפות אלא אם כן גורפו מותר דביתהו דר' חייא נפל לה אריחא בתנורא ביומא טבא אמר לה ר' חייא חזי דאנא רפתא מעלייתא בעינא א"ל רבא לשמעיה טוי לי בר אווזא ואזדהר מחרוכא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי אמר לן רב אחא מהוצל דמר שרקין ליה תנורא ביומא טבא אמר ליה אנן ארקתא דפרת סמכינן והנ"מ הוא דצייריה מאתמול אמר רבינא וקטמא שרי:,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות: אמר רב נחמן אבנים של בית הכסא מותר לצדדן ביום טוב איתיביה רבה לרב נחמן אין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה אמר ליה שאני התם משום דקא עביד אהלא,א"ל רבה זוטא לרב אשי אלא מעתה בנה אצטבא ביו"ט דלא עביד אהלא הכי נמי דשרי א"ל התם בנין קבע אסרה תורה בנין עראי לא אסרה תורה וגזרו רבנן על בנין עראי משום בנין קבע והכא משום כבודו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא מלמעלה למטה שרי מלמטה למעלה אסור 32b. Is it because bhethereby bmends a vessel?If so, when one cuts it bin the fire, he is also preparing a vesselfor use. bRabbi Ḥiyya taughtin explanation: bHe cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles.In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: One may imoḥeta wick on a Festival.The term imoḥetwas unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word imoḥet /i? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark;in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly., bBar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard tothe ihalakhotof ba wickon a Festival, bthreeof which bare to be stringent and threeof which bare to be lenient.The three ihalakhot bto be stringentare: bOne may not spinor twist bit iab initioon a Festival, and one may not singe it in firebefore lighting it so that it will burn well, band one may not cut it into two.The three ihalakhot bto be lenientare: bOne may crush it by hand,as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; band one may soak it in oilso that it will later burn well; band one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles. /b,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: The wealthyJews bof Babylonia will descend to Gehennabecause they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents bsuch as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requestedtheir participation in ba business venture,to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, band they did not giveit to bhim.Furthermore, when he asked them bto sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him. /b, bHe said: Thesewealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, bbut they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you,and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: bAnyone who has compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father.Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: Whoever looks to the table of othersfor his sustece, bthe world is dark for him.Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, bfor it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand”(Job 15:23). bRav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life,as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:There are bthreewhose blives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of othersfor his sustece; band one whose wife rulesover bhim; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe.Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who did not include such a person, maintains: bIt is possiblefor him bto examine his clothesand remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not break earthenwareon a Festival. bAnd one may not cut paper in order to roast saltedfish bon it.Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat., bAnd one may not sweep outanything that has fallen into ban oven or stovethat interferes with the baking, such as plaster. bBut one may press downand flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly., bAnd one may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them,so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. bAnd one may not prop a potthat does not stand straight bwith a piece of wood,in order to prevent it from falling. bAnd similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stickin the public domain bon a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permitsit., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this prohibition? bBecause oneis thereby bpreparing a vesselfor use.,It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted.The Gemara relates an incident with regard bto the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell intoher boven on a Festival,preventing her from baking. bRav Ḥiyya said to her: See,you should know that bI want good-quality bread.He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, bRava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duckin an oven, band be careful not to singeit. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master,Rav Ashi, allows his attendants bto plasterthe mouth of bthe oven for him on a Festival.This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? bHe said to him: We rely on the bank of the EuphratesRiver. