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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



746
Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 348


nan(Devarim 33:7) "And this ("heroism" of Reuven [ in confessing his sin]) was due to Judah, who confessed (


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 33.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 33.6. יְחִי רְאוּבֵן וְאַל־יָמֹת וִיהִי מְתָיו מִסְפָּר׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 33.6. Let Reuben live, and not die In that his men become few."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 28.21, 35.22, 37.25, 49.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.21. וְשַׁבְתִּי בְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־בֵּית אָבִי וְהָיָה יְהוָה לִי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 35.22. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא וַיֵּלֶךְ רְאוּבֵן וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־בִּלְהָה פִּילֶגֶשׁ אָבִיו וַיִּשְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־יַעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 28.21. so that I come back to my father’s house in peace, then shall the LORD be my God," 35.22. And it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:" 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch."
3. Anon., Jubilees, 33.2, 33.9, 33.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.2. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month. 33.9. For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly tables that a man should not lie with his father's wife, and should not uncover his father's skirt, for this is unclean: 33.15. And let them not say: to Reuben was granted life and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's concubine, and to her also though she had a husband, and her husband Jacob, his father, was still alive.
4. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 1.6, 3.11, 3.15, 4.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. And behold I call to witness against you this day the God of heaven, that ye walk not in the sins of youth and fornication, wherein I was poured out, and defiled the bed of my father Jacob. 4.4. And yet my father comforted me much and prayed for me unto the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass from me, even as the Lord showed. And thenceforth until now I have been on my guard and sinned not.
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 79.6, 97.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

79.6. וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר (בראשית לג, יח), חָנַן אֶת הַפָּנִים שֶׁבָּעִיר, הִתְחִיל מְשַׁלֵּחַ לָהֶם דּוֹרוֹנוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, הִתְחִיל מַעֲמִיד הַטְּלִיסִין וּמוֹכֵר בְּזוֹל, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנּוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרֵיהּ הֲווֹ טְמִירִין בִּמְעָרְתָא י"ג שָׁנָה בְּיוֹמֵי דִּשְׁמָדָא, וְהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין חֲרוּבִין שֶׁל גָּרוֹדָא עַד שֶׁהֶעֱלָה גּוּפָן חֲלוּדָה. לְסוֹף שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שְׁנִין נְפַק יְתֵיב עַל תְּרַע מְעָרְתָא, חֲמָא חַד צַיָּד קָאֵים וְצָיֵד צִיפֳּרִין, וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַת קָלָא אָמְרָה מִן שְׁמַיָא דִּימוֹס דִּימוֹס, פַּסְגָּא. וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע בְּרַת קָלָא אֲמָרַת סְפֶקוּלָא, הֲוַת מִתָּצְדָה וְנִלְכָּדָה. אָמַר, צִפּוֹר מִבַּלְעֲדֵי שְׁמַיָא לָא מִתָּצְדָא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה נֶפֶשׁ דְּבַר נָשׁ, נְפַק וְאַשְׁכַּח מִלַּיָא מְשַׁדְּכָן, וְנִתְבַּטְּלָה הַגְּזֵרָה. אֲתוֹן וְאַסְחוֹן בַּהֲדָא בֵּי בָּנֵי דְּבֵית מוֹקֵד דִּטְבֶרְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרֵיהּ כָּל הֲדָא טַבְתָא עֲבָדַת לָן טְבֶרְיָא וְלֵית אֲנַן מְדַכָּן יָתָהּ מִן קָטוֹלַיָא, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹבָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂים אִיטְלוּסִין וּמוֹכְרִין בְּזוֹל, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְדַכָּיָא טְבֶרְיָא, מָה עֲבַד, נְסַב תֻּרְמוּסָא וַהֲוָה מְקַצֵּץ תֻּרְמוּסָא וְשַׁדֵּי קְצוֹצוּתֵיהּ וּמְקַלֵּק בַּשּׁוּק, וְכָל אַתְרָא דַּהֲוָה קְטִילָא סָלֵיק וְאִינוּן מַפְקוּן וְנָפְקִין, וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה שָׁמָּה טֻמְאָה תֻּרְמְסָא עוֹמֶדֶת, וְהוּא מְצַיֵּן אֵיזֶה מְקוֹם טֻמְאָה וּמְקוֹם טָהֳרָה, עַד זְמַן דְּדַכֵּי יָתָהּ מִן קָטִילַיָא. חֲמְתֵיהּ חַד כּוּתִי עַם דְאַרַע, אֲמַר לֵית אֲנָא אָזֵיל וּמַדְחַךְ בַּהֲדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּגַרְגִּינָא וְאִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּסַקָּאֵי, נְסַב קְטִיל וּטְמָרֵיהּ בְּשׁוּקָא דַּהֲווֹ מְדַכֵּי, בְּצַפְרָא אֲזַל אֲמַר לְהוֹן אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בֶּן יוֹחָאי טְבֶרְיָא אֲתוֹן חֲמוּן הָדֵין קְטִילָא [נסח אחר: אזל לגביה אמר ליה לא דכיתא שוק פלן, אמר ליה הין, אמר ליה ואין אפיקת לך מיתין מן בתרך, אמר ליה גוד חמי ליה], צָפָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא נְתָנוֹ שָׁם, אָמַר גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיֵּרֵד וְעַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, וַהֲוָה כֵן. וּסְלֵיק וּשְׁבַת בְּבֵיתֵיהּ, וַעֲבַר בְּהָדֵין מִגְדְּלָא דְּצַבָּעַיָא שְׁמַע קָלָא דְּנַקָּאי סַפְרָא, אָמַר לָא אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בַּר יוֹחָאי לִטְבֶרְיָה, אָמְרִין אַשְׁכְּחוּן חַד קְטִילָא, אָמַר יָבוֹא עָלַי אִם אֵין בְּיָדִי הֲלָכוֹת כִּשְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי עַל טְבֶרְיָה שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה חוּץ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הָיִיתָ בַּמִּנְיָן עִמָּנוּ שֶׁנִּטְהֲרָה, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים, וְעָלֶיךָ נֶאֱמַר (קהלת י, ח): וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, מִיָּד נַעֲשָׂה גַּל שֶׁל עֲצָמוֹת. עָבַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת דְּבֵית נְטוֹפָא, חֲמָא חַד בַּר נָשׁ קָאֵים וּמְלַקֵּט סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית הֵן, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁהִתַּרְתָּ, לֹא כָךְ תְּנֵינַן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל הַסְּפִיחִין מֻתָּרִין חוּץ מִסְּפִיחֵי כְּרוּב שֶׁאֵין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם בְּיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲלוֹא חֲבֵרַי חוֹלְקִים עָלַי, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, נִכְנַס בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם דִּמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְקָבַע תְּחוּמִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁשָּׁמַר יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתַּן.
9. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 329, 355, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. השולח חבית של יין ביד כותי ושל ציר ושל מורייס ביד עובד כוכבים אם מכיר חותמו וסתמו מותר אם לאו אסור,אמר רבי זירא לא קשיא כאן בעיר כאן בדרך,מתקיף לה רבי ירמיה מידי הנך דעיר לא בדרך אתו אלא אמר רבי ירמיה בין הגיתות שנינו כיון דכולי עלמא אפכי מירתת אמר השתא אי חזי לי מפסדו לי,אתמר מפני מה אסרו שכר של עובדי כוכבים רמי בר חמא אמר רבי יצחק משום חתנות רב נחמן אמר משום גילוי,אגילוי דמאי אילימא גילוי דנזייתא אנן נמי מגלינן ואלא דחביתא אנן נמי מגלינן לא צריכא באתרא דמצלו מיא,אלא מעתה ישן תשתרי דא"ר ישן מותר אין מניחו ליישן החמיץ מותר אין מניחו להחמיץ גזירה ישן אטו חדש,רב פפא מפיקין ליה לאבבא דחנותא ושתי רב אחאי מייתו ליה לביתיה ושתי ותרוייהו משום חתנות רב אחאי עביד הרחקה יתירתא,רב שמואל בר ביסנא איקלע למרגואן אייתו ליה חמרא ולא אשתי אייתו ליה שיכרא ולא אשתי בשלמא חמרא משום שימצא שיכרא משום מאי משום שימצא דשימצא,אמר רב האי שיכרא דארמאה שרי וחייא ברי לא נישתי מיניה מה נפשך אי שרי לכולי עלמא שרי אי אסיר לכולי עלמא אסיר,אלא רב סבר משום גילויא ואזיל מרורא דכשותא וקלי ליה זיהריה ודלקי מלקי ליה טפי וחייא ברי הואיל ולקי לא נישתי מיניה,אמר שמואל כל השרצים יש להן ארס של נחש ממית של שרצים אינו ממית אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא ואימא לך מילתא מעלייתא דהוה אמר רב אבוך הכי אמר אבוך הני ארמאי זוקאני דהוו שתו גילויא ולא מתו איידי דאכלי שקצים ורמשים חביל גופייהו,אמר רב יוסף 31b. from the following ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who sends a barrel of wine in the hands of a Samaritan, ora barrel boffish bbrine ora barrel bof fish stew in the hands of a gentile, if he recognizes his seal and hismanner of bclosingthe barrel, it bis permitted; ifhe does bnotrecognize them, it bis prohibited.Apparently, a sealed barrel is permitted only when it is recognizable., bRabbi Zeira saidthat this is bnot difficult. Here,the first ibaraitais referring to barrels located bin a city; there,the second ibaraitais referring to barrels that the Samaritan carries bon the road.Sealed barrels are permitted in a city because the Samaritan is careful to ensure that gentiles do not touch them in front of anyone, so that he does not forfeit the business of Jews. While traveling he is not concerned, as he assumes that no one will discover that the gentile came into contact with the wine., bRabbi Yirmeya objects to this: Didn’t thesebarrels located bin the city come by the roadas well? bRather, Rabbi Yirmeya says: We learnedthe ibaraitathat permits sealed barrels only in reference to those that are located bbetween the winepresses. Since everyone is foundthere, the Samaritan bis apprehensive,as he bsaysto himself: bNow, ifsomeone bsees meallowing a gentile to handle the wine bthey will cause me to losemy profit, as Jews will not purchase it., bIt was stated: For whatreason did the Sages bprohibit the beer of gentiles? Rami bar Ḥama saysthat bRabbi Yitzḥak says:It is bdue tothe concern that Jews will befriend gentiles while drinking with them, which might lead to bmarriagewith gentiles. bRav Naḥman said:It is bdue tothe concern of bexposure. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to whatform bof exposureis there a concern? bIf we saythat the concern is with regard to bexposure of the vat, we too exposethe vat, and there is no reason to prohibit gentiles’ beer more than that of Jews. bAndif you say: bRather,the concern is for exposure bofthe bbarrel, we also exposebarrels. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto prohibit the beer bin a place where the waterused to brew it is allowed to bsettle. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so, agedbeer should bbe permitted, as RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:A substance that might contain exposed water but has bagedis bpermitted,since the poison bdoes not allow it to age,as it goes bad before it grows old. Similarly, if it bsouredit is bpermitted,because the poison impairs the taste but bdoes not allow it to sour.Why, then, is all beer prohibited? The Gemara answers: The Sages issued a rabbinic bdecreewith regard to bagedbeer bdue tothe concern with regard to bnewbeer.,§ The Gemara cites the opinions of various Sages with regard to beer. bRav Pappahad them bbring outthe bbeerbelonging to gentiles from the store bto the entrance of the store, and hewould bdrinkit outside the store. bRav Aḥaihad them bbringthe beer bto his house, and hewould bdrinkit there. bAnd bothof them drank the beer away from the presence of gentiles bdue toconcern about bmarriagewith gentiles. The Gemara notes that bRav Aḥai established an extreme preventive measurefor himself beyond what is required by ihalakha /i.,The Gemara relates that bRav Shmuel bar Bisna happenedto come bto Marguan,and bthey brought him wine but he did not drinkit. Next bthey brought him beer but he did not drinkit. The Gemara asks: bGranted,he did not drink the bwine due tothe btrace [ ishimtza /i]of libations, but bdue to whatreason did he refrain from drinking bbeer?It was bdue toconcern for bthe trace of a trace,i.e., he did not drink beer due to concern about drinking wine., bRav says: This Aramean beer is permitted, but my son Ḥiyya does not drink from it.The Gemara asks: bWhicheverway byoulook at this matter, Rav’s statement is difficult: bIfthe beer is bpermitted,then it is bpermitted to everyone,and there is no reason for his son to refrain from drinking it. And bifit is bprohibited,it is bprohibited to everyone,and why would Rav say it is permitted?,The Gemara explains: bRather, Rav holdsthat the prohibition is bdue to exposure, but the bitterness of the hopsin the beer bgoes and impairs thesnake’s bvenom,so that it is safe for an average person to drink. bButa person of bweakconstitution bis weakened furtherby the impaired venom, bandRav was saying: In the case of bmy son Ḥiyya, since he is weak, he does not drink from it. /b, bShmuel says: All creeping animals possess venom;that bof a snake kills,whereas the venom bofother bcreeping animals does not kill. Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of a lion! Come and I will say to you a superior matter that your father, Rav, said. Thisis what byour father said: These Arameansare bswollen [ izukanei /i] because they drink exposedliquids, bbut they did not diefrom doing so bsince they eat repugt creatures and creeping animals,which bheat their bodiesand thereby render them less susceptible to the venom., bRav Yosef says: /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84b. ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא,למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן,באורתא אמר להו אחיי ורעיי בואו בצפרא אמר להו זילו מפני ביטול תורה יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך כלית ממון של בית אבא אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא,סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו,יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא אתיא אמר לה זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם קרי אנפשיה (משלי לא, יד) היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא,אייתו לקמיה שתין מיני דמא טהרינהו הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק אמר להו אם כמותי הוא יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו ר' אלעזר על שמיה,תניא אמר רבי כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא בדרבנן דרתיחי עלי ולא מיעסקי בי שפיר אוגנין בעיליתאי ולא תידחלין מינאי א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אישתעיא לי אימיה דרבי יונתן דאישתעיא לה דביתהו דרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון לא פחות מתמני סרי ולא טפי מעשרין ותרין שנין אוגניתיה בעיליתא,כי הוה סליקנא מעיננא ליה במזייה כי הוה משתמטא ביניתא מיניה הוה אתי דמא יומא חד חזאי ריחשא דקא נפיק מאוניה חלש דעתאי איתחזי לי בחלמא אמר לי לא מידי הוא יומא חד שמעי בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ולא מחאי כדבעי לי,כי הוו אתו בי תרי לדינא הוו קיימי אבבא אמר מר מילתיה ומר מילתיה נפיק קלא מעיליתיה ואמר איש פלוני אתה חייב איש פלוני אתה זכאי יומא חד הוה קא מינציא דביתהו בהדי שבבתא אמרה לה תהא כבעלה שלא ניתן לקבורה אמרי רבנן כולי האי ודאי לאו אורח ארעא,איכא דאמרי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי איתחזאי להו בחלמא אמר להו פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואי אתם רוצים להביאה אצלי אזול רבנן לאעסוקי ביה לא שבקו בני עכבריא דכל שני דהוה ניים רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון בעיליתיה לא סליק חיה רעה למתייהו,יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה הוו טרידי שדרו רבנן לבני בירי ואסקוהו לערסיה ואמטיוה למערתא דאבוה אשכחוה לעכנא דהדרא לה למערתא אמרו לה עכנא עכנא פתחי פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו פתח להו,שלח רבי לדבר באשתו שלחה ליה כלי שנשתמש בו קודש ישתמש בו חול תמן אמרין באתר דמרי ביתא תלא זייניה כולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא שלח לה נהי דבתורה גדול ממני אבל במעשים טובים מי גדול ממני שלחה ליה בתורה מיהא גדול ממך לא ידענא במעשים ידענא דהא קביל עליה יסורי,בתורה מאי היא דכי הוו יתבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי יהושע בן קרחה אספסלי יתבי קמייהו רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון ורבי אארעא,מקשו ומפרקו אמרי מימיהן אנו שותים והם יושבים על גבי קרקע עבדו להו ספסלי אסקינהו,אמר להן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואתם מבקשים לאבדה הימני אחתוהו לרבי אמר להן רבי יהושע בן קרחה מי שיש לו אב יחיה ומי שאין לו אב ימות אחתוהו נמי לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון חלש דעתיה אמר קא חשביתו ליה כוותי,עד ההוא יומא כי הוה אמר רבי מילתא הוה מסייע ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מכאן ואילך כי הוה אמר רבי יש לי להשיב אמר ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון כך וכך יש לך להשיב זו היא תשובתך השתא היקפתנו תשובות חבילות שאין בהן ממש,חלש דעתיה דרבי אתא א"ל לאבוה אמר ליה בני אל ירע לך שהוא ארי בן ארי ואתה ארי בן שועל,והיינו דאמר רבי שלשה ענוותנין הן ואלו הן אבא 84b. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAndalthough his flesh did not putrefy, beven so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,still bdid not rely on hisown bopinion,as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. bHe accepted afflictions upon himselfas atonement for his possible sins. bAt nighthis attendants bwould spread out sixty feltbed coverings bfor him. In the morning,despite the bed coverings, bthey would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. /b, bThe following day,i.e., every morning, bhis wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [ ilifda /i]made from figs, band he would eat them and become healthy. His wife,concerned for his health, bwould not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push himbeyond his limits., bIn the evening, hewould bsay tohis pains: bMy brothers and my friends, come! In the morning hewould bsay to them: Goaway, bdue tothe bderelictionof bTorahstudy that you cause me. bOne day his wife heard himinviting his pains. bShe said to him: You are bringingthe pains bupon yourself. You have diminished the money ofmy bfather’s homedue to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. bShe rebelledagainst him and bwentback bto her father’s home,and he was left with no one to care for him.,Meanwhile, there were bthese sixty sailorswho bcame and enteredto visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bThey brought him sixty servants,each bbearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them.When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts., bOne day,the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to her daughter: Goand bcheck on your fatherand see bwhat he is doing now.The daughter bcameto her father, who bsaid to her: Goand btell your motherthat bours is greater than theirs,i.e., my current ficial status is greater than that of your father’s household. bHe readthe verse babout himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar”(Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. /b,The students bbrought sixtyquestionable bsamples of blood before himfor inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. bHe deemed themall britually pure,thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. bThe Rabbisof the academy bwere murmuring aboutRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, band saying:Can it benter your mindthat bthere is not one uncertainsample bamong them?He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha bisin accordance with bmyruling, blet allthe children born from these women bbe males. And if not, let there be one female among them.It turned out that ballof the children bwere males, andthey bwere called Elazar in his name. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi lamented and bsaidconcerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: bHow much procreationhas bthis evil woman prevented from the Jewish people.She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings., bAsRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at mefor arresting several thieves who are their relatives, bandtherefore bthey will not properly tend to myburial. When I die, blay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me,i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the atticfor bno less than eighteenyears bandfor bno more than twenty-two years. /b,His wife continued: bWhen I would go upto the attic bI would check his hair,and bwhen a hair would fall out fromhis head, bblood would comeand appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. bOne day I saw a worm emerging from his ear,and bI becamevery bdistressedthat perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband bappeared to me in a dreamand bsaid to me: It is no matterfor concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as bone day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have.Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure.,During this period, bwhen twopeople bwould come for adjudication ofa dispute, bthey would stand by the doorwayto the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bOnelitigant bwould state hisside of the bmatter, and the otherlitigant would state bhisside of the bmatter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent.The Gemara relates: bOne day, the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas quarreling with a neighbor.The neighbor bsaid to heras a curse: This woman bshould be like her husband, who was not buried.When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, bthe Rabbis said: This much,i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is bcertainly not proper conduct,and they decided to bury him., bThere arethose bwho saythat the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai,his father, bappeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son, band you do not wish to bring it to meby burying him next to me. Consequently, bthe Sages went to tend tohis burial. bThe residents of Akhbaria,the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, bdid not allowthem to do so, basthey realized that ball the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town.The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection., bOne day,which bwas Yom Kippur eve,everyone in the town bwas preoccupiedwith preparations for the Festival. bThe Rabbis senta message bto the residents ofthe adjacent town bof Biriinstructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, band they removed his bier and brought it to his father’sburial bcave. They found a serpent [ ile’akhna /i] thathad placed its tail in its mouth and completely bencircledthe entrance to bthe cave,denying them access. bThey said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It openedits mouth bfor themand uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father.,The Gemara continues: After this incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsenta messenger bto speak with the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. bShe senta message bto himin response: Shall ba vessel used bysomeone bsacred,i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bbe used bysomeone who is, relative to him, bprofane? There,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat she used the colloquial adage: bIn the locationwhere bthe master of the house hangs his sword,shall bthe contemptible shepherd hang his basket [ ikultei /i]?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsenta message back bto her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but washe bgreater than I in pious deeds? She senta message back bto him: Whetherhe was bgreater than you in Torah I do not know;but bI do knowthat he was greater than you binpious bdeeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Torahknowledge, bwhat isthe event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,the leading Sages of the generation, bwere sitting on benches [ iasafselei /i]teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould sit before them on the groundout of respect.,These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would braise difficulties and answerthem brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages bsaid: From their waters we drink,i.e., we are learning from them, band they arethe ones bsitting on the ground? Benches were prepared forRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band they were promotedto sit alongside the other Sages., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said tothe other Sages present: bI have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band you are seeking to take it from me?By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. bThey demoted RabbiYehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said tothe Sages: Should bone who has a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may blive, whilethe other bone, who does not have a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to bdie?Upon hearing his argument, the Sages balso demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. bHe became offendedand bsaidto them: bYou are equatingRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bto me,by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he.,As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up buntil that day, when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould state a matterof Torah, bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support himby citing proofs for his opinion. bFrom thispoint bforward, whenthey were discussing a subject and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: I havean argument bto respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, wouldpreempt him by bsaying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond,and bthis is the refutation of yourclaim. bNowthat you asked these questions, byou have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance,i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bbecame offended. He cameand btold his fatherwhat had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto him: bMy son, do not lethis actions boffendyou, bas he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox.Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah.,The Gemara concludes: bThisincident bisthe background to a statement bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There are threeprototypical bmodestpeople, band they are: Father,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
15. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יכול אפילו מעולה בדמים ת"ל רק,שמואל אייתי ליה אריסיה תמרי אכיל טעים בהו טעמא דחמרא א"ל מאי האי א"ל ביני גופני קיימי אמר מכחשי בחמרא כולי האי למחר אייתי לי מקורייהו:,רב חסדא חזא תאלי בי גופני אמר ליה לאריסיה עקרינהו גופני קני דקלי דקלי לא קני גופני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אע"פ שהוא נותן לו אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) ועתה השב אשת וגו' ומנין שאם לא מחל לו שהוא אכזרי שנאמר (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך וגו',האומר סמא את עיני קטע את ידי שבר את רגלי חייב ע"מ לפטור חייב,קרע את כסותי שבר את כדי חייב ע"מ לפטור פטור עשה כן לאיש פלוני על מנת לפטור חייב בין בגופו בין בממונו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר כל אלו שאמרו דמי בושתו אבל צערו אפי' הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) השב אשת האיש כי נביא הוא ויתפלל בעדך,דאשת נביא בעי אהדורי אשת אחר לא בעי אהדורי,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן השב אשת האיש מכל מקום ודקא אמרת (בראשית כ, ד) הגוי גם צדיק תהרוג הלא הוא אמר לי אחותי היא והיא גם היא אמרה אחי הוא נביא הוא וכבר לימד אכסנאי שבא לעיר על עסקי אכילה ושתיה שואלין אותו או על עסקי אשתו שואלין אותו אשתך היא אחותך היא,מכאן לבן נח שנהרג שהיה לו ללמוד ולא למד:,(בראשית כ, יח) כי עצר עצר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שתי עצירות הללו למה אחת באיש שכבת זרע שתים באשה שכבת זרע ולידה,במתניתא תנא שתים באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים שלשה באשה שכבת זרע וקטנים ולידה,רבינא אמר שלש באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים ופי טבעת ארבעה באשה שכבת זרע ולידה וקטנים ופי טבעת:,(בראשית כ, יח) בעד כל רחם אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אפילו תרנגולת של בית אבימלך לא הטילה ביצתה,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל המבקש רחמים על חבירו והוא צריך לאותו דבר הוא נענה תחילה א"ל דכתיב (איוב מב, י) וה' שב את שבות איוב בהתפללו בעד רעהו,אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך ואת אשתו ואמהותיו [וגו'] וכתיב (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה כאשר אמר וגו' כאשר אמר אברהם אל אבימלך,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בהדי הוצא לקי כרבא א"ל דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כט) למה תריבו אלי כלכם פשעתם בי נאם ה',אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם לשמור מצותי ותורותי,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב (בראשית מז, ב) ומקצה אחיו לקח חמשה אנשים מאן נינהו חמשה א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אותן שהוכפלו בשמות,יהודה נמי איכפולי מיכפל,אמר ליה למילתיה הוא דאיכפל דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות ויהי מתיו מספר וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שבא משה ובקש רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה,מיד שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא לא הוו קא מסקי למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה ידע מאי קאמרי רבנן ולמשקל ומיטרח בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה סליק ליה שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בתר עניא אזלא עניותא אמר ליה דתנן עשירים מביאין בכורים בקלתות של זהב ושל כסף ועניים בסלי נצרים של ערבה קלופה הסלים והבכורים נותנים לכהנים אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא 92a. One bmighthave thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree bevenif the barren tree is bgreater in monetaryvalue than the fruit-bearing tree. bThe verse states: “Only,”which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.,The Gemara relates: The bsharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates.Shmuel batethem, and btasted the taste of wine in them. He said tohis sharecropper: bWhat is this?The sharecropper bsaid to him:The date palms bstand among the grapevinesand therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel bsaid:Do bthey weaken the wine,i.e., the grapevines, bso muchthat it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? bTomorrow,cut down the date palms and bbring me from their marrowto eat.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav Ḥisda saw date palmsgrowing bamong grapevineson his estate. bHe said to his sharecropper: Uproot thedate palms, since one can bpurchase date palmswith bgrapevines,as grapevines are more valuable, while one bcannot purchase grapevineswith bdate palms. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bDespitethe fact bthatthe assailant who caused damage bgives tothe victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is bnot forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is statedthat God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: b“Now therefore restore the wifeof the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall live” (Genesis 20:7). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat ifthe victim bdoes not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: “And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech,and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17).,The mishna continues: With regard to bone who saysto another: bBlind my eye,or: bcut off my hand,or: bbreak my leg,and he does so, the one who performed these actions is bliableto pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is nevertheless bliable. /b,With regard to one who says to another: bTear my garment,or: bbreak my jug,and he does so, he is bliableto pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is bexemptfrom payment. If one says to another: bDo so,i.e., cause damage, bto so-and-so on the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, and he did so, he is bliable, whetherthe instructions were bwith regard tothe victim bhimself,or bwhetherthe instructions were bwith regard to his property. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: All thesesums bthatin the previous mishna bthey saidone is liable to pay for humiliating another are the bcompensation for his humiliation,for which there is a set amount. bButfor the victim’s bpaincaused by the assailant, beven ifthe assailant bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth(see Isaiah 60:7) bthat are in the world,which are of the best quality, his transgression bis not forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is stated: “Restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you”(Genesis 20:7).,Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here bthat the wife of a prophet needs to be returned,but bthe wife of anotherindividual bneed not be returned? /b,The Gemara answers. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:This is how the verse should be understood: b“Restore the wife of the man” in any case,since she is his wife. bAndwith regard to that bwhich you,Abimelech, bsaid: “Will you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?”(Genesis 20:4–5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that bhe is a prophet, and he already learnedhow to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to ba guest [ iakhsenai /i] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife?Does one ask a guest: bIs she your wife? Is she your sister?Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.,The Gemara remarks: bFrom hereit can be derived bthat a gentile is executedfor having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, bsince he should have learned and he did not learn. /b,Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. b“For the Lord had obstructed [ iatzor atzar /i]all the wombs of the house of Abimelech” (Genesis 20:18). bRabbi Elazar says: Whyare bthese two obstructions [ iatzor atzar /i]both stated? bOneis stated bwith regard to a man,that bsemenwill not be discharged, and btwoare stated bwith regard to a woman,that bsemenwill not be discharged from her, bandthat she will not give bbirth. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Twoare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen and urine,i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; bthreeare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth. /b, bRavina says: Threeare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen, and urine, andthe banal sphincter,i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. bFourare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, andthe banal sphincter. /b,The verse states: “For the Lord had obstructed ball the wombsof the house of Abimelech.” The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her eggduring that time.,§ The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asksfor bcompassionfrom Heaven bonbehalf of banother, and he requirescompassion from Heaven bconcerning that same matter, he is answered first?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source for this is bas it is written: “And the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends”(Job 42:10).,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Writings, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: b“And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants,and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17), band it is writtenimmediately following that: b“And the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had said”(Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: bAs Abraham said with regard to Abimelech.Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn,since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source is bas it is written: “Why will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 2:29). The term “you all” includes even those who have not sinned.,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Prophets, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: b“How long do you refuse [ ime’antem /i] to keep My commandments and My laws?”(Exodus 16:28). The term “you refuse [ ime’antem /i]” is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is writtenwith regard to Joseph: b“And from among his brothers he took five men,and presented them to Pharaoh” (Genesis 47:2). bWho are these fivemen? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: This is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Those whose names were repeatedin the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.,Rava said: bJudah alsohad his name brepeatedin the blessings, and he was strong.,Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: Hisname bwas repeated for hisown bmatter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa said: bAll those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercyon Judah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, whoserved as the bimpetus for Reuben that he should confesshis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same., bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ileshafa /i],and his skeleton became attached. The angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but bhestill bdid not know what the sages were saying, andhe was unable bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith the sages.Moses then prayed: b“May his hands fight on his behalf”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7)., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: Poverty follows the poor?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: As we learnedin a mishna ( iBikkurim3:8): bRichpeople would bbring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poorpeople would bring first fruits bin wicker basketsmade bof peeled willow,and bthey would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests.The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a mishna, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah:
16. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. לא היה קרב אמר לו מי הם הללו שמימיהם אנו שותים ושמותם אין אנו מזכירים אמר ליה בני אדם שבקשו לעקור כבודך וכבוד בית אביך,אמר ליה (קהלת ט, ו) גם אהבתם גם שנאתם גם קנאתם כבר אבדה אמר ליה (תהלים ט, ז) האויב תמו חרבות לנצח אמר ליה הני מלי היכא דאהנו מעשייהו רבנן לא אהנו מעשייהו הדר אתני ליה אמרו משום רבי מאיר אילו היה תמורה לא היה קרב אמר רבא אפילו רבי דענוותנא הוא תנא אמרו משום ר"מ אמר ר"מ לא אמר,אמר רבי יוחנן פליגו בה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבנן חד אמר סיני עדיף וחד אמר עוקר הרים עדיף,רב יוסף סיני רבה עוקר הרים שלחו לתמן איזה מהם קודם שלחו להו סיני עדיף דאמר מר הכל צריכין למרי חטיא ואפילו הכי לא קביל רב יוסף עליה מלך רבה עשרין ותרתי שנין והדר מלך רב יוסף וכל שני דמלך רבה רב יוסף אפילו אומנא לביתיה לא חליף,אביי ורבא ורבי זירא ורבה בר מתנה הוו יתבי והוו צריכי רישא אמרי כל דאמר מלתא ולא מפריך להוי רישא דכולהו איפריך דאביי לא איפריך חזייה רבה לאביי דגבה רישא א"ל נחמני פתח ואימא,איבעיא להו רבי זירא ורבה בר רב מתנה הי מנייהו עדיף רבי זירא חריף ומקשה ורבה בר רב מתנה מתון ומסיק מאי תיקו:, br br big strongהדרן עלך כהן משיח וסליקא לה מסכת הוריות /strong /big br br
18. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. אמר רב יהודה אמר רב נידוי על תנאי צריך הפרה מנלן מיהודה דכתיב (בראשית מג, ט) אם לא הביאותיו אליך וגו' וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות וגו' וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן מ' שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר עצמותיו של יהודה היו מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה שמע ה' קול יהודה,עאל איבריה לשפא לא הוה קא מעיילי ליה למתיבתא דרקיע (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה קא ידע למישקל ומיטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה ידע לפרוקי קושיא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,איבעיא להו במיתת כולן הוא חוזר או דלמא במיתת אחד מהן,ת"ש נגמר דינו בלא כ"ג אינו יוצא משם לעולם ואם איתא ליהדר (ביה) בדהנך בדליכא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משנגמר דינו מת כ"ג ה"ז אינו גולה אם עד שלא נגמר דינו מת כ"ג ומנו אחר תחתיו ולאחר מכן נגמר דינו חוזר במיתתו של שני נגמר דינו בלא כ"ג וההורג כ"ג וכ"ג שהרג אינו יוצא משם לעולם,ואינו יוצא לא לעדות מצוה ולא לעדות ממון ולא לעדות נפשות ואפי' ישראל צריכים לו ואפי' שר צבא ישראל כיואב בן צרויה אינו יוצא משם לעולם שנאמר (במדבר לה, כה) אשר נס שמה שם תהא דירתו שם תהא מיתתו שם תהא קבורתו,כשם שהעיר קולטת כך תחומה קולט רוצח שיצא חוץ לתחום ומצאו גואל הדם רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר מצוה ביד גואל הדם ורשות ביד כל אדם רבי עקיבא אומר רשות ביד גואל הדם וכל אדם חייבין עליו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט אמר אביי ק"ו ומה מי שגלה כבר יצא עכשיו מי שלא גלה אינו דין שלא יגלה ודלמא האי דגלה איכפר ליה האי דלא גלה לא מידי גלות קא מכפרא מיתת כהן הוא דמכפרא:,אם עד שלא נגמר דינו וכו': מנא הני מילי אמר רב כהנא דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, כה) וישב בה עד מות הכהן הגדול אשר משח אותו בשמן הקדש וכי הוא מושחו אלא זה שנמשח בימיו,מאי הוה ליה למעבד היה לו לבקש רחמים שיגמור דינו לזכות ולא ביקש,אמר אביי נקטינן נגמר דינו ומת מוליכין את עצמותיו לשם דכתיב (במדבר לה, לב) לשוב לשבת בארץ עד מות הכהן ואיזהו ישיבה שהיא בארץ הוי אומר זו קבורה תנא מת קודם שמת כ"ג מוליכין עצמותיו על קברי אבותיו דכתיב (במדבר לה, כח) ישוב הרוצח אל ארץ אחוזתו איזהו ישיבה שהיא בארץ אחוזתו הוי אומר זו קבורה,נגמר דינו ונעשה כהן בן גרושה או בן חלוצה פליגי בה רבי אמי ור' יצחק נפחא חד אומר מתה כהונה וחד אומר בטלה כהונה,לימא בפלוגתא דר"א ורבי יהושע קא מיפלגי דתנן היה עומד ומקריב ע"ג המזבח ונודע שהוא בן גרושה או בן חלוצה ר"א אומר כל קרבנות שהקריב פסולין ורבי יהושע מכשיר,מאן דאמר מתה כר' יהושע ומאן דאמר בטלה כרבי אליעזר 11b. Apropos declarations that take effect even if they were stated conditionally and the condition was not fulfilled, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Ostracismthat was declared bconditionally requires nullification,even though the condition was not fulfilled. bFrom where do wederive this? It is derived bfrom Judah, as it is writtenwith regard to his request that his father allow the brothers to take Benjamin to Egypt: b“If I do not bring him to you… /bI would have sinned to you for all days” (Genesis 43:9), i.e., I will remain ostracized as a sinner. bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Let Reuben live and not die”(Deuteronomy 33:6), followed immediately by the verse: b“And this for Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7)? Why was the blessing of Judah linked to that of Reuben?, bThroughout those forty years thatthe children of bIsrael were in the wilderness, Judah’s bones were rattling in the coffin,detached from one another, because the ostracism that he declared upon himself remained in effect, buntil Moses stood and entreatedGod to have bmercy upon him.Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, who caused Reuben to confesshis sin with Bilhah? It was bJudah.Judah’s confession to his sin with Tamar led Reuben to confess to his own sin. Moses continued: b“And this is for Judah…hear God, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,At that point bhis limbs enteredtheir designated bplace [ ileshafa /i]and no longer rattled, but the Heavenly court still bwould notallow bhimto benter the heavenly academy.Moses continued: b“And bring him to his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), so that he may join the other righteous people in Heaven. That request was also granted, but Judah bdid not knowhow bto engage in the give-and-take of ihalakhawith the Sagesin the heavenly academy. Moses continued: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7). That request was also granted, but Judah bdid not knowhow bto resolveany bdifficultyraised to reject his opinion until Moses prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The mishna enumerates those High Priests whose death facilitates the return of unintentional murderers to their homes from the city of refuge to which they fled. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is it only bwith the death of all ofthe High Priests enumerated in the mishna that the unintentional murderer breturns, or perhapsit is even bwith the death of one of themthat he returns?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara resolution to the dilemma from the succeeding mishna: If the bverdictof a murderer bwas decidedat a time bwhenthere was bnoone filling the position of bHigh Priest, he never leavesthe city of refuge. bAnd if it is sothat the death of any of those listed in the mishna facilitates his return, blet him return withthe death of one bof theseother High Priests, the one who was sanctified by donning the eight vestments or a priest who was relieved of his position. The Gemara rejects the proof: The mishna is referring to a case bwhere there were noHigh Priests when the verdict was decided., strongMISHNA: /strong If, bafterthe unintentional murderer’s bverdict was decidedand he was sentenced to exile, bthe High Priest died,he bis not exiled,as the death of the High Priest exempts him from exile. bIfit was bbefore his verdict was decidedthat bthe High Priest died and they appointed another in his place, and thereafter his verdict was decided, he returnsfrom exile bwith the death of the secondHigh Priest. If bthe verdict ofa murderer bwas decidedat a time bwhenthere was bno High Priest, andlikewise in the cases of bone whounintentionally bkilled a High Priest andin the case of ba High Priest who killedunintentionally, the unintentional murderer bnever leavesthe city of refuge., bAndone who is exiled may bnot leavethe city at all, beither for testimonyrelating to ba mitzva, or for testimonyrelating to bmonetary matters, or for testimonyrelating to bcapitalmatters. bAnd evenif bthe Jewish people requirehis services, band evenif he is bthe general of the army of Israel like Joab ben Zeruiah, he never leavesthe city of refuge, bas it is stated:“And the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, bthat he fled there”(Numbers 35:25), from which it is derived: bThere shall be his dwelling, there shall be his death, there shall be his burial. /b,The mishna continues: bJust asan unintentional murderer bis admittedto bthe cityof refuge, bso is he admittedto bits outskirts, locatedwithin the Shabbat bboundary.Once he entered the outskirts of the city, the blood redeemer may not kill him. In a case bwhere a murderer emerged beyond theShabbat bboundaryof the city of refuge band the blood redeemer found himthere, bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says:It is ba mitzva for the blood redeemerto kill him, bandit is boptional for everyother bpersonto do so. bRabbi Akiva says:It is boptional for the blood redeemer, and everyother bperson is liable forkilling bhim. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: If after the unintentional murderer’s verdict was decided and he was sentenced to exile, the High Priest died, the unintentional murderer is not exiled. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bAbaye says:It is derived through ban ia fortiori /iinference: bIf one who was already exiled now emergeswith the death of this High Priest, with regard to bone who was notyet bexiled, is it not right that he should not be exiled?The Gemara rejects this reasoning: bAnd perhapswith regard to bthisone, bwho wasalready bexiled,his sin bwas atonedfor by his exile, and therefore the death of the High Priest facilitates his return, but bthatone, bwho was notyet bexiled, no,his sin was not atoned for and the death of the High Priest should not prevent his exile. The Gemara rebuts: bIsit his bexilethat batonesfor his sin? bIt is the death of the High Priest that atonesfor his sin, and the High Priest died.,The mishna teaches: bIfit was bbefore his verdict was decidedthat the High Priest died and they appointed another in his place, and thereafter his verdict was decided, he returns with the death of the second High Priest. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Kahana saidthat they are derived from a verse, bas the verse states: “And he shall dwell there until the death of the High Priest, whom he anointed with the sacred oil”(Numbers 35:25). bNow isit the unintentional murderer who banointsthe High Priest? bRather,the reference is to bthatHigh Priest bwho was anointed during his days,after he committed the unintentional murder.,The Gemara asks: Why is his return home dependent on the death of the second High Priest? Earlier (11a), the Gemara explained that the High Priest bears a share of the responsibility for unintentional murderers, as he should have pleaded for mercy for his generation and he did not do so. In this case, as the High Priest in question was appointed only after the murder transpired, bwhat could he have doneto prevent the unintentional murder? The Gemara answers: bHe should have pleaded for mercy thatthe bverdict ofthe unintentional murderer bwould be decidedby the court bfavorably,so that he would not be sentenced to exile, band he did not plead. /b,§ bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat with regard to an unintentional murderer bwhose verdict was decidedand who was sentenced to exile, band he diedbefore he was exiled to the city of refuge, bone transports his bonesto the city of refuge, and buries him bthere, as it is written: “To return and dwell in the land until the death of the priest”(Numbers 35:32). bAnd what isthe bdwelling that is in the land? You must say it isreferring to his bburial.A Sage btaught:If an unintentional murderer bdiedin a city of refuge bbefore the High Priest died, one transports his bones to the graves of his ancestorsafter the High Priest dies, bas it is written: “The murderer shall return to his ancestral land”(Numbers 35:28). bWhatis the bdwelling that istaking place bin his ancestral land? You must say it ishis bburial. /b,§ The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to a case where the murderer’s bverdict was decided,i.e., he was sentenced to exile, bandthe High bPriestfilling the position at the time bwas deemed the son of a divorced woman or the son of a iḥalutza /i,and the High Priest was thereby disqualified from the priesthood. bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne says: The priesthood died,i.e., it is as though the High Priest died, and all exiles return home from the city of refuge. bAndthe other bone says: The priesthood is voided,i.e., it is as though there was no High Priest filling the position during that period, and therefore, the exiles may never leave the city of refuge.