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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



747
Anon., Sifre Numbers, 84


nan (Bamidbar 10:35) \"And it was, when the ark traveled\": There are signs (inverted nuns) before (this verse) and after (the next verse). Rebbi says: Because it is a book in itself — whence they ruled: A (Torah) scroll which was erased, and there remained eighty-five letters, as in the section \"And it was, when the ark traveled\" (imparts tumah to the hands [a Rabbinical enactment, viz. Shabbath 14a]). R. Shimon says: There are signs before and after because this is not its place. What should have been written? (Bamidbar 10:33) \"And they traveled from the mountain of the L-rd, a journey of three days. (And the ark of the covenant of the L-rd preceded them a distance of three days\"). (Bamidbar 11:1) \"And the people were as seekers of a pretext.\" An analogy: Some men say to the king: Would you please accompany us to the governor of Acco? They arrive at Acco — he has gone to Tyre. They arrive at Tyre — he has gone to Tziddon. They arrive at Tziddon — he has gone to Antochia. They arrive at Antochia — some of them start complaining against the king for having put them to all of this trouble! It is the king who should complain, for having been put to all of this trouble for their sakes! Similarly, on that day the Shechinah traveled a three-days journey, so that they could (immediately) enter Eretz Yisrael — and they began to complain before Him for having been put to all of that trouble! It is He (if anyone) who should have complained! For it was for their sakes that the Shechinah was thus constrained!", , " Rebbi says: One verse states (Bamidbar 9:23) \"By the word of the L-rd they encamped, and by the word of the L-rd they traveled,\" and here (10:35-36) it is written \"And Moses said: \"Stand, O L-rd … Rest, O -rd.\" How are these verses to be reconciled? Scripture is telling us that when Israel traveled (by word of the L-rd) the pillar of cloud was folded and standing, and it did not move until Moses said \"Stand, O L-rd.\" And when they rested (by word of the L-rd), the pillar of cloud was folded and standing, and it did not spread out (over the encampment) until Moses said \"Rest, O L-rd,\" so that there are satisfied both \"By word of the L-rd they encamped and by word of the L-rd they traveled,\" and \"Moses said: Stand, O L-rd … Rest, O L-rd.\" And this is the intent of \"by the mouth of the L-rd, by the hand of Moses.\" (Ibid. 36) \"And when it came to rest, he said, etc.\": Scripture (here) states that Moses said: (I will not allow the Shechinah to rest) until Israel travels in thousands and rests in ten thousands, until Israel becomes thousands of ten thousands, like the stars of heaven. \"And when it rested, he said\": Scripture (here) states that the Shechinah rests on high only on two thousands and two ten thousands, as it is written (Psalms 68:18) \"the chariots of G-d are two ten thousands, two thousands.\" And just as the Shechinah does not rest on high except on two thousands and two ten thousands, so, it does not rest below except on two thousands and two ten thousands.", , " \"and let Your haters flee before You\": Now are there \"haters\" before Him who spoke and brought the world into being? The intent is, rather, that all who hate the righteous are, as it were, haters of the L-rd. Similarly, (Shemot 15:7) \"and in the greatness of Your grandeur you destroy those who rise against You.\" Now are there any who \"rise\" before the L-rd? The intent is, rather, that all who rise against the righteous are, as it were, \"rising\" against the L-rd. And, similarly (Psalms 74:23) \"Forget not the voice of Your adversaries, the ever rising roar of those who rise against You,\" and (Psalms 83:3) \"For Your foes are tumultuous; Your haters have raised their heads,\" and (Psalms 4) \"They have been subtle in counsel against Your people,\" and (Psalms 138:21-22) \"Will I not hate Your haters, O L-rd? Will I not battle with those who rise up against You? I have hated them to the heights of hatred. I have deemed them my (own) enemies.\" And thus is it written (Zechariah 2:12) \"Whoever touches you (Israel) touches the pupil of His eye\": It is not written \"the pupil of the eye,\" but \"the pupil of His eye\" — that of the L-rd, as it were, Scripture resorting to a euphemism (for \"the eye of the L-rd\"). Similarly, (Job 7:20) \"Why do You make me Your target for Yourself, and a burden to myself?\" — (\"myself\") a euphemism (for \"to You\"?) Similarly, (Ezekiel 8:17) \"and they thrust the branch to their nostrils\" — a euphemism for (\"My\"). Similarly, (Chabakkuk 1:12) \"Are You not of yore, O L-rd, my holy G-d, and we shall not die\" — a euphemism (for \"You\"). Similarly, (Psalms 106:20) \"They exchanged their glory for the image of a bull feeding on grass\" — a euphemism (for \"G-d\"). Similarly, (Bamidbar 11:15) \"And if You will do thus to me, kill me, I pray You, if I have found favor in Your eyes, and let me not witness my evil\" — a euphemism (for \"them\" and \"their,\" respectively). Similarly, (Ibid. 12:12) \"who comes out of his mother's womb, and half his flesh being consumed\" — a euphemism (for \"our\"). And if one helps the righteous, it is as if he is helping the L-rd, viz. (Judges 5:23) \"'Curse Meroz!' said the angel of the L-rd. 'Bitterly curse her dwellers. Because they do not come to the holy of the L-rd, to the help of the L-rd among the mighty.'\" R. Shimon b. Elazar says: There is nothing more \"beloved\" in a man's body than his eye. When a man is hit on his head, he closes only his eyes. And Israel is thus compared, viz. (Zechariah 2:12) \"Whoever touches you (Israel) touches the pupil of His eye.\" R. Yossi b. Elazar says: He (the \"toucher\") is regarded as one who sticks a finger into His eye and gouges it out. Pharaoh, who \"touched,\" what did I do to him? (Shemot 15:4) \"Pharaoh's chariots and his army He cast into the sea.\" Sisra, who \"touched,\" what did I do to him? (Judges 5:20) \"From heaven the stars fought. From their courses they fought against Sisra.\" Sancherev, who \"touched,\" what did I do to him? (II Kings 19:35) \"And an angel of the L-rd went out and smote in the camp of Ashur, etc.\" Nevuchadnezzar, who \"touched,\" what did I do to him? (Daniel 4:30) \"and he ate grass like cattle.\" Haman, who \"touched,\" what did I do to him? (Esther 8:7) \"and they hanged him on a tree.\" And thus you find that as long as Israel were subjugated in Egypt, the Shechinah was with them in their servitude, viz. (Shemot 22:10) \"And they saw the G-d of Israel, and under His feet, the likeness of a sapphire brick\" (viz. Ibid. 1:14) \"And thus is it written (Isaiah 63:9) \"In all of their afflictions, He was afflicted.\" This tells me only of communal afflictions. Whence do I derive (the same for) individual afflictions? From (Psalms 91:15) \"When he calls Me, I will answer him. With him will I be in affliction.\" And it is written (Bereshit 39:20-21) \"And Joseph's master took him in and the L-rd was with Joseph.\" And thus is it written (II Samuel 7:23) \"… before your people whom You redeemed from Egypt — a nation and its G-d\" (together with them). R. Akiva says: If it were not explicitly written, it would be impossible to say it — Israel said before the L-rd: \"You have redeemed Yourself!\" You find that whenever they were exiled, the Shechinah was exiled with them, viz. (I Samuel 2:27) \"Was I not exiled to your father's house when they were in Egypt in the house of Pharaoh?\" When they were exiled to Bavel, the Shechinah was with them, viz. (Isaiah 43:14) \"For your sake I was sent to Bavel.\" When they were exiled to Edom, the Shechinah was with them, viz. (Ibid. 63:1) \"Who is this, coming from Edom, etc.?\" And when they return, the Shechinah will return with them, as it is written (Devarim 30:3) \"And the L-rd will return, etc.\" It is not written \"and the L-rd will return your captivity,\" but \"and the L-rd will return with your captivity.\" And it is written (Song of Songs 4:8) \"With Me, from Levanon, My bride, with Me from Levanon will you come.\"", , "\"Stand, O L-rd, and let Your foes be scattered\": \"Your foes\": those who are massed to attack us. \"and let Your haters (those in pursuit) flee before You.\" They will flee, and we will not be destroyed by them. (\"before You\" [lit., \"before Your face\"]) When Your face is with us, we will not flee before them, and if not, we will fall before them. And thus is it written (Shemot 33:15) \"If Your 'face' does not go, do not bring us up from here,\" and (Ibid. 16) \"For how, otherwise, will it be known that I and Your people have found favor in Your eyes,\" and (Joshua 10:11) \"And it was, when they fled before Israel, they were on the descent of Beth Choron, when the L-rd cast upon them great stones, etc.\", and (Psalms 83:115) \"My G-d, make them like whirling chaff, like stubble before the wind, like a fire burning mountains.\"", , " One verse states (Bamidbar 11:35) \"And Moses said: 'Stand, O L-rd (and let Your foes be scattered'\"), and another (Bamidbar 9:23) \"By word of the L-rd they encamped, and by word of the L-rd they traveled.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? An analogy: A king says to his servant: Would you please stop me (if I go too quickly). For I am on my way to give an inheritance to my son, (\"and I may 'run away' with myself!\") Variantly: A king goes on a journey and takes his lover along with him. When he travels, he says: I will not go further before my lover tells me to; and when he desires to camp, he says: I will not camp unless my lover tells me to. Thus is reconciled \"And Moses said, etc.\" and \"By word of the L-rd they encamped, and by the word of the L-rd they traveled.\""