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: bAnd this applies only when one wrappedor made some mark on the mud bthe day before,so that it not be imuktze /i. bRavina said: Andas for kneading with bashesfor this purpose, it is bpermitted,since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne may not draw two barrels togetherin order to place a pot on them. bRav Naḥman said:With regard to large bstones of a lavatory,upon which one sits to attend to his needs, bit is permitted to put them togetherin the proper manner, so that they may be used bon a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman:Wasn’t it taught that bone may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them?This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. bHe said to him: There,with regard to barrels, bit is different, because one makes a tent.It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent., bRabba the Younger,so called to distinguish him from the more famous iamoraknown as Rabba, bsaid to Rav Ashi: However, ifthat is bso,then if, bon a Festival, one builta solid bbench [ iitztaba /i],without a gap below the seat, a situation in which bone does not make a tent, so too,will you say bthat it is permitted? He said to him:The two cases are not comparable: bThere,with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, bthe Torah prohibitederecting ba permanent construction,but bthe Torah did not prohibiterecting ba temporary construction. The Sages,however, bdecreed againstcreating ba temporary constructionon a Festival bdue to a permanent construction.However, bhere,with regard to a lavatory, bdue to the dignityof the user, bthe Sages did not decree with regard to it. /b, bRav Yehuda said:With regard to bthis bonfire,in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it bfrom above to below it is permitted,as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, bfrom below to above, it is prohibited,for this is considered building.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,רב הונא רמי כתיב (תהלים קמה, יז) צדיק ה' בכל דרכיו וכתיב וחסיד בכל מעשיו בתחלה צדיק ולבסוף חסיד,רבי אלעזר רמי כתיב (תהלים סב, יג) ולך ה' חסד וכתיב כי אתה תשלם לאיש כמעשהו בתחלה כי אתה תשלם כמעשהו ולבסוף ולך ה' חסד,אילפי ואמרי לה אילפא רמי כתיב (שמות לד, ו) ורב חסד וכתיב ואמת בתחלה ואמת ולבסוף ורב חסד,ויעבור ה' על פניו ויקרא א"ר יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו מלמד שנתעטף הקב"ה כשליח צבור והראה לו למשה סדר תפלה אמר לו כל זמן שישראל חוטאין יעשו לפני כסדר הזה ואני מוחל להם,ה' ה' אני הוא קודם שיחטא האדם ואני הוא לאחר שיחטא האדם ויעשה תשובה אל רחום וחנון,אמר רב יהודה ברית כרותה לי"ג מדות שאינן חוזרות ריקם שנאמר (שמות לד, י) הנה אנכי כורת ברית,אמר ר' יוחנן גדולה תשובה שמקרעת גזר דינו של אדם שנא' (ישעיהו ו, י) השמן לב העם הזה ואזניו הכבד ועיניו השע פן יראה בעיניו ובאזניו ישמע ולבבו יבין ושב ורפא לו,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ודלמא לפני גזר דין א"ל ורפא לו כתיב איזהו דבר שצריך רפואה הוי אומר זה גזר דין,מיתיבי השב בינתים מוחלין לו לא שב בינתים אפילו הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין מוחלין לו לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בצבור,מיתיבי (דברים יא, יב) עיני ה' אלהיך בה עתים לטובה עתים לרעה עתים לטובה כיצד הרי שהיו ישראל רשעים גמורין בראש השנה ופסקו להם גשמים מועטים לסוף חזרו בהן להוסיף עליהן אי אפשר שכבר נגזרה גזרה אלא הקב"ה מורידן בזמנן על הארץ הצריכה להן הכל לפי הארץ,עתים לרעה כיצד הרי שהיו ישראל צדיקים גמורין בר"ה ופסקו עליהן גשמים מרובין לסוף חזרו בהן לפחות מהן אי אפשר שכבר נגזרה גזרה אלא הקב"ה מורידן שלא בזמנן על הארץ שאינה צריכה להן,לטובה מיהא ליקרעיה לגזר דינייהו ולוסיף להו שאני התם דאפשר בהכי,ת"ש (תהלים קז, כג) יורדי הים באניות עושי מלאכה במים רבים המה ראו מעשי ה' וגו' ויאמר ויעמד רוח סערה ותרומם גליו יחוגו וינועו כשכור וגו' ויצעקו אל ה' בצר להם וגו' יודו לה' חסדו וגו',עשה להן סימניות כאכין ורקין שבתורה לומר לך צעקו קודם גזר דין נענין צעקו לאחר גזר דין אינן נענין,הני נמי כיחידין דמו,ת"ש שאלה בלוריא הגיורת את רבן גמליאל כתיב בתורתכם (דברים י, יז) אשר לא ישא פנים וכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא ה' פניו אליך,נטפל לה רבי יוסי הכהן אמר לה אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שנושה בחבירו מנה וקבע לו זמן בפני המלך ונשבע לו בחיי המלך הגיע זמן ולא פרעו בא לפייס את המלך ואמר לו עלבוני מחול לך לך ופייס את חבירך הכא נמי כאן בעבירות שבין אדם למקום כאן בעבירות שבין אדם לחבירו,עד שבא ר"ע ולימד 17b. That is to say, God forgives sins only bfor one who regards himself as a remainder,i.e., of only secondary importance.,§ bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween the two halves of a verse. bIt is written: “The Lord is righteous [ itzaddik /i] in all His ways”(Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [ itzedek /i], bandthen bit is writtenin the same verse: b“And kind [ iḥasid /i] in all His works,”implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [ iḥesed /i], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: bInitially,at the time of judgment, bHe is righteous, but in the end,at the time of punishment, bHe is gracious. /b, bRabbi Elazar raised asimilar bcontradiction: It is written: “But to you, O Lord, belongs kindness”(Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, bandthen bit is writtenin the same verse: b“For You render to a man according to his