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat these iamora’im /i, Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, bdisagree with regard tothe issue that is the subject of bthe disputebetween bRabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, as we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot8:1): If a priest bwas standing and sacrificingofferings bupon the altar, and it became known that he was the son of a divorced woman or the son of a iḥalutza /i,and he was disqualified from the Temple service, bRabbi Eliezer says: All offerings that he sacrificedup to that point are bnot valid,as it is apparent that he is not and never was fit for Temple service, band Rabbi Yehoshua deemsall offerings that he already sacrificed as bvalid. /b,The Gemara explains: Let us say that bthe one who sayshere that the priesthood bdiedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua.He holds that the High Priest is disqualified only from the time of the discovery that he is disqualified from the priesthood and forward, while any service performed previous to that discovery is valid. The discovery that he is disqualified from the priesthood is like the High Priest’s death, but his priesthood is not invalidated retroactively. bAnd the one who saysthat the priesthood is bvoidedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,and since his priesthood is voided retroactively, there was no High Priest filling the position when he was sentenced.
19. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106b. (יהושע יג, כב) הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק,א"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה א"ל מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב (תהלים נה, כד) אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע א"ל שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה,א"ל מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה,כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר ר' יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקב"ה ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה,(סימן גבור ורשע וצדיק חיל וסופר),א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ג) מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חוקי אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חוקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם (תהלים נ, טז) ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר ר' אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ,ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ח) ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (איוב כ, טו) חיל בלע ויקיאנו מבטנו יורישנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקב"ה לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקב"ה לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, יח) איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים איה סופר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שוקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה סופר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר,א"ר ארבע מאה בעיי' בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין,וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא,ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקב"ה ליבא בעי דכתיב (שמואל א טז, ז) וה' יראה ללבב,אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,א"ר אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנא' (משלי ה, כג) הוא ימות באין מוסר וברוב אולתו ישגה רב (אשי) אמר נצטרע שנאמר (תהלים עג, כז) הצמתה כל זונה ממך,כתיב התם (ויקרא כה, ל) לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו),א"ר יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,(א"ר) יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד,וא"ר יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש,וא"ר יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחילה קראו רבו (תהלים נה, יד) ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומיודעי ולבסוף קראו חבירו (תהלים נה, טו) אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו (תהלים מא, י) גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו 106b. With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, bdid the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain”(Joshua 13:22), bRav says:It means bthat they accomplished in himall bfourmeans of court-imposed bexecutions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation. /b, bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam waswhen he died? Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: It is not writtenexplicitly in the Torah. bBut fromthe fact bthat it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was bthirty-two or thirty-four years old,less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic bsaid to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him. /b, bMar, son of Ravina, said to his son:With regard to ball of thoseenumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, bdo not extensively interpretverses bhomileticallyin order to denigrate them, bexceptwith regard to bBalaam the wicked, as anynegative element bthat you discover in hisregard, continue to binterpret homiletically concerning him,as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.,§ bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Doegthe Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), band it is writtenin another verse: “And the king said to bDoyeig”(I Samuel 22:18). bRabbi Yoḥa saysin explaining the discrepancy: bInitially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [ idoeg /i]that bperhaps thisperson bwould emerge toundertake ban evil path. After he emergedon that path, God bsaid: Alas [ ivai /i], thatperson bhas emerged toundertake an evil path.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: bMighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually”(Psalms 52:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continuallywhen you engage in His Torah?, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes,and that you have taken My covet in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutesand My Torah? bWhen you reachthe Torah bportion of murderers andthe Torah bportion of slanderers, how do you teach them?You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: b“And that you have taken My covet in your mouth”(Psalms 50:16), bRabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is onlyinsincere blip service,as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him”(Psalms 52:8)? bInitially, they will fearDoeg due to his success, band ultimately they will laughwhen they witness his downfall., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly”(Job 20:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die.God bsaid to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.”He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David bsaid before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.”God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come.David bsaid before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,”i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto David: At least blet them state a ihalakhain the study hall in his name.David bsaid before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,”i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: bLet him have sons who are Sages.David said: b“And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,”i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [ imigdalim /i]”(Isaiah 33:18)? bWhere is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all theelements of ia fortioriinferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers?This is Doeg, bwho would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard [ imigdal /i] that floats in the air [ iavir /i]. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolveeven bone,an indication of their great knowledge. bRava says:Is it bgreatness to raise dilemmas?That is not a barometer of greatness, as bin the years of Rav Yehuda all of theirTorah bstudywas confined to the order of iNezikin /i, and we study muchmore than that, and are expert even bintractate iOkatzin /i,the final tractate in the difficult order of iTeharot /i., bMoreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounterthe mishna in tractate iOkatzinthat discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the ihalakhaconcerning ba woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some saywhen he would reach the mishna ( iOkatzin2:1): bOlives pickled with their leaves are pure,because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. bHe would say:Those are bthe discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we,by contrast, bteachtractate iOkatzinin thirteen academies. /b, bButnevertheless, bwhen Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain wouldimmediately bfall,whereas bwe cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart,and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, bas it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart”(I Samuel 16:7)., bRav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to thisstatement: These are people bwith regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers”(Isaiah 33:18), band you saythat bthey did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather,Doeg and Ahithophel bwould not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhicrulings, bas it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him”(Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect., bRabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray”(Proverbs 5:23). bRav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosybefore his death, bas it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [ ihitzmatta /i] all those who go astray from You”(Psalms 73:27).,Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? bIt is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ ilitzmitut /i]”(Leviticus 25:23), band we translateit into Aramaic as: iLaḥalutin /i. And we learnedin a mishna with regard to lepers ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantinedleper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i]leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head bgrow and rendingone’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between ihitzmattaand ilitzmitut /i; the translation of ilitzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i, and the etymological similarity between ilaḥalutinand imuḥlat /i.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the ihalakhotthat follow: bThree, saw, and half, and called him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torahknowledge, bone who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes ofhis soul bin synagogues and in study hallsto be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another,as both died at a young age. bDoeglived bin the days of Saul, and Ahithophellived bin the days of David,toward the end of David’s life., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of theirallotted bdays,as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24); ball the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, andthe years bof Ahithophel were only thirty-three. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially,David bcalledAhithophel bhis teacher,as it is stated: b“But it was you, a man my equal, my master [ ialufi /i], and my familiar friend”(Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as ialufas he trains [ ime’alef] his students. bAnd eventually, he called him his colleague,as it is stated: b“We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng”(Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. bAnd ultimately, he called him his student,as it is stated: b“Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. וקטליאות נזמים וטבעות מעבירין ממנה כדי לנוולה ואחר כך מביא חבל מצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה,וכל הרוצה לראות בא לראות חוץ מעבדיה ושפחותיה מפני שלבה גס בהן וכל הנשים מותרות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר גמדא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אתיא תורה תורה כתיב הכא (במדבר ה, ל) ועשה לה הכהן את כל התורה וכתיב התם (דברים יז, יא) על פי התורה אשר יורוך מה להלן בשבעים ואחד אף כאן בשבעים ואחד,ומאיימין עליה וכו' ורמינהו כדרך שמאיימין עליה שלא תשתה כך מאיימין עליה שתשתה אומרים לה בתי אם ברור לך הדבר שטהורה את עמדי על בורייך ושתי לפי שאין מים המרים דומין אלא לסם יבש שמונח על בשר חי אם יש שם מכה מחלחל ויורד אין שם מכה אינו מועיל כלום,לא קשיא כאן קודם שנמחקה מגילה כאן לאחר שנמחקה מגילה,ואומר לפניה וכו' ת"ר אומר לפניה דברים של הגדה ומעשים שאירעו בכתובים הראשונים כגון (איוב טו, יח) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם,יהודה הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ראובן הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ומה שכרן מה שכרן כדקא אמרינן אלא מה שכרן בעולם הזה (איוב טו, יט) להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר זר בתוכם,בשלמא ביהודה אשכחן דאודי דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני אלא ראובן מנלן דאודי,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו. של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי גרם לראובן שהודה יהודה וזאת ליהודה,מיד (דברים לג, ז) שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא ולא הוה קא מעיילין ליה למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו ולא הוה קא ידע משקל ומטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה קא סלקא ליה שמעתא אליבא דהילכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,בשלמא יהודה דאודי כי היכי דלא תישרף תמר אלא ראובן למה ליה דאודי והאמר רב ששת חציף עלי (בר ישראל) דמפריט חטאיה כי היכי דלא ליחשדו אחוהי,אם אמרה טמאה אני וכו' שמעת מינה כותבין שובר,אמר אביי תני מקרעת א"ל רבא והא שוברת קתני אלא אמר רבא במקום שאין כותבין כתובה עסקינן,ואם אמרה טהורה אני מעלין אותה לשערי מזרח מעלין אותה 7b. bor chokers [ ikatliyot /i],or bnose rings, orfinger brings, they removed them from her in order to render her unattractive. And afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropefashioned from palm fibers, band he would tie it above her breasts. /b, bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may come to watch, except for her slaves and maidservants,who are not permitted to watch bbecause her heart is emboldened by them,as seeing one’s slaves reinforces one’s feeling of pride, and their presence may cause her to maintain her innocence. bAnd all of the women are permitted to watch her, as it is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks concerning the ihalakhathat the isotais brought before the Sanhedrin: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the words b“ itora /i”and b“ itora /i.”It bis written here,with regard to a isota /i: b“And the priest shall execute upon her all this law [ itora /i]”(Numbers 5:30), bandit bis written there,with regard to a rebellious Elder, who must go to the place chosen by God and follow the ruling of the Sanhedrin: b“According to the law [ itora /i] that they shall teach you”(Deuteronomy 17:11). bJust as therethe verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges, bso too here,with regard to a isota /i, the verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd they threaten herin order that she admit her sin, to obviate the need to erase God’s name. bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraitain the iTosefta(1:6): bIn the same manner that they threaten her so that she will not drink, so too, they threaten her so that she will drink,as bthey say to her: My daughter, if the matter is clear to you that you are pure, arise forthe sake of byour clearposition band drink.If you are innocent you have nothing to fear, bbecause the bitter water is similar only to a dry poison placed on the flesh. If there is a woundthere, the poison will bpenetrate and enterthe blood stream, but if bthere is no wound there, it does not have any effect.This teaches that the woman is warned not to drink if she is guilty, but if she is not guilty she is encouraged to drink. There is no mention of the latter in the mishna.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe mishna is referring to bbefore the scroll was erased,and at that point the woman is warned only not to drink if she is guilty, so that the name of God will not be erased. bTherethe ibaraitais referring to bafter the scroll was erased.Then she is warned that if she is innocent she should drink because if she now refuses to drink, it will turn out that the scroll was erased for no purpose.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe judge bsays in her presencematters that are not worthy of being heard by her and all her father’s family in order to encourage her to admit her sin. The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat details what was said. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The judge bsays in her presence words of homileticalinterpretation bandmentions bincidents that happenedto previous generations that are recorded bin the earlyprophetic bwritings. For example,they expound the following verse: b“That wise men told and did not hide from their fathers”(Job 15:18); this teaches that even during the time of the forefathers, there were people who admitted their sins despite the shame they incurred.,For example, bJudah admittedthat he sinned with Tamar band was not embarrassedto do so, and bwhat was his end? He inherited the life of the World-to-Come. Reuben admittedthat he lay with his father’s concubine Bilhah band was not embarrassed,and bwhat was his end? Hetoo binherited the life of the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bAnd what is their reward?The Gemara interjects: bWhat is their reward?Their reward was clearly bas we say,that they inherited the life of the World-to-Come. The Gemara clarifies: bRather,the second question was: bWhat is their reward in this world?The Gemara answers by citing the next verse in the book of Job: b“To them alone the land was given, and no stranger passed among them”(Job 15:19). Judah was given the kingship, and Reuben inherited a portion of land in the Transjordan before the other tribes.,The Gemara questions the source for Reuben’s admission. bGranted, with regard to Judah we have founda source bthat he admittedhis sin with Tamar, bas it is written: “And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I”(Genesis 38:26). Judah admitted that he was the one who had impregnated Tamar. bBut from where do wederive bthat Reuben admittedhis sin?,The Gemara answers: It is bas Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward, in the following verse, it is stated: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa says: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses arose and asked for compassion onJudah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he admithis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same. Moses continues in the next verse: b“And this for Judah,”as if to say: Is this Judah’s reward for serving as an example of confessing to one’s sins, that his bones roll around?, bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ishafa /i],and his skeleton was reassembled. bButthe angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, bbut hestill bdid not knowhow bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith theheavenly bsages.Moses then prayed: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The Gemara discusses the propriety of admitting one’s sins in public. bGranted,with regard to bJudah,it was proper bthat he admittedhis sin in public, as he did so bin order that Tamar not be burnedinnocently. bBut why did Reuben admithis sin in public? bBut didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Iconsider one bwho specifies his sinsin public to be bbrazen,as one who does so indicates that he is not embarrassed by his actions? The Gemara answers: The reason he admitted his sin in public was bin order that his brothers should not be suspectedof having committed the deed.,§ The mishna teaches: bIfafter the judge’s warning bshe says: I am defiled,she writes a receipt for her marriage contract. The Gemara comments: bYoucan blearn from thismishna bthat one writes a receiptto serve as proof that a debt has been paid rather than tearing the promissory note. This matter is the subject of a dispute between the itanna’imin tractate iBava Batra(170b)., bAbaye said: Teachin the mishna differently. Rather than understanding that she writes a receipt, explain it to mean: bShe tearsher marriage contract. bRava said to him: Butthe mishna bteachesexplicitly that bshe writes a receipt. Rather,to explain the mishna, bRava said: We are dealing with a place inwhich bthey do not write a marriage contract,as they rely on the rabbinical ordice that all wives are entitled to the sum of a standard marriage contract upon divorce or being widowed, even if no marriage contract has been written. Because there is no marriage contract to tear, a receipt is written so that the man can prove that he no longer has a monetary obligation. However, generally, it is possible that the document would be torn, and no proof can be adduced from this mishna.,§ The mishna teaches: bBut ifafter the warning bshemaintains her innocence and bsays: I am pure, theywould bbring her up to the Eastern Gate.The Gemara asks: Would bthey bring her up? /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. משום דנפישי בני חילא דמחוזא,אילפא ור' יוחנן הוו גרסי באורייתא דחיקא להו מילתא טובא אמרי ניקום וניזיל וניעבד עיסקא ונקיים בנפשין (דברים טו, ד) אפס כי לא יהיה בך אביון אזלו אותבי תותי גודא רעיעא הוו קא כרכי ריפתא אתו תרי מלאכי השרת,שמעיה רבי יוחנן דאמר חד לחבריה נישדי עלייהו האי גודא ונקטלינהו שמניחין חיי עולם הבא ועוסקין בחיי שעה אמר ליה אידך שבקינהו דאיכא בהו חד דקיימא ליה שעתא רבי יוחנן שמע אילפא לא שמע אמר ליה ר' יוחנן לאילפא שמע מר מידי אמר ליה לא אמר מדשמעי אנא ואילפא לא שמע ש"מ לדידי קיימא לי שעתא,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן איהדר ואוקי בנפשאי (דברים טו, יא) כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ ר' יוחנן הדר אילפא לא הדר עד דאתא אילפא מליך רבי יוחנן,אמרו לו אי אתיב מר וגריס לא הוה מליך מר אזל תלא נפשיה באסקריא דספינתא אמר אי איכא דשאיל לי במתניתא דר' חייא ורבי אושעיא ולא פשטינא ליה ממתני' נפילנא מאסקריא דספינתא וטבענא,אתא ההוא סבא תנא ליה האומר תנו שקל לבניי בשבת והן ראויין לתת להם סלע נותנין להם סלע ואם אמר אל תתנו להם אלא שקל אין נותנין להם אלא שקל,אם אמר מתו ירשו אחרים תחתיהם בין שאמר תנו בין שאמר אל תתנו אין נותנין להם אלא שקל א"ל הא מני ר"מ היא דאמר מצוה לקיים דברי המת,אמרו עליו על נחום איש גם זו שהיה סומא משתי עיניו גידם משתי ידיו קיטע משתי רגליו וכל גופו מלא שחין והיה מוטל בבית רעוע ורגלי מטתו מונחין בספלין של מים כדי שלא יעלו עליו נמלים פעם אחת [היתה מטתו מונחת בבית רעוע] בקשו תלמידיו לפנות מטתו ואח"כ לפנות את הכלים אמר להם בניי פנו את הכלים ואח"כ פנו את מטתי שמובטח לכם כל זמן שאני בבית אין הבית נופל פינו את הכלים ואחר כך פינו את מטתו ונפל הבית,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי וכי מאחר שצדיק גמור אתה למה עלתה לך כך אמר להם בניי אני גרמתי לעצמי שפעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך לבית חמי והיה עמי משוי ג' חמורים אחד של מאכל ואחד של משתה ואחד של מיני מגדים בא עני אחד ועמד לי בדרך ואמר לי רבי פרנסני אמרתי לו המתן