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.11, 10.6, 30.3, 31.15, 33.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵכֶם יֹסֵף עֲלֵיכֶם כָּכֶם אֶלֶף פְּעָמִים וִיבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָכֶם׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נָסְעוּ מִבְּאֵרֹת בְּנֵי־יַעֲקָן מוֹסֵרָה שָׁם מֵת אַהֲרֹן וַיִּקָּבֵר שָׁם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃ 30.3. וְשָׁב יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־שְׁבוּתְךָ וְרִחֲמֶךָ וְשָׁב וְקִבֶּצְךָ מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר הֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 33.3. אַף חֹבֵב עַמִּים כָּל־קְדֹשָׁיו בְּיָדֶךָ וְהֵם תֻּכּוּ לְרַגְלֶךָ יִשָּׂא מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ׃ 1.11. The LORD, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times so many more as ye are, and bless you, as He hath promised you!—" 10.6. And the children of Israel journeyed from Beeroth-benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died, and there he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest’s office in his stead." 30.3. that then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee." 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 33.3. Yea, He loveth the peoples, All His holy ones—they are in Thy hand; And they sit down at Thy feet, Receiving of Thy words."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.21-13.22, 14.19-14.20, 16.10, 24.10, 34.5, 40.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 40.38. כִּי עֲנַן יְהוָה עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹמָם וְאֵשׁ תִּהְיֶה לַיְלָה בּוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָל־בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל־מַסְעֵיהֶם׃ 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 14.20. and it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the darkness here, yet gave it light by night there; and the one came not near the other all the night." 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 40.38. For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and there was fire therein by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.9. מְאַחֵז פְּנֵי־כִסֵּה פַּרְשֵׁז עָלָיו עֲנָנוֹ׃ 26.9. He closeth in the face of His throne, And spreadeth His cloud upon it."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.15-9.16, 10.34-10.35, 12.5, 12.8-12.10, 16.10, 17.7, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.15. וּבְיוֹם הָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כִּסָּה הֶעָנָן אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 9.16. כֵּן יִהְיֶה תָמִיד הֶעָנָן יְכַסֶּנּוּ וּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 10.34. וַעֲנַן יְהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּנָסְעָם מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 10.35. וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה קוּמָה יְהוָה וְיָפֻצוּ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְיָנֻסוּ מְשַׂנְאֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 12.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 12.9. וַיִּחַר אַף יְהוָה בָּם וַיֵּלַךְ׃ 17.7. וַיְהִי בְּהִקָּהֵל הָעֵדָה עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִנֵּה כִסָּהוּ הֶעָנָן וַיֵּרָא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 21.1. וַיִּשְׁמַע הַכְּנַעֲנִי מֶלֶךְ־עֲרָד יֹשֵׁב הַנֶּגֶב כִּי בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל דֶּרֶךְ הָאֲתָרִים וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁבְּ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁבִי׃ 21.1. וַיִּסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּאֹבֹת׃ 9.15. And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, even the tent of the testimony; and at even there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning." 9.16. So it was alway: the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night." 10.34. And the cloud of the LORD was over them by day, when they set forward from the camp." 10.35. And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said: ‘Rise up, O LORD, and let Thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee.’" 12.5. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth." 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 12.9. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed." 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 16.10. and that He hath brought thee near, and all thy brethren the sons of Levi with thee? and will ye seek the priesthood also?" 17.7. And it came to pass, when the congregation was assembled against Moses and against Aaron, that they looked toward the tent of meeting; and, behold, the cloud covered it, and the glory of the LORD appeared." 21.1. And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel, and took some of them captive."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.27. וַיָּבֹא אִישׁ־אֱלֹהִים אֶל־עֵלִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיךָ בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּמִצְרַיִם לְבֵית פַּרְעֹה׃ 2.27. And there came a man of God to ῾Eli and said to him, Thus says the Lord, Did I not appear to the house of thy father, when they were in Miżrayim in the house of Par῾o?"
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.23. וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־אֱלֹהִים לִפְדּוֹת־לוֹ לְעָם וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שֵׁם וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם הַגְּדוּלָּה וְנֹרָאוֹת לְאַרְצֶךָ מִפְּנֵי עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ לְּךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם גּוֹיִם וֵאלֹהָיו׃ 7.23. And what one nation in the earth is like Thy people, like Yisra᾽el, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make himself a name, and to do like the great things and terrible which Thou didst for Thy land, by driving out from before Thy people, whom Thou didst redeem to Thee from Miżrayim, the nations and their gods?"
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.14, 63.1, 63.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.14. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה גֹּאַלְכֶם קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַנְכֶם שִׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי בָרִיחִים כֻּלָּם וְכַשְׂדִּים בָּאֳנִיּוֹת רִנָּתָם׃ 63.1. וְהֵמָּה מָרוּ וְעִצְּבוּ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ וַיֵּהָפֵךְ לָהֶם לְאוֹיֵב הוּא נִלְחַם־בָּם׃ 63.1. מִי־זֶה בָּא מֵאֱדוֹם חֲמוּץ בְּגָדִים מִבָּצְרָה זֶה הָדוּר בִּלְבוּשׁוֹ צֹעֶה בְּרֹב כֹּחוֹ אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בִּצְדָקָה רַב לְהוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא [לוֹ] צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃ 43.14. Thus saith the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And I will bring down all of them as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, in the ships of their shouting." 63.1. ’Who is this that cometh from Edom, with crimsoned garments from Bozrah? This that is glorious in his apparel, stately in the greatness of his strength?’— ’I that speak in victory, mighty to save.’—" 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. ."
9. Mishnah, Negaim, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The following bright spots are clean:Those that one had before the Torah was given, Those that a non-Jew had when he converted; Or a child when it was born, Or those that were in a crease and were subsequently uncovered. If they were on the head or the beard, on a boil, a burn or a blister that is festering, and subsequently the head or the beard became bald, and the boil, burn or blister turned into a scar, they are clean. If they were on the head or the beard before they grew hair, and they then grew hair and subsequently became bald, or if they were on the body before the boil, burn or blister before they were festering and then these formed a scar or were healed: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said that they are unclean since at the beginning and at the end they were unclean, But the sages say: they are clean."
10. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 62.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62.4. וְאֵלֶּה תֹּלְדֹת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן אַבְרָהָם (בראשית כה, יב), רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר עוּקְבָא וְרַבָּנָן הֲווֹ יָתְבִין וּמִתְקַשִּׁין מַה רָאָה הַכָּתוּב לְיַחֵס תּוֹלְדוֹתָיו שֶׁל רָשָׁע כָּאן, עָבַר רַבִּי לֵוִי, אָמְרֵי הָא אֲתָא מָרָה דִּשְׁמַעְתָּה נִשְׁאֲלוּנֵיהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ בֶּן כַּמָּה שְׁנִין נִתְבָּרֵךְ זְקֵנֶךָ. (בראשית כה, יז): וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, מָה רָאָה הַכָּתוּב לְיַחֵס שָׁנָיו שֶׁל רָשָׁע כָּאן, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבָּא מִקָּדְקָדָהּ שֶׁל מִדְבָּר לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד לְאָבִיו. (בראשית כה, יח): וַיִּשְׁכְּנוּ מֵחֲוִילָה וגו', הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר נָפָל, וּלְהַלָּן אַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית טז, יב): יִשְׁכֹּן, אֶלָּא כָּל יָמִים שֶׁהָיָה אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם קַיָּם יִשְׁכֹּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמֵּת אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם נָפָל. עַד שֶׁלֹא פָּשַׁט יָדוֹ בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ יִשְׁכֹּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁפָּשַׁט בּוֹ יָדוֹ נָפָל. בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה יִשְׁכֹּן, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא נָפָל.
11. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 106 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. כיון דחזו דמזלזלי בהו תקינו להו מאתן כיון דחזו דקא פרשין מינייהו דאמרי עד דנסבינן אלמנת כהנים ניזיל ניסיב בתולה בת ישראל אהדרינהו למלתייהו:,בית דין של כהנים כו': אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא ב"ד של כהנים בלבד אמרו אלא אפי' משפחות המיוחסות בישראל אם רצו לעשות כדרך שהכהנים עושין עושין,מיתיבי הרוצה לעשות כדרך שהכהנים עושין כגון בת ישראל לכהן ובת כהן לישראל עושין בת ישראל לכהן ובת כהן לישראל הוא דאיכא צד כהונה אבל בת ישראל לישראל לא,לא מבעיא קאמר לא מבעיא בת ישראל לישראל דלא מצי אמר לה עלויי קא מעלינן ליך אבל בת ישראל לכהן דמצי אמר לה עלויי קא מעלינן ליך אימא לא קמ"ל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הנושא את האשה ולא מצא לה בתולים היא אומרת משארסתני נאנסתי ונסתחפה שדהו והוא אומר לא כי אלא עד שלא ארסתיך והיה מקחי מקח טעות רבן גמליאל ורבי אליעזר אומרים נאמנת רבי יהושע אומר לא מפיה אנו חיין אלא הרי זו בחזקת בעולה עד שלא תתארס והטעתו עד שתביא ראיה לדבריה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אתמר מנה לי בידך והלה אומר איני יודע רב יהודה ורב הונא אמרי חייב ורב נחמן ורבי יוחנן אמרי פטור רב הונא ורב יהודה אמרי חייב ברי ושמא ברי עדיף רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן אמרי פטור אוקי ממונא בחזקת מריה,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דשמואל היא דתנן היתה מעוברת ואמרו לה מה טיבו של עובר זה מאיש פלוני וכהן הוא רבן גמליאל ורבי אליעזר אומרים נאמנת ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבן גמליאל,ואמר ליה רב שמואל בר יהודה לרב יהודה שיננא אמרת לן משמיה דשמואל הלכה כרבן גמליאל אף בראשונה מאי אף בראשונה אע"ג דאיכא למימר אוקי ממונא בחזקת מריה אמר רבן גמליאל ברי עדיף,לימא רב יהודה ורב הונא דאמרי כר"ג ורב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי כרבי יהושע,אמר לך רב נחמן אנא דאמרי אפילו כרבן גמליאל עד כאן לא קאמר ר"ג התם אלא דאיכא מגו אבל הכא מאי מגו איכא,אי נמי עד כאן לא קאמר רבן גמליאל התם אלא דאמרינן אוקמה אחזקה אבל הכא מאי חזקה אית ליה להאי,הכי נמי מסתברא כדקא משנינן דרב נחמן הוא דאמר כר"ג 12b. bOncethe members of the court bsaw thatthe priests bwere demeaningthe widows, bthey instituted for thema marriage contract of btwo hundreddinars, so that they would treat them with greater esteem. bOnce they saw thatthe grooms bwere distancingthemselves bfrom them, as they said: Instead of marrying a widowwho is the daughter of bpriestsand paying a marriage contract of two hundred, blet us go marry a virgin Israelite womanfor the same price. Since men would no longer marry widows from priestly families, bthey restoredmatters bto theiroriginal bstatus.This indicates that the mishna and the ibaraitaare addressing different time periods and different ordices.,§ It is stated in the mishna that ba court of priestswould collect a marriage contract of four hundred dinars for a virgin daughter of a priest. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Not only with regard to a court of priests didthe Sages bsaythat they could collect a greater sum for the marriage contract of their daughters, bbut even families of distinguished lineage in Israel. If they wanted to act as the priests do, they may actin that manner.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bOne who sought to act as the priests do,as in cases bwhere an Israelite womanis married bto a priest, or the daughter of a priestis married bto an Israelite, may actin that manner. The Gemara infers: This allowance is specifically in cases where ban Israelite womanis married bto a priest, or the daughter of a priestis married bto an Israelite, where there is an aspect of priesthoodinvolved. bHowever,apparently, in a case where bthe daughter of an Israeliteis married bto an Israelite, no,it is not allowed.,The Gemara rejects that inference. The ibaraita bis statedemploying the style of: bIt is not necessary. It is not necessaryto state a case where bthe daughter of an Israeliteis married bto an Israelite, asin that case the groom bcannot say to her:By marrying you, bI am raising yoursocial status, and it is clear that women from distinguished families would demand a marriage contract with a greater sum. bHowever,in a case where ban Israelite womanis married bto a priest, where he can say to her: I am raising yoursocial status, as you are marrying into the priesthood, you might think to bsay no,the woman cannot demand a marriage contract with a greater sum. Therefore, the ibaraita bteaches usthat even in the case of a woman from a distinguished family of Israelites marrying a priest, she may demand a marriage contract with a greater sum., strongMISHNA: /strong There is a case of one bwho marries a woman and did not find her hymenintact, and bshe says: After you betrothed me I was raped, and his,i.e., her husband’s, bfield was inundated,meaning that it is his misfortune that she is not a virgin, as she was raped after betrothal. bAnd he says: No; rather,you were raped bbefore I betrothed you, and my transaction was a mistaken transaction. Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Eliezer say: She is deemed credible. Rabbi Yehoshua says:It is bnotbased on the statement emerging bfrom her mouththat bwe conduct our lives; rather, thiswoman assumes bthe presumptive status of one who engaged in intercourse when she was not yet betrothed and she misled him, until she brings proofsupporting bher statement. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was stated:With regard to one who approaches another and says: bI have one hundred dinars in your possession, and the other says: I don’t know, Rav Yehuda and Rav Huna say:The respondent is bobligatedto pay, because he did not deny the claim, band Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa say:He is bexemptfrom payment. The Gemara elaborates. bRav Huna and Rav Yehuda saythat the respondent is bobligatedto pay based on the principle: When there is a bcertainclaim, e.g., that of the claimant, band an uncertainclaim, e.g., that of the respondent, the bcertainclaim bprevails. Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa say:The respondent is bexemptbased on the principle: bEstablish the money in the possession of its owner,and the burden of proof rests upon the claimant. Since the claimant does not support his claim with proof, the money remains in the possession of the respondent., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Thisruling bof Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda isessentially the statement bof Shmuel, as we learnedin a mishna (13a): In the case of an unmarried woman bwho was pregt, andthe Sages bsaid to her: What is the nature of this fetus,i.e., who is the father. And she says: It is bfrom a mancalled bso-and-so and he is a priestand is certainly of valid lineage. bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Eliezer say: She is deemed credible,and the fetus is deemed to be of valid lineage. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel. /b, bAnd Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed one [ ishina /i], you said to us in the name of Shmuelthat the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel even in the firstdispute, the dispute cited in the mishna, which is the first in a series of disputes with regard to conflicting claims. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of beven the first?What is unique about that dispute relative to the others? The Gemara answers: The novel element in the first dispute is that the claim of the bride is accepted bdespite the fact thatalthough bthere isroom bto say: Establish the money in the possession of its owner,and since the money is in the possession of the husband and the woman is the claimant, bRabban Gamliel saidthat the bcertainclaim of the bride bprevailsover the uncertain claim of the groom, who can only speculate about when she was raped.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat it is bRav Yehuda and Rav Huna who saytheir ruling bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel,who says that a certain claim prevails over an uncertain one even to collect money from the possession of the respondent. bAndit is bRav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa who saytheir ruling bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua,that one does not collect money based merely on a claim.,The Gemara rejects that suggestion. bRav Naḥmancould have bsaid to you:That bwhich I said, is even in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel. Rabban Gamliel says his ruling only there,with regard to claims of a groom and a bride, bwhere there is a imiggo /i,a halakhic argument that the ability to make a more advantageous claim grants credibility to the claim one actually makes, that bolsters the bride’s claim. She could have claimed that she wasn’t raped at all, but rather that her hymen was ruptured by wood. That is a more advantageous claim because she is not disgraced in the eyes of the groom. Therefore, her claim that she was raped is accorded credibility. bHowever here,where one claims that another owes him money, bwhat imiggois therebolstering his claim and according it credibility?, bAlternatively,Rav Naḥman could have said to you: bRabban Gamliel says his ruling only there, where we say: Establish herlegal status according to her bpresumptive statusas a virgin, and the husband’s claim seeks to undermine that presumptive status. bHowever here, what presumptive status does thisclaimant bhavesupporting the claim that another owes him money? Therefore, even Rabban Gamliel would concede that his certain claim does not prevail.,The Gemara notes: bIndeed,it is balso reasonableto explain bas we are teaching, that it is Rav Naḥman who saidhis ruling bin accordancewith the opinion of bRabban Gamliel. /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. מבטלין ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה אמרו עליו על ר' יהודה בר' אילעאי שהיה מבטל ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה בד"א בשאין שם כל צורכו אבל יש שם כל צורכו אין מבטלין,וכמה כל צורכו אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב תריסר אלפי גברי ושיתא אלפי שיפורי ואמרי לה תריסר אלפי גברי ומינייהו שיתא אלפי שיפורי עולא אמר כגון דחייצי גברי מאבולא עד סיכרא,רב ששת אמר כנתינתה כך נטילתה מה נתינתה בששים ריבוא אף נטילתה בס' ריבוא ה"מ למאן דקרי ותני אבל למאן דמתני לית ליה שיעורא,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בוא וראה כמה חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה שבכל מקום שגלו שכינה עמהן גלו למצרים שכינה עמהן שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כז) הנגלה נגליתי לבית אביך בהיותם במצרים וגו' גלו לבבל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יד) למענכם שלחתי בבלה ואף כשהן עתידין ליגאל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (דברים ל, ג) ושב ה' אלהיך את שבותך והשיב לא נאמר אלא ושב מלמד שהקב"ה שב עמהן מבין הגליות,בבבל היכא אמר אביי בבי כנישתא דהוצל ובבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא ולא תימא הכא והכא אלא זמנין הכא וזמנין הכא אמר אביי תיתי לי דכי מרחיקנא פרסה עיילנא ומצלינא התם אבוה דשמואל [ולוי] הוו יתבי בכנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה שמעו קול ריגשא [קמו ונפקו,רב ששת הוה יתיב בבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה] ולא נפק אתו מלאכי השרת וקא מבעתו ליה אמר לפניו רבש"ע עלוב ושאינו עלוב מי נדחה מפני מי אמר להו שבקוהו,(יחזקאל יא, טז) ואהי להם למקדש מעט אמר רבי יצחק אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל ור"א אמר זה בית רבינו שבבבל,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים צ, א) ה' מעון אתה היית לנו אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות אמר אביי מריש הואי גריסנא בביתא ומצלינא בבי כנשתא כיון דשמעית להא דקאמר דוד (תהלים כו, ח) ה' אהבתי מעון ביתך הואי גריסנא בבי כנישתא,תניא ר"א הקפר אומר עתידין בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל שיקבעו בא"י שנאמר (ירמיהו מו, יח) כי כתבור בהרים וככרמל בים יבא והלא דברים ק"ו ומה תבור וכרמל