deeds,”implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: bInitially,at the time of judgment: b“For You render to a man according to his deeds”; but in the end,at the time of punishment: b“But to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.” /b, bIlfai, and some sayit was the Sage bIlfa,also braised a contradiction: It is writtenin the list of God’s attributes: b“And abundant in kindness”(Exodus 34:6), band it is writtenin the same verse: b“And truth,”which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: bInitially,at the time of judgment: b“And truth,”i.e., God employs strict justice, bbut in the end,when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: b“And abundant in kindness,”i.e., He is merciful.,§ The verse states: b“And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed”(Exodus 34:6). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it notexplicitly bwritten in the verse, it would be impossible to say this,as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himselfin a prayer shawl blike a prayer leader and showed Mosesthe structure of the border ofthe bprayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order.Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, band I will forgive them. /b,The verse continues: b“The Lord, the Lord,”and it should be understood as follows: bI am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance,as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always b“God, merciful and gracious”(Exodus 34:6)., bRav Yehuda said: A covet was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed,meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, bas it is statedin this regard: b“Behold, I make a covet”(Exodus 34:10).,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentenceissued bagainst a person, as it is stated: “Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhapsthis was said bbefore the sentencewas issued, but after one’s sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye bsaid to him: It is writtenhere: “And they will return band be healed”(Isaiah 6:10). bWhat requires healing?An illness does. Consequently, byou must saythat the reference here is to ba sentencethat has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: If bone repents in the meantime,between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, bhe is forgiven;if bhe does not repent in the meantime,then beven if helater bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth in the world,which are of the best quality, bthey do not forgive himin the Heavenly court. This implies that once one’s sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult: Here,where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the ibaraitais referring to repentance bof an individual; there,where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to bcommunalrepentance.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: The verse states: “A land which the Lord your God cares for; bthe eyes of the Lord your God arealways bupon it”(Deuteronomy 11:12). God’s constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is bsometimes forthe bgoodand bsometimes forthe bbad. Sometimes forthe bgood; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so thatonly ba meageramount of brain was decreed for themfor the year, but bin the end they repented,what can be done? bTo addrain bis impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causesthose sparse rains bto fall at theappropriate btimes on land that needs it,e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, ball according torequirements of bthe land,and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain., bSometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for themfor that year, but bin the end they regressedand sinned, what can be done? bTo reducethe amount of rain bis impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causesthe rain bto fall not at theappropriate btime,and bon land that does not need it,e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.,The Gemara asks: When it is bfor good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and addto the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the ibaraitaexplains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, because it is possibleto achieve the same result bin thismanner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence., bComeand bheara proof from a different ibaraita /i: The psalm states: b“They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord,and His wonders in the deep” (Psalms 107:23–24). The psalm continues: b“For He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereof…They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man,and are at their wits’ end” (Psalms 107:25–27). It continues further: b“Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble,and He brings them out of their distresses” (Psalms 107:28). And finally, b“Let them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy,and for His wonderful works to the children of men” (Psalms 107:31)., bMarkers were inserted herebefore each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter inuninverted, bare similarin meaning bto thewords bbut and only in the Torah,to tell us that just as the Torah’s words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This btells youthat if bthey cried out before the sentencewas issued, bthey are answered,but if bthey cried outonly bafter the sentencewas issued, bthey are not answered. /b,The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for bthosewho go down to the sea in ships bare also considered like individuals.Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.,The Gemara continues: bComeand bhear: Beloreya the convertonce basked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah:“The great, mighty, and awesome God bwho favors no one”(Deuteronomy 10:17), bandelsewhere bit is written: “The Lord shall show favor to youand give you peace” (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?, bRabbi Yosei the priest joinedthe conversation with bher and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundreddinars band fixed a timefor repayment of the loan bbefore the king, andthe borrower btook an oath by the life of the kingthat he would repay the money. bThe time arrived, and he did not repaythe loan. The delinquent borrower bcame to appease the kingfor not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, bandthe king bsaid to him:For bmy insult I forgive you,but byou muststill bgo and appease your friend. Here alsothe same is true: bHere,the verse that states: “The Lord shall show favor to you,” is referring to bsinscommitted bbetween man and God,which God will forgive; bthere,the verse that states: “God favors no one,” is referring to bsinscommitted bbetween a person and another,which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.,This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, buntil Rabbi Akiva came and taughtas follows:
30. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87a. בצבו נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבו ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה אזיל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה וכי הוי חזי אמבוהא אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו וראשו לעב יגיע כגללו לנצח יאבד רואיו יאמרו איו רב זוטרא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא הוה אמר (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,(משלי יח, ה) שאת פני רשע לא טוב לא טוב להם לרשעים שנושאין להם פנים בעולם הזה לא טוב לו לאחאב שנשאו לו פנים בעוה"ז שנאמר (מלכים א כא, כט) יען כי נכנע (אחאב מלפני) לא אביא הרעה בימיו,(משלי יח, ה) להטות צדיק במשפט טוב להם לצדיקים שאין נושאין להם פנים בעוה"ז טוב לו למשה שלא נשאו לו פנים בעוה"ז שנאמר (במדבר כ, יב) יען לא האמנתם בי להקדישני הא אילו האמנתם בי עדיין לא הגיע זמנם ליפטר מן העולם,אשריהם לצדיקים לא דיין שהן זוכין אלא שמזכין לבניהם ולבני בניהם עד סוף כל הדורות שכמה בנים היו לו לאהרן שראויין לישרף כנדב ואביהוא שנאמר (ויקרא י, יב) הנותרים אלא שעמד להם זכות אביהם,אוי להם לרשעים לא דיין שמחייבין עצמן אלא שמחייבין לבניהם ולבני בניהם עד סוף כל הדורות הרבה בנים היו לו לכנען שראויין ליסמך כטבי עבדו של רבן גמליאל אלא שחובת אביהם גרמה להן,כל המזכה את הרבים אין חטא בא על ידו וכל המחטיא את הרבים כמעט אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה כל המזכה את הרבים אין חטא בא על ידו מ"ט כדי שלא יהא הוא בגיהנם ותלמידיו בגן עדן שנאמר (תהלים טז, י) כי לא תעזוב נפשי לשאול לא תתן חסידך לראות שחת וכל המחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה שלא יהא הוא בגן עדן ותלמידיו בגיהנם שנאמר (משלי כח, יז) אדם עשוק בדם נפש עד בור ינוס אל יתמכו בו,האומר אחטא ואשוב אחטא ואשוב למה לי למימר אחטא ואשוב אחטא ואשוב תרי זימני כדרב הונא אמר רב דאמר רב הונא אמר רב כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא נעשית לו כהיתר,אחטא ויום הכפורים מכפר אין יום הכפורים מכפר לימא מתני' דלא כרבי דתניא רבי אומר על כל עבירות שבתורה בין עשה תשובה בין לא עשה תשובה יוה"כ מכפר אפילו תימא רבי אגב שאני,עבירות שבין אדם למקום וכו' רמי ליה רב יוסף בר חבו לרבי אבהו עבירות שבין אדם לחבירו אין יוה"כ מכפר והא כתיב (שמואל א ב, כה) אם יחטא איש לאיש ופללו אלהים מאן אלהים דיינא,אי הכי אימא סיפא ואם לה' יחטא איש מי יתפלל לו הכי קאמר אם יחטא איש לאיש ופללו אלהים ימחול לו ואם לה' יחטא איש מי יתפלל בעדו תשובה ומעשים טובים,אמר ר' יצחק כל המקניט את חבירו אפילו בדברים צריך לפייסו שנאמר (משלי ו, א) בני אם ערבת לרעך תקעת לזר כפיך נוקשת באמרי פיך עשה זאת אפוא בני והנצל כי באת בכף רעך לך התרפס ורהב רעיך אם ממון יש בידך התר לו פסת יד ואם לאו הרבה עליו ריעים,(ואמר) רב חסדא וצריך לפייסו בשלש שורות של שלשה בני אדם שנאמר (איוב לג, כז) ישור על אנשים ויאמר חטאתי וישר העויתי ולא שוה לי,(ואמר) ר' יוסי בר חנינא כל המבקש מטו מחבירו אל יבקש ממנו יותר משלש פעמים שנאמר (בראשית נ, יז) אנא שא נא ועתה שא נא ואם מת מביא עשרה בני אדם ומעמידן על קברו ואומר חטאתי לה' אלהי ישראל ולפלוני שחבלתי בו,ר' ירמיה הוה ליה מילתא לר' אבא בהדיה אזל איתיב אדשא דר' אבא בהדי דשדיא אמתיה מיא מטא זרזיפי דמיא ארישא אמר עשאוני כאשפה קרא אנפשיה (תהלים קיג, ז) מאשפות ירים אביון שמע ר' אבא ונפיק לאפיה אמר ליה השתא צריכנא למיפק אדעתך דכתיב לך התרפס ורהב רעיך,ר' זירא כי הוה ליה מילתא בהדי איניש הוה חליף ותני לקמיה וממציא ליה כי היכי דניתי וניפוק ליה מדעתיה,רב הוה ליה מילתא בהדי ההוא טבחא לא אתא לקמיה במעלי יומא דכפורי אמר איהו איזיל אנא ' לפיוסי ליה פגע ביה רב הונא אמר ליה להיכא קא אזיל מר אמר ליה לפיוסי לפלניא אמר אזיל אבא למיקטל נפשא אזל וקם עילויה הוה יתיב וקא פלי רישא דלי עיניה וחזייה אמר ליה אבא את זיל לית לי מילתא בהדך בהדי דקא פלי רישא אישתמיט גרמא ומחייה בקועיה וקטליה,רב הוה פסיק סידרא קמיה דרבי עייל 87a. bof his own will, he goes to die; and he does not fulfill the will of his household, and he goes empty-handed to his household; and if only his entrance would be like his exit. And when he saw a line of people [ iambuha /i]following bafter himout of respect for him, bhe said: “Though his excellency ascends to the heavens, and his head reaches to the clouds, yet he shall perish forever like his own dung; they who have seen him will say: Where is he?”