עד שאפרוק מן החמור לא הספקתי לפרוק מן החמור עד שיצתה נשמתו,הלכתי ונפלתי על פניו ואמרתי עיני שלא חסו על עיניך יסומו ידיי שלא חסו על ידיך יתגדמו רגליי שלא חסו על רגליך יתקטעו ולא נתקררה דעתי עד שאמרתי כל גופי יהא מלא שחין אמרו לו אוי לנו שראינוך בכך אמר להם אוי לי אם לא ראיתוני בכך,ואמאי קרו ליה נחום איש גם זו דכל מילתא דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה זימנא חדא בעו לשדורי ישראל דורון לבי קיסר אמרו מאן ייזיל ייזיל נחום איש גם זו דמלומד בניסין הוא שדרו בידיה מלא סיפטא דאבנים טובות ומרגליות אזל בת בההוא דירה בליליא קמו הנך דיוראי ושקלינהו לסיפטיה ומלונהו עפרא (למחר כי חזנהו אמר גם זו לטובה),כי מטא התם [שרינהו לסיפטא חזנהו דמלו עפרא] בעא מלכא למקטלינהו לכולהו אמר קא מחייכו בי יהודאי [אמר גם זו לטובה] אתא אליהו אדמי ליה כחד מינייהו א"ל דלמא הא עפרא מעפרא דאברהם אבוהון הוא דכי הוה שדי עפרא הוו סייפיה גילי הוו גירי דכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,הויא חדא מדינתא דלא מצו למיכבשה בדקו מיניה וכבשוה עיילו לבי גנזיה ומלוהו לסיפטיה אבנים טובות ומרגליות ושדרוהו ביקרא רבה,כי אתו ביתו בההוא דיורא אמרו ליה מאי אייתית בהדך דעבדי לך יקרא כולי האי אמר להו מאי דשקלי מהכא אמטי להתם סתרו לדירייהו ואמטינהו לבי מלכא אמרו ליה האי עפרא דאייתי הכא מדידן הוא בדקוה ולא אשכחוה וקטלינהו להנך דיוראי:,אי זו היא דבר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כו': ת"ר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות ואלף רגלי כגון כפר עכו ויצאו הימנה תשעה מתים בשלשה ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר,ביום אחד או בד' ימים אין זה דבר ועיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כגון כפר עמיקו ויצאו ממנה שלשה מתים בג' ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר 21a. bdue tothe fact that bthere are many soldiers inthe city of bMeḥoza,and if I let them all eat, they will take all the food I own.,§ The Gemara relates another story that involves an unstable wall. bIlfa and Rabbi Yoḥa studied Torahtogether, and as a result bthey became very hard-pressedfor money. bThey said: Let us get up and go and engage in commerce, and we will fulfill, with regard to ourselves,the verse: b“Although there should be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4), as we will no longer be complete paupers. bThey went and sat under a dilapidated walland bwere eating bread,when btwo ministering angels arrived. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa heard that oneangel bsaid to the other: Let us knock this wall down upon them and kill them, as they abandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. bThe otherangel bsaid to him: Leave them, as there is one of them whose timeof achievement bstands before him,i.e., his time has yet to come. bRabbi Yoḥa heardall this, but bIlfa did not hearthe angels’ conversation. bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: Did the Master hear anything?Ilfa bsaid to him: No.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaidto himself: bSince I heardthe angels band Ilfa did not hear,I can blearn from thisthat it is bI whose timeof achievement bstands before me. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: I will returnhome and bfulfill with regard to myselfthe contrary verse: b“For the poor shall never cease out of the land”(Deuteronomy 15:11). bRabbi Yoḥa returnedto the study hall, and bIlfa did not return,but went to engage in business instead. bBythe time bthat Ilfa cameback from his business travels, bRabbi Yoḥahad been bappointedhead of the academy, and his ficial situation had improved.,His colleagues bsaid toIlfa: bIf the Master had sat and studied,instead of going off to his business ventures, bwouldn’t the Master havebeen bappointedhead of the academy? Ilfa bwent and suspended himself from the mast [ iaskariya /i] of a ship, saying: If there is anyone who can ask mea question bconcerning a ibaraitaof Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Oshaya, and I do not resolve hisproblem bfrom a mishna, I will fall from the mast of this ship and be drowned.Ilfa sought to demonstrate that despite the time he had spent in business, he still retained his extensive Torah knowledge., bA certain old man came and taughta ibaraitabefore bhim:If there is a man bwho,upon his deathbed, bsaysin his will: bGive a shekel to my sonsevery bweek, butthis is a situation bwhere,based on their needs, bthey are fitfor the bcourt to give them a isela /i,i.e., double the amount, bthey give them a isela /i.When the dying man mentioned a shekel, he presumably meant that they should be given a sum in accordance with their actual requirements, not that specific amount. bBut if he said: Give them only a shekel,the court bgives them only a shekeland no more.,The ibaraitafurther states that bif one said: Ifmy sons bdie, others should inherittheir portion bin their stead,regardless of bwhether he said: Give thema shekel, or bwhether he said: Give them onlya shekel, then the court bgiveshis sons bonly a shekelper week, as their father clearly stated that he wishes to give his sons only a specific stipend and that he intends to leave the bulk of his property to others. Ilfa bsaid tothe old man: In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thisruling? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir, who said: It is a mitzva to fulfill the statement of the dead.This entire ibaraitacan be explained based on a principle that appears in a mishna: In all cases, one should try to execute the wishes of the deceased.,§ The Gemara relates another story about a rundown building. bThey said about Naḥum of Gam Zu that he was blind in both eyes, both his arms were amputated, both his legs were amputated, and his entire body was covered in boils. And he was lying in a dilapidated house, and legs of his bed were placed in buckets of water so that ants should not climb onto him,as he was unable to keep them off in any other manner. bOnce his students sought to remove his bedfrom the house band afterward removehis other bvessels. He said to them: My sons, remove the vessels first, and afterward remove my bed, as I can guarantee you that as long as I am in the house, the house will not fall.Indeed bthey removed the vessels and afterward they removed his bed, andimmediately bthe house collapsed. /b, bHis students said to him: Rabbi, since you areevidently ba wholly righteous man,as we have just seen that as long as you were in your house it did not fall, bwhy has thissuffering bbefallen you? He said to them: My sons, I brought it upon myself.Naḥum of Gam Zu related to them the following: bAs once I was traveling along the road to my father-in-law’s house, and I had with me a loaddistributed among bthree donkeys, one of food, one of drink, and one of delicacies. A poor person came and stoodbefore me bin the road, saying: My rabbi, sustain me. I said to him: Wait until I unload the donkey,after which I will give you something to eat. However, bI had not managed to unload the donkey before his soul lefthis body., bI went and fell upon his face and said: May my eyes, which had no compassion on your eyes, be blinded; may my hands, which had no compassion on your hands, be amputated; may my legs, which had no compassion on your legs, be amputated. And my mind did not rest until I said: May my whole body be covered in boils.Naḥum of Gam Zu prayed that his suffering might atone for his failure. His students bsaid to him:Even so, bwoe to us that we have seen you in thisstate. bHe said to them: Woe is me if you had not seen me in thisstate, as this suffering atones for me.,The Gemara inquires: bAnd why did they call him Naḥum of Gam Zu?The reason is bthatwith regard to bany matter that occurred to him, hewould bsay: This too is for the good [ igam zu letova /i]. Once, the Jews wished to send a gift [ idoron /i] to the house of the emperor. They said: Who should goand present this gift? bLet Naḥum of Gam Zu go, as he is accustomed to miracles. They sent with him a chest [ isifta /i] full of jewels and pearls,and bhe went and spent the night in a certain inn. During the night, these residentsof the inn arose and btook all ofthe precious jewels and pearls from bthe chest, and filled it with earth.The next day, when he saw what had happened, Naḥum of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good., bWhen he arrived there,at the ruler’s palace, bthey opened the chestand bsaw that it was filled with earth. The king wished to put allthe Jewish emissaries bto death. He said: The Jews are mocking me.Naḥum of Gam Zu bsaid: This too is for the good. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and appeared beforethe ruler bas one ofhis ministers. He bsaid tothe ruler: bPerhaps this earth is from the earth of their father Abraham. As when he threw earth, it turned into swords,and when he threw bstubble, it turned into arrows, as it is writtenin a prophecy that the Sages interpreted this verse as a reference to Abraham: b“His sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble”(Isaiah 41:2)., bThere was one province thatthe Romans bwere unable to conquer.They took some of this earth, btested itby throwing it at their enemies, band conqueredthat province. When the ruler saw that this earth indeed had miraculous powers, his servants bentered his treasury and filledNaḥum of Gam Zu’s bchest with precious jewels and pearls and sent him off with great honor. /b, bWhenNaḥum of Gam Zu bcame to spend the night at thatsame binn,the residents bsaid to him: What did you bring with youto the emperor bthat he bestowed upon you such great honor? He said to them: That which I took from here, I brought there.When they heard this, the residents of the inn thought that the soil upon which their house stood had miraculous powers. bThey tore down their inn and broughtthe soil underneath bto the king’s palace. They said to him: That earth that was brought here was from ourproperty. The miracle had been performed only in the merit of Naḥum of Gam Zu. The emperor btestedthe inn’s soil in battle, band it was not foundto have miraculous powers, band hehad bthese residentsof the inn bput to death. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhat isconsidered a plague of bpestilence?If it is ba city that sends out five hundred infantrymen,and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, one dead per day, this is a plague of pestilence. bThe Sages taught:If ba city that sends out fifteen hundred infantrymen,i.e., one that has a population of at least fifteen hundred men, e.g., bthe village of Akko, and nine dead are removed from it on three consecutive days,i.e., three dead per day, bthis isconsidered a plague of bpestilence. /b,If all nine died bon a single day,while none died on the other days, borif the nine died bovera period of bfour days, this is nota plague of bpestilence. And a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, for example, the village of Amiko, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, this isa plague of bpestilence. /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