שלא באו אלא לפי שעה ללמוד תורה נקבעים בארץ ישראל בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שקורין ומרביצין בהן תורה עאכ"ו,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, יז) למה תרצדון הרים גבנונים יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם למה תרצו דין עם סיני כולכם בעלי מומים אתם אצל סיני כתיב הכא גבנונים וכתיב התם (ויקרא כא, כ) או גבן או דק אמר רב אשי ש"מ האי מאן דיהיר בעל מום הוא:,אין עושין אותו קפנדריא: מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה מאי כשמה כמאן דאמר אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא,א"ר אבהו אם היה שביל מעיקרא מותר,אר"נ בר יצחק הנכנס ע"מ שלא לעשות קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא וא"ר חלבו אמר ר"ה הנכנס לבהכ"נ להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנא' (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים הבא דרך שער צפון להשתחוות יצא דרך שער נגב:,עלו בו עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש: והתניא אינו תולש ומאכיל אבל תולש ומניח כי תנן נמי מתני' תולש ומאכיל תנן,ת"ר בית הקברות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש אין מרעין בהן בהמה ואין מוליכין בהן אמת המים ואין מלקטין בהן עשבים ואם ליקט שורפן במקומן מפני כבוד מתים,אהייא אילימא אסיפא כיון ששורפן במקומן מאי כבוד מתים איכא אלא ארישא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין בפרשת שקלים חל להיות בתוך השבת מקדימין לשעבר ומפסיקין לשבת אחרת,בשניה זכור בשלישית פרה אדומה ברביעית החודש הזה לכם בחמישית חוזרין לכסדרן,לכל מפסיקין בראשי חדשים בחנוכה ובפורים בתעניות ובמעמדות וביוה"כ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנן התם באחד באדר משמיעין על השקלים 29a. bOne interruptshis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. bThey said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, that he would interrupthis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: bIn whatcase bis this statement said?Only bwhere there are not sufficientnumbers of other people available to perform these mitzvot and honor the deceased or the bride appropriately. bHowever,when bthere are sufficientnumbers, additional people bshould not interrupttheir Torah study to participate.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how manypeople bareconsidered bsufficient? Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: Twelve thousand men andanother bsix thousandmen to blow bhornsas a sign of mourning. bAnd some saya different version: bTwelve thousand men, among whom are six thousandmen with bhorns. Ulla said: For example,enough bto make a procession of peopleall the way bfrom thetown bgate [ iabbula /i] to the place of burial. /b, bRav Sheshet said: Asthe Torah bwas given, so itshould be btaken away,i.e., the same honor that was provided when the Torah was given at Mount Sinai should be provided when the Torah is taken through the passing away of a Torah scholar. bJust asthe Torah bwas given in the presence of six hundred thousandmen, bso too its takingshould be done bin the presence of six hundred thousandmen. The Gemara comments: bThis applies to someone who readthe Bible band studied ihalakhotfor himself. bBut for someone who taughtothers, bthere is no limitto the honor that should be shown to him.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Come and see how beloved the Jewish people are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. As every place they were exiled, the Divine Presencewent bwith them. They were exiled to Egypt,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “Did I reveal myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt?”(I Samuel 2:27). bThey were exiled to Babylonia,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “For your sake I have sent to Babylonia”(Isaiah 43:14). bSo too, when, in the future, they will be redeemed, the Divine Presence will be with them, as it is stated: “Then the Lord your God will return with your captivity”(Deuteronomy 30:3). bIt does not state: He will bring back,i.e., He will cause the Jewish people to return, bbut ratherit says: b“He will return,”which bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will returntogether bwith them from among thevarious bexiles. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere in Babyloniadoes the Divine Presence reside? bAbaye said: In theancient bsynagogue of Huzal and in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. And do not saythat the Divine Presence resided bhere and there,i.e., in both places simultaneously. bRather, at timesit resided bherein Huzal band at times therein Neharde’a. bAbaye said: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for whenever I amwithin ba distance of a parasangfrom one of those synagogues, bI go in and pray there,due to the special honor and sanctity attached to them. It was related that bthe father of Shmuel and Levi wereonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. The Divine Presence cameand bthey heard a loud sound,so bthey arose and left. /b,It was further related that bRav Sheshet wasonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a,and bthe Divine Presence came but he did not go out. The ministering angels came and were frightening himin order to force him to leave. Rav Sheshet turned to God and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,if one is bwretched andthe other is bnot wretched, who should defer to whom?Shouldn’t the one who is not wretched give way to the one who is? Now I am blind and wretched; why then do you expect me to defer to the angels? God then turned to the angels and bsaid to them: Leave him. /b,The verse states: b“Yet I have been to them as a little sanctuaryin the countries where they have come” (Ezekiel 11:16). bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Thisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls in Babylonia. And Rabbi Elazar said: Thisis referring to bthe house of our master,i.e., Rav, bin Babylonia,from which Torah issues forth to the entire world., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Lord, You have been our dwelling placein all generations” (Psalms 90:1)? bThisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls. Abaye said: Initially, I used to studyTorah binmy bhome and pray in the synagogue. Once I heardand understood bthat whichKing bDavid says: “Lord, I love the habitation of Your house”(Psalms 26:8), bI wouldalways bstudyTorah bin the synagogue,to express my love for the place in which the Divine Presence resides., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar HaKappar says: In the future, the synagogues and the study halls in Babylonia will betransported and breestablished in Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Surely, like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come”(Jeremiah 46:18). There is a tradition that these mountains came to Sinai at the giving of the Torah and demanded that the Torah should be given upon them. bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred through an ia fortiori /iargument: bJust as Tabor and Carmel, which came only momentarily to study Torah, wererelocated and bestablished in Eretz Yisraelin reward for their actions, ball the more soshould bthe synagogues and study hallsin Babylonia, bin which the Torah is read and disseminated,be relocated to Eretz Yisrael., bBar Kappara interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why do you look askance [ iteratzdun /i], O high-peaked mountains,at the mountain that God has desired for His abode” (Psalms 68:17)? bA Divine Voice issued forth and said toall the mountains that came and demanded that the Torah be given upon them: bWhy do you seek [ itirtzu /i]to enter into ba legal dispute [ idin /i] withMount bSinai? You are all blemished in comparison toMount bSinai,as bit is written here: “High-peaked [ igavnunnim /i]” and it is written there,with regard to the blemishes that disqualify a priest: b“Or crookbacked [ igibben /i] or a dwarf”(Leviticus 21:20). bRav Ashi said: Learn fromthis that bone who is arrogant isconsidered bblemished.The other mountains arrogantly insisted that the Torah should be given upon them, and they were therefore described as blemished.,§ The mishna teaches that even if a synagogue fell into ruin, bit may not be madeinto ba ikappendarya /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by ikappendarya /i? Rava said: A shortcut, asimplied by bits name.The Gemara clarifies: bWhatdo you mean by adding: bAsimplied by bits name?It is blike one who said: Instead of going around theentire row of bhouses [ imakkifna addari /i]to get to the other side, thereby lengthening my journey, bI will enter thishouse and walk through it to the other side. The word ikappendaryasounds like a contraction of imakkifna addari /i. This is what Rava meant by saying: As implied by its name., bRabbi Abbahu said: Ifa public bpath had initiallypassed through that location, before the synagogue was built, bit is permittedto continue to use it as a shortcut, for the honor due to a synagogue cannot annul the public’s right of access to the path., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:With regard to bone who entersa synagogue bwithout intending to make itinto ba shortcut,when he leaves bhe is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself, by leaving through the exit on the other side of the building. bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said:With regard to bone who enters a synagogue to pray, he is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself by leaving through a different exit, and it is fitting to do so, bas it is stated: “And when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to bow down shall go forth by the way of the south gate”(Ezekiel 46:9). This indicates that it is a show of respect not to leave through the same entrance through which one came in; it is better to leave through the other side.,§ The mishna teaches: If bgrass sprang up ina ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, bone should not pickit, bdue tothe banguishthat it will cause to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not pickthe grass band feedit to one’s animals, bbut he may pickit band leaveit there? The Gemara answers: bWhen we learnedthe prohibition against picking the grass in bthe mishna as well, we learnedonly that it is prohibited to bpickit and bfeedit to one’s animals, but it is permitted to leave it there., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba cemetery, one may not act with frivolity; one may not graze an animalon the grass growing binside it; and one may not direct a water channelto pass bthrough it; and one may not gather grass inside itto use the grass as feed for one’s animals; band if one gatheredgrass for that purpose, bit should be burnt on the spot, out of respect for the dead. /b,The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the phrase: Out of respect for the dead, bto whichclause of the ibaraitadoes it refer? bIf we sayit is referring bto the last clause,that if one gathered grass that it should be burnt out of respect for the dead, then one could ask: bSincethe grass bis burnt on the spot,and not publicly, bwhat respect for the dead is therein this act? bRather,the phrase must be referring bto the first clauseof the ibaraita /i, and it explains why it is prohibited to act with frivolity., strongMISHNA: /strong On four iShabbatotduring and surrounding the month of Adar, a Torah portion of seasonal significance is read. When bthe New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat,the congregation breads the portion of iShekalim /ion that Shabbat. If the New Moon boccurs duringthe middle of bthe week, they advancethe reading of that portion bto the previousShabbat, band,in such a case, bthey interruptthe reading of the four portions bon the following Shabbat,which would be the first Shabbat of the month of Adar, and no additional portion is read on it., bOn the secondShabbat, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did” (Deuteronomy 25:17–19), which details the mitzva to remember and destroy the nation of Amalek. bOn the thirdShabbat, they read the portion of bthe Red Heifer [ iPara /i](Numbers 19:1–22), which details the purification process for one who became ritually impure through contact with a corpse. bOn the fourthShabbat, they read the portion: b“This month [ ihaḥodesh /i] shall be for you”(Exodus 12:1–20), which describes the offering of the Paschal lamb. bOn the fifthShabbat, bthey resume theregular weekly borderof readings and no special portion is read., bFor allspecial days, the congregation binterruptsthe regular weekly order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies bon the New Moons, on Hanukkah, and on Purim, on fast days, and on thenon-priestly bwatches, and on Yom Kippur. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iShekalim1:1): bOn the first of Adar they makea public bannouncement concerningthe forthcoming collection of half- bshekels.The money is used for the communal offerings in the Temple in the coming year.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. מעטרה ולמעלה אסור,אמר רב המקשה עצמו לדעת יהא בנדוי ולימא אסור דקמגרי יצה"ר אנפשיה ורבי אמי אמר נקרא עבריין שכך אומנתו של יצר הרע היום אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו לך עבוד עבודת כוכבים והולך ועובד,איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אמי כל המביא עצמו לידי הרהור אין מכניסין אותו במחיצתו של הקב"ה כתיב הכא (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' וכתיב התם (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו אלו המנאפים ביד תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (שמות כ, יג) לא תנאף לא תהא בך ניאוף בין ביד בין ברגל,ת"ר הגרים והמשחקין בתינוקות מעכבין את המשיח בשלמא גרים כדר' חלבו דא"ר חלבו קשין גרים לישראל כספחת אלא משחקין בתנוקות מאי היא,אילימא משכב זכור בני סקילה נינהו אלא דרך אברים בני מבול נינהו,אלא דנסיבי קטנות דלאו בנות אולודי נינהו דא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,באנשים תקצץ איבעיא להו דינא תנן או לטותא תנן דינא תנן כי הא דרב הונא קץ ידא או לטותא תנן,ת"ש דתניא רבי טרפון אומר יד לאמה תקצץ ידו על טבורו אמרו לו ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו א"ל לא אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,אי אמרת בשלמא דינא תנן היינו דאמרי והלא כריסו נבקעת אלא אי אמרת לטותא תנן מאי כריסו נבקעת אלא מאי דינא תנן לא סגי דלאו על טבורו,אלא ה"ק רבי טרפון כל המכניס ידו למטה מטבורו תקצץ אמרו לו לרבי טרפון ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו אמר להן לא והלא כריסו נבקעת אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big החרשת והשוטה והסומא ושנטרפה דעתה אם יש להן פקחות מתקנות אותן והן אוכלות בתרומה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חרשת איהי תבדוק לנפשה דתניא אמר רבי חרשת היתה בשכונתינו לא דיה שבודקת לעצמה אלא שחברותיה רואות ומראות לה,התם במדברת ואינה שומעת הכא בשאינה מדברת ואינה שומעת כדתנן חרש שדברו חכמים בכל מקום אינו שומע ואינו מדבר,הסומא איהי תבדוק לנפשה ותיחזי לחבירתה א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא סומא אינה משנה,ושנטרפה דעתה היינו שוטה שנטרפה דעתה מחמת חולי,תנו רבנן כהן שוטה מטבילין אותו ומאכילין אותו תרומה לערב ומשמרין אותו שלא יישן ישן טמא לא ישן טהור,רבי אליעזר ברבי צדוק אומר עושין לו כיס של עור אמרו לו כל שכן שמביא לידי חימום אמר להן לדבריכם שוטה אין לו תקנה,אמרו לו לדברינו ישן טמא לא ישן טהור לדבריך שמא יראה טפה כחרדל ותבלע בכיס,תנא משום רבי אלעזר אמרו עושין לו כיס של מתכת,אמר אביי ושל נחשת כדתניא רבי יהודה אומר רואין אותן גבעולין של אזוב כאילו הן של נחשת,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה מכנסים אסורים והכתיב (שמות כח, מב) ועשה להם מכנסי בד לכסות בשר ערוה,ההוא כדתניא מכנסי כהנים למה הן דומין כמין פמלניא של פרשים למעלה עד מתנים למטה עד ירכים ויש להם שנצים ואין להם לא בית הנקב ולא בית הערוה,אמר אביי 13b. bFrom the corona and above,toward the body, it is bprohibited. /b,§ bRav says: One who intentionally causes himself an erection shall be ostracized.The Gemara suggests: bAnd letRav bsaysimply that it is bprohibited.The Gemara explains that it is proper to ostracize such a man, bas he arouses the evil inclination upon himself. And Rabbi Ami says: He is calleda habitual btransgressor, as this is the craft of the evil inclination. Today he says toa person: bDo thissin, bandwhen the individual obeys his inclination, bon the following daythe evil inclination bsays to him: Do thatsin, band on the following day he says to him: Goand bworship idols, and he goes and worshipsidols., bSome saythat bRabbi Ami says:With regard to banyone who brings himself intoa state of barousal,they bdo not bring him within the boundary of the Holy One, Blessed be He.The proof is that bit is written here,with regard to O, son of Judah: b“And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord,and He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10), band it is written there: “For You are not a God who has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with You.The boasters shall not stand in Your sight…But as for me, in the abundance of Your kindness will I come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy Temple in fear of You” (Psalms 5:5–8). This demonstrates that whoever does evil, like O, shall not sojourn with God., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says,with regard to the severity of this transgression: bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And when you spread forth your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear; byour hands are full of blood”(Isaiah 1:15)? bThese arethose men bwho commit adultery with the hand,by masturbating. Likewise, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:When it is stated in the Ten Commandments: b“You shall not commit adultery”(Exodus 20:13), this means that bthere shall not be adultery among you, whetheryou masturbate bby handor bwhether withone’s bfoot. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bConverts and those who play with children delaythe coming of bthe Messiah.The Gemara asks: bGrantedwith regard to bconverts,this is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥelbo, as Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scabon the skin, as they are not proficient in the performance of the mitzvot and born Jews learn from them. bButwith regard to the category of bthose who play with children,to bwhat is itreferring?, bIf we saythat this is referring to bhomosexuality,such men bare liable tobe executed by bstoning,and their behavior is criticized not simply because they delay the Messiah. bRather,one might suggest that this is referring to those who emit semen bby way ofother blimbs,i.e., without engaging in intercourse; if so, bthey areconsidered as though they are bringing a flood, and are therefore bliable tobe punished themselves with ba flood. /b, bRather,the ibaraitameans bthat they marry minor girls who are notyet bcapable of bearing children,consequently emitting semen for naught. bAs Rabbi Yosei said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). The verse is interpreted as follows: The spirit, i.e., the souls about which it has been decreed by Me that they are to be born, if they are not born, they enwrap the Messiah and prevent him from coming.,§ The mishna teaches that with regard to any hand that is diligent to examine bodily emissions, bamong men,such a hand bshould be severed. A dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bDo we learnthis statement as a practical ihalakha /i,i.e., that the court should actually sever his hand, bor do we learnit as a mere bcurse,but not as an actual instruction to punish him in that manner? The Gemara elaborates: bDo we learnit as a practical ihalakhalike thatprohibition against striking another, in which the same expression is used: With regard to anyone who raises his hand upon another, his hand should be severed, and bRav Hunaindeed acted accordingly and bsevered the handof an offender? bOrperhaps bdo we learnit as a mere bcurse? /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Tarfon says:If one’s bhandgoes btohis bpenis, his hand should be severed upon his navel.The Rabbis bsaid to him:If so, in a case where ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:Indeed, he should bnotremove it, and if he does so his hand should be severed. The Rabbis replied: bButif his hand is severed while it is upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that the belly ofone who acts in this manner bshould be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b,The Gemara analyzes this discussion: bGranted, if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a practical ihalakha /i, this isthe meaning of that bwhichthe Rabbis bsaid: Butif his hand is severed upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open? But if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a mere bcurse, whatis the meaning of the phrase: Won’t bhis belly be split open?The Gemara responds: bRather, whatexplanation is the alternative? That bwe learnthe mishna as stating a practical ihalakha /i?That would not explain the exchange between the Rabbis to Rabbi Tarfon, because is it bnot sufficient thatthe hand be severed bnot upon his navel?In other words, even if the hand must actually be severed, it is not clear why it should be severed while it is upon his navel., bRather, thisis what bRabbi Tarfon is saying:With regard to banyone who inserts his hand below his navel,his hand bshould be severed.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon:If ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:He should bnot.They responded: bBut won’t his belly be split opendue to the thorn? Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that his belly be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of a woman bwho is deaf [ ihaḥereshet /i], or an imbecile, or blind, or who went insane,and is therefore unable to examine herself reliably, bifsuch women bhave competentfriends, those friends bprepare themby examining them and immersing them in a ritual bath. bAndon that basis the incompetent women bmay partake of iteruma /iafter the sun sets., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that competent women must assist ba deaf woman.The Gemara asks: bLet her examine herself; as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There was a deaf woman in our neighborhoodwho was so proficient in these matters that bnot only did she examine herself, butwhen bher friends would seestains similar to blood bandwere unsure whether or not the stains were ritually impure, they would bshow herthe stains.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is referring btoa woman who bcan speak but cannot hear.It is possible for such a woman to be an expert in examining blood. But bhere,the mishna is dealing bwitha woman bwho can neither speak nor hear,and she is therefore considered incompetent and incapable of examining herself. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot1:2): The bdeaf personof bwhom the Sages spoke everywhereis one bwho can neither hear nor speak,i.e., a deaf-mute.,§ The mishna further teaches that competent women must assist ba blindwoman. The Gemara similarly asks: bLet her examine herself and showthe cloth bto her friend. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The correct version of the bmishnadoes bnotmention ba blindwoman.,§ The mishna also states that competent women must assist ba woman who went insane.The Gemara asks: With regard to her ability to examine herself, bisn’t thisthe same as ban imbecile,who is already mentioned in the mishna? The Gemara answers: Here, the mishna is referring to a woman bwho went insane due to illness,which is a different category than that of an imbecile.,The Gemara further discusses ihalakhotpertaining to an imbecile. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ban imbecile priestwho was ritually impure, competent men deal with his purification: bThey immerse him, andthen benable him to partake of iterumain the evening,like any other priest who was impure. bAndthose taking care of him must bwatch over himto ensure bthat he does not sleepbefore he partakes of iteruma /i, in case he experiences a seminal emission, which would render him impure. If bhe slept,he is once again bimpure,and may not partake of iteruma /i; if he bdid not sleephe is bpure. /b, bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, saysthat there is another method of allowing an imbecile priest to partake of iteruma /i: bOne prepares for him a leather pouch,which is wrapped around his penis, and before giving him iterumato partake of one checks this pouch to see if he has emitted semen. The other Sages bsaid to him:It is improper to do this, as ball the more sohe will be prevented from partaking of iteruma /i; this pouch bwarms himand increases the likelihood of a seminal emission. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, bsaid to them: According to your statement, an imbecilepriest bhas no remedythat will enable him to partake of iteruma /i., bThey said to him: According to our statementthere is a way he can partake of iteruma /i, as stated above: If bhe slept,he is bimpure;if he bdid not sleephe is bpure.But baccording to your statement,that one wraps a pouch around his penis, this is not a reliable method, as bperhaps he will see,i.e., experience the emission of, ba dropof semen as small bas a mustardseed, band it will be absorbed in the pouchand will not be noticed, which would mean that he is eating iterumain a state of ritual impurity.,The Gemara continues to discuss the methods by which an imbecile priest can partake of iteruma /i. It was btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar: One prepares for him a metal pouch,which is placed on his penis and does not warm it.,In explanation of this statement, bAbaye says: Andwhen this itannaspeaks of metal, he means that the pouch should be made bof copper,which does not absorb liquid, and therefore any drop of semen would be visible. This is bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iPara12:5), with regard to the amount of water of purification that must be sprinkled on an individual who is impure due to impurity imparted by a corpse, that bRabbi Yehuda says: One considers those hyssop stems,with which the waters of purification are sprinkled, bas though they aremade bof copper,which does not absorb any of the water., bRav Pappa says:One can blearn fromthe statement of the Rabbis that a pouch wrapped around one’s penis can warm it enough to cause a seminal emission, that btrousers are prohibitedto be worn, as they too warm the penis, by being placed so they are tight against it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the priestly garments: b“And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness,from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach” (Exodus 28:42)?,The Gemara explains: bThatgarment, the trousers worn by priests, was different, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe trousers of priests, to what are they comparable?They are bsimilar to riding trousers [ ipamalanya /i] of horsemen,and this is what they look like: bAbove,they reach bup tothe bloins; below,they go bdown tothe bthighs, and they have straps, and they have no opening,neither bat the back nor at the front. /b, bAbaye says: /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. כי הא (דרבה) בר חמא כי הוו קיימי מקמיה דרב חסדא מרהטי בגמרא בהדי הדדי והדר מעייני בסברא,אמר רבא מאני משתיא במטללתא מאני מיכלא בר ממטללתא חצבא ושחיל בר ממטללתא ושרגא במטללתא ואמרי לה בר ממטללתא ולא פליגי הא בסוכה גדולה הא בסוכה קטנה:,ירדו גשמים: תנא משתסרח המקפה של גריסין,אביי הוה קא יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף במטללתא נשב זיקא וקא מייתי ציבותא אמר להו רב יוסף פנו לי מאני מהכא אמר ליה אביי והא תנן משתסרח המקפה אמר ליה לדידי כיון דאנינא דעתאי כמי שתסרח המקפה דמי לי,ת"ר היה אוכל בסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיגמור סעודתו היה ישן תחת הסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיאור,איבעיא להו עד שיעור או עד שיאור ת"ש עד שיאור ויעלה עמוד השחר תרתי אלא אימא עד שיעור ויעלה עמוד השחר:,משל למה הדבר דומה: איבעיא להו מי שפך למי ת"ש דתניא שפך לו רבו קיתון על פניו ואמר לו אי אפשי בשמושך,ת"ר בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לכל העולם כולו משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שעשה סעודה לעבדיו והניח פנס לפניהם כעס עליהם ואמר לעבדו טול פנס מפניהם והושיבם בחושך,תניא רבי מאיר אומר כל זמן שמאורות לוקין סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שמלומדין במכותיהן משל לסופר שבא לבית הספר ורצועה בידו מי דואג מי שרגיל ללקות בכל יום ויום הוא דואג,תנו רבנן בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לעובדי כוכבים לבנה לוקה סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שישראל מונין ללבנה ועובדי כוכבים לחמה לוקה במזרח סימן רע ליושבי מזרח במערב סימן רע ליושבי מערב באמצע הרקיע סימן רע לכל העולם כולו,פניו דומין לדם חרב בא לעולם לשק חיצי רעב באין לעולם לזו ולזו חרב וחיצי רעב באין לעולם לקה בכניסתו פורענות שוהה לבא ביציאתו ממהרת לבא וי"א חילוף הדברים,ואין לך כל אומה ואומה שלוקה שאין אלהיה לוקה עמה שנאמר (שמות יב, יב) ובכל אלהי מצרים אעשה שפטים ובזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום אין מתיראין מכל אלו שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה עובדי כוכבים יחתו ואין ישראל יחתו,ת"ר בשביל ארבעה דברים חמה לוקה על אב בית דין שמת ואינו נספד כהלכה ועל נערה המאורסה שצעקה בעיר ואין מושיע לה ועל משכב זכור ועל שני אחין שנשפך דמן כאחד,ובשביל ארבעה דברים מאורות לוקין על כותבי (פלסתר) ועל מעידי עדות שקר ועל מגדלי בהמה דקה בא"י ועל קוצצי אילנות טובות,ובשביל ד' דברים נכסי בעלי בתים נמסרין למלכות על משהי שטרות פרועים ועל מלוי ברבית 29a. bAsin bthatsituation involving Rava and Rami bbar Ḥama, when they would stand before Rav Ḥisda,after he taught them a ihalakha btheywould bquicklyreview bthe traditionthat they heard from him btogether andonly bthen analyze the rationaleof the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.,With regard to residence in the isukka /i, bRava said: Drinking vesselssuch as cups, which are usually clean, remain bin the isukka /i. Eating vesselsare taken bout of the isukka /iafter use. bAn earthenware jug and a wicker basket [ ishaḥil]that are used for drawing water are taken boutside the isukka /i. And a lampremains binside the isukka /i, and some sayit is taken boutside the isukka /i.The Gemara comments: bAnd they do not disagree.Rather, bthisopinion, that a lamp remains inside the isukka /i, is referring bto a large isukka /i,where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the isukka /i. And bthatopinion, that the lamp is taken outside the isukka /i, is referring bto a small isukka /i,where the lamp’s odor is offensive.,§ The mishna stated: If brain fell,it is permitted to leave the isukkafrom the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: The measure is bfrom when a congealed dish of pounded grain,a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, bwill spoil. /b, bAbaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the isukka /i. The wind blew and broughtwith it bsplintersfrom the roofing, and they fell onto the food. bRav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here,and I will eat in the house. bAbaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that one remains in the isukka buntil the congealed dish will spoil?That is not yet the case. bHe said to him: For me, since I am delicate,this situation bis as if the congealed dish will spoil. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bone was eating in the isukka /i, and rain fell,and bhe descendedfrom the isukkaon the roof to eat in his house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases buntilafter bhe finishes his meal.Similarly, if bone was sleeping underthe roofing of bthe isukka /i, and rain fell, and he descendedto sleep in the house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house buntil it becomes light. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the correct reading of the ibaraita /i: bUntil one awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, and once he awakens he returns to the isukkaeven in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: bUntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, and he need not return to the isukkauntil morning? bComeand bheara proof that will resolve the matter from a related ibaraita /i: One need not return to the isukka buntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, band dawnarrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the ibaraitarepeat the arrival of light btwotimes (Ritva)? bRather, sayinstead: bUntil he awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, band the dawnarrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.,§ The mishna continues: The Sages btold a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWho pouredthe water bin whoseface? bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtexplicitly in a ibaraita /i: bHis master poured a jugof water bon his face and said to him: I do not want your service. /b,Apropos the fact that rain on iSukkotis an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. bThe Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world.The Gemara tells ba parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [ ipanas /i] before themto illuminate the hall. bHe became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: When theheavenly blights,i.e., the sun and the moon, bare eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people,which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, bbecause they are experienced in their beatings.Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests ba parable:This is similar bto a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries?The child bwho is accustomed to be beaten each and every day isthe one who bworries. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: bWhen the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for theother bnations.When bthe moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people.This is bdue tothe fact bthat the Jewish people calculatetheir calendar primarily based bon the moon, and theother bnationscalculate based bon the sun.When the sun is beclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe east.When it is eclipsed bin the west, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe west.When it is eclipsed bin the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b,If, during an eclipse, bthe visageof the sun bisred blike blood,it is an omen that bsword,i.e., war, bis coming to the world.If the sun bisblack blike sackclothmade of dark goat hair, it is an omen that barrows of hunger are coming to the world,because hunger darkens people’s faces. When it is similar both bto this,to blood, band to that,to sackcloth, it is a sign that both bsword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world.If it was beclipsed upon its entry,soon after rising, it is an omen that bcalamity is tarrying to come.If the sun is eclipsed bupon its departureat the end of the day, it is an omen that bcalamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed:An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.,The Sages said: bThere is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: “And against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God”(Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: bWhen the Jewish people perform God’s will, theyneed bnot fear any of theseomens, bas it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed,provided they do not follow the ways of the nations., bThe Sages taughtthat bon account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: Onaccount of ba