(Job 20:6–7). This teaches that when one achieves power, it can lead to his downfall. bWhen they would carry Rav Zutra on their shoulders during the Shabbat of the Festivalwhen he taught, bhe would recitethe following to avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24).,§ It was further taught: b“It is not good to respect the person of the wicked”(Proverbs 18:5), meaning, bit is not good for wicked people when they are respected in this worldand are not punished for their sins. For example, bitwas bnot good for Ahab to be respected in this world, as it is stated: “Because he humbled himself before Me, I will not bring the evil in his days”(I Kings 21:29), and Ahab thereby lost his share in the World-to-Come.,The opposite is also true. The complete verse states: “It is not good to respect the person of the wicked, bto turn aside the righteous in judgment”(Proverbs 18:5), meaning: bIt is good for the righteous when they are not respected in this worldand are punished in this world for their sins. For example, bitwas bgood for Moses that he was not respected in this world, as it is stated: “Because you did not believe in Me, to sanctify Me”(Numbers 20:12). The Gemara analyzes this: bHad you believed in Me, your time still would not have come to depart the world. /b,They said: bFortunate are the righteousbecause bnot only do theyaccumulate bmeritfor themselves, bbut theyaccumulate bmerit for their children and their children’s children until the end of all generations; as there were several sons of Aaron whoessentially bdeserved to be burned like Nadav and Avihu, as it is stated:“The sons of Aaron bwho were left”(Leviticus 10:16), implying that others were left as well although they deserved to be burned with their brothers. bBut the merit of their father protected them,and they and their descendants were priests for all time.,On the other hand: bWoe to the wicked,as bnot only do they render themselves liable, but they also render their children and children’s children liable until the end of all generations.For example, bCanaan had many childrenwho bdeserved to be ordainedas rabbis and instructors of the public due to their great stature in Torah study, blike Tavi, the servant of Rabban Gamliel,who was famous for his wisdom; bbut their father’s liability caused themto remain as slaves.,Furthermore: bWhoeveraccumulates bmerit for the public will not have sin come to his hand,and God protects him from failing; bbut whoever causes the public to sin has almost no ability to repent.The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhoeveraccumulates bmerit for the public will not have sin come to his hand?It is bso that he will not be in Gehenna while his students are in the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “For You will not abandon my soul to the nether-world; neither will You suffer Your godly one to see the pit”(Psalms 16:10). On the other hand, bwhoever causes the public to sin has almost no ability to repent,so that bhe will not be in the Garden of Eden while his students are in Gehenna, as it is stated: “A man who is laden with the blood of any person shall hasten his steps to the pit; none will support him”(Proverbs 28:17). Since he oppressed others and caused them to sin, he shall have no escape.,§ The Gemara returns to interpreting the mishna. It states there that bone who says: I will sin and I will repent, I will sin and I will repent,is not given the opportunity to repent.The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the mishna bto say twice: I will sin and I will repent, I will sin and repent?The Gemara explains that this is bin accordance withthat bwhich Rav Hunasaid that bRav said,as bRav Huna saidthat bRav said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him.The Gemara is surprised at this: bCan it enter your mind that it becomes permitted to him? Rather,say that bit becomes to him asthough it were bpermitted.Consequently, the sinner who repeats his sin has difficulty abandoning his sin, and the repetition of his sin is reflected in the repetition of the phrase.,It is stated in the mishna that if one says: bI will sin and Yom Kippurwill batonefor my sins, bYom Kippur does not atonefor his sins. The Gemara comments: bLet us say that the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, bas it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Yom Kippur atones for all transgressions of the Torah, whether one repented or did not repent.The Gemara answers: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, bit is differentwhen it is bon the basisof being permitted to