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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



747
Anon., Sifre Numbers, 42


nan (Bamidbar 6:26) \"The L-rd lift His countenance unto you\": when you stand in prayer), as it is written (in respect to the prayers of Abraham, Bereshit 19:21): \"Behold, I have lifted your countenance.\" Now does this not follow a fortiori, viz.: If I have lifted the countenance for Lot for the sake of Abraham, My beloved, shall I not do so for you, and for the sake of your fathers!", , " One verse states (Ibid. 3) \"Is there any number to His angelic hosts?\" and another (Daniel 7:10) \"A thousand thousands were serving Him, and myriad myriads were standing before Him.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before they were exiled from their land — \"Is there any number to His angelic hosts?\" After they were exiled from their land — \"A thousand thousands were serving Him.\" As it were, the celestial retinue was diminished. Rebbi says in the name of Abba b. Yossi: One verse states: \"Is there any number to His angelic hosts?\" and another, \"A thousand thousands were serving Him.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? \"A thousand thousands were serving Him\" — this is one host. And how many hosts are there? — \"Is there any number to His angelic hosts?\" One verse states (Psalms 147:4) \"He counts the number of the stars, (which implies that He calls each by name), and another (Isaiah 40:26) \"Raise your eyes on high and see who created these. He brings forth their legions by number; he calls to all of them by name,\" (which implies that He calls all of them as one). (How is this to be understood?) When the Holy One Blessed be He calls, all answer, something impossible for flesh and blood, to call two names at the same time. Similarly, (Shemot 20:1) \"And G-d spoke all of these things (in one utterance) saying, etc.\", and (Psalms 62:12) \"One thing has G-d spoken; these two have I heard,\" and (Jeremiah 23:29) \"Is My word not like fire, says the L-rd, and like a hammer shattering rock?\" Rebbi says in the name of Abba Yossi b. Dostai: One verse states \"He brings forth their legions by number, etc.\", and another \"He counts the number of the stars.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? We are hereby taught there is no changing of the (essential) name there. The name that it is called by now is not the name that it will be called by later, (but its \"name\" is simply a function of its embassy.) And thus is it written (Judges 12:18) \"And the angel of the L-rd said to him: Why do you ask my name? It is hidden.\" I do not know what \"name\" I will be converted to (in the future). One verse states (II Samuel 24:24) \"And David bought the threshing floor and the cattle for fifty silver shekels,\" and another (I Chronicles 21:25) \"And David gave Arnon for the place gold shekels weighing six hundred.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? For the place of the threshing floor, six hundred; for the place of the altar, fifty. Rebbi says, in the name of Abba Yossi b. Dostai: One verse states \"And David bought the threshing floor, etc.\" and another verse states \"And David gave Arnon for the place gold shekels weighing six hundred.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? There were twelve tribes, and he took from each fifty shekels, six hundred shekels in all. R. Elazar says \"And David bought the threshing floor,\" as explained elsewhere. Where? \"And David gave Arnon for the place, etc.\" But the cattle for the burnt-offering and the threshing sledges and the cattle gear for the wood for fifty shekalim. One verse states (I Kings 5:6) \"And Solomon had forty thousand stables of horses for his chariots,\" and another, (II Chronicles 9:28) \"four thousand stables of horses.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Four thousand stables for forty thousand (horses). One verse states (Ibid. 4:5) \"Its capacity was three thousand bath measures,\" and another (I Kings 7:26) \"Its capacity was two thousand bath measures.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Two thousand in wet measure, which are three thousand in dry measure — whence the sages ruled: Forty sa'ah in wet measure is equal to two kor in dry measure.", , " One verse states \"The L-rd lift His countenance unto you,\" and another, (Devarim 10:17) \"who does not lift the countenance\" (i.e., who does not forgive) and who does not take a bribe.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? When Israel do the L-rd's will — \"The L-rd lift His countenance unto you\"; when they do not do the L-rd's will — \"who does not lift the countenance.\" Variantly: Before the decree has been sealed — \"The L-rd lift His countenance unto you\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"who does not lift the countenance.\" One verse states (Psalms 65:3) \"O, heeder of prayer, to You does all flesh come,\" and another, (Eichah 3:44) \"You have covered Yourself with a cloud against the passing of prayer.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"heeder of prayer\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"You have covered Yourself with a cloud.\" One verse states (Psalms 145:18) \"Close is the L-rd to all who call upon Him, to all who call upon Him in truth,\" and another, (Ibid. 10:1) \"Why, O L-rd, do You stand afar?\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed\" — \"Close is the L-rd to all who call upon Him\"; after the decree has been sealed, He is \"afar.\" One verse states (Eichah 3:28) \"From the mouth of the Most High there shall not issue forth the evils and the good,\" and another, (Daniel 9:14) \"and the L-rd was anxious for the evil (to materialize).\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"From the mouth of the Most High there shall not issue forth the evils and the good\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"and the L-rd was anxious for the evil.\" One verse states (Jeremiah 4:14) \"Wash your heart of evil, O Jerusalem, so that you be saved,\" and another, (Ibid. 2:22) \"Though you wash yourself with niter and add borax, your sin is an (indelible) stain before Me.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"Wash your heart of evil, O Jerusalem\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"Though you wash yourself with niter and add borax, your sin is an (indelible) stain before Me.\" One verse states (Ibid. 3:22) \"Return, you wayward sons,\" and another, (Ibid. 8:4) \"If they (wish to) return, He will not return\" (to accept them.) How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"Return, you wayward sons\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"If they return, He will not return.\" One verse states (Isaiah 55:6) \"Seek the L-rd when He is found,\" and another, (Ezekiel 20:3) \"As I live (says the L-rd), will I be sought out for you?\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"Seek the L-rd when He is found\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"Will I be sought out for you?\" One verse states (Ibid. 18:32) \"For I do not desire the death of the dead one,\" and another (I Samuel 2:25) \"… for the L-rd desired to kill them.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? Before the decree has been sealed — \"For I do not desire the death of the dead one\"; after the decree has been sealed — \"for the L-rd desired to kill them.\" Variantly: One verse states \"The L-rd lift His countenance unto you,\" and another (Devarim 40:17) \"who does not lift the countenance.\" How are these two verses to be reconciled? \"The L-rd lift His countenance\" — in this world; \"who does not lift the countenance\" — in the world to come. Variantly: \"The L-rd lift His countenance\" — (Let Him) remove His anger from you. \"and grant you peace\": peace in your coming in and peace in your going out and peace with all men. R. Chanina, the adjutant high-priest says: \"and grant you peace\" — in your house. R. Nathan says: This is the peace of the Davidic kingdom, of which it is written (Isaiah 9:6) (the king) \"who increases the governance (of the L-rd), and his peace will be endless. Upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom\" (shall this peace be). Variantly: This is the peace of Torah, of which it is written (Psalms 29:11) \"The L-rd gives strength (Torah) to His people; the L-rd blesses His people with peace.