president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately,and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; bonaccount of ba betrothed young woman who screamed in the citythat she was being raped band there was no one to rescue her; onaccount of bhomosexuality; and onaccount of btwo brothers whose blood was spilled as one. /b, bAnd on account of four matters theheavenly blightsare beclipsed: Onaccount of bforgers of a fraudulent document [ ipelaster /i]that is intended to discredit others; bonaccount of btestifiers of false testimony; onaccount of braisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisraelin a settled area; band onaccount of bchoppers of good,fruit-producing btrees. /b, bAnd on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchyas punishment: bOnaccount of those bkeepers of paidpromissory bnotes,who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; band onaccount of blenders with interest; /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109b. ואמר רבי אבהו אתיא רדיפה רדיפה כתיב הכא (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו וכתיב התם (משלי כא, כא) רודף צדקה וחסד ימצא חיים צדקה וכבוד: בהפרת נדרים כרבי נתן דתניא רבי נתן אומר הנודר כאילו בנה במה והמקיימו כאילו הקריב עליה קרבן,ויתרחק משלשה דברים מן המיאונין דלמא גדלה ומיחרטא בה מן הפקדונות בבר מתא דבייתיה כי בייתיה דמי מן הערבון בערבי שלציון,דא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יא, טו) רע ירוע כי ערב זר רעה אחר רעה תבא למקבלי גרים ולערבי שלציון ולתוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה מקבלי גרים כר' חלבו דאמר ר' חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת בעור,ערבי שלציון דעבדי שלוף דוץ תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה דתניא רבי יוסי אומר כל האומר אין לו תורה אין לו תורה פשיטא אלא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה,הא נמי פשיטא אלא דאפילו תורה אין לו מאי טעמא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים ה, א) ולמדתם ועשיתם כל שישנו בעשיה ישנו בלמידה כל שאינו בעשיה אינו בלמידה,ואיבעית אימא לעולם כדאמריתו מעיקרא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה לא צריכא דקא מגמר לאחריני ואזלי ועבדי מהו דתימא אית ליה אגרא לדידיה קמ"ל,ואיבעית אימא תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה בדיינא דאתי דינא לקמיה וגמר הלכה ומדמי מילתא למילתא ואית ליה רבה ולא אזיל משאיל,דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן לעולם יראה דיין עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין יריכותיו וגיהנם פתוחה לו מתחתיו שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל וגו' מפחד בלילות מפחד של גיהנם שדומה ללילה:,ר"ג אומר אם מיאנה וכו': בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב מאי טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר קידושי קטנה מיתלא תלו וכי גדלה גדלי בהדה אע"ג דלא בעל,או דלמא משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר ליה היינו טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר רב ששת אמינא כי ניים ושכיב רב אמר להא שמעתא דתניא המקדש את הקטנה קידושיה תלויין מאי תלויין לאו כי גדלה גדלי בהדה ואע"ג דלא בעל,אמר ליה רבין בריה דרב נחמן הא מילתא דקטנה מיתלא תליא וקיימא אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא דאמרה הוא עדיף מינאי ואנא עדיפנא מיניה,וסבר רב אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא והא איתמר קטנה שלא מיאנה והגדילה ועמדה ונשאת רב אמר אינה צריכה גט משני ושמואל אמר צריכה גט משני 109b. bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said: It is derivedby verbal analogy from the terms bpursuitand bpursuit. It is written here: “Seek peace and pursue it”(Psalms 34:15) band it is written there: “He who pursues righteousness and mercy finds life, prosperity, and honor”(Proverbs 21:21), indicating that pursuing peace is a mitzva, just as pursuing righteousness and mercy is. As bfor the nullification of vows, this is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Natan, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan says:With regard to bone who vows, it is as if he builta personal baltarwhen it is prohibited to build an altar outside the Temple. bAnd one who fulfills thatvow, bit is as if he sacrificed an offering on thispersonal altar, thereby doubling his sin. Therefore, it is preferable that he ask a halakhic authority to dissolve the vow., bAnd one should distance himself from three things: From refusals,as bperhaps she will grow up and regrether decision, and it will turn out that she refused a husband who was suitable for her. bFrom depositsentrusted to him bby an inhabitant of the same city, ashe will treat the bailee’s bhome as his home.The owner might enter the bailee’s house and take the deposit without the latter’s knowledge, and subsequently falsely sue him for its return. bFrom serving as a guarantor: This is referring to Sheltziyyon guarantees,in which the lender is entitled to demand payment from the guarantor even before the borrower defaults on the loan., bAs Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who serves as a guarantor for a stranger shall suffer evil;but he who hates those who shake hands is secure” (Proverbs 11:15)? This means: bEvil after evil will befall those who accept converts, and Sheltziyyon guarantors, and one who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i.The Gemara clarifies. Evil will befall bthose who accept converts: This is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥelbo. As Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are difficult for the Jewish people like a leprous sore on the skin. /b,Evil shall befall bSheltziyyon guarantors because they practice: Pull out, thrust in.That is, they pull out the borrower and thrust the guarantor in his place as the one responsible for the loan. Evil befalls bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Anyone who says he has no Torah, has no Torah.The Gemara asks: Is this not bobvious? Rather, anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah, has nothing otherthan bTorah. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tthis balso obvious?One does not receive more reward than he deserves. bRather,it means that bhe does not even have Torah. What is the reason? Rav Pappa said: The verse states: That you may learn them and perform them,which is an abridged version of the verse “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices that I speak in your ears this day, that you may learn them, and take care to perform them” (Deuteronomy 5:1). The verse teaches that banyone who is engaged in performingmitzvot bis engaged inTorah bstudy, while anyone not engaged in performingmitzvot bis not engaged inTorah bstudy;the Torah study of one who wishes only to immerse himself in his studies without fulfilling the mitzvot is not considered to be fulfilling even the mitzva of Torah study., bAnd if you wish, say: Actually, it is as you initially said: Anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah has nothing otherthan bTorah. Rather,this statement bis necessarywith regard to one who bteaches others and they go and performthe mitzvot. bLest you say that there is reward for him in it,Rabbi Yosei bteaches usthat since that person engaged in Torah study without the intention of observing the mitzvot himself, he does not receive a reward for the mitzvot that he taught others and which they performed., bAnd if you wish, saythat bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /iis referring bto a judge who had a case come before him, and he learnedthe tradition about ba rulingin a similar case, band he likens one matter to the otherin order to reach a conclusion; band he has a teachernearby bbut he does not go and askhim. This is inappropriate, as judges must be very careful not to err in judgment., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: A judge should always view himself as if a sword were placed between his thighs,so that if he leans right or left he will be injured, band as if Gehenna was open beneath him, as it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel.They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh, bbecause of dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8), i.e., bbecause of the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani understands the mighty men of Israel in this verse to refer to the judges who sit in judgment around the bed of Solomon, i.e., in the Temple.,§ It was taught in the mishna that bRabban Gamliel says: Ifthe minor brefusesof her own accord, her refusal is valid. And if not, she should wait until she reaches majority, whereupon her marriage is valid by Torah law, and the widowed adult sister shall be exempt from levirate marriage due to her status as the sister of a wife. bRabbi Elazar raised a dilemma to Rav: What is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning?Is it bbecause he holds that the betrothal of a minor girl is in suspension and when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority,i.e., is fully realized, bwith her?Accordingly, the betrothal would then be realized beven if he did not engage in intercoursewith her after she reached majority., bOr perhaps, is it because he holds thatwhen a iyavam bbetroths the sister of his iyevama /i,causing the iyevamato be forbidden to him, bthe iyevamais exempt and is releasedeven though her levirate bond came first? bIf he engaged in sexual intercourse withhis betrothed after she reached majority, then byes,the iyevamais exempt as a forbidden relative, because only then does Rabban Gamliel consider the betrothal to be fully realized, but bif he did not engage in intercourse with hisbetrothed, then the iyevamais bnot exemptfrom levirate marriage., bRav said to him: This is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning: Because he holds thatin the case of bone who betroths the sister of his iyevama /i, the iyevamais exempt and is released,then bif he engaged in sexual intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority then byes,the iyevamais exempt from levirate marriage, but bif he did not engage in intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority, the iyevamais bnotexempt., bRav Sheshet said: I say that Rav said this ihalakhawhen he was dozing and lying down,as it is difficult. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who betroths a minor girl, her betrothal is in suspension. Whatdoes it mean that it is bin suspension? Is it not that when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority with herand is fully realized beven if he did not have intercourse with herafter she reached majority?, bRavin, son of Rav Naḥman, said toRav Sheshet: bThis matter,that the betrothal bof a minor girl remains in suspension,should be understood differently. It means that her betrothal is provisional as long as she is still a minor: bIf he has sexual intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, byes,her betrothal is realized; bif he does not engage in intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, her betrothal is bnotrealized. bFor she saysto herself: bHe has an advantage over mein that he can divorce me, band I have an advantage over him,as I can refuse him. Since the marriage of a minor depends upon her ongoing consent, as she can refuse him at any time, it remains provisional until it is consummated when she is an adult.,The Gemara asks: bBut does Ravtruly bthink thatonly bif he has intercourse with herafter she becomes an adult, then byes, herbetrothal is realized, bbut if he did not engage in intercourse with her,then bno,it is not realized? bWasn’t it statedthat with regard to ba minor who had not refusedher husband band reached majority, andthen bwent and marriedanother, bRav said: She does not require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as she is fully married to the first and consequently her second marriage is invalid? bAnd Shmuel said: She does require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as it is uncertain whether her second marriage is valid.
18. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

4a. לטומאת ביתו,אמר ליה ר' יוחנן לריש לקיש בשלמא לדידי דילפינא ממלואים היינו דתניא זה וזה מזין עליו כל שבעה מכל חטאות שהיו שם דהואי נמי הזאה במלואים אלא לדידך דילפת מסיני הזאה בסיני מי הואי,אמר ליה ולטעמיך מי ניחא במלואים דם הכא מים הא לא קשיא דתני רבי חייא נכנסו מים תחת דם אלא לדידך הזאה בסיני מי הואי אמר ליה מעלה בעלמא,תניא כוותי' דרבי יוחנן תניא כוותיה דריש לקיש תניא כוותיה דר' יוחנן (ויקרא טז, ג) בזאת יבא אהרן אל הקדש במה שאמור בענין מאי היא בענין דמלואים ומה אמור בענין דמלואים אהרן פירש שבעה ושמש יום אחד ומשה מסר לו כל שבעה כדי לחנכו בעבודה,ואף לדורות כהן גדול פורש שבעה ומשמש יום אחד ושני תלמידי חכמים מתלמידיו של משה לאפוקי צדוקין מוסרין לו כל שבעה כדי לחנכו בעבודה,מכאן אמרו שבעת ימים קודם יוה"כ מפרישין כהן גדול מביתו ללשכת פרהדרין וכשם שמפרישין כ"ג כך מפרישין כהן השורף את הפרה ללשכה שעל פני הבירה צפונה מזרחה ואחד זה ואחד זה מזין עליו כל שבעה מכל חטאות שהיו שם,ואם תאמר במלואים דם הכא מים אמרת נכנסו מים תחת דם ואומר כאשר עשה ביום הזה צוה ה' לעשות לכפר עליכם לעשות אלו מעשה פרה לכפר אלו מעשה יוה"כ,והאי בזאת מיבעי ליה לגופיה בפר בן בקר לחטאת ואיל לעולה אמרי אי לקרבן לחודיה לימא קרא בזה או באלה מאי בזאת שמעת מינה תרתי,מאי ואומר וכי תימא יוה"כ קמא הוא דבעי פרישה כדאשכחן במלואים אבל ביוה"כ דעלמא לא אי נמי כ"ג קמא הוא דבעי פרישה אבל כ"ג בעלמא לא ת"ש כאשר עשה וכו',תניא כוותיה דריש לקיש משה עלה בענן ונתכסה בענן ונתקדש בענן כדי לקבל תורה לישראל בקדושה שנאמר (שמות כד, טז) וישכון כבוד ה' על הר סיני זה היה מעשה אחר עשרת הדברות שהיו תחלה לארבעים יום דברי רבי יוסי הגלילי,ר"ע אומר וישכון כבוד ה' מראש חודש 4a. babout the ritual impurity ofthe priest’s bhome,i.e., his wife. This is done lest he become impure through relations with a menstruating woman, which is ritual impurity lasting seven days. Therefore, he is removed from his home for seven days., bRabbi Yoḥa said to Reish Lakish: Granted,according bto myopinion, bthat I derivethe ihalakhaof sequestering bfromthe binauguration,that explains bthat which is taughtin the ibaraita /i: With regard to both bthispriest engaged in the burning of the red heifer band thatHigh Priest prior to Yom Kippur, bone sprinkles upon himfor ball sevendays the purification water mixed with ashes from samples bfrom allthe previous red heifer bsin-offerings that weresafeguarded btherein the Temple. The reason for this practice is bthat there was also sprinkling duringthe binauguration. However, according to youropinion, bthat you derive it from Sinai, was therein fact bsprinkling at Sinai?According to your opinion, why are the priests sprinkled?,Reish Lakish bsaid to him: And according to your reasoning, does itwork out bwell?At the binauguration,the sprinkling was with bblood; here,the sprinkling was with bwater.Rabbi Yoḥa answered: bThat is not difficult, as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: Water replaced blood,but both have the status of sprinkling. bHowever, according to yourreasoning, bat Sinai, was there sprinklingat all? Reish Lakish bsaid to him:The Sages bmerelyestablished ba higher standard,and this sprinkling is not a requirement.,§ The Gemara comments: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥathat the sequestering is derived from the inauguration; banda ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakishthat it is derived from Sinai. The Gemara elaborates: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa:It was stated with regard to the inauguration: b“With this Aaron will come into the Sanctuary,with a young bull for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering” (Leviticus 16:3). To what is the term: With this, referring? It is referring to bthat which is stated in the matter. What isthe matter? It is bthe matter of the inauguration.In the manner that the priest was prepared for the inauguration, so too is he prepared for Yom Kippur. bAnd what is stated in the matter ofthe binauguration?It is that bAaronthe priest bwithdrewfor bsevendays band served one day, and Moses transmittedthe Torah guidelines bto him all sevendays bin order to train him in theSanctuary bservice. /b, bAndthroughout the bgenerations as well,the bHigh Priest withdraws sevendays prior to Yom Kippur band serves one day. And two Torah scholars fromamong bthe students of Moses, to the exclusion of Sadducees,who are not students of Moses, btransmitthe Torah guidelines bto him all sevendays bin order to train him in theSanctuary bservice. /b, bFrom therethe Sages bsaidin the mishna: bSeven days prior to Yom Kippurthe Sages would bremove the High Priest,who performs the entire Yom Kippur service, bfrom his house to the Chamber of iParhedrin /i; and just asthe Sages would bremove the High Priest, so do they remove the priest who burns the heifer,from his house bto the chamber that was before the ibira /iat the bnortheastcorner of the courtyard on the Temple Mount. bAndwith regard to bboth thispriest whom the Sages sequester prior to Yom Kippur band thatpriest whom the Sages sequester prior to engaging in the burning of the heifer, bone sprinkles upon him,for ball sevendays of sequestering, the purification water with ashes bfrom all theprevious red heifer bsin-offerings that weresafeguarded btherein the Temple., bAnd if you saythat at the binaugurationthe sprinkling was with bblood,and bherethe sprinkling was with bwater, you said: Water replaced blood. And it saysin the verse: b“As has been done this day, so the Lord has commanded to do, to make atonement for you”(Leviticus 8:34). bTo do, these are the actionsperformed in the burning bof thered bheifer; to make atonement, these are the actionsperformed on bYom Kippur.This ibaraita /i, then, is proof for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bButthe term: bWith this [ ibezot /i], is required forthe meaning of the verse bitself;the priest is required to bring ba young bull for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering.The Sages bsayin response: bIfthe term comes to teach bonlywith regard bto the offerings, let the verse say: With this [ ibezeh /i],in the masculine, referring to the bull, bor: With these [ ibe’elleh /i],referring to the bull and the ram. bWhat,then, may be derived from the use of the feminine term ibezot /i,which refers to neither the bull nor the ram? bLearn from it twoconclusions; one with regard to the offerings and one with regard to sequestering.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the ibaraita /i. bWhatis the meaning of the term: bAnd it says?Why does the ibaraitacite an additional proof from another verse? Why wasn’t the first proof sufficient? bAnd if you saythat bit ison bthe first Yom Kippurwhen Aaron performed the service bthatthe High Priest brequires sequestering, as we find inthe binaugurationwhen the priests were sequestered before being consecrated as priests, bbut on Yom Kippur in general, no,subsequent High Priests do not require sequestering; or balternatively,if you say: bIt is the first High Priest who requires sequestering,as did all the priests during the inauguration, bbutsubsequent bHigh Priests in general, no,they do not require sequestering before Yom Kippur; then bcomeand bhearthat which it says in the verse: b“As has been donethis day, so the Lord has commanded to do,” meaning that this is a mitzva for all generations.,§ And a ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakishthat sequestering is derived from Sinai: bMoses ascended in the cloud, and was covered in the cloud, and was sanctified in the cloud, in order to receive the Torah for the Jewish people in sanctity, as it is stated: “And the glory of the Lord abode upon Mount Sinaiand the cloud covered him six days, and He called to Moses on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud” (Exodus 24:16). bThis was an incidentthat occurred bafter therevelation of bthe Ten Commandmentsto the Jewish people, and these six days bwere the beginningof the bforty daysthat Moses was on the mountain (see Exodus 24:18); this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.The opinion of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili corresponds to that of Reish Lakish; Moses withdrew for six days before receiving permission to stand in the presence of God., bRabbi Akiva says:This incident occurred before the revelation of the Ten Commandments to the Jewish people, and when the Torah says: b“And the glory of the Lord abodeupon Mount Sinai,” it is referring to the revelation of the Divine Presence that began on the bNew Moonof Sivan, which was six days before the revelation of the Ten Commandments.
19. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 34 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

20. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 37 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
abin (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
angel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
anthropomorphism, eyes Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
anthropomorphism, suffering Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351, 366
ark Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
clouds of glory, cloud Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
conversion Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
edom Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
egypt Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
elam Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
exegesis, and orthography Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
exegesis, concrete exegesis Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351, 366
genealogy Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
greece Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
intermarriage Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
iqqar Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 183
israel, suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
israel, tribes Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
joseph Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
joshua b. levi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
judah b. ila͗͑i (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
ketubbah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
king, rhetoric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366
mamzerim Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
media Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
messiah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
minut, beautiful woman Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 183
moses, intercession of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
moses Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
mythmaking, transmission Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
pedophiles Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
redemption, divine Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
redemption Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
shekhina Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
shekhinah, and the ark Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
shekhinah, enslavement of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
shekhinah, redemption of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
shekhinah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
sugya' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 104
tanḥum (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 345
targum Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 366