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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



746
Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 32


nan(Devarim 6:5) "And you shall love the L-rd your G-d": Act (i.e., serve) out of love. There is a difference between acting out of love and acting out of fear. If one acts out of love, his reward is doubled. It is written (


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.3. Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.5, 6.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.13, 19.2, 19.8-19.9, 22.20, 24.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנָי שְׁלַח־נָא בְּיַד־תִּשְׁלָח׃ 19.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵרְפִידִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינַי וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּחַן־שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶד הָהָר׃ 19.2. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה לְמֹשֶׁה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.8. וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם יַחְדָּו וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 4.13. And he said: ‘Oh Lord, send, I pray Thee, by the hand of him whom Thou wilt send.’" 19.2. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mount." 19.8. And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken we will do.’ And Moses reported the words of the people unto the LORD." 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.5, 18.1-18.15, 22.1, 39.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 18.4. יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 18.5. וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 18.6. וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃ 18.7. וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃ 18.8. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 18.9. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל׃ 18.11. וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃ 18.12. וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃ 18.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶּה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אֻמְנָם אֵלֵד וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי׃ 18.14. הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיְהוָה דָּבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן׃ 18.15. וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃ 22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃ 39.9. אֵינֶנּוּ גָדוֹל בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה מִמֶּנִּי וְלֹא־חָשַׂךְ מִמֶּנִּי מְאוּמָה כִּי אִם־אוֹתָךְ בַּאֲשֶׁר אַתְּ־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֵיךְ אֶעֱשֶׂה הָרָעָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְחָטָאתִי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;" 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 18.3. and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant." 18.4. Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree." 18.5. And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’" 18.6. And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’" 18.7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it." 18.8. And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat." 18.9. And they said unto him: ‘Where is Sarah thy wife?’ And he said: ‘Behold, in the tent.’" 18.10. And He said: ‘I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh round; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.’ And Sarah heard in the tent door, which was behind him.—" 18.11. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—" 18.12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’" 18.13. And the LORD said unto Abraham: ‘Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old?" 18.14. Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.’" 18.15. Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’" 22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’" 39.9. he is not greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.51, 24.24, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.51. וּבִנְסֹעַ הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וּבַחֲנֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָקִימוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 24.24. וְצִים מִיַּד כִּתִּים וְעִנּוּ אַשּׁוּר וְעִנּוּ־עֵבֶר וְגַם־הוּא עֲדֵי אֹבֵד׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 1.51. And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down; and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death." 24.24. But ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, And they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber, And he also shall come to destruction." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.15. שְׁתֵה־מַיִם מִבּוֹרֶךָ וְנֹזְלִים מִתּוֹךְ בְּאֵרֶךָ׃ 5.15. Drink waters out of thine own cistern, And running waters out of thine own well."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.23. כִּי־עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל־הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה׃ 44.23. Nay, but for Thy sake are we killed all the day; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.13. לִינִי הַלַּיְלָה וְהָיָה בַבֹּקֶר אִם־יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ לְגָאֳלֵךְ וּגְאַלְתִּיךְ אָנֹכִי חַי־יְהוָה שִׁכְבִי עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 3.13. Tarry this night, and it shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well; let him do the kinsman’s part; but if he be not willing to do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do the part of a kinsman to thee, as the LORD liveth; lie down until the morning.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 15.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.19. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־תָּשׁוּב וַאֲשִׁיבְךָ לְפָנַי תַּעֲמֹד וְאִם־תּוֹצִיא יָקָר מִזּוֹלֵל כְּפִי תִהְיֶה יָשֻׁבוּ הֵמָּה אֵלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא־תָשׁוּב אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 15.19. Therefore thus saith the LORD: If thou return, and I bring thee back, Thou shalt stand before Me; And if thou bring forth the precious out of the vile, Thou shalt be as My mouth; Let them return unto thee, But thou shalt not return unto them."
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

59. For these men no longer obey reason as their ruler, but God, the governor of the universe, by whom they are assisted so as to display their energies in actions rather than in words. For when they hear of others doing such and such things, these men, which is a thing most contrary to what one would expect, say that, from some inspiration of God, they will act first and obey afterwards; in order that they may seem to have advanced to good actions, not in consequence of instruction and admonition, but by their own spontaneous and self-taught mind. And then, when they have accomplished these actions, they say that they will obey in order that they may form an opinion of what they have done, as to whether their actions are consistent with the divine injunctions and the sacred admonitions of scripture. XIV.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.299-1.300 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.299. These, then, and other commandments like them, are those which are established for the purpose of promoting piety, by express injunctions and prohibitions. But those which are in accordance with philosophical suggestions and recommendations must be explained in this manner; for the lawgiver, in effect, says, "God, O mind of man! demands nothing of you which is either oppressive, or uncertain, or difficult, but only such things as are very simple and easy. 1.300. And these are, to love him as your benefactor; and if you fail to do so, at all events, to fear him as your Governor and Lord, and to enter zealously upon all the paths which may please him, and to serve him in no careless or superficial manner, but with one's whole soul thoroughly filled as it ought to be with God-loving sentiments, and to cleave to his commandments, and to honour justice, by all which means the world itself continues constantly in the same nature without ever changing, and all other things which are contained in the world have a tendency towards improvement, such as the sun and the moon, and the whole multitude of the rest of the stars, and the entire heaven. But the mountains of the earth are elevated to the greatest possible height, and the champaign country, like other fusible essences, is spread over a body of wide extent, and the sea also changes so as to become united with sweet waters, and the rains also become in their turn similar to the sea. Therefore every one of those things is still fixed within the same boundaries as those within which it was originally created, when it was first disposed of in regular order. But you shall be better, living quite irreproachably.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Mishnah, Avot, 1.3, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: do not be like servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a reward, and let the fear of Heaven be upon you." 4.1. Ben Zoma said:Who is wise? He who learns from every man, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99). Who is mighty? He who subdues his [evil] inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:3). Who is rich? He who rejoices in his lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2) “You shall be happy” in this world, “and you shall prosper” in the world to come. Who is he that is honored? He who honors his fellow human beings as it is said: “For I honor those that honor Me, but those who spurn Me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30)."
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.1, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop." 9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Romans, 8.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.36. Even as it is written, "For your sake we are killed all day long. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter.
18. New Testament, John, 4.14, 7.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water.
19. New Testament, Luke, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
20. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39-5.40, 5.46-5.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
21. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Berachot, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.7. [A person] that sees beautiful people and beautiful trees says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Mi Shekacha Lo Beriot Naot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has such beautiful creations [in His world])."
23. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Niddah, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.2, 39.14, 46.2, 54.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.2. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם (בראשית יב, א), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה פָּתַח (שיר השירים א, ג): לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְמָה הָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל אַפּוֹפִּילְסִימוֹן מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וּמֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית, וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה מִטַּלְטֶלֶת הָיָה רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם. 39.14. וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן (בראשית יב, ה), אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר זִמְרָא אִם מִתְכַּנְסִין כָּל בָּאֵי הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹא אֲפִלּוּ יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לִזְרֹק בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה, וְאַתְּ אָמַר וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ, וְאִם כֵּן שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ לָמָּה אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מְקָרֵב אֶת הָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים וּמְגַיְּרוֹ כְּאִלּוּ בְּרָאוֹ. וְיֹאמַר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים וְשָׂרָה מְגַיֶּרֶת אֶת הַנָּשִׁים. 46.2. לַכֹּל זְמָן וְעֵת לְכָל חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם (קהלת ג, א), זְמַן הָיָה לוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם אֵימָתַי שֶׁנִּתְּנָה לוֹ מִילָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יז, כו): בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ. זְמַן הָיָה לָהֶם לְבָנָיו שֶׁנִּמּוֹלוּ שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, אֶחָד בְּמִצְרַיִם וְאֶחָד בַּמִּדְבָּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ה, ה): כִּי מֻלִּים הָיוּ כָּל הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וגו', וְיִמּוֹל בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמֹנֶה שָׁנָה כְּשֶׁהִכִּיר אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא לִנְעֹל דֶּלֶת בִּפְנֵי הַגֵּרִים. וְאִם תֹּאמַר הָיָה לוֹ לִמּוֹל בֶּן שְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה שָׁנָה, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּדְבַּר עִמּוֹ בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים. אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא יִצְחָק מִטִפָּה קְדוֹשָׁה. וְיִמּוֹל בֶּן שְׁמוֹנִים וְשִׁשָּׁה שָׁנִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנּוֹלַד יִשְׁמָעֵאל. אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ קִנָּמוֹן אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד בָּעוֹלָם, מַה קִּנָּמוֹן הַזֶּה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאַתָּה מְזַבְּלוֹ וּמְעַדְרוֹ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פֵּרוֹת, כָּךְ מִשֶּׁנִּצְרַר דָּמוֹ, מִשֶּׁבָּטַל יִצְרוֹ, מִשֶּׁבָּטְלָה תַּאֲוָתוֹ, מִשֶּׁנִּקְשַׁר דָּמוֹ, אָמַר אִם חֲבִיבָה הִיא הַמִּילָה מִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נִתְּנָה לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. 39.2. (2) \"Adonai said to Avram.\" (Gen. 12:1) R' B'rechia opened: \"Your ointments yield a sweet fragrance, Your name is like finest oil,\" (Song 1:3). Said R' B'rechia, \"To what was Avraham analogized? To a flask of balsam liquid with a closely fitting lid, resting in a corner, and whose aroma was not wafted; once it was moved, its aroma was wafted. Thus said the Holy One, Blessed be He, to Avraham: Move yourself from one place to another, and your name will be enlarged in the world. \"" 39.14. “And the souls that they had made in Haran.” Said Rabbi Elazar ben Zimra: Even if every creature on earth conspired to create (out of nothing) even one mosquito, they could not give it a soul--and you say “the souls that they had made.” Therefore (they must be) they must be those who lived with them and converted. And it it meant “converted” why did it say “made?” In order to teach you that each one who brings an idol worshipper and converts him, it is as though he created him. And why did it say “that they made” rather than “that he made?” Said Rav Huna: Abraham would convert the men, and Sarah would convert the women. " 46.2. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, etc. It is written, To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven (Eccl. 3:1). There was a season when circumcision should be given to Abraham In the self same day was Abraham circumcised (Gen. 17:26); there was a season when his descendants were to neglect it as it is written, For all the people that came out were circumcised; but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, had not been circumcised (Josh, 5:5). Why should he not have circumcised himself at the age of forty-eight, when he recognised his Creator? In order not to discourage proselytes. Then why not be circumcised at the age of eighty-five, when [God] spoke with him between the pieces? In order that Isaac might issue from a holy source. Then let him be circumcised at the age of eighty-six, when Ishmael was born? Said R. Simeon b. Lakish : [God said] : ' I will set up a cinnamon tree in the world: just as the cinnamon tree yields fruit as long as you manure and hoe around it, so [shall Abraham be] even when his blood runs sluggishly and his passions and desires have ceased."
26. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 45, 48, 336 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, 2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. הוגה את השם באותיותיו והיכי עביד הכי והתנן אלו שאין להם חלק לעולם הבא האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואין תחיית המתים מן התורה אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו,להתלמד עבד כדתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות,אלא מאי טעמא אענש משום הוגה את השם בפרהסיא דהוי ועל אשתו להריגה דלא מיחה ביה מכאן אמרו כל מי שיש בידו למחות ואינו מוחה נענש עליו,ועל בתו לישב בקובה של זונות דאמר ר' יוחנן פעם אחת היתה בתו מהלכת לפני גדולי רומי אמרו כמה נאות פסיעותיה של ריבה זו מיד דקדקה בפסיעותיה והיינו דאמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (תהלים מט, ו) עון עקבי יסבני עונות שאדם דש בעקביו בעולם הזה מסובין לו ליום הדין,בשעה שיצאו שלשתן צדקו עליהם את הדין הוא אמר (דברים לב, ד) הצור תמים פעלו [וגו'] ואשתו אמרה (דברים לב, ד) אל אמונה ואין עול בתו אמרה (ירמיהו לב, יט) גדול העצה ורב העליליה אשר עיניך פקוחות על כל דרכי וגו' אמר רבי [כמה] גדולים צדיקים הללו שנזדמנו להן שלש מקראות של צדוק הדין בשעת צדוק הדין,תנו רבנן כשחלה רבי יוסי בן קיסמא הלך רבי חנינא בן תרדיון לבקרו אמר לו חנינא אחי (אחי) אי אתה יודע שאומה זו מן השמים המליכוה שהחריבה את ביתו ושרפה את היכלו והרגה את חסידיו ואבדה את טוביו ועדיין היא קיימת ואני שמעתי עליך שאתה יושב ועוסק בתורה [ומקהיל קהלות ברבים] וספר מונח לך בחיקך,אמר לו מן השמים ירחמו אמר לו אני אומר לך דברים של טעם ואתה אומר לי מן השמים ירחמו תמה אני אם לא ישרפו אותך ואת ספר תורה באש אמר לו רבי מה אני לחיי העולם הבא,אמר לו כלום מעשה בא לידך אמר לו מעות של פורים נתחלפו לי במעות של צדקה וחלקתים לעניים אמר לו אם כן מחלקך יהי חלקי ומגורלך יהי גורלי,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שנפטר רבי יוסי בן קיסמא והלכו כל גדולי רומי לקברו והספידוהו הספד גדול ובחזרתן מצאוהו לרבי חנינא בן תרדיון שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה ומקהיל קהלות ברבים וס"ת מונח לו בחיקו,הביאוהו וכרכוהו בס"ת והקיפוהו בחבילי זמורות והציתו בהן את האור והביאו ספוגין של צמר ושראום במים והניחום על לבו כדי שלא תצא נשמתו מהרה אמרה לו בתו אבא אראך בכך אמר לה אילמלי אני נשרפתי לבדי היה הדבר קשה לי עכשיו שאני נשרף וס"ת עמי מי שמבקש עלבונה של ס"ת הוא יבקש עלבוני,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי מה אתה רואה אמר להן גליון נשרפין ואותיות פורחות אף אתה פתח פיך ותכנס בך האש אמר להן מוטב שיטלנה מי שנתנה ואל יחבל הוא בעצמו,אמר לו קלצטונירי רבי אם אני מרבה בשלהבת ונוטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבך אתה מביאני לחיי העולם הבא אמר לו הן השבע לי נשבע לו מיד הרבה בשלהבת ונטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבו יצאה נשמתו במהרה אף הוא קפץ ונפל לתוך האור,יצאה בת קול ואמרה רבי חנינא בן תרדיון וקלצטונירי מזומנין הן לחיי העולם הבא בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ויש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים,ברוריא דביתהו דר' מאיר ברתיה דר' חנינא בן תרדיון הואי אמרה לו זילא בי מלתא דיתבא אחתאי בקובה של זונות שקל תרקבא דדינרי ואזל אמר אי לא איתעביד בה איסורא מיתעביד ניסא אי עבדה איסורא לא איתעביד לה ניסא,אזל נקט נפשיה כחד פרשא אמר לה השמיעני לי אמרה ליה דשתנא אנא אמר לה מתרחנא מרתח אמרה לו נפישין טובא (ואיכא טובא הכא) דשפירן מינאי אמר ש"מ לא עבדה איסורא כל דאתי אמרה ליה הכי,אזל לגבי שומר דידה א"ל הבה ניהלה אמר ליה מיסתפינא ממלכותא אמר ליה שקול תרקבא דדינרא פלגא פלח ופלגא להוי לך א"ל וכי שלמי מאי איעביד א"ל אימא אלהא דמאיר ענני ומתצלת א"ל 18a. bpronounce theineffable bnameof God bwithall of bits letters,i.e., as it is spelled. The Gemara asks: bAnd how could he do that? But didn’t we learnin the mishna ( iSanhedrin90a): bTheseare the people bwho have no share in the World-to-Come: One who saysthat bthe Torah is not from Heaven orthat bthere is nosource bfrom the Torahfor bthe resurrection of the dead. Abba Shaul says: Also one who pronounces theineffable bnameas it is written, bwithall of bits letters,has no share in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bdid it to teach himself, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the prohibition against sorcery: b“You shall not learn to do”(Deuteronomy 18:9); this indicates: bBut you may learn to understand and to teach.In other words, certain prohibitions do not apply when one is acting only in order to acquire knowledge of the subject.,The Gemara asks: bRather, what is the reasonthat bhe was punished?The Gemara answers: He was punished bbecause he would pronounce theineffable bnameof God bin public,instead of privately. bAnd his wifewas condemned bto executionby decapitation bbecause she did not protest hisdoing so. bFrom herethe Sages bstated: Anyone who has the capability to protesteffectively the sinful conduct of another band does not protest is punished forthat person’s sin.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy was bhis daughtercondemned bto sit in a brothel? As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Once, the daughter ofRabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bwas walking before the nobles of Rome,and they bsaidto each other: bHow pleasant are the steps of this young woman.Upon hearing this, bshe immediately took careto keep walking in such a fashion that bher stepswould continue to be pleasing to them. bAnd this isthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The iniquity of my heel encircles me”(Psalms 49:6)? It means that bthe sins that a person tramples with one’s heel in this world,i.e., dismisses and pays no attention to them as they seem to lack importance, e.g., the way that one walks, come and bencircle him on the Day of Judgment. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen the three of them went outafter being sentenced, bthey accepted thejustice of God’s bjudgment.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid: “The Rock, His work is perfect;for all His ways are justice” (Deuteronomy 32:4). bAnd his wife saidthe continuation of the verse: b“A God of faithfulness and without iniquity.” His daughter said: “Great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open upon all the waysof the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways” (Jeremiah 32:19). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How great are these righteous people, thatthese bthree verses,which speak bofthe bacceptance ofGod’s bjudgment, occurred to them at the time of accepting therighteousness of His bjudgment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma fell ill, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon went to visit him.Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ḥanina my brother, do you not know that this nation has been given reign bya decree from bHeaven?The proof is bthatRome has bdestroyedGod’s bTemple, and burned His Sanctuary, and killed His pious ones, and destroyed His best ones, and it still exists.Evidently, all of this is by Divine decree. bAndyet bI heard about you that you sit and engage in Torahstudy, band convene assemblies in public, and havea Torah bscroll placed in your lap,thereby demonstrating complete disregard for the decrees issued by the Romans.,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: Heaven will have mercyand protect me. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: I am saying reasonable matters to you, and you say to me: Heaven will have mercy? I wonder ifthe Romans bwill not burnboth byou andyour bTorah scroll by fire.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: My teacher, whatwill become of bme?Am I destined bfor life in the World-to-Come? /b,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Did anyspecial bincident occur to youwhich might serve as an indication? Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: I confusedmy own bcoinsthat I needed bforthe festivities of bPurim with coins of charity, and I distributed themall bto the poorat my own expense. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ifthat is bso, may my portion be of your portion, and may my lot be of your lot. /b,The Sages bsaid: Noteven ba few dayspassed bbefore Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma diedof his illness, band all of the Roman notables went to bury him, andthey beulogized himwith ba great eulogy. And upon their return, they found Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon, who was sitting and engaging in Torahstudy band convening assemblies in public, with a Torah scroll placed in his lap. /b, bThey brought himto be sentenced, band wrapped him in the Torah scroll, and encircled him with bundles of branches, and they set fire to it. And they brought tufts of wool and soaked them in water, and placed them on his heart, so that his soul should not leavehis body bquickly,but he would die slowly and painfully. bHis daughter said to him: Father, must I see you like this?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to her: If I alone were being burned, it would be difficult for me,but bnow that I am burning along with a Torah scroll, He who will seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto the Torah scroll will also seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto me. /b, bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, what do you see?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them:I see the bparchment burning, butits bletters are flyingto the heavens. They said to him: bYou too should open your mouth and the fire will enter you,and you will die quickly. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them: It is preferable that He who gaveme my soul bshould take it away, and one should not harm oneselfto speed his death., bThe executioner [ ikaltzatoniri /i] said to him: My teacher, if I increase the flame and take off the tufts of wool from your heart,so that you will die sooner and suffer less, bwill you bring me to the life of the World-to-Come?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid tothe executioner: bYes.The executioner said: bTake an oath for me,that what you say is true. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon btookthe boath for him,and the executioner bimmediately increased the flame and took off the tufts of wool from his heart,causing bhis soulto bleavehis body bquickly.The executioner btoo leaped and fell into the fireand died., bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon and the executioner are destined for the life of the World-to-Come.Upon hearing this, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come bin one moment,such as the executioner, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon.,§ The Gemara relates: bBerurya, the wife of Rabbi Meir, was a daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon. She said toRabbi Meir: bIt is a disrespectful matter for me that my sister is sitting in a brothel;you must do something to save her. Rabbi Meir btook a vessel [ itarkeva /i]full bof dinars and went. He saidto himself: bIf no transgression was committed with her, a miracle will be performedfor her; bif she committed a transgression, no miracle will be performed for her. /b,Rabbi Meir bwent and dressed asa Roman bknight,and bsaid to her: Accede to mywishes, i.e., engage in intercourse with me. bShe said to him: I am menstruating [ idashtana /i]and cannot. bHe said to her: I will wait. She said to him: There are manywomen in the brothel, band there are manywomen bhere who are more beautiful than I. He saidto himself: I can bconclude fromher responses that bshe did not commit a transgression,as bshepresumably bsaid this to all who come. /b, bRabbi Meir went over to her guard,and bsaid to him: Give herto me. The guard bsaid to him: I fearthat if I do so, I will be punished bby the government.Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Takethis bvesselfull bof dinars; give half to the government as a bribe, band half will be for you.The guard bsaid to him: But whenthe money bis finished, what shall I do?Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Say: God of Meir answer me! And you will be saved.The guard bsaid to him: /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. קצוצי תפילין נמצאו בראשי הרוגי ביתר רבי ינאי ברבי ישמעאל אמר שלש קופות של ארבעים ארבעים סאה במתניתא תנא ארבעים קופות של שלש שלש סאין,ולא פליגי הא דרישא הא דדרעא,אמר רבי אסי ארבעה קבין מוח נמצאו על אבן אחת עולא אמר תשעת קבין אמר רב כהנא ואיתימא שילא בר מרי מאי קראה (תהלים קלז, ח) בת בבל השדודה אשרי שישלם לך וגו' אשרי שיאחז ונפץ את עולליך אל הסלע:,(איכה ד, ב) בני ציון היקרים המסולאים בפז מאי מסולאים בפז אילימא דהוו מחפי בפיזא והאמרי דבי רבי שילא תרתי מתקלי איסתירי פיזא נחות בעלמא חדא ברומי וחדא בכולי עלמא אלא שהיו מגנין את הפז ביופיין,מעיקרא חשיבי דרומאי הוו נקטי בליונא דגושפנקא ומשמשי ערסייהו מכאן ואילך מייתו בני ישראל ואסרי בכרעי דפורייהו ומשמשי,אמר ליה חד לחבריה הא היכא כתיבא אמר ליה (דברים כח, סא) גם כל חלי וכל מכה אשר לא כתוב בספר התורה הזאת אמר כמה מרחיקנא מדוכתא פלן אמר ליה אינגד פוסתא ופלגא אמר ליה אי מטאי לגביה לא איצטריכי לך,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל משום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מאי דכתיב (איכה ג, נא) עיני עוללה לנפשי מכל בנות עירי ארבע מאות בתי כנסיות היו בכרך ביתר ובכל אחת ואחת היו בה ארבע מאות מלמדי תינוקות וכל אחד ואחד היו לפניו ארבע מאות תינוקות של בית רבן,וכשהיה אויב נכנס לשם היו דוקרין אותן בחוטריהן וכשגבר אויב ולכדום כרכום בספריהם והציתום באש:,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יהושע בן חנניה שהלך לכרך גדול שברומי אמרו לו תינוק אחד יש בבית האסורים יפה עינים וטוב רואי וקווצותיו סדורות לו תלתלים הלך ועמד על פתח בית האסורים אמר (ישעיהו מב, כד) מי נתן למשיסה יעקב וישראל לבוזזים ענה אותו תינוק ואמר הלא ה' זו חטאנו לו ולא אבו בדרכיו הלוך ולא שמעו בתורתו,אמר מובטחני בו שמורה הוראה בישראל העבודה שאיני זז מכאן עד שאפדנו בכל ממון שפוסקין עליו אמרו לא זז משם עד שפדאו בממון הרבה ולא היו ימים מועטין עד שהורה הוראה בישראל ומנו רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מעשה בבנו ובבתו של ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע שנשבו לשני אדונים לימים נזדווגו שניהם במקום אחד זה אומר יש לי עבד שאין כיופיו בכל העולם וזה אומר יש לי שפחה שאין בכל העולם כולו כיופיה,אמרו בוא ונשיאם זה לזה ונחלק בוולדות הכניסום לחדר זה ישב בקרן זוית זה וזו ישבה בקרן זוית זה זה אומר אני כהן בן כהנים גדולים אשא שפחה וזאת אומרת אני כהנת בת כהנים גדולים אנשא לעבד ובכו כל הלילה,כיון שעלה עמוד השחר הכירו זה את זה ונפלו זה על זה וגעו בבכיה עד שיצאה נשמתן ועליהן קונן ירמיה (איכה א, טז) על אלה אני בוכיה עיני עיני יורדה מים,אמר ריש לקיש מעשה באשה אחת וצפנת בת פניאל שמה צפנת שהכל צופין ביופיה בת פניאל בתו של כהן גדול ששימש לפני ולפנים,שנתעלל בה שבאי כל הלילה למחר הלבישה שבעה חלוקים והוציאה למוכרה בא אדם אחד שהיה מכוער ביותר אמר לו הראני את יופיה אמר לו ריקא אם אתה רוצה ליקח קח שאין כיופיה בכל העולם כולו,אמר לו אף על פי כן הפשיטה ששה חלוקים ושביעי קרעתה ונתפלשה באפר אמרה לפניו רבונו של עולם אם עלינו לא חסת על קדושת שמך הגבור למה לא תחוס,ועליה קונן ירמיה (ירמיהו ו, כו) בת עמי חגרי שק והתפלשי באפר אבל יחיד עשי לך מספד תמרורים כי פתאום יבא השודד עלינו עליך לא נאמר אלא עלינו כביכול עלי ועליך בא שודד,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (מיכה ב, ב) ועשקו גבר וביתו ואיש ונחלתו מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשת רבו ושוליא דנגרי הוה,פעם אחת הוצרך (רבו) ללות אמר לו שגר אשתך אצלי ואלונה שיגר אשתו אצלו שהה עמה שלשה ימים קדם ובא אצלו אמר לו אשתי ששיגרתי לך היכן היא אמר לו אני פטרתיה לאלתר ושמעתי שהתינוקות נתעללו בה בדרך,אמר לו מה אעשה אמר לו אם אתה שומע לעצתי גרשה אמר לו כתובתה מרובה אמר לו אני אלווך ותן לה כתובתה עמד זה וגרשה הלך הוא ונשאה,כיון שהגיע זמנו ולא היה לו לפורעו אמר לו בא ועשה עמי בחובך והיו הם יושבים ואוכלים ושותין והוא היה עומד ומשקה עליהן והיו דמעות נושרות מעיניו ונופלות בכוסיהן ועל אותה שעה נתחתם גזר דין ואמרי לה על שתי פתילות בנר אחד:,לקח מן הסיקריקון וכו': אמר רב לא שנו אלא דאמר לו לך חזק וקני אבל בשטר קנה ושמואל אמר אף בשטר נמי לא קנה עד שיכתוב לו אחריות 58a. bof phylactery boxes were found on the heads of those killed in Beitar. Rabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, says:There were found bthree large basketseach holding bforty ise’a /iof phylactery boxes. And bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There were bforty large basketseach holding bthree ise’a /i. /b,The Gemara notes: bAndthese Sages bdo not disagree: ThisSage is referring to phylacteries bof the head,whereas bthisSage is referring to phylacteries bof the arm,for owing to the different manners in which they are fashioned, they are also different in size., bRabbi Asi says: Four ikavof brainsfrom children whose skulls were smashed bwere found on one stone. Ulla says: Nine ikav /i. Rav Kahana said, and some saythat it was bSheila bar Mariwho said: bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived? b“O daughter of Babylon, marked for devastation; happy is he who shall repay youyour recompense for what you have done to us. bHappy is he who shall seize and dash your little ones against the rock”(Psalms 137:8–9).,§ The verse states: b“The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold”(Lamentations 4:2). bWhatis the meaning of the expression b“comparable to fine gold”? If we say thatit means bthey were covered in fine gold [ ipiza /i],this is difficult; bbut didn’t the school of Rabbi Sheila say: Two iistiraweights of fine gold came down into the world, one in Rome and one in allthe rest of bthe world.If so, it is certainly impossible to cover the inhabitants of Jerusalem with fine gold, as there is not enough of it in the entire world to do so. bRather,this means that they would be so attractive bthat they would disgrace fine gold because of their beauty. /b,The Gemara relates that binitially the noblemen of Rome would keep an imageimprinted bon a sealby their beds band engage in sexual intercourseopposite that image, so that they would beget children of similar beauty. bFrom thispoint bforward,from the time of the Great Revolt, bthey would bring Jewish children, tie them to the foot of their beds, and engage in sexual intercourseacross from them, because they were so handsome.,It is related that it once happened that they did this to two children, and boneof them bsaid to the other: Where is thisaffliction bwrittenin the Torah? The other bsaid to him:As it is written: b“Also every sickness, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this Torah”(Deuteronomy 28:61). The first one bsaid: How far am Iin my studies bfrom this,i.e., how much more would I have had to learn in order to reach this verse? The other bsaid: Had you gone on one and a half columns [ ipusta /i],you would have reached this. The first child bsaid tothe other: bHad I reached thisverse, bI would not have needed you,as I would have known on my own that the verse was speaking about this., bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “My eye affects my soul because of all the daughters of my city”(Lamentations 3:51)? bThere were four hundred synagogues in the city of Beitar, and in each and every one of them there were four hundred schoolteachers, and each and every oneof these teachers bhad four hundred schoolchildren. /b, bAnd when the enemy entered there,these schoolchildren bstabbed them with their pens [ ibeḥotreihen /i]. And when the enemy prevailed and caught them, they wrappedthe children bin their scrolls and lit them on fire. /b, bThe Sages taughtanother ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iHorayot2:5) relating to the fate of the Jewish children: There was ban incident involving Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya whoonce bwent to the great city of Rome,where bthey said to him: There is a child in prisonwith bbeautiful eyesand ban attractive appearance, and his curly hair is arranged in locks.Rabbi Yehoshua bwent and stood by the entrance to the prison. He said,as if speaking to himself: b“Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers?”(Isaiah 42:24). bThat child answered by recitingthe continuation of the verse: b“Did not the Lord, He against Whom we have sinned, and in Whose ways they would not walk, neither were they obedient to His law?” /b,Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid: I am certain that,if given the opportunity, bthischild will bissuehalakhic brulings in Israel,as he is already exceedingly wise. He said: I take an oath bby the Temple service that I will not move from here until I ransom him for whateversum of bmoney they set for him. They saidthat bhe did not move from there until he ransomed him for a greatsum of bmoney, and noteven ba few dayshad passed when this child then bissuedhalakhic brulings in Israel. And who wasthis child? This was bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:There was ban incident involving the son and the daughter of Rabbi Yishmael ben Elishathe High Priest, bwho were taken captiveand sold into slavery bto twodifferent bmasters. After some timethe two masters bmet in a certain place. Thismaster bsaid: I have a male slave whose beauty is unmatched in all of the world, and thatmaster bsaid: I have a female slave whose beauty is unmatched in all of the world. /b,The two masters bsaid: Come, let us marrythese two slaves bto one another and divide the childrenborn to them between us, as they will certainly be very beautiful. They secluded them in a room. bThisone, the son, bsat in one corner, and thatone, the daughter, bsat in the other corner. He said: I am a priestand bthe descendant of High Priests. Shall I marry a female slave? And she said: I am the daughter of a priestand bthe descendant of High Priests. Shall I be married to a male slave? And they wept allthrough the bnight. /b, bWhen dawn arrived they recognized each otherand saw that they were brother and sister. bThey fell on each other and burst into tears until their souls departeddue to their great distress. bAnd with regard to themand others like them, bJeremiah lamented: “For these things I weep; my eye, my eye runs down with water”(Lamentations 1:16)., bReish Lakish says:There was ban incident involving a certain woman named Tzafenat bat Peniel.And why was she called this? She was called bTzafenatbecause bthey would all gaze [ itzofin /i] at her beauty,and she was called bbat Penielbecause she was bthe daughter [ ibat /i] of the High Priest who served in the innermost sanctum [ ilifnai velefnim /i]of the Temple.,And it happened that she was taken captive and bher captor abusedand raped bher all night. The next day he dressed her in seven garments and took her out to sell her. A certain man who was especially ugly cameand bsaid tothe man who was selling her: bShow me her beauty. He said to him: Good-for-nothing, if you wish to buyher then bbuyher, bfor there is no beauty like hers in all of the world. /b,The potential buyer bsaid tothe seller: bEven so,I wish to see for myself. bHe removedthe bsixoutermost bgarments, and sheherself btore the seventh, and rolled in ashes. She said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,even bif You have shown no pity to us,and have allowed us to be disgraced in this way, bwhy have You not shown pity to the sanctity of Your mighty nameby which we are called?, bAnd with regard to herand others like her, bJeremiah lamented: “O daughter of My people, gird yourself with sackcloth and roll in ashes; make you mourning as for an only son, most bitter lamentation, for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us”(Jeremiah 6:26). bIt is not stated: Upon you, butrather b“upon us,”for bthe spoiler shall come, as it were,both bover Me and over you.God Himself shares this pain and His name is also disgraced.,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And they covet fields, and take them by violence; and houses, and take them away; bso they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage”(Micah 2:2)? There was ban incident involving a certain man who set his eyes on his master’s wife, and he was a carpenter’s apprentice [ ishulya /i]. /b, bOne time his master needed to borrowsome money, and his apprentice bsaid to him: Send your wife to me and I will lend herthe money. bHe sent his wife to him,and the apprentice bstayed with her for three days. Hethen bwent back tohis master bbeforeshe did, and the master bsaid to him: Where is my wife whom I sent to you?The apprentice bsaid to him: I sent herback bimmediately, but I heard that the youth abusedand raped bher on the way. /b,The master bsaid tohis apprentice: bWhat shall I do?The apprentice bsaid to him: If you listen to my advice, divorce her. He said to him:But bher marriage contract is largeand I do not have the money to pay it. The apprentice bsaid to him: I will lend youthe money, and byou will give herpayment of bher marriage contract.The master barose and divorced her,and the apprentice bwent and married her. /b, bWhen the time camethat the debt was due, band he did not havethe means with which bto repay it,the apprentice bsaid tohis master: bCome and work off your debt with me. And they,the apprentice and his wife, bwould sit and eat and drink, while he,the woman’s first husband, bwould standover them band serve them their drinks. And tears would drop from his eyes and fall into their cups, and at that timethe Jewish people’s bsentence was sealed,for remaining silent in the face of this injustice. bAnd some saythat the Jewish people were punished bfor two wicks in one lamp,a euphemism for the sin of adultery committed by this couple while the master was still married to the woman.,The Gemara returns to the mishna, which states: If bonefirst bpurchasedland bfrom a Sicarius,and afterward returned and purchased the same field from the prior landowner, so that he will be considered the legal owner of the field, his purchase is void. bRav says: They taughtthat the purchase is void bonlyin a case where the prior owner bsays tothe buyer when he came to acquire the field from him: bGo, take possessionof the field bandthereby bacquireit, as in such a case the prior owner can say that he did not actually mean to sell him the field. bButif he sold it to him bwith a billof sale, the buyer bacquiresthe field. bAnd Shmuel says: Evenif he sold it to him bwith a billof sale, the buyer bdoes not acquireit bunlessthe prior owner bwrites him a guaranteethat if the field is repossessed by a creditor of the prior owner, the prior owner, who sold him the field, will compensate him for his loss, as by writing this guarantee he demonstrates that this is a true sale.