\" Great is peace, the Holy One Blessed be He deviating from the truth for its sake in the instance of Sarah, who said \"I am old\" (see Bereshit 18:12-13). Great is peace, the angel deviating from the truth for its sake in the instance of Manoach for its sake (viz. Judges 13). Great is peace, the Name written in holiness being erased by the bitter waters (of the sotah) to make peace between a man and his wife. R. Elazar says: Great is peace, the prophets having exhorted all men for its sake. R. Shimon b Chalafta says: Great is peace, it being the only vessel which contains all of the blessings, it being written \"The L-rd gives strength to His people; the L-rd blesses His people with peace.\" R. Elazar Hakappar says: Great is peace, all of the blessings being sealed with peace, viz.: \"The L-rd bless you and keep you. The L-rd cause His countenance to shine upon you and be gracious unto you. The L-rd lift His countenance unto you and grant you peace.\" R. Elazar the son of R. Elazar Hakappar says: Great is peace, for even if the idolators live in peace, the Holy One, as it were, does not \"touch\" them, as it is written (Hoshea 4:17) \"Ephraim (Yisrael) has bound himself (in friendship to serve) idols — Let him be.\" But when they were divided amongst themselves, what is written of them? (Ibid. 10:2) \"Their hearts are divided — Now they will be laid waste!\" How great is peace! — How abhorrent is contention! Great is peace, for even in time of war, peace is needed, viz. (Devarim 20:10) \"If you draw near a city to do battle with it, then you shall call out to it for peace,\" (Ibid. 2:26) \"And I sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth to Sichon, king of Moav, (with) words of peace,\" (Judges 11:12) \"And Yiftach sent messengers …\" What did he (the king of Ammon) say? (13) \"And now, return them (the lands you took from us) in peace.\" Great is peace, for even the dead need peace, as it is written (Bereshit 15:13) \"And you will come to your fathers in peace,\" and (Jeremiah 34:5) \"In peace will you die, and as the burnings of your fathers, etc.\" Great is peace, which is given to the penitent, as it is written (Isaiah 57:19) \"(I will) create (for him [the penitent a new]) expression of the lips:\" Shalom Shalom! (And both will be alike, both) the far (i.e., one who had served the L-rd from his youth) and the near (i.e., one who had sinned and had just repented), etc.\" Great is peace, which was given in the portion of the righteous, as it is written (Ibid. 2) \"Let him (the righteous one) come in peace (to the grave). Let them (the men of lovingkindness) rest (peacefully) where they lie.\" Great is peace, which was not given in the portion of the wicked, viz. (Ibid. 21) \"There is no peace, says the L-rd, for the wicked.\" Great is peace, which was given to the lovers of Torah, viz. (Psalms 119:165) \"Peace in abundance for the lovers of Your Torah.\" Great is peace, which was given to the humble, viz. (Ibid. 37:11) \"and the humble will inherit the land and rejoice in an abundance of peace.\" Great is peace, which was given to the learners of Torah, viz. (Isaiah 59:13) \"And all your children will be (as if) taught by the L-rd, and (there will be) an abundance of peace (among) your children.\" Great is peace, which is given to the doers of righteousness, viz. (Ibid. 32:7) \"And the reward of righteousness will be peace.\" Great is peace, for the name of the Holy One Blessed be He is \"Peace,\" viz. (Judges 6:24) \"and he called it (the altar) 'the L-rd is Peace.'\" R. Chanina, the adjutant high-priest says: Great is peace, which is over and against the entire creation, as it is written \"who makes peace … and creates all\" (viz. Isaiah 45:7). Great is peace, which is needed (even) by the celestial creations, viz. (Job 25:22) \"Governance and fear is with Him: He makes peace in His heights.\" Now does this not follow a fortiori, viz.: If in a place where there is no enmity, or rivalry, or hatred, or hostility, peace is needed — how much more so, in a place where all of these obtain!", , " (to be understood as following \"how much more so, etc.\" [before the preceding paragraph]:) And thus is it written (Isaiah 23:4) \"Be ashamed, O Tziddon, for the sea has spoken, the fortress of the sea, saying: I have not labored, and I have not borne, and I have not raised youths or reared maidens.\" The sea hereby says: I, who do not fear — \"perhaps I will not labor, perhaps I will not bear sons and daughters, perhaps I will bury sons and daughters\" — What shall I say? \"Will you not fear Me, says the L-rd. Will you not tremble before Me, who have set sand as a bound to the sea, an eternal law, not to be broken\" — Now if I (the sea), with whom all of these trepidations do not obtain, do the will of my Master (and do not venture to break my bounds), how much more so you — \"Be ashamed, O Tziddon!\""


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven.
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 19.24, 22.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וַיהוָה הִמְטִיר עַל־סְדֹם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָה גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ מֵאֵת יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃ 19.24. Then the LORD caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;" 22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.17. חֲבוּר עֲצַבִּים אֶפְרָיִם הַנַּח־לוֹ׃ 4.17. Ephraim is joined to idols; Let him alone."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. וַיֹּאמֶר עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ׃ 1.21. And he said; Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, And naked shall I return thither; The LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.6. בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם הֶעָרִים תֶּחֱרַבְנָה וְהַבָּמוֹת תִּישָׁמְנָה לְמַעַן יֶחֶרְבוּ וְיֶאְשְׁמוּ מִזְבְּחוֹתֵיכֶם וְנִשְׁבְּרוּ וְנִשְׁבְּתוּ גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְנִגְדְּעוּ חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנִמְחוּ מַעֲשֵׂיכֶם׃ 6.6. In all your dwelling-places the cities shall be laid waste, and the high places shall be desolate; that your altars may be laid waste and made desolate, and your idols may be broken and cease, and your sun-images may be hewn down, and your works may be blotted out."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.6-9.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 9.7. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בְּאַבְרָם וְהוֹצֵאתוֹ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתָּ שְּׁמוֹ אַבְרָהָם׃ 9.8. וּמָצָאתָ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ וְכָרוֹת עִמּוֹ הַבְּרִית לָתֵת אֶת־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי לָתֵת לְזַרְעוֹ וַתָּקֶם אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ כִּי צַדִּיק אָתָּה׃ 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee." 9.7. Thou art the LORD the God, who didst choose Abram, and broughtest him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gavest him the name of Abraham;" 9.8. and foundest his heart faithful before Thee, and madest a covet with him to give the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite, and the Girgashite, even to give it unto his seed, and hast performed Thy words; for Thou art righteous;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened."
10. Mishnah, Avot, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.11. Rabbi Eliezer son of Yaakov says: One who does a single good deed acquires a single defender. One who does a single sin acquires a single prosecutor. Repentance and good deeds are a shield against punishment. Rabbi Yocha the shoemaker said: Every gathering that is for the sake of Heaven will endure. And every gathering that isn't for the sake of Heven will not endure, in the end."
11. Mishnah, Hulin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. If a fetus died within the womb [of its mother] and the shepherd put in his hand and touched it, he is clean, whether it was a clean or unclean animal. Rabbi Yose HaGalili says: if it was an unclean animal he is unclean, and if it was a clean animal he is clean. If the fetus of a woman died within the womb of its mother and the midwife put in her hand and touched it, the midwife is unclean for seven days, but the mother is clean until the fetus comes out."