78a. מפכין עתידין להיות יוצאין מתחת מפתן הבית מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר ועולה עד שמגיע לפתח בית דוד כיון שמגיע לפתח בית דוד נעשה כנחל שוטף שבו רוחצין זבין וזבות נדות ויולדות שנאמר (זכריה יג, א) ביום ההוא יהיה מקור נפתח לבית דוד וליושבי ירושלם לחטאת ולנדה,אמר רב יוסף מכאן רמז לנדה שצריכה לישב עד צוארה במים ולית הילכתא כוותיה,(תינח יום הכפורים דליכא מנעל) שבת דאיכא מנעל מאי אמר נחמיה חתניה דבי נשיאה אנא חזיתיה לרבי אמי ורבי אסי דמטו עורקומא דמיא ועברוה דרך מלבוש,תינח מנעל סנדל מאי איכא למימר אמר רב ריחומי אנא חזיתיה לרבינא דעבר דרך מלבוש רב אשי אמר סנדל לכתחלה לא,ריש גלותא איקלע להגרוניא לבי רב נתן רפרם וכולהו רבנן אתו לפירקא רבינא לא אתא למחר בעי רפרם לאפוקי לרבינא מדעתיה דריש גלותא אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא אתא מר לפירקא אמר ליה הוה כאיב לי כרעאי איבעי לך למיסם מסאני גבא דכרעא הוה,איבעי לך למרמא סנדלא אמר ליה עורקמא דמיא הוה באורחא איבעי לך למעבריה דרך מלבוש אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב אשי סנדל לכתחלה לא,תני יהודה בר גרוגרות אסור לישב על גבי טינא ביום הכפורים אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי ובטינא מטפחת אמר אביי ובטופח על מנת להטפיח אמר רב יהודה מותר להצטנן בפירות רב יהודה מצטנן בקרא,רבה מצטנן בינוקא רבא מצטנן בכסא דכספא אמר רב פפא כסא דכספא מלא אסור חסר שרי דפחרא אידי ואידי אסור משום דמישחל שחיל רב (פפא) אמר כסא דכספא חסר נמי אסור משום דמזדריב,זעירא בר חמא אושפיזכנין דרבי אמי ורבי אסי ורבי יהושע בן לוי ודכולהו רבנן דקיסרי הוה אמר ליה לרב יוסף בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מעליתא דהוה עביד אבוך מטפחת היה לו בערב יום הכפורים ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מקנח בה פניו ידיו ורגליו ערב תשעה באב שורה אותה במים ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו,וכן כי אתא רבה בר מרי אמר בערב תשעה באב מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ומניחה תחת מראשותיו ולמחר מקנח פניו ידיו ורגליו בערב יום הכפורים מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו אמר ליה ר' יעקב לרבי ירמיה בר תחליפא איפכא אמרת לן ואותיבנך סחיטה,אמר רב מנשיא בר תחליפא אמר רב עמרם אמר רבה בר בר חנה שאלו את רבי אלעזר זקן ויושב בישיבה צריך ליטול רשות להתיר בכורות או אינו צריך,מאי קא מיבעי להו הכי קא מיבעי להו כי הא דאמר רב אידי בר אבין דבר זה הניחו להם לבי נשיאה כדי להתגדר בו צריך ליטול רשות או דילמא כיון דזקן ויושב בישיבה אין צריך עמד ר' צדוק בן חלוקה על רגליו ואמר אני ראיתי את רבי יוסי בן זימרא שזקן ויושב בישיבה היה ועמד במעלה מזקנו של זה ונטל רשות להתיר בכורות,אמר ליה ר' אבא לא כך היה מעשה אלא כך היה מעשה ר' יוסי בן זימרא כהן היה והכי קא מיבעיא ליה הלכה כר"מ דאמר החשוד בדבר לא דנו ולא מעידו או דילמא הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דאמר נאמן הוא על של חבירו ואינו נאמן על של עצמו ופשט ליה הלכה כרשב"ג,ותו קא מבעיא להו מהו לצאת בסנדל של 78a. bin the future, will bubble from under the threshold of the Temple. From thispoint bforward,the spring bwill grow in strength and rise until it reaches the opening of David’s house,i.e., his grave, which is outside of Jerusalem. bWhen it reaches the opening of David’s house, it will become a flowing river in which izavimand izavot /i, menstruating women, and women after childbirth will batheto purify themselves. bAs it is stated: “On that day there shall be a fountain opened for the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for purification and for sprinkling”(Zechariah 13:1)., bRav Yosef said: From here, there is an allusion that a menstruating woman mustbe able to bsit up to her neck in water,i.e., that this is the appropriate depth for waters of a ritual bath to purify. The Gemara comments: bBut the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion. Rather, the depth of the water is irrelevant. As long as the water can cover an entire adult body, the ritual bath is kosher.,§ The Gemara investigates the permissibility of crossing water in order to fulfill a mitzva: It works out bwellthat on bYom Kippurit is permitted because bthere are no shoes,and there is no problem going through water barefoot. However, on bShabbat, when there are shoes, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is one permitted to cross water wearing shoes? Is there a concern that his shoe might come off and he may pick it up, thereby violating the prohibition of carrying out? bNeḥemya, the son-in-law of the iNasi /i, said: I saw Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi come to a pool of waterthat they had to cross on Shabbat, band they crossed it while wearingtheir shoes without removing them first.,The Gemara asks: It works out bwellthat bshoesare permitted, since one can tie them tightly, but bwhat is there to sayabout bsandals?Since they do not fit tightly on the foot, they might come off in the water. bRav Riḥumi said: I saw Ravina crossa river while bwearingsandals on his feet. bRav Ashi said: If he iswearing bsandals,he should bnotcross the water iab initio /i,lest the sandal fall off his foot and he violate the prohibition of carrying on Shabbat by picking it up.,Incidental to this, the Gemara reports: bThe Exilarch came todeliver a lecture in bRav Natan’s study hall in Hagronya. Rafram and all the Sages came to the lecture,but bRavina did not come. The next day,when he came, bRafram wanted to removeany anger towards bRavina from the mindof bthe Exilarch,for missing the lecture. Rafram therefore asked Ravina: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master did not come to the lecture? He said to him: My foot hurt.He said to him: bYou should have put shoes on.Ravina answered him: bIt was the back of the footthat hurt, so wearing shoes would have been hard for me.,Rafram said to Ravina: bYou should have worn sandals,which leave the heel exposed. bHe said to him: There was a pool of water on the waythat I would have had to cross. bHe said to him: You should have crossed it wearingthe sandals. bHe said to him: Does the Master not holdwith that which bRav Ashi said:One should bnotwear bsandalswhen crossing a river on Shabbat, iab initio /i?From this conversation, the Exilarch understood that Ravina meant no disrespect in not attending the lecture.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the laws of Yom Kippur: bYehuda bar Gerogarot taught: It is prohibited to sit ondamp bclay on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This prohibition applies only when the bclayis bdripping wet,when one feels its wetness when touching it. bAbaye saidin clarification: It must be bdripping wet enough to make something else wet. Rav Yehuda said:One is bpermitted to cool off with fruiton Yom Kippur, and it is not considered bathing. Similarly, when bRav Yehudasuffered from the heat on Yom Kippur he bcooled offby putting ba squashon himself., bRabba cooled off byplacing ba baby [ iyanuka /i]next to him, because a baby’s body is cold. bRava cooled off with a silver cup. Rav Pappa said:If the bsilver cupis bfull, it is prohibited;however, if it is bnot full, it is permitted.With regard to ba ceramiccup, both bthis and that are prohibited, sincethe water bseeps throughthe cup, causing a violation of the prohibition of bathing. bRavAshi bsaid: A silver cup that is not full is also prohibited because it can slip [ imizderiv /i]from his hand and spill., bZe’eira bar Ḥama,the bhostof the home where bRabbi Ami, and Rabbi Asi, and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and all the Sages of Caesareastayed, bsaid to Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Son of a lion, come, I will tell youabout ba wonderful custom that your father used to perform. He had a cloth thathe would prepare bon the day before Yom Kippur by soaking it in water andwringing it out, bmaking italmost blike a dried cloth. And the next day he wiped his face, hands, and feet with it.On bthe day before the Ninth of Av,on which the prohibition of bathing is by rabbinic law and not Torah law, he would bsoak thecloth bin water and the next day pass it over his eyes. /b, bSimilarly, when Rabba bar Mari camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The day before the Ninth of Av they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water and place it under his head. The next day,when only some moisture remains, bhemay bwipe his face, hands, and feetwith it. bOn the day before Yom Kippur, they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water andwring it out to bmake it like a dried cloth. The next day, hemay bpass it over his eyes. Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Taḥlifa: You told us the opposite.What you told us about Yom Kippur was really what he did on the Ninth of Av, band we objected to youwith regard to the prohibition of bwringing,since Yom Kippur has the same prohibition of wringing that Shabbat has.,§ bRav Menashya bar Taḥalifa saidthat bRav Amram saidthat bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: They asked Rabbi Elazarben Pedat: Must ban Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva receive permissionfrom the iNasi bto permithim to render bfirstborn animals permitted,like others who must get permission from the iNasi btorender bfirstborn animals permitted, or not?A firstborn animal may not be eaten until it has a blemish. Knowing which blemishes are permanent and permit the animal to be eaten and which are temporary is specialized knowledge.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are they asking?What is the basis of the question? The Gemara explains: bThis is what they are asking, like thisstatement of bRav Idi bar Avin,who bsaid: This matter,the authority of the iNasito grant permission, bwas given to the house of the iNasito raise its stature.Therefore, bmust permission be received,since the request itself honors the iNasi /i? bOr, perhaps becausethe individual in question bis an Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva, there is no need. Rav Tzadok ben Ḥaluka rose to his feet and said: I saw Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra, who was an Elder who sat in the yeshiva and who stood before the grandfather of thiscurrent iNasi /i, bask permissionfrom him bto permit firstborn animals. /b, bRabbi Abba said to him:The way you described it bwas not how the incident was. Rather this was the incident: Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra was a priest, and he raised the following dilemma: Is the ihalakhain accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,who bsaid: One who is suspect ina certain bareamay bnot judge it andmay bnot testifyabout bit?Priests are suspected of inflicting blemishes on firstborn animals because after the destruction of the Temple, even priests may not benefit from a firstborn animal until it becomes blemished. The question was not one of seeking permission from the iNasi /i, but it was a question of ihalakha /i. Are priests who are Torah scholars also suspected of inflicting blemishes? bOr perhaps the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel,who bsaid:One who is suspect bis believed about his fellow but is not believed about himself. He resolvedthe question for bhim:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b,§ bThey raisedanother bdilemmabefore bthem,the same Sages mentioned: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to bgoing out in sandals made of /b
23. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 11.18-11.25



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abahu, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
abaye Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
ami, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
asi, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
banning, of judah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
baraitot (tannaitic sources not in mishna), knowledge of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
bavli (babylonian talmud), parallels to Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
eleazar b. r. shimon, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
heavenly realm, judah banned from Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 420
ilfa Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387
israel, land of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
jacob Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
joseph and the brothers Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
judah, in heavenly realm Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
kahana, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 420
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387
palestinian sources, and rabbi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, on study-house Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
rabbi (yehuda hanasi), and r. eleazer b. r. shimon Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
reuben/reuben and bilhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
rewritten bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387, 420
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 420
shimon b. gamaliel, rabban Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
shimon b. yohai, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
stammaim, on study-house/academy Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
study-house (bet midrash) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 387
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), on r. kahana Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), shimon b. gamaliel in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yohanan, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174