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81b. bSit properlyand do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then bsaid to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it intothe cup. bThey berated himfor acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to bsinkdown band die. They heardpeople around them bsaying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man!Peleimu bfled and hid himself in the bathroom.Satan bfollowed himand bfell before him. Upon seeing thatPeleimu bwas suffering, he revealed himself to him.Satan bsaid to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way,provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: bBut what then should I say?Satan bsaid to him: Let the Master,i.e., Peleimu, bsay:Let bthe Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his facein prayer: bMay the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard himsaying this prayer. bShe said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn fromengaging in intercourse with bmedue to his advanced years. bWhat is the reason that he says thisprayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, bOne day,while bhe was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta,a well-known prostitute, breturning from my dayat work. bHe propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the treeas payment. bHe leapt up, went,and bbrought it to her,and they engaged in intercourse., bWhen he came home, his wife was lightinga fire in the boven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incidentoccurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. bShe said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her,thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, buntil she gave him signsthat it was indeed she. bHe said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress.The Gemara relates: bAll the days of that righteous man he would fastfor the transgression he intended to commit, buntil he died by that deathin his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitaconcerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b“Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her”(Numbers 30:13). bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking?Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring bto a woman who vowedto bbe a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified hervow. bAnd she did not know that her husband had nullified hervow, band she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse,violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And ifwith regard to bone who intended to eat pork, andkosher blamb came up in his hand,like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, bthe Torahnevertheless bsays: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more sodoes bone who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his handrequire atonement and forgiveness., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”(Leviticus 5:17). bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry.He said: bAnd ifwith regard to bone who intended to eatpermitted bfat, andforbidden bfatmistakenly bcame up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more sois this true for bone who intended to eatforbidden bfat andforbidden bfat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda sayswith regard to the verse b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve,since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that ba man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughterin a permanent arrangement, without concern. bWhen he said this before Shmuel,the latter bsaid: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal,as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., bWe learnedin the mishna: bA man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, andthis appears to be ba conclusive refutation ofthe statement of bShmuel.The Gemara answers: bShmuelcould have bsaid to you: And according to your reasoning,how should one explain bthat which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bhis sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden,including his mother and daughter, bone may be secluded with them onlyin the presence bof witnesses,from which it can be inferred: In the presence bof witnesses, yes; withoutthe presence bof witnesses, no.This ibaraitasupports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., bRather,it bisa dispute between itanna’im /ias to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter,i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, bRabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked himfor being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. bRabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbledinto sin bwith his mother-in-law. /b,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone beven with an animal.The Gemara relates: bAbaye removedthe animals bfrom the entire fieldhe was in. bRav Sheshet transferredthe animals to the other side bof the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happenedto come bto Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw thathe bwas sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him.Rav Ḥa bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master holdthat one may not be secluded beven with an animal?Rav Kahana bsaid to him: Itdid bnotenter bmy mindthat an animal was before me., bRava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives,i.e., two women who share a husband; bwith a woman and her mother-in-law;and bwith a woman and her husband’s daughter.Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded bwith a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse,i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, bbutis still young enough that bshe does not submit herself to intercourse,since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that bwhenone’s children bhave grown up, this one sleeps in his garmentand that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: bAnd howold must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this ihalakha /i? bRav Adda bar Rav Azza saysthat bRav Asi says: A girlmust reach the bageof bnine years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day. There arethose bwho say: A girlmust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof bthirteenyears band one day. Andaccording to bthis and that,according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child buntilshe has reached the stage of: b“Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown”(Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., bRafram bar Pappa saysthat bRav Ḥisda says: They taughtthat a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter bonly if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, butif she is bashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibitedfor him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. bWhat is the reason?It is that the binclination has a hold upon her,as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: bRav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap.Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master think that shemight already be bbetrothed?Rav Aḥa bsaid to him:If that is true, byou have transgressedthe ruling bof Rav, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some sayit was said by bRabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I wantto marry bso-and-so,as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: bThe Master has likewise transgressedthe words bof Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman,so how can you hold her on your lap? bHe said to him: I hold in accordance with anotherstatement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. מתני' דלא כי האי תנא דתניא רבי נתן אומר בש"א נדור ונזיר וב"ה אומרים נדור ואין נזיר ב"ש סברי לה כר"מ וכר' יהודה וב"ה סברי לה כרבי יוסי,לישנא אחרינא אמרי לה רבי נתן אומר בית שמאי אומרים נדור ואינו נזיר ובית הלל אומרים לא נדור ולא נזיר ב"ש כרבי יהודה וב"ה כר"ש,תנן התם האומר הרי עלי מנחה להביא מן השעורים יביא מן החיטים קמח יביא סולת שלא בשמן ולבונה יביאנה בשמן ולבונה חצי עשרון יביא עשרון שלם עשרון ומחצה יביא שנים ר"ש פוטר שלא התנדב כדרך המתנדבים,מאן תנא דכי אמר הרי עלי מנחה מן השעורים מביא מן החיטים אמר חזקיה במחלוקת שנויה וב"ש היא לאו אמרי ב"ש כי אמר מן הגרוגרות ומן הדבילה הוי נזיר הכי נמי כי אמר מן השעורין מביא מן החיטים,ורבי יוחנן אמר אפילו תימא דברי הכל באומר אילו הייתי יודע שאין נודרין כך לא נדרתי כך אלא כך,אמר חזקיה לא שנו אלא שאמר מן השעורים אבל אמר מן העדשים לא מייתי ולא כלום,מכדי חזקיה כמאן מוקים לה למתני' כבית שמאי והא עדשים לגבי מנחה כגרוגרות לגבי נזיר דמו וקאמרי בית שמאי הוי נזיר הדר ביה חזקיה,ואמאי הדר ביה אמר רבא מתני' קשיתיה מאי איריא דתני מן השעורים ליתני מן העדשים אלא סבר חזקיה כי קאמרי ב"ש התם כרבי יהודה,ורבי יוחנן אמר אפילו מן העדשים והא רבי יוחנן הוא דאמר באומר אילו הייתי יודע שאין נודרין כך לא נדרתי כך אלא כך לדבריו דחזקיה הוא דקאמר,את מ"ט קא הדרת בך משום דלא קתני מן העדשים דלמא לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעי' כי אמר מעדשים דמייתי מנחה מעלייתא דאיכא למימר מיהדר הוא דהדר ביה ותפוס לשון ראשון אלא כי אמר מן השעורין ודאי דהכי קאמר אי קדשה כמנחת העומר 9b. § The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan saysthat if one says: I am hereby a nazirite and therefore will refrain from dried figs, bBeit Shammai say:He has rendered dried figs bforbiddento himself bby a vow, andhe is also ba nazirite; and Beit Hillel say:He has rendered dried figs bforbiddento himself bby a vow, buthe is bnot a nazirite.According to Rabbi Natan, bBeit Shammai hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meirthat a person does not utter statements for naught and that he becomes a nazirite as soon as he says: I am hereby a nazirite; bandhe explains the opinion of Beit Shammai bas Rabbi Yehudadoes, i.e., that one in this situation has vowed that dried figs are forbidden to him, since the rest of his statement also has significance. bAnd Beit Hillel hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoseithat one is held to the conclusion of his statement, and he has therefore vowed that dried figs are forbidden to him., bSome say a different versionof the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan saysthat bBeit Shammai say:He has rendered dried figs bforbiddento himself bby a vow and he is not a nazirite; and Beit Hillel say:He has bnotrendered dried figs bforbiddento himself bby a vow, andhe is bnot a nazirite.According to this version, the opinion of bBeit Shammai is as Rabbi Yehudaexplained in the mishna, band Beit Hillel hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon,who maintains that a donation not performed in the manner typical of donors is not a donation.,§ The Gemara discusses a case mentioned earlier. bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iMenaḥot103a): With regard to bone who says: It isincumbent bupon me to bring a meal-offering from barley,since voluntary meal-offerings are made only with wheat bhe must bringa meal-offering bfrom wheat.If one vows to bring a meal-offering from bflour,since a standard meal-offering is made from fine flour bhe must bringone from bfine flour.If one vows to bring a meal-offering bwithout oil and frankincense, he must bring it with oil and frankincense,in accordance with the ihalakha /i. If one vows to bring a meal-offering with bhalf of a tenthof an ephah of fine flour, bhe must bringa meal-offering with ba full tenth,since a meal-offering cannot have less than one-tenth of an ephah of flour. If one vows to bring a meal-offering with ba tenth and a half, he brings twounits of a tenth of an ephah in his meal-offering. Since half of one-tenth of an ephah is the minimum, his vow is increased to two full tenths. bRabbi Shimon exemptshim entirely in all these cases, bas he did not donate in the mannertypical bof donors. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhois the itannawho btaught that when one said: It isincumbent bupon meto bring ba meal-offering from barley, he bringsa meal-offering bfrom wheat? Ḥizkiyya saidthat this ihalakha bis taught as a disputebetween itanna’im /i, band it isthe opinion of bBeit Shammai.He explains: bDidn’t Beit Shammai say that when one said:I am hereby a nazirite and therefore will refrain bfrom dried figs and from cakes of dried figs, he is a nazirite,indicating that he is held to only the first part of his statement, and the conflicting details are ignored? bSo too, when he saidthat he will bring a meal-offering bfrom barley, he bringsit bfrom wheat,and the same analysis applies to the other cases listed in this mishna., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Youcan beven saythat ball,including Beit Hillel, bagreewith the opinion of the Rabbis of the mishna, as the mishna may be stated bwith regard to one wholater bsays,to clarify his earlier statement: bHad I known that one cannot vow in this manner,that one cannot bring a voluntary meal-offering from barley, bI would not have vowed that way, only this way,to bring a meal-offering from wheat. Mentioning barley was an error on his part rather than a condition, and he actually meant to bring a standard meal-offering. In this case even Beit Hillel, who maintain in the mishna here that there is no vow at all, deem him liable to bring a proper meal-offering.,With regard to this ruling bḤizkiyya says: They taughtthat he must bring a meal-offering from wheat bonly if he saidthat he will bring a meal-offering bfrom barley. Butif bhe saidhe will bring a meal-offering bfrom lentils, he does not bring anything.The difference is that the meal-offerings of the iomerand of a isotaare made from barley, so if he said: From barley, he may have mistakenly believed that a voluntary meal-offering can be prepared from barley as well. As everyone knows that no meal-offering is made from lentils, his statement demonstrates that he never intended to bring a meal-offering.,The Gemara asks: bNowconsider, bin accordance with whoseopinion bdoes Ḥizkiyya establish the mishnain iMenaḥot /i? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bBeit Shammai. But lentils relative to a meal-offering are comparable to dried figs relative to a nazirite,as everyone is likewise aware that one cannot be a nazirite and therefore refrain from figs, bandyet bBeit Shammai say he is a nazirite.Why not say that one who vows to bring a meal-offering from lentils is obligated to bring a standard meal-offering? The Gemara answers: bḤizkiyya retracted from itand no longer holds that the mishna in iMenaḥotis in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why did hein fact bretract from it? Rava said:The bmishna caused him difficultyand demonstrated his error. If the mishna is in accordance with Beit Shammai’s opinion with regard to a nazirite, bwhy doesthe itanna bspecifically teachthe case of one who says that he will bring a meal-offering bfrom barley? Let him teacha greater novelty, i.e., that even one who vowed to bring a meal-offering bfrom lentilsis obligated to bring a meal-offering made from wheat. bRather, Ḥizkiyya holdsthat bwhen Beit Shammai statedtheir opinion bthere,i.e., in the mishna with regard to a nazirite, their intention was basexplained by bRabbi Yehuda,that one’s statement is interpreted to be meaningful and it can have the meaning of creating a vow that dried figs are forbidden to him. In the case of the meal-offering, even they agree that since one’s vow has no meaning, as there cannot be a meal-offering made of lentils, no vow takes effect., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Evenone who vowed to bring a meal-offering bfrom lentilsmust bring a meal-offering from wheat. The Gemara asks: bBut Rabbi Yoḥa is he who saidthat the mishna is referring to a case of one bwho says: Had I known that one cannot vow in this manner, I would not have vowed that way, only this way?In the case of the lentils, it is not reasonable to say that he erred in thinking that one may vow to bring a meal-offering from lentils. The Gemara answers: bHe statedthis ruling bin accordance with the statement of Ḥizkiyya.Rabbi Yoḥa was not stating his own opinion; he was challenging the ruling of Ḥizkiyya.,The Gemara explains his challenge: bWhat is the reason you retractedyour earlier opinion that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? You did so bbecause it does not teach: From lentils.That is not conclusive, as bperhaps it is speakingutilizing the style of: bIt is not necessary,as follows: bIt is not necessaryto say that bwhen one says:It is incumbent upon me to bring a meal-offering bfrom lentils, that he brings a proper meal-offeringof wheat. In that situation bit can be saidthat by saying: From lentils, bhe is retractinghis first statement and now wants to rescind his vow. bAndyet Beit Shammai hold that he is bheld to the firstpart of his bstatement,and they do not allow the rescinding of a vow of consecration. bBut if he said:It is incumbent upon me to bring a meal-offering bfrom barley,since it is possible to explain that bcertainly this is what he said: Ifthis meal-offering that I have vowed to bring from barley bis consecrated like the iomermeal-offering, /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. קרוב להאכיל את ישראל קדשים בחוץ מקולס אין שאין מקולס לא אמרי מקולס לא שנא אמר לא שנא לא אמר שאינו מקולס פירש אין לא פירש לא,רב אחא מתני לה להא מתני' כר' שמעון מתקיף לה רב ששת בשלמא למאן דתני לה כרבי יוסי ניחא אלא למאן דמתני כר' שמעון מי ניחא,והתנן רבי שמעון פוטר שלא התנדב כדרך המתנדבים,אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ומאן דמתני לה כר' יוסי מי ניחא והאמר רבא רבי שמעון בשיטת רבי יוסי אמרה דאמר אף בגמר דבריו אדם נתפס,מאי לאו מדרבי שמעון סבר לה כר' יוסי רבי יוסי נמי סבר לה כרבי שמעון לא רבי שמעון סבר לה כר' יוסי ולא רבי יוסי סבר לה כר' שמעון,איבעיא להו תודוס איש רומי גברא רבה הוה או בעל אגרופין הוה,ת"ש עוד זו דרש תודוס איש רומי מה ראו חנניה מישאל ועזריה שמסרו [עצמן] על קדושת השם לכבשן האש,נשאו קל וחומר בעצמן מצפרדעים ומה צפרדעים שאין מצווין על קדושת השם כתיב בהו (שמות ז, כח) ובאו [ועלו] בביתך [וגו'] ובתנוריך ובמשארותיך אימתי משארות מצויות אצל תנור הוי אומר בשעה שהתנור חם אנו שמצווין על קדושת השם על אחת כמה וכמה,רבי יוסי בר אבין אמר מטיל מלאי לכיס של תלמידי חכמים היה דאמר ר' יוחנן כל המטיל מלאי לכיס תלמידי חכמים זוכה ויושב בישיבה של מעלה שנא' (קהלת ז, יב) כי בצל החכמה בצל הכסף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מקום שנהגו להדליק את הנר בלילי יום הכפורים מדליקין מקום שנהגו שלא להדליק אין מדליקין ומדליקין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות ובמבואות האפלים ועל גבי החולים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא בין שאמרו להדליק ובין שאמרו שלא להדליק שניהן לדבר אחד נתכוונו אמר רב יהושע דרש רבא (ישעיהו ס, כא) ועמך כלם צדיקים לעולם יירשו ארץ וגו' בין שאמרו להדליק ובין שאמרו שלא להדליק שניהם לא נתכוונו אלא לדבר אחד,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחלת ברייתו הוא אמר ליה ההוא סבא ואיתימא רבה בר בר חנה ישר וכן אמר רבי יוחנן עולא הוה רכיב חמרא ואזיל והוה שקיל ואזיל רבי אבא מימיניה ורבה בר בר חנה משמאליה אמר ליה רבי אבא לעולא ודאי דאמריתו משמיה דרבי יוחנן אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחלת ברייתו הוא,הדר עולא חזא ביה ברבה בר בר חנה בישות א"ל אנא לאו אהא אמרי אלא אהא אמרי דתני תנא קמיה דרבי יוחנן ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשבת אף במקום שאמרו שלא להדליק מדליקין מפני כבוד השבת ועני רבי יוחנן בתריה וחכמים אוסרים א"ל עדא תהא,קרי עליה רב יוסף (משלי כ, ה) מים עמוקים עצה בלב איש 53b. Doing so bis akin to feeding Jews consecratedmeat boutsidethe permitted area, as due to its resemblance to the Paschal lamb it could be misleading. The Gemara analyzes this statement: A goat broasted whole, yes,it is prohibited; a goat bnot roasted whole, no,it is not prohibited. This contradicts Rav, who prohibited roasting even ordinary meat. The Sages bsaythat this is the distinction: With regard to a goat broasted whole, there is no differenceif bone saidit is for Passover, and bthere is no differenceif one bdid not sayit is for Passover. In either case, it looks like a sacrifice and it is prohibited. With regard to a goat bnot roasted whole,if bone specifiedthat it is for Passover, byes,it is prohibited because it appears that he is consecrating it as a sacrifice. However, if bone did not specifythat it is for Passover, bno,it is not prohibited, as there is no need for concern., bRav Aḥa teaches this ibaraita /iabout Theodosius bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon. Rav Sheshet strongly objected to this: Granted,according bto the one who learns it in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,it works out bwell. However,according bto the one who teachesit bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, doesit work out bwell? Didn’twe blearnin a mishna about a dispute with regard to one who consecrated an item for a purpose for which it was unsuited, e.g., a case where one sought to bring a meal-offering of barley, although meal-offerings may be brought only from wheat? In that case, the Rabbis say he is required to bring a meal-offering of wheat because in the first part of his statement he vowed to bring a meal-offering., bRabbi Shimon exemptshim from any obligation, as in his opinion, bhe did not donate in the mannertypical bof donors.In other words, Rabbi Shimon relates to the statement: A meal-offering of barley, as a single entity. Since no meal-offering of that kind exists, one is not required to bring an offering at all. Similarly, with regard to Passover, since one can consecrate only a living animal as a sacrifice and cannot consecrate meat as a sacrifice, if one declares: This meat is for Passover, it is in no way similar to consecrating an animal, and the meat has no sanctity., bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Andaccording to bthe one who teaches it in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, doesit work out bwell? Didn’t Rava say:With regard to a meal-offering of barley, bRabbi Shimon statedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei,who bsaid: A person is also heldaccountable bfor the conclusion of his statement.The Sages disagreed with regard to the ihalakhotof consecration in a case where one consecrates an animal for two objectives in the same statement, e.g., as both a burnt-offering and a peace-offering. According to Rabbi Meir, one is held accountable for the beginning of his statement. Since he mentioned the burnt-offering first, the animal assumes the status of a burnt-offering. However, Rabbi Yosei says that one’s entire statement is significant, and that the animal is consecrated for two sacrifices. The owner must wait until the animal becomes blemished, redeem it, and use the money to purchase a burnt-offering and a peace-offering. Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with Rabbi Yosei’s opinion concerning a barley meal-offering. He maintains that one is held accountable not only for his first expression, i.e., that it is a meal-offering, but also for his second expression, i.e., that it is of barley. In that case, the second part of his statement negates the first part., bWhat, is it notconcluded bfromthe fact bthat Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, Rabbi Yoseialso bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon,that if one did not donate in the manner typical of donors, his act is meaningless? If that is the case, then any difficulty for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon would be similarly difficult for the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara rejects this: bNo, although Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, Rabbi Yosei does not hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages with regard to the above incident. bWas Theodosius of Rome a great manin terms of his Torah scholarship, and the Sages refrained from ostracizing him in deference to the Torah that he studied? bOr, was he a violent manwho could not be punished due to his local influence?, bComeand bhear: This was also taught by Theodosius of Rome: What did Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah see thatled them to bdeliver themselves to the fiery furnace for sanctification of the nameof God during the rule of Nebuchadnezzar rather than worship idols under duress?, bThey drew an ia fortioriinference on their own fromthe plague of bfrogsin Egypt. With regard to bfrogs, which are not commanded concerning the sanctification of the nameof God, bit is written:“And the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up band come into your house,and into your bedchamber, and onto your bed, and into the houses of your servants, and upon your people, band into their ovens and kneading bowls”(Exodus 7:28). bWhen are kneading bowls found near the oven? You must say thatit is bwhen the oven is hot.If in fulfilling the command to harass the Egyptians, the frogs entered burning ovens, ball the more so, we, who are commanded concerning the sanctification of the nameof God, should deliver ourselves to be killed in the fiery furnace for that purpose. Apparently, Theodosius taught Torah in public, which indicates that he was a great man., bRabbi Yosei bar Avin said:Theodosius bwasone who bcastthe profits from bmerchandise into the purse of Torah scholars.He would lend them money and enter into partnership with them so they could open businesses, and that is praiseworthy, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who casts merchandise into the purse of Torah scholars is rewarded and sits in the heavenly academy, as it is stated: “For in the shadow of wisdom, is the shadow of money”(Ecclesiastes 7:12). One who provides Torah scholars with money will merit being with them in the shadow of wisdom., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna discusses additional differences between local customs. In ba place wherepeople bwere accustomed to kindle a lampin the house bon Yom Kippur evenings, one kindlesit. In ba place wherepeople bwere accustomed not to kindlea lamp, bone does not kindleit. bHowever,even in a place where the custom is not to kindle lamps in houses, bone kindles in synagogues and study halls,in deference to these places. Similarly, lamps should be kindled bin dark alleyways,so people will not be hurt, band next to the sick. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin th ie Tosefta /i: bBothin a place bwherethe Sages bsaid to kindle andin a place bwhere they said not to kindle, they both intended toachieve the bsame objective,i.e., to distance people from sin, as conjugal relations are prohibited on Yom Kippur. Those who said that one kindles a lamp believe that because people do not engage in relations while a lamp is lit, the lamp will discourage intimacy. Those who maintain the opposite believe that spouses who are unable to see each other will not be tempted to engage in conjugal relations, and therefore it is preferable not to have a lamp lit on Yom Kippur. bRav Yehoshua saidthat bRava taught: “Your people are all righteous, they shall inherit the land forever;the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:21). bBothin a place bwherethe Sages bsaid to kindle andin a place bwhere they said not to kindle, they intended only toachieve the bsame objective,fulfilling a mitzva. Even though different places have different customs, the Jewish people all aspire to sanctity.,On the topic of kindling a lamp for Yom Kippur, the Gemara discusses a related point. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One should recite the blessing over fire:Who creates the lights of fire, bonly at the conclusion of Shabbat, sincethe conclusion of Shabbat bisthe time of bits original creation. A certain Elder said to him, and some sayit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho bsaid:That is bcorrect; and so said Rabbi Yoḥa.The Gemara relates: bUlla was riding on a donkey and going along, and Rabbi Abba was going along on his right and Rabba bar bar Ḥana on his left. Rabbi Abba said to Ulla:Is it btrue that you said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥathat bone recites the blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbat,not at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, bsincethe time of bits original creation isthe conclusion of Shabbat?,Since Ulla never transmitted that statement, he understood that it must have been Rabba bar bar Ḥana who heard it from Rabbi Yoḥa and transmitted it when he came from Eretz Yisrael. bUlla turned around and looked angrily at Rabba bar bar Ḥanafor misquoting Rabbi Yoḥa. Still, Ulla said nothing. However, Rabba bar bar Ḥana understood what had happened and bsaid to him: I did not sayanything babout thatmatter; brather,what bI saidwas babout that whichthe breciterof the tannaitic literature btaughtin a ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥain which bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to bYom Kippur that occurs on Shabbat, even in a place where they said not to kindlea lamp on Yom Kippur, bone kindles in deference to Shabbat. Rabbi Yoḥa answered after himand completed the statement: bAnd the Rabbis prohibitkindling a lamp even when Yom Kippur occurs on Shabbat. Ulla bsaidto Rabbi Abba: bLet it bethat Rabbi Yoḥa indeed made this statement., bRav Yosef readthe following verse baboutthis event: b“Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. רב ושמואל חד אמר נס וחד אמר נס בתוך נס מאן דאמר נס יער הוה דובים לא הוו מ"ד נס בתוך נס לא יער הוה ולא דובים הוו וליהוי דובים ולא ליהוי יער דבעיתי,אמר רבי חנינא בשביל ארבעים ושנים קרבנות שהקריב בלק מלך מואב הובקעו מישראל ארבעים ושנים ילדים איני,והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות ואע"פ שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה שבשכר ארבעים ושנים קרבנות שהקריב בלק מלך מואב זכה ויצתה ממנו רות שיצא ממנו שלמה שכתוב ביה (מלכים א ג, ד) אלף עולות יעלה שלמה ואמר רבי יוסי בן חוני רות בתו של עגלון בנו של בלק היתה תאותו מיהא לקללה הוי,(מלכים ב ב, יט) ויאמרו אנשי העיר אל אלישע הנה נא מושב העיר טוב כאשר אדוני רואה וגו' וכי מאחר דמים רעים וארץ משכלת אלא מה טובתה אמר רבי חנין חן מקום על יושביו אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה חינות הן חן מקום על יושביו חן אשה על בעלה חן מקח על מקחו,תנו רבנן שלשה חלאין חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו,תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידיו ולא כיהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו [להנוצרי] (לאחד מתלמידיו) בשתי ידיו,אלישע מאי היא דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל קח ככרים וכתיב ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות,ומי שקיל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקיל אמר ר' יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע עוסק בשמנה שרצים אמר לו רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך לעולם (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים אמר רבי יוחנן זה גחזי ושלשת בניו,(מלכים ב ח, ז) וילך אלישע דמשק למה הלך אמר ר' יוחנן שהלך להחזירו לגחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך כל מי שחטא והחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לו לחטאת ירבעם והעמידו בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק לה אפומה והיתה אומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,ואיכא דאמרי רבנן דחה מקמיה דכתיב (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה נא המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד האידנא לא הוה דחיק,יהושע בן פרחיה מאי היא כדהוה קא קטיל ינאי מלכא לרבנן שמעון בן שטח אטמינהו אחתיה ר' יהושע בן פרחיה אזל ערק לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש לך אלכסנדריא של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואני יושבת שוממה אמר ש"מ הוה ליה שלמא,כי אתא אקלע לההוא אושפיזא קם קמייהו ביקרא שפיר עבדי ליה יקרא טובא יתיב וקא משתבח כמה נאה אכסניא זו א"ל (אחד מתלמידיו) רבי עיניה טרוטות א"ל רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שפורי ושמתיה כל יומא אתא לקמיה ולא קבליה,יומא חד הוה קרי קרית שמע אתא לקמיה הוה בדעתיה לקבוליה אחוי ליה בידיה סבר מדחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא פלחא אמר ליה חזור בך א"ל כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה דאמר מר [יש"ו] כישף והסית והדיח והחטיא את ישראל,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big נמצא ההורג עד שלא נערפה העגלה תצא ותרעה בעדר משנערפה העגלה תקבר במקומה שעל ספק באתה מתחילתה כיפרה ספיקה והלכה לה נערפה העגלה ואחר כך נמצא ההורג הרי זה יהרג,עד אחד אומר ראיתי את ההורג ועד אחד אומר לא ראית אשה אומרת ראיתי ואשה אומרת לא ראית היו עורפין עד אחד אומר ראיתי ושנים אומרים לא ראית היו עורפין שנים אומרים ראינו ואחד אומר להן לא ראיתם לא היו עורפין,משרבו הרוצחנין בטלה עגלה ערופה משבא אליעזר בן דינאי ותחינה בן פרישה היה נקרא חזרו לקרותו בן הרצחן,משרבו המנאפים פסקו המים המרים ורבי יוחנן בן זכאי הפסיקן שנאמר (הושע ד, יד) לא אפקוד על בנותיכם כי תזנינה ועל כלותיכם כי תנאפנה כי הם וגו',משמת יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יהודה איש ירושלים בטלו האשכלות שנאמר (מיכה ז, א) אין אשכול לאכול בכורה אותה נפשי יוחנן כהן גדול העביר הודיית המעשר אף הוא בטל את המעוררין ואת הנוקפין 47a. bRav and Shmuelhad a dispute with regard to this episode. bOne saysthere was ba miracle, and one saysthere bwas a miracle within a miracle.The Gemara explains: bThe one who saysthere was ba miracleclaims that bthere wasalready ba forestin that place but bthere were no bears,and the miracle was the appearance of bears. bThe one who saysit was ba miracle within a miracleclaims bthat neither was there a forest nor were there bearsin that area. The Gemara asks with regard to the second opinion: Why was a double miracle required? bAnd let there be bears and no forest;the forest served no role in the story, so why was it created? The Gemara explains: The forest was necessary, basbears bare frightenedto venture into open areas but will attack people in their natural habitat, a forest., bRabbi Ḥanina says: Due to forty-two offerings that Balak, king of Moab, broughtwhen he tried to have Balaam curse the Jewish people, bforty-two children were broken off from Israel,in that incident involving Elisha. The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Was that the reward for his offerings?, bBut didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: A person should always engage in Torahstudy bandin performance of bmitzvot, evenif he does so bnot for their own sake, as throughsuch acts performed bnot for their own sake,one will bcometo perform them bfor their own sake.He proves the value of a mitzva done not for its own sake: bAs in reward for the forty-two offerings that Balak, king of Moab, brought, he merited that Ruth descended from him, from whomKing bSolomon descended, about whom it is writtenthat he brought many offerings: b“A thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer up”(I Kings 3:4). bAnd Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥonisimilarly bsays: Ruth was the daughter of Eglon, son of Balak.These Sages state that Balak’s reward was to have Ruth descend from him, not that a number of Jewish people perish. The Gemara answers: bHis desire, in any event, was to cursethe Jewish people, and his reward for sacrificing his offerings was that the curse was fulfilled in the incident involving Elisha, as well.,The Gemara returns to discussing the incident involving Elisha: b“And the men of the city said to Elisha: Behold, please, the situation of this city is pleasant, as my lord sees,but the water is bad and the land miscarries” (II Kings 2:19). The Gemara asks: bBut if the water is bad and the land causes women to miscarry, what is pleasantabout bit? Rabbi Ḥanin says: The grace of a place is upon its inhabitants,i.e., people are fond of their hometown despite its shortcomings. bRabbi Yoḥa says: There are three gracesthat have a similar impact: bThe grace of a place upon its inhabitants; the grace of a woman upon her husband,despite her faults; and bthe grace of a purchaseditem bupon its buyer,as one who has bought something views it in a positive light.,§ bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill three times. Onewas a punishment bfor incitingthe bbears toattack bthe children; and onewas a punishment bfor pushing Gehaziaway bwith both hands,without leaving him the option to return; band onewas the sickness bfrom which he died, asan expression of illness bis statedthree times in the verse about Elisha: b“And Elisha became sick [ iḥala /i] with his illness [ iḥolyo /i] from which he would die”(II Kings 13:14). The root iḥet /i, ilamed /i, iheh /i, which indicates illness, is used twice in this verse, and it is stated once that Elisha will die., bThe Sages taught: It should always bethe bleft,weaker, hand that bpushesanother away bandthe bright,stronger, hand that bdrawshim bnear.In other words, even when a student is rebuffed, he should be given the opportunity to return. This is bnot like Elisha, who pushed Gehaziaway bwith both hands, and not like Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed Jesus the Nazarene,one bof his students,away bwith both hands. /b,The Gemara specifies: bWhat wasthat incident with bElisha? As it is written: “And Naaman said: Pray, take talents”(II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him, bandwhen the verse recounts Elisha’s words to Gehazi, it bis written: “And he said to him: Did not my heart go, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it a time to take money, and to take garments, and olives, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and servants, and maidservants?”(II Kings 5:26). Here Elisha criticizes Gehazi for taking the payment.,The Gemara clarifies the criticism: bAnd did he take all that?But bit wasonly bmoney and garments that he took. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: At that time, Elisha was engaged inthe study of the topic of the beightimpure bcreeping animals. He saidto Gehazi: bWicked one, it is timefor you bto receivenow, in this temporal world, bthe rewardfor studying the topic of the beightimpure bcreeping animals.This is why the verse lists eight items. The Gemara adds parenthetically that Elisha also said to Gehazi: b“And the leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your descendants forever”(II Kings 5:27), and that the verse later states: b“Now there were four leprous men”(II Kings 7:3), about whom bRabbi Yoḥa says: This isreferring to bGehazi and his three sons. /b,The verse states: b“And Elisha came to Damascus”(II Kings 8:7). The Gemara asks: bFor whatpurpose did bhe gothere? bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to help Gehazi in repentance, butGehazi bwould notagree to brepentfrom his evil ways. Elisha bsaid to him: Return from yoursins. Gehazi bsaid to him: This isthe tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and caused the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat didGehazi bdothat caused the masses to sin? bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s calf,the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, and used a magnet to pull the calf off the ground so that bhe suspended it between heaven and earth,i.e., caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He engravedthe sacred bname on its mouth, and it would say: “I amthe Lord your God” band: “You shall not haveother gods” (Exodus 20:2). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments against idol worship, causing people to worship it even more devoutly., bAnd there arethose bwho say:Gehazi bpushed the Sagesaway bfromcoming bbefore him,preventing them learning from Elisha, bas it is written,after the aforementioned incident: b“And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us”(II Kings 6:1). This proves bby inference that until that timethe place bwas not cramped,as Gehazi would turn people away.,The Gemara returns to the incident in which bYehoshua ben Peraḥyaturned away Jesus the Nazarene: bWhat isthis incident? bWhen King Yannai was killing the Sages, Shimon ben Shataḥ was hidden by his sister,Yannai’s wife, while bRabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya wentand bfled to Alexandria of Egypt. When peace was madebetween Yannai and the Sages, bShimon ben Shataḥ sent himthe following letter: bFrom myself, Jerusalem the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt. My sister, my husband dwells within you, and I am sitting desolate.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid:I can blearn from it that there is peace,and I can return., bWhen he cameback to Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yehoshua barrived at a certain inn.The innkeeper bstood before him, honoring him considerably,and overall bthey accorded him great honor.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then bsat and was praisingthem by saying: bHow beautiful is this inn. Jesus the Nazarene,one of his students, bsaid to him: My teacher,but the beyesof the innkeeper’s wife bare narrow [ iterutot /i].Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Wicked one, is this what you are engaged in,gazing at women? bHe brought out four hundred ishofarotand excommunicated him. Every dayJesus bwould come before him, but he would not accept hiswish to return., bOne day,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bwas reciting iShema /iwhen Jesus bcame before him. He intended to accept himon this occasion, so bhe signaled to him with his handto wait. Jesus bthought he was rejecting himentirely. He therefore bwent and stood up a brickand bworshipped itas an idol. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Return from yoursins. Jesus bsaid to him: This isthe tradition that bI received from you: Anyone who sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent.The Gemara explains how he caused the masses to sin: bFor the Master said: Jesus the Nazarene performed sorcery, and he incitedthe masses, band subvertedthe masses, band caused the Jewish people to sin. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to the evil binclination,to ba child, andto ba woman, the lefthand bshould reject and the righthand should bwelcome.If one pushes too forcefully, the damage might be irreversible., strongMISHNA: /strong bIf the killer is found before the heifer’s neck was broken,the heifer bshall go out and graze among the herd.It is not considered sacred at all, and it may rejoin the other animals. If the killer is found bfromthe time bwhen the heifer’s neck was broken,even if the rest of the ritual has not yet been performed, it is prohibited to benefit from the animal, despite the killer having been found; it bshould be buried in its place.This is bbecausethe heifer binitially came for uncertainty,as the killer was unknown, and bit atonedfor bits uncertainty and left,i.e., it fulfilled its purpose of bringing atonement and is considered a heifer whose neck is broken in all regards. If bthe heifer’s neck was broken and afterward the killer was found, he is killed.The ritual does not atone for him.,If bone witness says: I saw the killer, and oneother bwitness says: You did not seehim; or if ba woman says: I saw, andanother bwoman says: You did not see, they would break the neckof the heifer, as without clear testimony about the identity of the killer the ritual is performed. Similarly, if bone witness says: I sawthe killer, band twowitnesses bsay: You did not see, they would break the neckof the heifer, as the pair is relied upon. If btwowitnesses bsay: We sawthe killer, band onewitness bsays to them: You did not see, they would not break the neckof the heifer, as there are two witnesses to the identity of the killer.,The mishna further states: bFromthe time bwhen murderers proliferated, theritual of the bheifer whose neck is broken was nullified.The ritual was performed only when the identity of the murderer was completely unknown. Once there were many known murderers, the conditions for the performance of the ritual were no longer present, as the probable identity of the murderer was known. bFromthe time bwhen Eliezer ben Dinai, who wasalso bcalled Teḥina ben Perisha, came, they renamed him: Son of a murderer.This is an example of a publicly known murderer.,The mishna teaches a similar occurrence: bFromthe time bwhen adulterers proliferated,the performance of the ritual of bthe bitter waters was nullified;they would not administer the bitter waters to the isota /i. bAndit was bRabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkaiwho bnullified it, asit bis stated: “I will not punish your daughters when they commit harlotry, nor your daughters-in-law when they commit adultery; for theyconsort with lewd women” (Hosea 4:14), meaning that when the husbands are adulterers, the wives are not punished for their own adultery., bFromthe time bwhen Yosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yehuda of Jerusalem died, the clusters ceased,i.e., they were the last of the clusters, as explained in the Gemara, basit bis stated: “There is no cluster to eat; nor first-ripe fig that my soul desires”(Micah 7:1). The mishna continues in the same vein: bYoḥa the High Priest took away the declaration of the tithe.After his time, no one recited the passage about the elimination of tithes that had previously been said at the end of a three-year tithing cycle. bHe also nullifiedthe actions of bthe awakeners and the strikersat the Temple.
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63a. והמלוה סלע לעני בשעת דחקו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו נח, ט) אז תקרא וה' יענה תשוע ויאמר הנני:,סי' אש"ה וקרק"ע עז"ר זא"ת שת"י הברכו"ת תגר"י פחת"י: א"ר אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו אשה אינו אדם שנאמר (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם ויקרא את שמם אדם ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו קרקע אינו אדם שנא' (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו זכה עוזרתו לא זכה כנגדו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אלעזר רמי כתיב כנגדו וקרינן כניגדו זכה כנגדו לא זכה מנגדתו,אשכחיה רבי יוסי לאליהו א"ל כתיב אעשה לו עזר במה אשה עוזרתו לאדם א"ל אדם מביא חיטין חיטין כוסס פשתן פשתן לובש לא נמצאת מאירה עיניו ומעמידתו על רגליו,וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, כג) זאת הפעם עצם מעצמי ובשר מבשרי מלמד שבא אדם על כל בהמה וחיה ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שבא על חוה,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ונברכו בך כל משפחות האדמה אמר ליה הקב"ה לאברהם שתי ברכות טובות יש לי להבריך בך רות המואביה ונעמה העמונית כל משפחות האדמה אפילו משפחות הדרות באדמה אין מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל (בראשית יח, יח) כל גויי הארץ אפילו ספינות הבאות מגליא לאספמיא אינן מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל,ואמר רבי אלעזר עתידים כל בעלי אומניות שיעמדו על הקרקע שנאמר (יחזקאל כז, כט) וירדו מאניותיהם כל תופשי משוט מלחים כל חובלי הים על הארץ יעמדו ואמר ר' אלעזר אין לך אומנות פחותה מן הקרקע שנאמר וירדו רבי אלעזר חזיא לההיא ארעא דשדי ביה כרבא לפותיא א"ל אי תשדייה לאורכיך הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך,רב על לביני שיבלי חזנהו דקא נייפן אמר להו אי נייפת איתנופי הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך אמר רבא מאה זוזי בעיסקא כל יומא בשרא וחמרא מאה זוזי בארעא מילחא וחפורה ולא עוד אלא מגניא ליה אארעא ומרמיא ליה תיגרי,אמר רב פפא זרע ולא תזבין אע"ג דכי הדדי נינהו הני מברכן זבין ולא תיזול הני מילי ביסתרקי אבל גלימא לא מיתרמיא ליה,טום ולא תשפיץ שפוץ ולא תיבני שכל העוסק בבנין מתמסכן קפוץ זבין ארעא מתון נסיב איתתא נחית דרגא נסיב איתתא סק דרגא בחר שושבינא,א"ר אלעזר בר אבינא אין פורענות באה לעולם אלא בשביל ישראל שנאמר (צפניה ג, ו) הכרתי גוים נשמו פנותם החרבתי חוצותם וכתיב (צפניה ג, ז) אמרתי אך תיראי אותי תקחי מוסר,רב הוה מיפטר מרבי חייא אמר ליה רחמנא ליצלך ממידי דקשה ממותא ומי איכא מידי דקשה ממותא נפק דק ואשכח (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה וגו' רב הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי אמר לה עבידי לי טלופחי עבדא ליה חימצי חימצי עבדא ליה טלופחי,כי גדל חייא בריה אפיך לה אמר ליה איעליא לך אמך אמר ליה אנא הוא דקא אפיכנא לה אמר ליה היינו דקא אמרי אינשי דנפיק מינך טעמא מלפך את לא תעביד הכי שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ד) למדו לשונם דבר שקר העוה וגו',רבי חייא הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי הוה משכח מידי צייר ליה בסודריה ומייתי ניהלה אמר ליה רב והא קא מצערא ליה למר א"ל דיינו שמגדלות בנינו ומצילות אותנו 63a. band who lends a iselato a pauper at his time of need, about him the verse states: “Then shall you call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and He will say: Here I am”(Isaiah 58:9).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicdevice for a series of statements cited in the name of Rabbi Elazar: bWoman; and land; helper; this; two; the blessings; merchants; lowly.The Gemara presents these statements: bRabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not have a wife is not a man, as it is stated: “Male and female He created them…and called their name Adam”(Genesis 5:2). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not havehis own bland is not a man, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord; but the earth He has given to the children of men”(Psalms 115:16)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “I will make him a helpmate for him [ ikenegdo /i]”(Genesis 2:18)? If one is bworthyhis wife bhelps him;if he is bnot worthyshe is bagainst him. And some saya slightly different version: bRabbi Elazar raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the Torah with a spelling that allows it to be read: bStriking him [ ikenagdo /i], and we readit as though it said: bFor him [ ikenegdo /i].If he is bworthyshe is bfor himas his helpmate; if he is bnot worthyshe bstrikes him. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yosei encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: It is written: I will make him a helpmate. In whatmanner bdoes a woman help a man?Elijah bsaid to him:When ba man brings wheatfrom the field, does he bchewraw bwheat?When he brings home bflax,does he bwearunprocessed bflax?His wife turns the raw products into bread and clothing. Is his wife bnot foundto be the one who blights up his eyes and stands him on his feet? /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh”(Genesis 2:23)? This bteaches that Adam had intercourse with each animal and beastin his search for his mate, band his mind was not at ease,in accordance with the verse: “And for Adam, there was not found a helpmate for him” (Genesis 2:20), buntil he had intercourse with Eve. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “And in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed [ inivrekhu /i]”(Genesis 12:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham: I have two good shoots to graft[ilehavrikh/b] bonto you: Ruth the Moabite,the ancestress of the house of David, band Naamah the Ammonite,whose marriage with Solomon led to the ensuing dynasty of the kings of Judea. b“All the families of the earth”means: bEven families that live in the earth,i.e., who have land of their own, bare blessed only due to the Jewish people.Similarly, when the verse states: b“All the nations of the earthshall be blessed in him” (Genesis 18:18), it indicates that beven ships that come from Galia to Hispania are blessed only due to the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: All craftsmen are destined to stand uponand work bthe land, as it is stated: “And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land”(Ezekiel 27:29). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: There is no occupation lowlier thanworking bthe land, as it is stated: “And they shall come down,”implying that one who works the land is of lower stature than even a sailor. The Gemara similarly relates: bRabbi Elazar saw land that was plowedacross bits width. He said to it:Even bif they plow youonce more blengthwise,for further improvement, bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou,as the potential profits gained by selling merchandise are far greater than those from working the land.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav entered between the sheavesin a field and bsaw them wavingin the wind. bHe said to them: If youwant to bwavego ahead and bwave,but bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou. Ravasimilarly bsaid:One who has ba hundred dinarsthat are invested bina bbusinessis able to eat bmeat and wine every day,whereas he who has ba hundred dinarsworth bof landeats only bsalt and vegetables. And what is more,working the land bcauses him to lie on the groundat night in order to guard it, bandit bdraws quarrels upon himwith other people., bRav Pappa said: Sowyour own produce band do not buyit. bEven though they are equal to each otherin value, bthesethat you sow bwill be blessed.Conversely, bbuyyour clothes brather than weave [ iteizul /i]them yourself. The Gemara comments: bThis appliesonly to bmats [ ibistarkei /i], butwith regard to the bcloakone wears, perhaps bhe will not find itprecisely to his liking, and therefore he should make his own cloak, which fits his measurements.,Rav Pappa further advised: If there is a hole in your house, bcloseit bup and do notenlarge it and then bplasterit, or at least bplasterit band do notknock it down and bbuildit again. bAs, whoever engages in construction becomes poor. Hurryto bbuy landso that you do not lose the opportunity. Be bpatient and marry a womanwho is suitable for you. bDescend a levelto bmarry a womanof lower social status, and bascend a levelto bchoose a friend [ ishushevina /i]. /b, bRabbi Elazar bar Avina said: Calamity befalls the world only due tothe sins of bthe Jewish people, as it is stated: “I have cut off nations, their corners are desolate; I have made their streets waste”(Zephaniah 3:6), band it is written: “I said: Surely you will fear Me, you will receive correction”(Zephaniah 3:7). This indicates that other nations were punished so that the Jewish people would mend their ways.,The Gemara cites more statements with regard to wives. When bRav was taking leave ofhis uncle and teacher, bRabbi Ḥiyya,upon his return from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: May the Merciful One save you from something that is worse than death.Rav was perplexed: bIs there anything that is worse than death? He went, examinedthe sources, band foundthe following verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman, etc.”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). Rabbi Ḥiyya was hinting at this verse, and indeed, bRav’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him. When he would say to her: Prepare me lentils, she would prepare him peas;if he asked her for bpeas, she would prepare him lentils. /b, bWhen Ḥiyya, his son, grew up, he would reversethe requests Rav asked him to convey bto her,so that Rav would get what he wanted. Rav bsaid tohis son Ḥiyya: bYour mother has improvednow that byouconvey my requests. bHe said toRav: bIt is I who reverseyour request bto her.Rav bsaid to him: This isan example of the well-known adage bthat people say:He bwho comes from you shall teach you wisdom;I should have thought of that idea myself. bYou,however, bshould not do so,i.e., reverse my request, bas it is stated: “They have taught their tongue to speak lies, theyweary themselves to bcommit iniquity, etc.”