12. Tosefta, Kippurim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 51.2, 55.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

51.2. וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדֹם וגו', מָשָׁל לִשְׁנֵי מְדִינוֹת שֶׁמָּרְדוּ בַּמֶּלֶךְ, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ תִּשָֹּׂרֵף אַחַת מִשֶּׁלָּהּ וְאַחַת תִּשָֹּׂרֵף מִטַּמְיוֹן. כָּךְ לְהַלָּן (ישעיה לד, ט): וְנֶהֶפְכוּ נְחָלֶיהָ לְזֶפֶת וַעֲפָרָהּ לְגָפְרִית. בְּרַם הָכָא וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדֹם וְעַל עֲמֹרָה וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן לְשִׁפְחָה שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹדָה פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר בָּא בֶּן גְּבִרְתָּהּ וְרָדַת פַּת וְנָתְנָה לוֹ, בָּא בֶּן בְּנָהּ וְרָדַת גֶּחָלִים וְנָתְנָה לוֹ, כָּךְ לְהַלָּן (שמות טז, ד): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל משֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, בְּרַם הָכָא וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדֹם וְעַל עֲמֹרָה גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ. רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בֶּן רַבִּי חִילְפַי בַּר סִמְקָאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדֹם, זֶה גַּבְרִיאֵל. מֵאֵת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַה', הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּתּוֹרָה בַּנְבִיאִים וּכְתוּבִים מָצִינוּ שֶׁהַהֶדְיוֹט מַזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, בַּתּוֹרָה (בראשית ד, כג): וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו, נָשַׁיי אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאֲזֵנָה וגו'. בַּנְּבִיאִים (מלכים א א, לג): וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לָהֶם קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם אֶת עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנֵיכֶם וְהִרְכַּבְתֶּם אֶת שְׁלֹמֹה בְנִי עַל הַפִּרְדָּה אֲשֶׁר לִי וגו', אֶת בֶּן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֶת שְׁלֹמֹה בְנִי. בַּכְּתוּבִים דִּכְתִיב (אסתר ח, ח): כִּי כְתָב אֲשֶׁר נִכְתָּב בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְנַחְתּוֹם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְאַתּ תָּמֵהַּ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד. 55.4. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַחַר הִרְהוּרֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, מִי הִרְהֵר אַבְרָהָם הִרְהֵר וְאָמַר שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לְךָ שֶׁתַּקְרִיב אֶת בִּנְךָ וְלֹא תְעַכֵּב, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר, אֱלֹהִים וְהָאֱלֹהִים, הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אָמְרוּ, אַבְרָהָם זֶה שָׂמַח וְשִׂמַּח אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְלֹא יְעַכֵּב. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל הָיוּ מִדַּיְּנִים זֶה עִם זֶה, זֶה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, וְזֶה אָמַר חָבִיב אֲנִי מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ, לָמָּה שֶׁהָיָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדִי לִמְחוֹת וְלֹא מָחִיתִי. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יִצְחָק הַלְּוַאי הָיָה נִגְלָה עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאֶחְתֹּךְ אֶחָד מֵאֵבָרַי וְלֹא אֲעַכֵּב, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם. br br[נֻסַּח אַחֵר: אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אֲבָל אַתָּה נִמַּלְתָּ בְּקָטְנְךָ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְחוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק כָּל מַה שֶּׁהִלְוֵיתָ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשָׁה טִפִּים דַּם הֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי עַכְשָׁו בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה אִלּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִשָּׁחֵט אֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַשָּׁעָה, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם.] 55.4. After these things — misgivings were experienced on that occasion. Who then had misgivings? Avraham, saying to himself: ‘I have rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet I did not set aside a single bullock or ram for the Holy One of Blessing.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to him: ‘I know that even if you were commanded to offer your only son to Me, you would not refuse.’ - this is according to Rabbi Eleazar who said that the employment of va-e-lohim where E-lohim would suffice, implies both God and God’s Court. It was the ministering angels who spoke thus: ‘This Avraham rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet did not set aside for the Holy One of Blessing a single bullock or ram.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to them: ‘Even if we tell him to offer his own son, he will not refuse.’ Itzchak and Ishmael were engaged in a dispute: the latter argued, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at the age of thirteen’; while the other retorted, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at eight days.’ Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved, because I could have protested, yet I did not.’ At that moment Itzchak exclaimed: ‘O that God would appear to me and bid me cut off one of my limbs! then I would not refuse.’ Said God: ‘Even if I bid you sacrifice yourself, you will not refuse.’ [Another version: Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved than you, since I as circumcised at the age of thirteen, but you were circumcised as a baby and could not refuse.’ Itzchak retorted: ‘All that you did lend to the Holy One of Blessing was three drops of blood. But look, I am now thirty-seven years old, yet if God desired of me that I be slaughtered, I would not refuse.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing ‘This is the moment!’ Straightway, “God tested Avraham”.]"
14. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 9.9, 24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.9. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּלוּלוֹת בּוֹ, (תהלים כט, יא): ה' עֹז לְעַמּוֹ יִתֵּן ה' יְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ בַשָּׁלוֹם. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְווֹת כְּתִיב בְּהוּ (שמות כג, ד ה): כִּי תִרְאֶה, כִּי תִפְגַע, (דברים כב, ו): כִּי יִקָּרֵא, אִם בָּאת מִצְוָה לְיָדְךָ אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְאִם לָאו אִי אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא (תהלים לד, טו): בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ, בַּקְשֵׁהוּ לִמְקוֹמְךָ וְרָדְפֵהוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁבְּכָל הַמַּסָּעוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר לג, ה): וַיִּסְעוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ, נוֹסְעִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹנִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻלָּם לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּם חֲנָיָה אַחַת, הֲדָא דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ב): וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַיַּחֲנוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי שָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתֵן תּוֹרָה לְבָנָי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר תְּלַת, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים דִּבְרֵי בַּדָּאוּת בַּתּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אַבְרָהָם לְשָׂרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יב): אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן, אֲבָל לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (בראשית יח, יג): וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לָשׁוֹן בָּדוּי בַּנְּבִיאִים בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יג, ג): הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֲבָל לְמָנוֹחַ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (שופטים יג, יג): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סַמָּנִים הִיא צְרִיכָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם, מַה אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא קִנְאָה וְלֹא שִׂנְאָה וְלֹא תַּחְרוּת וְלֹא מַצּוֹת וְרִיבוֹת וְלֹא מַחְלֹקֶת וְלֹא עַיִן רָעָה צְרִיכִין שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כה, ב): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו, הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן בַּדָּיוּת בַּתּוֹרָה לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית נ, יז): כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְיוֹסֵף אָנָא שָׂא נָא, וְלֹא אַשְׁכְּחָן בְּיַעֲקֹב דְּפַקַד כְּלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים כ, י): כִּי תִקְרַב אֶל עִיר וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִקְרָא שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ו, כד): וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה' שָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר יוּדָן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתִיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה תַּמָּן חָדָא אִתְּתָא יַצִּיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה לֵיהּ תָּנְתָא מִדְרָשָׁא, אַמְתִּינַת עַד דִּיחֲסַל מִמִּדְרָשׁ, אָזְלָה לְבֵיתָהּ אַשְׁכְּחָא בּוּצִינָא טָפֵי, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אָן הֲוֵית, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ אֲנָא יָתִיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה קָלֵיהּ דָּרוֹשָׁה, אֲמַר לָהּ כֵּן וְכֵן לָא אִעַיַּלְתְּ לְהָכָא עַד דַּאֲזַלְתְּ וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּי דָרוֹשָׁה, יְתִיבָא שַׁבַּתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא תִּנְיָנָא וּתְלִיתָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתּוּן צְהִיבִין, אֲתֵינָן עִמָּךְ לְגַבֵּי דָּרוֹשָׁה, כֵּיוָן דְּחָמֵי יַתְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ אִית מִנְּכוֹן אִתְּתָא דְּחַכִּימָא לְמִלְחַשׁ בְּעֵינָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתְּ אָזְלַת וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּיהּ וְתִשְׁרֵי לְבַעֲלִךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּיָתְבָא קַמֵּי אִידְחִילַת מִינֵיהּ, אֲמָרָה לֵיהּ רַבִּי לֵית אֲנָא חַכִּימָא לְמִילְחַשׁ עֵינָא, אֲמַר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָכֵי רוֹקִי בְּאַנְפִּי שְׁבַע זִמְנִין וַאֲנָא מִינְשִׁים, עָבְדָה הָכִין. אֲמַר לָהּ אִיזִילִי אִמְרִי לְבַעֲלִיךָ אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ חָדָא זִימְנָא וַאֲנָא רָקֵית שְׁבַע זִימְנִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבִּי כָּךְ מְבַזִּין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לָא הֲוָה לָךְ לְמֵימַר לְחַד מִינָן לְמִלְחַשׁ לָךְ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ לָא דַּיּוֹ לְמֵאִיר לִהְיוֹת שָׁוֶה לְקוֹנוֹ, דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ עָשָׂה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ, בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, בָּרְבִיעִי מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְראוֹת אָדָם, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הֲרֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רַבִּים מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רַבִּים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, מֶה עָשָׂה בְּרָאוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, רַבִּי מָנֵי דִּשְׁאַב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְטוֹבוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבִיאָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, חוֹתְמִין בְּשָׁלוֹם, בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע פּוֹרֵס סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם, בַּתְּפִלָּה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִנַיִן, (ויקרא ז, לז): זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּכְּלָל, בַּפְּרָט מִנַּיִן, (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה, (ויקרא ו, ז): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה, (ויקרא ו, יח): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת, (ויקרא ז, א): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם, (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד, בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר כט, לט): אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם, וּמְסַיֵּם בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא מִנַּיִן, (ישעיה סו, יב): הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נב, ז): מַה נָּאווּ עַל הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם. 24.2. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים צב, ט): וְאַתָּה מָרוֹם לְעֹלָם ה', לְעוֹלָם יָדְךָ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה. בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם יוֹשֵׁב בַּדִּין, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן דִּימוּס, כָּל הָעָם מְקַלְּסִין אוֹתוֹ, וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן סְפִיקָלָא, אֵין כָּל בְּרִיָה מְקַלֶּסֶת אוֹתוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם יוֹדְעִין שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֶׁטֶף בְּדִינוֹ. אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֶלָּא בֵּין בְּמִדַּת הַטּוֹב, בֵּין בְּמִדַּת פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת וְאַתָּה מָרוֹם לְעוֹלָם ה', לְעוֹלָם יָדְךָ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר, כְּתִיב (תהלים קא, א): לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר חֶסֶד וּמִשְׁפָּט אָשִׁירָה לְךָ ה' אֲזַמֵּרָה, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אִם חֶסֶד אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה עִמִּי אָשִׁירָה, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לַה' אֲזַמֵּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בְּרַבִּי יוּדָן, כְּתִיב (תהלים נו, יא): בֵּאלֹהִים אֲהַלֵּל דָּבָר בַּה' אֲהַלֵּל דָּבָר, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ אֲהַלֵּל דְּבָרוֹ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי, כְּתִיב (תהלים קטז, ג ד): צָרָה וְיָגוֹן אֶמְצָא וּבְשֵׁם ה' אֶקְרָא, (תהלים קטז, יג): כּוֹס יְשׁוּעוֹת אֶשָּׂא, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבְשֵׁם ה' אֶקְרָא. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי פִּילְיָא הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב א, כא): ה' נָתַן וַה' לָקָח יְהִי שֵׁם ה' מְבֹרָךְ, בֵּין שֶׁנָּתַן בְּרַחֲמִים נָתַן, בֵּין שֶׁנָּטַל בְּרַחֲמִים נָטַל, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנָּתַן לֹא נִמְלַךְ בִּבְרִיָּה וּכְשֶׁנָּטַל נִמְלַךְ בְּבֵית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא וַה', הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, בִּנְיַן אָב שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן (מלכים א כב, כג): וַה' דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן כְּתִיב: וְאַתָּה מָרוֹם, רוֹמְמוּת אַתָּה נוֹהֵג בְּעוֹלָמֶךָ, נָתַתָּ כְּהֻנָּה לְאַהֲרֹן לְעוֹלָם (במדבר יח, יט): בְּרִית מֶלַח הִוא, נָתַתָּ מַלְכוּת לְדָוִד לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב יג, ה): הֲלֹא לָכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נָתַן מַמְלָכָה. נָתַתָּ קְדֻשָּׁה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: קְדשִׁים תִּהְיוּ. 9.9. Said Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai: Peace is so great that all blessings are included in it (Ps. 29:11) “Hashem will give strength to His people, Hashem will bless His people with peace”. Hizkiah said two things. Hizkiah said: Peace is so great that all mitzvot are written [in the conditional form] (Exodus 23:4-5) “If you see” “If you encounter” (Deut. 22:6) “If you happen by” – if a mitzvah came to your hand, you are bound to do it. However, here (Ps. 34:15) “Seek peace and pursue it.” Seek – [this word applies] in your own place; pursue – [this word applies] in any other place. Hizkiah said gave another explanation: Peace is so great that about every travelling of the children of Israel it is written ‘and they travelled’ ‘and they encamped’ they travelled disputing [with each other] and encamped disputing. But when they arrived at Mount Sinai they did one single encampment, as it is written ‘and Israel encamped [verb in singular] there’ – it is not written ‘they encamped there’, rather, it is written ‘he encamped there.’ At the moment the Holy One of Blessing said ‘this is the moment I will give Torah to the children of Israel’"
15. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. בחדתי,ותיפוק ליה משום מזיקין בתרי,אי בתרי חשד נמי ליכא בתרי ופריצי.,מפני המפולת ותיפוק ליה משום חשד ומזיקין,בתרי וכשרי.,מפני המזיקין ותיפוק ליה מפני חשד ומפולת,בחורבה חדתי ובתרי וכשרי, אי בתרי מזיקין נמי ליכא,במקומן חיישינן ואי בעית אימא לעולם בחד ובחורבה חדתי דקאי בדברא דהתם משום חשד ליכא דהא אשה בדברא לא שכיחא ומשום מזיקין איכא:,תנו רבנן ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה דברי רבי רבי נתן אומר שלש,מאי טעמא דרבי נתן דכתיב (שופטים ז)ויבא גדעון ומאה איש אשר אתו בקצה המחנה ראש האשמורת התיכונה תנא אין תיכונה אלא שיש לפניה ולאחריה,ורבי מאי תיכונה אחת מן התיכונה שבתיכונות,ורבי נתן מי כתיב תיכונה שבתיכונות תיכונה כתיב,מאי טעמיה דרבי אמר רב זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כתוב אחד אומר (תהלים קיט)חצות לילה אקום להודות לך על משפטי צדקך וכתוב אחד אומר (שם)קדמו עיני אשמורות הא כיצד ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה,ורבי נתן סבר לה כרבי יהושע דתנן רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות שית דליליא ותרתי דיממא הוו להו שתי משמרות,רב אשי אמר משמרה ופלגא נמי משמרות קרו להו:,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אין אומרין בפני המת אלא דבריו של מת,אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא בדברי תורה אבל מילי דעלמא לית לן בה,ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא [אפילו] בדברי תורה וכל שכן מילי דעלמא:,ודוד בפלגא דליליא הוה קאי מאורתא הוה קאי דכתיב (תהלים קיט)קדמתי בנשף ואשועה וממאי דהאי נשף אורתא הוא דכתיב (משלי ז)בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפילה,אמר רב אושעיא אמר רבי אחא הכי קאמר (דוד) מעולם לא עבר עלי חצות לילה בשינה.,רבי זירא אמר עד חצות לילה היה מתנמנם כסוס מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר כארי רב אשי אמר עד חצות לילה היה עוסק בדברי תורה מכאן ואילך בשירות ותשבחות., ונשף אורתא הוא הא נשף צפרא הוא דכתיב (שמואל א ל)ויכם דוד מהנשף ועד הערב למחרתם מאי לאו מצפרא ועד ליליא,לא מאורתא ועד אורתא,אי הכי לכתוב מהנשף ועד הנשף או מהערב ועד הערב,אלא אמר רבא תרי נשפי הוו נשף ליליא ואתי יממא נשף יממא ואתי ליליא.,ודוד מי הוה ידע פלגא דליליא אימת השתא משה רבינו לא הוה ידע דכתיב (שמות יא) כחצות הלילה אני יוצא בתוך מצרים,מאי כחצות אילימא דאמר ליה קודשא בריך הוא כחצות מי איכא ספיקא קמי שמיא אלא דאמר ליה (למחר) בחצות (כי השתא) ואתא איהו ואמר כחצות אלמא מספקא ליה ודוד הוה ידע,דוד סימנא הוה ליה דאמר רב אחא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא כנור היה תלוי למעלה ממטתו של דוד וכיון שהגיע חצות לילה בא רוח צפונית ונושבת בו ומנגן מאליו מיד היה עומד ועוסק בתורה עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעלה עמוד השחר נכנסו חכמי ישראל אצלו אמרו לו אדונינו המלך עמך ישראל צריכין פרנסה אמר להם לכו והתפרנסו זה מזה אמרו לו אין הקומץ משביע את הארי ואין הבור מתמלא מחוליתו אמר להם לכו ופשטו ידיכם בגדוד,מיד יועצים באחיתופל ונמלכין בסנהדרין ושואלין באורים ותומים,אמר רב יוסף מאי קרא (דכתיב) (דברי הימים א כז)ואחרי אחיתופל בניהו בן יהוידע ואביתר ושר צבא למלך יואב,אחיתופל זה יועץ וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב טז) ועצת אחיתופל אשר יעץ בימים ההם כאשר ישאל (איש) בדבר האלהים 3b. The Gemara answers: This ihalakhaapplies even binthe case of a bnew,sturdy ruin, where there is no danger of collapse. Therefore, the reason because of suspicion is cited in order to warn one not to enter a new ruin as well.,The Gemara continues to object: bAnd let this ihalakha bbe derived because of demons?The Gemara answers: Demons are only a threat to individuals, so because of demons would not apply to a case bwhere twopeople enter a ruin together.,The Gemara objects: But bif there are twopeople entering a ruin together, then bthere is no suspicion either.There is no prohibition against two men to be alone with a woman as, in that case, there is no suspicion of untoward behavior. Consequently, if two men enter a ruin together, there is no room for suspicion. The Gemara answers: If btwo individualsknown to be bimmoralenter together, there is suspicion even though there are two of them.,The Gemara considers why bbecause of collapseis necessary. bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and demons. /b,The Gemara responds: There are times when this reason is necessary, e.g., when btwo upstanding individualsenter a ruin together. Although there is neither concern of suspicion nor of demons, there remains concern lest the ruin collapse.,The Gemara considers the third reason, bbecause of demons.Why is it necessary to include: Because of demons? bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and collapse. /b,The Gemara responds: There are cases where this is the only concern, for example where it is a bnewruin into which btwo upstandingindividuals enter, so there is neither concern lest it collapse nor of suspicion.,The Gemara points out, however, that bif there are two people, there is also noconcern of bdemons.As such, the question remains: In what case can demons be the sole cause not to enter a ruin?,The Gemara responds: Generally speaking, two individuals need not be concerned about demons; but, if they are bin their place,i.e., a place known to be haunted by demons (see Isaiah 13:21), bwe are concernedabout demons even with two people. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bActually,this refers btothe case of ban individualentering ba new ruin located in a field. There, there is no suspicion, asfinding ba woman in the field is uncommon;and since it is a new ruin, there is no danger of collapse. bHowever, there isstill concern of bdemons. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bThe night is comprised of four watches;this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Natan says:The night is comprised of bthreewatches.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is Rabbi Natan’s reasoning? As it is written: “And Gideon, and the one hundred men who were with him, came to the edge of camp at the beginning of the middle watch”(Judges 7:19). bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: bMiddle means nothing other thanthat bthere is one before it and one after it.From the fact that the verse refers to a middle watch, the fact that the night is comprised of three watches may be inferred., bAndwhat does bRabbiYehuda HaNasi say about this proof? He argues that it is inconclusive, as one could say: To bwhatdoes bmiddlerefer? It refers to bone of thetwo bmiddlewatches., bAndhow would bRabbi Natanrespond? He would say: Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s objection, bis: One of the middlewatches, bwrittenin the verse? bThe middlewatch bis written.This indicates that the night is comprised of only three watches., bWhat is RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s breasoning? Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s opinion is based on a comparison of two verses. bOne verse says: “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws”(Psalms 119:62), band the other verse says: “My eyes forestall the watches,that I will speak of Your word” (Psalms 119:148). Taken together, these verses indicate that their author, King David, rose at midnight, two watches before dawn, in order to study Torah. bHow is itpossible to reconcile these two verses? Only if bthere are four watches in the nightdoes one who rises two watches before dawn rise at midnight., bAndhow does bRabbi Natanreconcile these two verses? He bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua, for we learnedin a mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One is permitted to recite the morning iShemaduring the time when people rise, buntil the third hourof the day, bas it is the custom of kings to rise during the third hour.Since it is customary for kings to rise during the third hour of the day, if David rose at midnight, he would be awake for bsix hours of the night and two hours of the day,which amounts to btwo watches.Therefore King David could say that he “forestalls the watches,” as he rose two watches before the rest of the kings in the world., bRav Ashi saidthat the verses can be reconciled in accordance with Rabbi Natan’s opinion in another way: bOne and one-half watches are still called watchesin plural. Therefore King David could rise at midnight yet maintain that he “forestalls the watches.”,Following this discussion, another ihalakhathat bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidis cited: bBefore the dead, one may speak only of matters relating to the dead,as speaking of other matters appears to be contemptuous of the deceased, underscoring that he is unable to talk while those around him can. Therefore, one must remain fully engaged in matters relating to him.,Two traditions exist with regard to the details of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana. According to one version, bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said:This ihalakha bwas only said with regard to matters of Torah.Speaking of bother matters, however, is notprohibited, since no contempt is expressed for the deceased by the fact that he is unable to speak of such topics., bOthers sayanother version of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: This ihalakha bwas said even with regard to matters of Torah, and all the more so with regard to other matters.If one must refrain from speaking of matters of Torah, regarding which one is commanded to speak, and limit himself to matters concerning the deceased, all the more so should he refrain from speaking of other matters, regarding which one is not commanded to speak.,Incidental to the Gemara’s mention of King David, other sources are cited that describe his actions. Regarding that which was cited above, that he would rise in the middle of the night in order to serve his Creator, the Gemara asks: bDid David rise at midnight? He rose in the evening. As it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried,I hoped for Your word” (Psalms 119:147). bAnd howdo we know bthat this ineshefis the evening? As it is written: “In the ineshef /i, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness”(Proverbs 7:9). Apparently, King David did indeed rise when it was still evening.,The Gemara suggests several ways to resolve this contradiction. bRabbi Oshaya saidthat bRabbi Aḥa said: David said as follows: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep.Sometimes I fulfilled the verse, “I rose with the ineshefand cried,” but I always, at least, fulfilled the verse, “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws.”, bRabbi Zeira said: Until midnight,David bwould doze like a horse,as a horse dozes, but never sleeps deeply. bFrommidnight bon, he would gain the strength of a lion. Rav Ashi said: Until midnight, he would study Torah,as it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried, I hoped for Your word,” band frommidnight bon,he would engage in bsongs and praise,as it is written: “At midnight I rise to give thanks.”,To this point, the discussion has been based on the assumption that ineshefmeans evening. The Gemara asks: bDoes ineshef /ireally bmean evening? Doesn’t ineshefmean morning? As it is written: “And David slew them from the ineshefuntil the evening of the next day”(I Samuel 30:17). bDoesn’tthis verse mean bfrom the morning until the night,in which case ineshefmust mean morning?,The Gemara responds: bNo,this verse means that David slew them bfromone bevening untilthe next bevening. /b,The Gemara rejects this response: bIf so, letthe verse bbe written: From the ineshefuntil the ineshef /i, or from the evening until the evening.Why would the verse employ two different terms for a single concept?, bRather, Rava said: There are twotimes referred to as ineshef /i,and the word can refer to either evening or morning. iNeshefmust be understood in accordance with its Aramaic root: bThe night movespast b[ineshaf] band the day arrives, and the day movespast [ ineshaf] band the night arrives. /b,When King David said: At midnight I rise, the assumption is that he rose precisely at midnight. The Gemara asks: bDid David knowexactly bwhen it was midnight? Even Moses our teacher did not knowexactly when it was midnight. How do we know this about Moses? bAs it is writtenthat he said to Pharaoh: “Thus said the Lord: bAbout midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt”(Exodus 11:4). The word about indicates that it was only an approximation.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAbout midnight?Did Moses say it or did God say it? bIf we saythat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, said: About midnight, toMoses, bis there doubt beforeGod in bheaven? Rather,this must be understood as follows: bGod toldMoses: bAt midnight, butfrom the fact that bwhenMoses bcameto Pharaoh bhe said: About midnight; apparently /b, Moses bwas uncertainabout the exact moment of midnight. Moses, the greatest of all the prophets, was uncertain, and bDavid knew? /b,The Gemara offers several answers to this question: br bDavid had a signindicating when bit was midnight.As bRav Aḥa bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: A lyre hung over David’s bed, and once midnight arrived, the northernmidnight bwind would come andcause bthe lyre to play on its own.David bwould immediately risefrom his bed band study Torah until the first rays of dawn. br bOnce dawnarrived, bthe Sages of Israel enteredto advise bhimwith regard to the various concerns of the nation and the economy. bThey said to him: Our master, the king, your nation requires sustece. br bHe said: Go and sustain one another,provide each other with whatever is lacking. brThe Sages of Israel bresponded to himwith a parable: bA single handfulof food bdoes not satisfy a lion, and a pitwill bnotbe bfilledmerely bfromthe rain that falls directly into bits mouth,but other water must be piped in ( ige’onim /i). So too, the nation cannot sustain itself using its own resources. brKing David btold them: Go and take up arms with the troopsin battle in order to expand our borders and provide our people with the opportunity to earn a livelihood.,The Sages bimmediately seek advice from Ahitophelto determine whether or not it was appropriate to go to war at that time and how they should conduct themselves, band they consult the Sanhedrinin order to receive the requisite license to wage a war under those circumstances ( iTosefot HaRosh /i). bAnd they ask the iUrim VeTummim /iwhether or not they should go to war, and whether or not they would be successful., bRav Yosef said:Upon bwhat verseis this iaggadabased? bAs it is written: “And after Ahitophel was Yehoyada son of Benayahu and Evyatar, and the general of the king’s army, Yoav”(I Chronicles 27:34).,The individuals named in this verse correspond with the roles in the iaggadaas follows: bAhitophel is the adviserwhose advice they sought first with regard to going to war, band so it says: “Now the counsel of Ahitophel, which he counseled in those days, was as a man who inquires of the word of God;so was the counsel of Ahitophel both with David and with Absalom” (II Samuel 16:23).
16. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. חיות אש ממללות במתניתא תנא עתים חשות עתים ממללות בשעה שהדיבור יוצא מפי הקב"ה חשות ובשעה שאין הדיבור יוצא מפי הקב"ה ממללות,(יחזקאל א, יד) והחיות רצוא ושוב כמראה הבזק מאי רצוא ושוב אמר רב יהודה כאור היוצא מפי הכבשן מאי כמראה הבזק אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא כאור היוצא מבין החרסים,(יחזקאל א, ד) וארא והנה רוח סערה באה מן הצפון ענן גדול ואש מתלקחת ונוגה לו סביב ומתוכה כעין החשמל מתוך האש להיכן אזל אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שהלך לכבוש את כל העולם כולו תחת נבוכדנצר הרשע וכל כך למה שלא יאמרו אומות העולם ביד אומה שפלה מסר הקב"ה את בניו אמר הקב"ה מי גרם לי שאהיה שמש לעובדי פסילים עונותיהן של ישראל הן גרמו לי,(יחזקאל א, טו) וארא החיות והנה אופן אחד בארץ אצל החיות אמר ר' אלעזר מלאך אחד שהוא עומד בארץ וראשו מגיע אצל החיות במתניתא תנא סנדלפון שמו הגבוה מחברו מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועומד אחורי המרכבה וקושר כתרים לקונו איני והכתיב (יחזקאל ג, יב) ברוך כבוד ה' ממקומו מכלל דמקומו ליכא דידע ליה דאמר שם אתגא ואזל ויתיב ברישיה,אמר רבא כל שראה יחזקאל ראה ישעיה למה יחזקאל דומה לבן כפר שראה את המלך ולמה ישעיה דומה לבן כרך שראה את המלך אמר ריש לקיש אי דכתיב (שמות טו, א) אשירה לה' כי גאה גאה שירה למי שמתגאה על הגאים דאמר מר מלך שבחיות ארי מלך שבבהמות שור מלך שבעופות נשר ואדם מתגאה עליהן והקב"ה מתגאה על כולן ועל כל העולם כולו,כתוב אחד אומר (יחזקאל א, י) ודמות פניהם פני אדם ופני אריה אל הימין לארבעתם ופני שור מהשמאל לארבעתן וגו' וכתיב (יחזקאל י, יד) וארבעה פנים לאחד פני האחד פני הכרוב ופני השני פני אדם והשלישי פני אריה והרביעי פני נשר ואילו שור לא קא חשיב אמר ר"ל יחזקאל ביקש עליו רחמים והפכו לכרוב אמר לפניו רבש"ע קטיגור יעשה סניגור,מאי כרוב אמר רבי אבהו כרביא שכן בבבל קורין לינוקא רביא א"ל רב פפא לאביי אלא מעתה דכתיב פני האחד פני הכרוב ופני השני פני אדם והשלישי פני אריה והרביעי פני נשר היינו פני כרוב היינו פני אדם אפי רברבי ואפי זוטרי,כתוב אחד אומר (ישעיהו ו, ב) שש כנפים שש כנפים לאחד וכתוב אחד אומר (יחזקאל א, ו) וארבעה פנים לאחת וארבע כנפים לאחת להם לא קשיא כאן בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים כאן בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים כביכול שנתמעטו כנפי החיות,הי מינייהו אימעוט אמר רב חננאל אמר רב אותן שאומרות שירה בהן כתיב הכא (ישעיהו ו, ב) ובשתים יעופף וקרא זה אל זה ואמר וכתיב (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמכסות בהן רגליהם שנאמר (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה ואי לאו דאימעוט מנא הוה ידע דלמא דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה דאי לא תימא הכי ודמות פניהם פני אדם הכי נמי דאימעוט אלא דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה הכא נמי דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה,הכי השתא בשלמא אפיה אורח ארעא לגלויי קמיה רביה כרעיה לאו אורח ארעא לגלויי קמיה רביה,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, י) אלף אלפין ישמשוניה ורבו רבבן קדמוהי יקומון וכתוב אחד אומר (איוב כה, ג) היש מספר לגדודיו לא קשיא כאן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים כאן בזמן שאין בהמ"ק קיים כביכול שנתמעטה פמליא של מעלה,תניא רבי אומר משום אבא יוסי בן דוסאי אלף אלפין ישמשוניה מספר גדוד אחד ולגדודיו אין מספר ור' ירמיה בר אבא אמר אלף אלפין ישמשוניה לנהר דינור שנאמר (דניאל ז, י) נהר דינור נגד ונפק מן קדמוהי אלף אלפין ישמשוניה ורבו רבבן קדמוהי יקומון,מהיכן נפיק מזיעתן של חיות ולהיכן שפיך אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב על ראש רשעים בגיהנם שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, יט) הנה סערת ה' חמה יצאה וסער מתחולל על ראש רשעים יחול ורב אחא בר יעקב אמר על אשר קומטו שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) אשר קומטו ולא עת נהר יוצק יסודם תניא אמר רבי שמעון החסיד אלו תשע מאות ושבעים וארבע דורות שקומטו להיבראות 13b. It refers to bspeaking animals of fire.Electrum [ iḥashmal /i] is an acrostic of this phrase [iḥayyot esh memallelot/b]. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: At times they are silent; at times they speak. When the divine speech emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, they are silent; and when the divine speech does not emerge from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, they speak. /b,§ The verse states: b“And the divine creatures ran and returned like the appearance of a flash of lightning [ ibazak /i]”(Ezekiel 1:14). bWhat isthe meaning of b“ran and returned”? Rav Yehuda said: Like fire that is emitted from a furnace,whose flame is continuously bursting out and withdrawing. bWhat isthe meaning of b“like the appearance of a flash of lightning”? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Like the fire that is emittedfrom bbetweenpieces of bearthenwareused for refining gold, as an additional meaning ascribed to the word ibazakis shards of earthenware.,The verse states: b“And I looked and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of its midst was like the color of electrum, out of the midst of the fire”(Ezekiel 1:4). The Gemara poses a question: bWhere didthat wind bgo? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: It went to conquer the entire world under the wicked Nebuchadnezzar. And why was all of this necessary?Why was it necessary that the entire world be subjected to his dominion? bSo that the nations of the world would not say: The Holy One, Blessed be He, delivered His children into the hands of a lowly nation.Since it was already decreed that the kingdom of Israel would fall into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, God made him into a great conqueror, so that Israel would not be ashamed of being defeated by him. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidwith regard to this: bWho caused Me to be an attendant to worshippers of molten images,forcing Me to wage their wars? bIt was the sins of Israel that led Meto do so.,Another verse in the same chapter states: b“Now as I beheld the divine creatures, behold, one wheel [ iofan /i] was upon the earth near the divine creatures”(Ezekiel 1:15). bRabbi Elazar said:This wheel is ba certain angel who stands on the earth and its head reaches the divine creatures. It was taught in a ibaraita /i:This angel bis named Sandalfon, who is taller than his colleague by a distance of five hundred years, and he stands behind theDivine bChariot and weaves crowns for his Maker.The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Can crowns be woven for God? bBut isn’t it written: “Blessed be the Lord’s glory from His place”(Ezekiel 3:12), which proves bby inferencethat bno one knows His place?Therefore, how can crowns be woven for Him? Rather, it can be done bby saying a name for the crown, andthen the crown bgoes and sits onGod’s bheadof its own accord.,§ bRava said: All that Ezekiel saw,the prophet bIsaiah sawas well, but the latter did not find it necessary to describe his vision in such detail. bTo what may Ezekiel be compared? To a villager who saw the kingand is excited by all the extravagances of the king’s palace and everything it contains, as he is unaccustomed to them. bAnd to what may Isaiah be compared? To a city dweller who saw the king.Such an individual focuses on the encounter with the king, and is oblivious to all the distractions. bReish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will sing to the Lord, for He is highly exalted”(Exodus 15:1)? It is fitting to bsing to He Who is exalted above the exalted. As the Master said: The king of the beastsis bthe lion, the king of the domestic animalsis bthe ox, the king of the birdsis bthe eagle, and man is exaltedand lords bover them, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, is exalted above all of them and above the entire world,as the creatures that appear in the Divine Chariot are the ox, the lion, the eagle, and man.,The Gemara poses a question with regard to the animals of the Divine Chariot: bOne verse states: “As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and the four had the face of a lion on the right side; and the four had the face of an ox on the left side”(Ezekiel 1:10). bAnd it isalso bwritten: “And each one had four faces: The first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle”(Ezekiel 10:14), bbut it does not includethe face of ban oxin this second list. bReish Lakish said: Ezekiel requested mercywith regard to bit,i.e., the face of the ox, band had it turned into a cherub. He said before Himas follows: bMaster of the Universe.Shall ban accuser [ ikateigor /i] become a defender [ isaneigor /i]?As the face of an ox recalls Israel’s sin of the Golden Calf, it would be preferable for there to be a different face on the Divine Chariot.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“cherub”? Rabbi Abbahu said: Like a baby[ikeravya/b], bfor in Babylonia they call a baby iravya /i. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: However, if that is so, what isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “The first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle”? The face of a cherub isthe same as bthe face of a man;what is the difference between them? He replied: The difference is that the face of a man is referring to ba large face,whereas the face of a cherub means the bsmall faceof a baby.,The Gemara asks another question: bOne verse states: “Each one had six wings;with two it covered its face and with two it covered its feet, and with two it flew” (Isaiah 6:2), band another verse states: “And every one had four faces, and every one of them had four wings”(Ezekiel 1:6). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bhere,when the verse states they each had six wings, it is referring bto the time when the Temple is standing,while bthere,where four wings are described, it is referring bto the time when the Temple is not standing,for bit is as ifthe number of bthe wings of the animals were diminishedso that they now have only four.,The Gemara asks: bWhich ofthe wings bwere diminished? Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Those with which they recite song.The proof is that bit is written here: “And with two it flew[iyeofef /i]. bAnd one called to the other and said”(Isaiah 6:2–3), band it is written: “Will you set[ihata’if] your eyes upon it? It is gone”(Proverbs 23:5), implying that the flight of these wings had ceased., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the wings they lost are bthose with which they cover their feet, for it is stated: “And their feet were straight feet”(Ezekiel 1:7). bNow ifthese wings bhad not been diminished, how would he knowwhat their feet looked like? Clearly their feet were no longer covered. The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof, for bperhaps they weremomentarily brevealed,allowing him to bsee them. Because if you do not say so,that he saw them for a moment, then with regard to the verse: b“And the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man”(Ezekiel 1:10), bso toowill you say bthat thesethe wings covering their faces bwere diminishedas well? bRather,it must be bthat they were revealed and he saw them. Here too, they were revealed and he saw them. /b,The Gemara refutes this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? Granted,it is logical that bhis facewas revealed, as bit is proper conductfor an angel bto revealhis face bbefore his Master,and therefore it is possible that they would have revealed their faces at certain times; but with regard to bhis feet,it is bnot proper conduct to revealthem bbefore his Master.Therefore, they must have lacked wings to cover their feet.,§ The Gemara continues to address apparent contradictions between verses concerning similar matters: bOne verse states: “A thousand thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him”(Daniel 7:10), band another verse states: “Is there a number to His troops?”(Job 25:3), implying that they are even more numerous than “ten thousand times ten thousand.” The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,for bhere,when they are without number, the verse is referring bto the time when the Temple is standing; there,the other verse is referring bto the time when the Temple is not standing,for bit is as though the heavenly entourage [ ipamalya /i] were diminished. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays in the name of Abba Yosei ben Dosai: “A thousand thousands ministered to Him”is referring to the bnumberof angels in ba single troop,but with regard to the number of his troops, it can be said: b“And to his troops, there is no number”. And Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said:There is no contradiction, since with regard to the phrase b“a thousand thousands ministered to Him,”the pronoun “Him” can be literally translated as: It, referring not to those who serve God Himself, but to those who administer bto the River Dinur, as it is stated: “A fiery [ idinur /i] river issued and came forth from before him; a thousand thousands ministered to it, and a myriad myriads stand before it”(Daniel 7:10). The ministers of God, however, are indeed too numerous to count.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where doesthis river bflow?The Gemara answers: bFrom the perspiration of the divine creatures. And where doesit bflow to? Rav Zutra bar Toviya saidthat bRav said: Upon the heads of the wicked in Gehenna, as it is stated: “Behold, a storm of the Lord has gone forth in fury, a whirling storm; it shall whirl upon the head of the wicked”(Jeremiah 23:19). bAnd Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:The river flows bover those who were snatched away,i.e., the generations that were never created, bas it is stated: “Who were snatched away before their time, whose foundation was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that the River Dinur flows over them. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon HeḤasid saidin explanation of this verse: bThesepeople “who were snatched away” are bthose nine hundred and seventy-four generations that were snatched away;they were to have bbeen created /b
17. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 13.9

18. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 21



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba yose (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 335
abraham Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 337
aesop, trickery of Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
amidah, blessings of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 226
aramaic Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409
arm/hand Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
atonement Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
attributes, divine, judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
bar kappara Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
breasts, as figure of moses and aaron' Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 226
cherub Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
craftiness, picaro Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 335, 337
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 335, 337
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
doubt Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
eleazar b. eleazar ha-qappar (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
eleazar b. pedat (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334
eleazar ha-qappar (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
epistolary conventions Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409
exegesis, difficult passages Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 335
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 335
ezra Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
fable tellers, bar kappara as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 335, 337
hellenistic genre, fable as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
idolatry Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
jewish aesop Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
jewish genre, fable as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
judah (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 335
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 335
king, rhetoric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334
marriage Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
mashal and Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
merit, suspending Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
midrash, midrashic Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409
mythmaking, response to contradiction Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334, 335, 337
ordeal Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 170
papyri, aramaic Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409
papyri Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409
psychological, punishment (divine), withdrawal of Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 226
rabbinic fable tellers Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
rabbinic mashal, low wisdom and Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
rabbis, popularity of fables with Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
restoration Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
riddle Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
salvation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
satan (samael) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
septuagint, text of the Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 121
sin Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
sodom Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 334
tannaitic literature Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
temple, destruction of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 335
teshuvah, concept Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
teshuvah, strategy Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
time and conversion Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
tricksters Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 189
turning/change, back/returning Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 150
variant readings Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 121
will Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 337
women, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 409