Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



747
Anon., Sifre Numbers, 39


nan (Bamidbar 6:22-23) \"And the L-rd spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying: Thus shall you bless, etc.\": Because the entire section deals with Cohanim, Aaron and his sons are brought into the context of \"saying\" (dibbur). For this is the rule: Wherever the \"dibbur\" is to the Cohanim, the action (of that section) is that of the Cohanim. Where the \"dibbur\" is to Israel as a whole, the action is that of Israel. Where the \"dibbur\" is to all men, the proselytes are to be included. \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": in the holy tongue. — But perhaps any tongue is permitted. It is, therefore, written (Devarim 27:12) \"These shall stand to bless the people.\" Just as there, in the holy tongue, so, here, in the holy tongue. R. Yehudah says: This (i.e., the above identity) is not needed, for wherever \"aniyah\" (\"answering\"), \"amirah\" (\"saying\") or \"cachah\" (\"thus\") is written, the holy tongue is intended. \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\" — standing. You say, standing; but perhaps either standing or not standing is permitted. It is, therefore, written \"These shall stand to bless the people.\" It is written here \"blessing\" and there, \"blessing.\" Just as \"blessing\" there is standing, so, \"blessing\" here. R. Nathan says: This (derivation) is not needed, for it is written (of the Cohanim, Devarim 10:8) \"… to stand before the L-rd, to minister unto Him, and to bless His name.\" Blessing is likened to ministering. Just as ministering is standing, so, blessing. \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": with raised hands. You say, with raised hands; but perhaps either with or without raised hands is permitted. It is, therefore, written (Vayikra 9:22) \"And Aaron lifted his hands to the people and he blessed them.\" Just as there, with raised hands, so, here. R. Yonathan says: But perhaps just as there, Rosh Chodesh, offering, and the high-priest, so, here (these elements must obtain)! It is, therefore, written (Devarim 18:5) \"For him (a Cohein) did the L-rd your G-d choose from all of your tribes to stand and minister in the name of the L-rd, he and his sons all of the days.\" His sons are likened to him. Just as he, with raised hands, so, his sons with raised hands. \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": with the explicit name (the Tetragrammaton [yod-keh-vav-keh]). You say, with the Tetragrammaton. But, perhaps, only with an epithet. It is, therefore, written (Ibid. 27) \"And they shall place My name on the children of Israel\" — the name that is distinctive with Me. I might think that this obtains even in those places bordering (on Jerusalem). It is, therefore, written here \"And they shall place My name,\" and, elsewhere, (I Kings 11:36) \"to place My name there.\" Just as there, the Temple, so, here, the Temple. In the Temple, with the Tetragrammaton; elsewhere, with an epithet. These are the words of R. Yoshiyah. R. Yonathan says (Shemot 20:21) \"Wherever I mention My name, etc.\": This is an inverted verse, (to be understood as) \"Wherever I am revealed to you, there shall you mention My name.\" Where am I (i.e., My shechinah) revealed to you? In the Temple. You, too, may mention My name only in the Temple — whence they ruled: It is forbidden to utter the explicit Name (the Tetragrammaton) in the borders (of Jerusalem). \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": This tells me only of a blessing for (the men of) Israel. Whence do I derive (the same for) women, proselytes, and bondsmen? From \"Say to them\" — to all of them. Whence do I derive a blessing for the Cohanim (by the L-rd)? From (6:27) \"and I shall bless them (the Cohanim).\" \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": face to face. You say face to face, but perhaps face to back is intended! It is, therefore, written \"Say to them\" (as a man speaks to his neighbor) face to face. \"Thus shall you bless the children of Israel\": in a loud voice so that the entire congregation can hear.\" — But perhaps in a whisper is intended. — It is, therefore, written \"Say to them\" — so that the entire congregation can hear. And whence is it derived that the prayer leader must tell them (the Cohanim) to say? From \"Say to them.\""


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 2.10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.10. and He spread it before me, and it was written within and without; and there was written therein lamentations, and moaning, and woe."
2. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 5.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר אֲנִי רֹאֶה מְגִלָּה עָפָה אָרְכָּהּ עֶשְׂרִים בָּאַמָּה וְרָחְבָּהּ עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה׃ 5.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I answered: ‘I see a flying scroll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits.’"
3. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.1-50.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary!
4. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
5. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.5, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place." 4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
6. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
7. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah."
8. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2, 2.1, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 2.1. When his fellow priests saw that he had descended, they came running and hastened to wash their hands and feet in the laver. They then took the shovels and the forks and went up to the top of the altar. The limbs and pieces of fat that had not been consumed since the evening they pushed to the sides of the altar. If there was not room on the sides they arranged them on the surround or on the ascent." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
9. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
10. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., bAnimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsare not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,Similarly, ba lost itemfound by ba deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minoris not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,If ba poor person gleansolives bat the top of an olive treeand olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives bthat are beneath it isconsidered brobbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b, bOne does not protest against poor gentileswho come to take bgleanings, forgottensheaves, band the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ ipe’a /i],although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, bon account of the ways of peace. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? What is the source of this ihalakhain the Torah? bRav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi”(Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi?Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? bRather,the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first ba priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is written: b“And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near”(Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather,the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that bfirst a priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRav Ashi saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy”(I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is stated with regard to a priest: b“And you shall sanctify him”(Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity.And with regard to this verse, a Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,”giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity: To openthe discussion in the study hall bfirst, to recite the blessingof Grace after Meals bfirst, and to take a fine portionat a meal bfirst,meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah bon account of the ways of peace,indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not bby Torah lawthat he reads first? Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye: Indeed, it is bby Torah law, butthe reason that the priest reads first is bon account of the ways of peace. /b,Abaye objected: Aren’t the ihalakhotof bthe entire Torah alsogiven bon account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace”(Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this ihalakhais no different from the other ihalakhotin the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., bRather, Abaye said:The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace bis in accordance withwhat was said by bmy master,Rabba. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iBerakhot5:3): When btwo peopleare eating together bfrom a single dish,they must bwait for each other,but if there are bthree,each eats when he wishes and they do bnotneed to bwaitfor each other. Generally, bthe one who breaks bread extends his handto take food bfirst, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greaterthan he and allow him to take first, bhe has permissionto do so., bAnd the Master,Rabba, bsaid with regard tothis ibaraita /i: bThey taughtthis bwith regard to a meal,that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. bBut in the synagogue,one may bnotshow another honor, because the congregants are liable to bcome to quarrelabout who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., bRav Mattana said:With regard to bthismatter bthat you stated,that bin the synagoguea priest is bnotpermitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, bwe saidthis bonly concerning iShabbatotand Festivals, when many people are presentfor the services, bbut not on Mondays and Thursdays,when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? bBut didn’t Rav Huna,who was not a priest, breadthe Torah section ordinarily reserved bfor priests,even bon iShabbatotand Festivals?The Gemara answers: bRav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to hisjurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ bAbaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no priest therein the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, bthe bundle is separated,i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. bAnd Abaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no Levite therein the synagogue, ba priest readsin his place.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One bpriest should not read afteranother bpriest, becausepeople might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to ba flawthat was found binthe status of bthe firstone, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one bLevite should not read afteranother bLevite, becausepeople might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them.If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saidthat when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking bof the same priestwho had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bWhat is differentthat in the case where one bLevitereads from the Torah bafteranother bLevite,Rabbi Yoḥa says bthat there isconcern that people might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them?It must be that he is concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a Levite.If so, in the case where one bpriestreads from the Torah bafteranother bpriest,he should balsobe concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a priest.Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case bwhere we have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a priest. /b,The Gemara asks: If so, bhere too,in the case of the Levites let us say that bwe have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a Levite. Rather,the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might bsaythat perhaps the father bmarried a imamzeret /i,a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, bor a Gibeonite woman, andthereby bdisqualified his children,so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then bhere too,in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might bsaythat perhaps the priest’s father bmarried a divorced woman or a iyevamawho underwent iḥalitza[ iḥalutza /i] andthereby bdisqualified his childrenfrom the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: bUltimately, is he a Levite?If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: bAnd about whomis there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? bIfyou say that the concern is bfor those sittingin the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as bthey seethat he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. bRather,the concern is bfor those who leavebefore the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them,the priest and the Levite
13. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. לאו כולהו סלוק,ת"ש חזקה לכהונה נשיאות כפים וחילוק גרנות ועדות עדות חזקה היא אלא לאו הכי קאמר נשיאות כפים כי עדות מה עדות ליוחסין אף נשיאות כפים ליוחסין לא עדות הבאה מכח חזקה כחזקה,כי ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמי א"ל מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא כהן או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא אחריו לוי והעלהו ר' אמי לכהונה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא לוי אמר ליה מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא שני בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא לוי או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא לפניו כהן והעלהו רבי יהושע בן לוי ללויה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דריש לקיש אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית [א"ל] שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת א"ל ראיתיו שחילק על הגרנות אמר לו ר' אלעזר ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה,זימנין הוו יתבי קמיה דר' יוחנן אתא כי הא מעשה לקמיה א"ל ריש לקיש ראיתיו שחילק על הגורן א"ל ר' יוחנן ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה הדר חזייה לר"א בישות אמר שמעת מילי דבר נפחא ולא אמרת לן משמיה,רבי ור' חייא חד העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה וחד העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,תסתיים דר' העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה דתניא הרי שבא ואמר בני זה וכהן הוא נאמן להאכילו בתרומה ואינו נאמן להשיאו אשה דברי רבי אמר לו ר' חייא אם אתה מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה תאמינו להשיאו אשה ואם אי אתה מאמינו להשיאו אשה לא תאמינו לאכול בתרומה,א"ל אני מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה שבידו להאכילו בתרומה ואיני מאמינו להשיאו אשה שאין בידו להשיאו אשה תסתיים ומדרבי העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה ר' חייא העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,ורבי חייא מאי שנא בן דלא דקרוב הוא אצל אביו אח נמי קרוב הוא אצל אחיו 25b. bnot all of them ascended.Since the majority of the people did not come to the land, separating iḥallawas not restored to the status of an obligation by Torah law.,The Gemara cites proof from another ibaraitato resolve the dilemma. bComeand bhear:The bpresumptive status for priesthoodis established by bLifting of the Handsfor the Priestly Benediction, bandby bdistributionof iterumaat the bthreshing floors, andby btestimony.The Gemara asks: bDoes testimonymerely establish bpresumptive status?Testimony provides absolute proof of his status, not merely a presumption. bRather is it notthat bthis is whatthe itanna bis saying: Lifting of the Handsis blike testimony, just as testimonythat one is a priest elevates him to the priesthood bfor lineage, so too Lifting of the Handsestablishes presumptive status bfor lineage.The Gemara answers: bNo,when the itannais referring to testimony, he is stating that the legal status of btestimony that is based on presumptive status is likethat of bpresumptive statusitself., bAsin the incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Amiand bsaid to him: Thatman established bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Ami: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Rabbi Ami asked him: Did he read first based bon the presumptive status that he is a priest, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? The custom was that a priest would be called to the Torah first, unless there was a prominent Torah scholar among the worshippers. He said to Rabbi Ami: He read the Torah as a priest, bas after him a Levite readthe Torah. A Levite is called to the Torah second only when a priest is called first. bAnd Rabbi Ami elevated him to the priesthood, on the basis of hisstatement.,The Gemara relates an incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviand bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a Levite.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and that he bread second in the synagogue.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked him: Did he read second based bon the presumptive status that he is a Levite, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? When there is no priest in the synagogue, people in the synagogue are called to the Torah in order of their prominence. Perhaps he was the second most prominent man in the synagogue. He said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I am certain that he is a Levite, bas a priest readthe Torah bbefore him. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi elevated him to Levite status, based on hisstatement.,The Gemara relates another incident involving ba certain man who came before Reish Lakishand bsaid toReish Lakish: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toReish Lakish: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Reish Lakish, based on his opinion that one’s presumptive status as a priest can be established only on the basis of his receiving iteruma /i, bsaid to him: Did you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Elazar said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The testimony that he read from the Torah first is sufficient.,On another boccasionRabbi Elazar and Reish Lakish bsat before Rabbi Yoḥa.A matter bsimilarto bthat incident,where one testified that another is a priest based on his reading the Torah first, bcame beforeRabbi Yoḥa. bReish Lakish said tothe person who testified: bDid you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Yoḥa said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The Gemara relates that Reish Lakish bturned and looked at Rabbi Elazar harshly,as he understood that on the previous occasion, Rabbi Elazar was citing verbatim a ruling that he heard from Rabbi Yoḥa. Reish Lakish bsaidto Rabbi Elazar: bYou heard a statement of bar Nappaḥa,the son of a blacksmith, an epithet for Rabbi Yoḥa, band you did not sayit bto us in his name?Had you done so, I would have accepted it from you then.,The Gemara relates with regard to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyyathat bone elevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, and one elevated a brother tothe bLevite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother.It is unclear which of the Sages ruled in which case.,The Gemara notes: bIt may be concluded that RabbiYehuda HaNasi is the one who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat if one bcame and said: This is my son and he is a priest,his statement is bdeemed credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, butit bis not deemed credible to marry a womanof superior lineage bto him,as his testimony is not deemed credible for the purposes of lineage; this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Ḥiyya said to him: If you deemthe father bcredible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son. bAnd if you do not deem him credible to marry a woman to him, do not deem him credibleto enable his son bto partake of iteruma /i. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: I deem him credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, as it is within his purview to feedhis son iteruma /i,and one is deemed credible with regard to matters that are within his purview. bBut I do not deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son, bas it is not within his purview to marry a woman tohis son, and therefore his testimony is not accepted. The Gemara determines: Indeed, it may be bconcludethat it is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who elevated a son to priesthood on the basis of the statement of his father. bAnd fromthe fact bthatit is bRabbiYehuda HaNasi who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father,clearly it is bRabbi Ḥiyyawho belevated a brother to Levite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Ḥiyya, what is differentin the case of ba son, wherea father is bnotdeemed credible bbecausethe son bis a relative of his father,and therefore the father is disqualified from testifying about his son? bA brother is also a relative of his brother,and therefore the brother should have been disqualified from testifying about his brother. Rabbi Ḥiyya should accept the testimony in both cases or reject the testimony in both cases.
14. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. bis analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk, so too,the requirement to breturn it isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk. /b,Another opinion on this issue bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Natan says:The minimum measure for both bthis and that,leaven and sacrificial meat, is btwo egg-bulksof prohibited material, bbut the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b“And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light,but bheavy clouds [ iyekarot /i] and thickness [ ivekippaon /i]”(Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression b“ iyekarot vekippaon /i”? /b, bRabbi Elazar said: This isthe blightcurrently provided by the sun, bwhich is significant[iyakar /i] in this world and insignificant[ikafuy /i] in the World-to-Come,when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Thisexpression refers to the tractates of iNega’imand iOholot /i, which are weighty [ iyekarim /i]owing to their difficulty bin this world,as they are among the most complex subjects, bbutwill be beasy [ ikefuyin /i] in the World-to-Come,when people will be much wiser., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who areconsidered bimportant [ iyekarim /i] in this world and unimportant[ikefuyim /i] in the World-to-Come.This is blikethe incident involving bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bbecame ill andwas about to bexpire. When he returnedto good health, bhis father said to him: What did you seewhen you were about to die? bHe said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above,i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were bbelow,insignificant, while bthose below,i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were babove. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world.The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bAnd where are we,the Torah scholars, bthere?Rav Yosef responded: bJust as we areregarded bhere, so are weregarded bthere. /b,Rav Yosef added: bAnd I heard that they were sayingin that world: bPraiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And Ialso bheard that they were saying: Those executed by the governmentenjoy such an exalted status that bno one can stand in their enclosure. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesemartyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? bIf you saythat he was referring to bRabbi Akiva and his colleagues,who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status bdueonly btothe fact that bthey were martyred bythe Roman bgovernment and nothing more?These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. bRather,it is referring to bthe martyrs of Lod,Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b“On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ imetzillot hasus /i]: Holy unto the Lord”(Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression imetzillot hasus /i? /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalemby bas much asthe distance that ba horse can runthe entire time bit casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i].Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., bRabbi Elazar said: Alldecorative bbells [ imetzillot /i] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God,i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btakefrom gentiles who wage war against them, bup to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i],i.e., half a day, bwill be sanctified for God. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to ball spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btake, this is as it is writtenin the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house”?The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse bis saying something else:It is prophesying that in the future bthe Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donationsto the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to bspoils, this is as it is writtenin the next verse: b“Andon that day bthere shall no longer be a merchant [ ikena’ani /i] in the house of the Lord of hosts”(Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. bHowever, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of the expression: b“There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said:The word ikena’aniis in fact a contraction of the phrase: bThere is no poor person here [ iein kan ani /i].In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat a merchant can be called a ikena’ani /i? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain ikena’ani /i… /band he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). bWhat isthe meaning of the word ikena’ani /iin this context? bIf you sayit refers to ban actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaacnot to marry a Canaanite woman, and bIsaac warned Jacobto the same effect, bandnonetheless bJudah went and marrieda Canaanite woman? bRather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:She was bthe daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He lovesto oppress” (Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b“Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one”(Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that now He is not one? /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Comeone will balwaysrecite: bBlessed…Who is good and does good.There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one band His name one.”The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word bonein this context? bIs that to say that now His name is not one? /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world,God’s name that bis written withthe letters iyod /iand ihehis readas iAdonai /i, which begins with the letters ialef /iand idalet /i.God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. bHowever, in the World-to-Come it will all be one,as God’s name will be both bread withthe letters iyod /iand ihehand written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i. /b, bRava thought to expoundupon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public blecturebefore one of the Festivals. bA certain old man said to him:The word bforever is writtenin the verse: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter ivav /i, such that it can be read ile’alem /i, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the verse: b“This is My name forever,”implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b“And this is My memorial unto all generations”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I,i.e., My name, is bnot read as I am written. I am written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i, and I am read withthe letters ialef /iand idalet /i. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, onemay bdoso on that day. In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed not to performlabor, bonemay bnot doso. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one btravels from a place wherepeople bperformlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor, bor from a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bperformlabor, the Sages bimpose upon him the stringencies ofboth bthe place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went.In both cases, he may not perform labor.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. מטהר שבטים שבטו של לוי מטהר תחילה שנא' (מלאכי ג, ג) וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף וטיהר את בני לוי וזיקק אותם כזהב וככסף והיו לי"י מגישי מנחה בצדקה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כסף מטהר ממזרים שנאמר וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף מאי מגישי מנחה בצדקה א"ר יצחק צדקה עשה הקב"ה עם ישראל שמשפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל בימי רבי בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להן קוצים אתם משימים לי בין עיני רצונכם יטפל עמכם ר' חנינא בר חמא,נטפל עמהם ר' חנינא בר חמא אמר להם כך מקובלני מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי שאמר משום אביו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל,בימי רבי פנחס בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להם לעבדיו כשאני אומר שני דברים בבית המדרש טלוני בעריסה ורוצו כי עייל אמר להם אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה,אדיתבי וקמעייני בה אמר להו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל נטלוהו בעריסה ורצו רצו אחריו ולא הגיעוהו ישבו ובדקו עד שהגיעו לסכנה ופירשו,א"ר יוחנן היכלא בידינו היא אבל מה אעשה שהרי גדולי הדור נטמעו בה סבר לה כר' יצחק דאמר ר' יצחק משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,אמר אביי אף אנן נמי תנינא משפחת בית הצריפה היתה בעבר הירדן וריחקה בן ציון בזרוע עוד אחרת היתה וקירבה בן ציון בזרוע כגון אלו אליהו בא לטמא ולטהר לרחק ולקרב כגון אלו דידעין אבל משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,תאנא עוד אחרת היתה ולא רצו חכמים לגלותה אבל חכמים מוסרים אותו לבניהם ולתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע כדתניא הריני נזיר אם לא אגלה משפחות יהיה נזיר ולא יגלה משפחות,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן שם בן ארבע אותיות חכמים מוסרין אותו לתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע דכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעולם לעלם כתיב רבא סבר למידרשיה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,רבי אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי וכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה זכרי אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת,ת"ר בראשונה שם בן שתים עשרה אותיות היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם משרבו הפריצים היו מוסרים אותו לצנועים שבכהונה והצנועים שבכהונה מבליעים אותו בנעימת אחיהם הכהנים תניא אמר רבי טרפון פעם אחת עליתי אחר אחי אמי לדוכן והטיתי אזני אצל כהן גדול ושמעתי שהבליע שם בנעימת אחיו הכהנים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שם בן ארבעים ושתים אותיות אין מוסרין אותו אלא למי שצנוע ועניו ועומד בחצי ימיו ואינו כועס ואינו משתכר ואינו מעמיד על מדותיו וכל היודעו והזהיר בו והמשמרו בטהרה אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ואימתו מוטלת על הבריות ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא,אמר שמואל משמיה דסבא בבל בחזקת כשרה עומדת עד שיודע לך במה נפסלה שאר ארצות בחזקת פסול הן עומדות עד שיודע לך במה נכשרה ארץ ישראל מוחזק לפסול פסול מוחזק לכשר כשר,הא גופא קשיא אמרת מוחזק לפסול פסול הא סתמא כשר והדר תני מוחזק לכשר כשר הא סתמא פסול אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא משמיה דרב לא קשיא 71a. bpurifiesthe btribes,i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will bpurifythat of bthe tribe of Levi first, as it is statedwith regard to the angel sent forth by God: b“And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”(Malachi 3:3)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies imamzerim /i.Money causes rich imamzerimto become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as imamzerim /i, bas it is stated: “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,”which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. bWhat,then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: b“They that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performedan act of brighteousness with the Jewish peopleby establishing bthat a family that has become assimilatedwith Jews of unflawed lineage remains bassimilated.They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.,§ With regard to bthematter bitselfthat was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of the residents of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.The Gemara relates: bIn the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthey sought to establishthe lineage of the Jews in bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael.In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so bhe said tothose who put forth this suggestion: bAre you placing thorns between my eyes?Do you wish to insult me? bIf you wish, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama will join youand explain it to you., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama joined themand bsaid to them: Thisis the tradition that bI received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father,who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia. /b,The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: bIn the days of Rabbi Pineḥas, they sought to establishthe lineage of bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run,so that I will not be attacked for my statements. bWhen he enteredthe house of study bhe said tothose studying there: bSlaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law. /b, bWhile they were sitting and scrutinizing thisnovel ihalakha /i, bhe said to them:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.His servants bpicked him up on a stretcher and ran.Those that were in the house of study bpursued him but could not catch him.Nevertheless, bthey sat and examinedthe lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, buntil they reachedpowerful families. It was bdangerousto accuse them of flaws due to their power, band they withdrewfrom their inspections., bRabbi Yoḥa saysas an oath: By the bSanctuary! It is in our powerto reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, bbut what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it?Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoḥa bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A family that has become assimilatedremains bassimilated,and one should not reveal their flawed status., bAbaye said: We too learnin the mishna ( iEduyyot8:7): bThere was a familyknown as bBeit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, anda person called bben Tziyyon forcefully distanced itand proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. bThere was anotherone bthat ben Tzion forcefully drew near,although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families bsuch as these, Elijah comes todeclare bimpure and todeclare bpure, to distance and to draw near.Abaye continues: When the mishna states: bSuch as these,it means those bwhosestatus bwe know. But a family that has become assimilated,whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, bhasalready bbecome assimilated,and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.,The Sage btaught( iTosefta /i, iEduyyot3:4): bThere was anotherfamily with flawed lineage, bbut the Sages did not want to reveal itsidentity to all. bBut the Sages transmit itsname bto their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years,to prevent them from marrying into their family. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iNazir1:2): One who says: bI am hereby a nazirite if I do not revealthe names of bfamiliesof flawed lineage among the Jewish people, bhe should be a nazirite and not revealthe identity of such bfamilies.This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.,§ The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar ihalakha /i: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Sages transmitthe correct pronunciation of bthe four-letter nameof God bto their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is written: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]”(Exodus 3:15), which is bwrittenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: bRava planned to expoundand explain the proper way to say the name bina public bdiscourse. A certain elder said to him: It is writtenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,indicating that it must stay hidden., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: “This is My name,”indicating that the name as written is that of God; band it is written: “This is My remembrance”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not God’s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written withthe letters iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bwhileMy name is bpronounced withthe letters ialef /i, idalet /i, inun /i, iyod /i., bThe Sages taught: Initially,the Sages bwould transmit the twelve-letter nameof God bto any person. When the uninhibited oneswho used the name disrespectfully bincreased, they would transmit itonly bto discreetmembers bof the priesthood, and the discreetmembers bof the priesthoodwould pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would bconceal itby saying it bduring the sweetmelody bof their priestly brothers,so that it would not become publicly known. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tarfon,who was himself a priest, bsaid:On bone occasion I ascended after my mother’s brother to the platformto give the Priestly Benediction, band I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweetmelody bof his priestly brothers. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The forty-two-letter nameof God bmay be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands atat least bhalf his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rightsbut is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. bAnd anyone who knowsthis name band is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: bShmuel says in the name ofa certain belder:A family in bBabylonia has a presumptive status of unflawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered of bflawedlineage. Conversely, a family from bother lands has a presumptive status of flawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered bunflawed.As for families in bEretz Yisrael,one who bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, whereas one who bhas presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage.,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bThis matter itself is difficult:First, byou saidthat a family that bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bunflawedlineage. bAnd thenyou bteach:A family that bhas a presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bflawedlineage. bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said in the name of Rav:This is bnot difficult. /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
17. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba saul Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
aliyah (to torah) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
babylonian talmud Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 49
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
divine name, surrogate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
fast days, public, hazzan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
fast days, public, rabbis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
fast days, synagogue, and temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
hai gaon Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hasidim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hazzan, communal functionary Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hererobaptists Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
levites, torah reading ceremony Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
oath, formula Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition, law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisees Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
priest, priests, synagogue ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439, 526
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
r. yohanan b. zakkai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
shema, and amidah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
shofar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 439
simeon the just (simeon ii) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
study, communal, tamid (daily) sacrifice' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
torah Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 49