sin. Even Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees that Yom Kippur does not atone for the transgressions one commits only because he knows that Yom Kippur will atone for them.,§ It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur atones for bsins committed against Godbut does not atone for sins committed against another person. bRav Yosef bar Ḥavu raised a contradiction before Rabbi Abbahu:The mishna states that bYom Kippur does not atone for sins committed against a fellow person, but isn’t it written: “If one man sin against another, God [ iElohim /i] shall judge him [ iufilelo /i]”(I Samuel 2:25). The word iufilelo /i, which may also refer to prayer, implies that if he prays, God will grant the sinner forgiveness. He answered him: bWho is iElohim /imentioned in the verse? It is referring to ba judge [ ielohim /i]and not to God, and the word iufileloin the verse indicates judgment. Atonement occurs only after justice has been done toward the injured party by means of a court ruling.,Rav Yosef bar Ḥavu said to him: bIf so, saythe following with regard to bthe latter clauseof the verse: b“But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat [ iyitpallel /i] for him?”(I Samuel 2:25). This is difficult, since it has been established that the root ipllis interpreted in this verse as indicating judgment, and therefore the latter clause of the verse implies that if one sins toward God there is no one to judge him. Rabbi Abbahu answered him: bThis iswhat the verse bis saying: If one man sins against another, God [ iElohim /i] shall forgive him [ iufilelo /i];if the sinner appeases the person against whom he has sinned, he will be forgiven. bBut if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat [ iyitpallel /i] for him? Repentance and good deeds.The root ipllis to be interpreted as indicating forgiveness rather than judgment.,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One who angers his friend, evenonly bverbally, must appease him, as it is stated: “My son, if you have become a guarantor for your neighbor, if you have struck your hands for a stranger, you are snared by the words of your mouth… Do this now, my son, and deliver yourself, seeing you have come into the hand of your neighbor. Go, humble yourself [ ihitrapes /i] and urge [ irehav /i] your neighbor”(Proverbs 6:1–3). This should be understood as follows: bIf you have moneythat you owe him, bopen the palm of [ ihater pisat /i]your bhand toyour neighbor and pay the money that you owe; band if not,if you have sinned against him verbally, bincrease [ iharbe /i] friends for him,i.e., send many people as your messengers to ask him for forgiveness., bRav Ḥisda said: And one must appease theone he has insulted bwith three rows of three people, as it is stated: “He comes [ iyashor /i] before men, and says: I have sinned, and perverted that which was right, and it profited me not”(Job 33:27). Rav Ḥisda interprets the word iyashoras related to the word ishura /i, row. The verse mentions sin three times: I have sinned, and perverted, and it profited me not. This implies that one should make three rows before the person from whom he is asking forgiveness., bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Anyone who asks forgiveness of his friend should not ask more than three times, as it is stated: “Please, please forgivethe transgression of your brothers and their sin, for they did evil to you. bAnd now, pleaseforgive” (Genesis 50:17). The verse uses the word please three times, which shows that one need not ask more than three times, after which the insulted friend must be appeased and forgive. bAnd ifthe insulted friend bdiesbefore he can be appeased, bone brings ten people, and stands them at the graveof the insulted friend, band saysin front of them: bI have sinned against the Lord, the God of Israel, and against so-and-so whom I wounded. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yirmeyainsulted bRabbi Abba,causing the latter to bhave a complaint against him.Rabbi Yirmeya bwent and sat at the thresholdof bRabbi Abba’shouse to beg him for forgiveness. bWhenRabbi Abba’s bmaid poured out thedirty bwaterfrom the house, bthe stream of water landed onRabbi Yirmeya’s bhead. He saidabout himself: bThey have made me into a trash heap,as they are pouring dirty water on me. bHe recitedthis verse babout himself: “Who lifts up the needy out of the trash heap”(Psalms 113:7). bRabbi Abba heardwhat happened band went out to greet him.Rabbi Abba bsaid to him: Now I must go out to appease youfor this insult, bas it is written: “Go, humble yourself [ ihitrapes /i] and urge your neighbor”(Proverbs 6:3).,It is related that bwhen Rabbi Zeira had a complaint against a personwho insulted him, bhe wouldpace bback and forth before him and present himself, so thatthe person bcould come and appease him.Rabbi Zeira made himself available so that it would be easy for the other person to apologize to him.,It is further related that bRav had a complaint against a certain butcherwho insulted him. bThe butcher did not come before himto apologize. bOn Yom Kippur eve,Rav bsaid: I will goand bappease him. He methis student bRav Huna,who bsaid to him: Where is my Master going? He said to him:I am going bto appease so-and-so.Rav Huna called Rav by his name and bsaid: Abba is going to kill a person,for surely that person’s end will not be good. Rav bwent and stood by him.He found the butcher bsitting and splitting the headof an animal. The butcher braised his eyes and saw him. He saidto him: bAre you Abba? Go, I have nothingto say bto you. While he was splitting the head, one of the bonesof the head bflew out and struck him in the throat and killed him,thereby fulfilling Rav Huna’s prediction.,The Gemara further relates: bRav was reciting theTorah bportion before RabbiYehuda HaNasi.
31. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.35, 2.18, 2.22, 3.17, 16.3

1.35. For the emotions of the appetites are restrained, checked by the temperate mind, and all the impulses of the body are bridled by reason. 2.18. For, as I have said, the temperate mind is able to get the better of the emotions, to correct some, and to render others powerless. 2.22. but at the same time he enthroned the mind among the senses as a sacred governor over them all. 3.17. For the temperate mind can conquer the drives of the emotions and quench the flames of frenzied desires; 16.3. The lions surrounding Daniel were not so savage, nor was the raging fiery furnace of Mishael so intensely hot, as was her innate parental love, inflamed as she saw her seven sons tortured in such varied ways.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adoption deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
aramaic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
belial Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
body-soul Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
christology,christological,high christology,lower christology Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
collective humanity Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
corporeal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
curses Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 160
deeds,wicked of humans Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
dichotomization Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
dualism Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
evil Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
forgiveness,among believers deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
forgiveness,gods deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
glory,glorification Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
god,as father deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
healing Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
hebrew Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
holiness deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
inner,person Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
irony/ironical Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 160
jerusalem Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
jews,jewry,jewish,jewish matrix,jewish setting,anti-jewish,non-jewish Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
knowledge Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
lords prayer Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
love-your-enemy Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
love deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
neighbour,oppression of/wrong toward Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
new person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
palestinian talmud Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
persecution Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
physical Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
prayer Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
priests/priesthood/priestly,wicked priest Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
priests/priesthood/priestly Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
rabbinic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 160
salvation Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
second temple period,jewry,tradition Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 160
sermon on the mount Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
sins,transgressions,sinners,forgiveness of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 160
son of man,heavenly,also relating to jesus Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
son of man (generic,man,born of woman),sons of man Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
soul Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
spells Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
spirit,of holiness Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
spirit Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 168
suffering of the wicked' Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 279
tannaitic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
temptation Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
textual variants deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247
torah and prophets,observance Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 160
walking (idiom) deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 247