(Jeremiah 9:4). If you attribute such a request to me, you will have uttered a falsehood.,The Gemara relates a similar story. bRabbi Ḥiyya’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him.Nevertheless, bwhen he would find somethingshe would appreciate, bhe would wrap it in his shawl and bringit bto her. Rav said to him: Doesn’t sheconstantly baggravate you?Why do you bring her things? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: It is enough for usthat our wives braise our children and save us /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אמרו ליה לרב יוסף הכי עביד רבא אמר ליה יהא רעוא דתרום רישך אכולה כרכא,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום אמר ליה רב מרדכי כיון שפסע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו התם איבעיא ליה למיקם משל לתלמיד הנפטר מרבו אם חוזר לאלתר דומה לכלב ששב על קיאו,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום ואם לא עשה כן ראוי לו שלא התפלל ומשום שמעיה אמרו שנותן שלום לימין ואחר כך לשמאל שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ואומר (תהלים צא, ז) יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,מאי ואומר וכי תימא אורחא דמילתא היא למיתב בימין ת"ש יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,רבא חזייה לאביי דיהיב שלמא לימינא ברישא א"ל מי סברת לימין דידך לשמאל דידך קא אמינא דהוי ימינו של הקב"ה אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דפסעי להו שלש פסיעות בכריעה אחת,ומתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון מאי מצלי רבא בר רב אדא ורבין בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב אמרי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא שנה זו גשומה ושחונה שחונה מעליותא היא אלא אימא אם שחונה תהא גשומה,רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה ולא יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין לפרנס זה מזה ולא תכנס לפניך תפלת עוברי דרכים,רבי חנינא בן דוסא הוה קא אזיל באורחא שדא מטרא עליה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בנחת וחנינא בצער פסק מיטרא כי אתא לביתיה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בצער וחנינא בנחת אתא מיטרא א"ר יוסף מאי אהניא ליה צלותיה דכהן גדול לגבי ר' חנינא בן דוסא,תנו רבנן מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שהאריך בתפלתו ונמנו אחיו הכהנים ליכנס אחריו התחילו הם נכנסין והוא יוצא אמרו לו מפני מה הארכת בתפלתך אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שהתפללתי עליכם ועל בית המקדש שלא יחרב אמרו לו אל תהי רגיל לעשות כן שהרי שנינו לא היה מאריך בתפלתו כדי שלא להבעית את ישראל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משניטל ארון אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים ראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת גבוה מן הארץ שלש אצבעות ועליה היה נותן נטל את הדם ממי שהיה ממרס בו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה,ולא היה מתכוון להזות לא למעלה ולא למטה אלא כמצליף וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים אחת ושלש אחת וארבע אחת וחמש אחת ושש אחת ושבע יצא והניחו על כן הזהב שבהיכל,הביאו לו את השעיר שחטו וקבל במזרק את דמו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים וכו' יצא והניחו על כן הזהב השני שבהיכל רבי יהודה אומר לא היה שם אלא כן אחד בלבד נטל דם הפר והניח דם השעיר,והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ולא היה מתכוון וכו' וכך היה מונה וכו' נטל דם השעיר והניח דם הפר והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכו' עירה דם הפר לתוך דם השעיר ונתן את המלא בריקן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big משנגנז לא קתני אלא משניטל תנן כמאן דאמר ארון גלה לבבל דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה',רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (ישעיהו לט, ו) לא יותר דבר אמר ה' אלו עשרת הדברות שבו,רבי יהודה (בן לקיש) אומר ארון במקומו נגנז שנאמר (מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים מן הקדש על פני הדביר ולא יראו החוצה ויהיו שם עד היום הזה,ופליגא דעולא דאמר עולא שאל רבי מתיא בן חרש את רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ברומי וכי מאחר שרבי אליעזר מלמדנו פעם ראשונה ושניה ארון גלה לבבל ראשונה הא דאמרן (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' שניה מאי היא דכתיב (איכה א, ו) ויצא מבת ציון 53b. bThey said to Rav Yosef: This is what Rava does.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see for himself. Rav Yosef bsaid to him: May it beGod’s bwill that you lift your head over the entire city,in reward for honoring your teacher.,§ Apropos the obligation of a student to walk backward when taking leave of his teacher, the Gemara discusses a similar topic. bRabbi Alexandri saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace,in a manner befitting one who departs from before the Holy One, Blessed be He. bRav Mordekhai said to him: Since he has taken three steps backward, he should stand thereand not return to his place immediately. This is banalogous to a student who takes leave of his teacher. If he returns immediatelyto the place where was first standing, bhe is similar to a dog who returns to its vomit,and his previous action is spoiled.,The Gemara comments that bthis was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace. And if he did not do so, it is better for him not to have prayed,as his actions are disrespectful toward God. bAnd they said in the name of Shemayathe Sage bthatwhen bone recites: Peace,he first bows bto the right and then to the left, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law to them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), band it says: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side”(Psalms 91:7).,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe reason for: bAnd it says?Why is it necessary to cite another source? The Gemara explains: bIf you saythat bit ismerely bthe usual manner to givean object bwith the righthand, but this bears no special significance, bcomeand bhear: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side,”which indicates that the right side is the more significant one.,The Gemara relates that bRava saw Abaye reciting: Peace,by bowing at the end of his prayer btohis bright first.Rava bsaid to him: Do you maintainthat you should bow bto your right? I sayyou should bow bto your leftfirst, bas it is the right of the Holy One, Blessed be He,since He is opposite you face-to-face, as it were. bRav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Huna, said: I observed that Abaye and Ravaboth btookthose bthree steps all in oneact of bbowing,without standing upright in between, by way of submission to and acceptance of God’s authority.,§ The mishna taught: bAndthe High Priest brecites a brief prayer in the outer chamber.The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes bhe pray? Rava bar Rav Adda and Ravin bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Ravthat this was his prayer: bMay it be your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot.The Gemara immediately expresses surprise at this request: Is bheat a goodmatter? Why should he request that the year be hot? bRather, sayand emend it as follows: bIfthe upcoming year is bhot, may italso bbe rainy,lest the heat harm the crops., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludedthe language of this prayer bin the name of Rav Yehuda: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judah; and may your nation Israel not depend on each other for sustece,rather, they should be sustained from the produce of their land; band let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presencewhen they pray for the rain to stop on their travels.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was walking on the roadwhen brain fell upon him. He said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable and Ḥanina is suffering. The rain stopped. When he came to his house he said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is sufferingfor lack of rain band Ḥanina is comfortable. The rain cameback. bRav Yosef said: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have with regard to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa?Notwithstanding the prayer of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s sanctity is greater, as God fulfills his bidding.,§ The mishna stated that the High Priest would not extend his prayer. bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: There was ban incidentinvolving ba certain High Priest who extended his prayer, and his fellow prieststook a vote, bcounted,and decided bto go in after himout of concern that he had died or fainted and required assistance. bThey began to enter andat that moment bhe emerged. They said to him: Why did you extend your prayer? He said to them:Why not? bDoes it trouble you that I prayed for you and for the Temple not to be destroyed? They said to him: Do not make a habit of doing so, as we learned: He would not extend his prayer, so as not to alarm the Jewish people,who might fear he had died., strongMISHNA: /strong bAfter the Ark was takeninto exile, bthere was a rockin the Holy of Holies bfrom the days of the early prophets,David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, bandthis stone bwas calledthe bfoundationrock. It was bthree fingerbreadths higher than the ground, andthe High Priest bwould placethe incense bon it.After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, bhe took the bloodof the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering bfromthe one bwho was stirring it,so it would not coagulate. bHe entered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place where hehad previously bstoodto offer the incense, between the staves. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. /b, bAnd he would neither intend to sprinklethe blood bupward norto sprinkle it bdownward, but rather like one who whips,with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. bAnd thisis how bhe would countas he sprinkled, to avoid error: bOne; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven.The High Priest then bemergedfrom there band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. /b, bThey brought him the goatto be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. bHe slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. Heagain bentered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place that hepreviously bstood, and sprinkled fromthe blood of the goat bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. And thisis how bhe would count,just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: bOne; one and one; one and two; etc.The High Priest then bemergedfrom the Holy of Holies band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there,and he btook the blood of the bullfrom the pedestal band placed the blood of the goatin its place., bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood of the bull bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outsidethe Holy of Holies, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, and he would not intend, etc. And thisis how bhe would count, etc.When he concluded, bhe took the blood of the goatfrom the pedestal band placed blood of the bullin its place on the pedestal. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe goat’s blood bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outside,just as he did with the blood of the bull, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, etc.Afterward, bhe poured the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and placedthe blood bfrom the fullbowl into the bemptybowl, so that the blood would be mixed well., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara comments with regard to the wording of the mishna: It does bnot teach: Afterthe Ark bwas buried, but: Afterit bwas taken.If so, bwe learnedthis mishna bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saidthat bthe Ark was exiled to Babyloniaand was not buried in its place, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: “And at the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord”(II Chronicles 36:10). These precious vessels must include the Ark.,Likewise, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come that all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored until this day, shall be carried to Babylonia; bnothing [ idavar /i] shall be left, says the Lord”(Isaiah 39:6). bThese are the Ten Commandments [ idibrot /i] that are inside it;they too shall not be left behind., bRabbi Yehuda ben Lakish says: The Ark was buried in its place, as it is stated: “And the ends of the staves were seen from the sacred place before the partition, but they could not be seen without; and they are there to this day”(I Kings 8:8). The expression “to this day” means forever, as the text might be read at any time. This teaches that the Ark is hidden in its place.,The Gemara comments: And bthisopinion that the Ark was exiled to Babylonia bdisagrees withthat bof Ulla, as Ulla said: Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai in Rome: And since Rabbi Eliezer taught us once and twice,i.e., from two separate verses, that bthe Ark was exiled to Babylonia.The Gemara interrupts its citation of Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash’s question to identify these two verses. bThe firstverse is bthat which we said: “And brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord.” What is the secondverse? Rabbi Eliezer said: bAs it is written: “And gone from the daughter of Zion is /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Meilah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. ילך ר' שמעון בן יוחאי שהוא מלומד בנסים ואחריו מי ילך ר"א בר ר' יוסי,אמר להם רבי יוסי ואילו היה אבא חלפתא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה אמר להם ר' שמעון אילו היה יוחאי אבא קיים יכולין אתם לומר לו תן בנך להריגה,אמר להו רבי יוסי אנא אזלין דלמא עניש ליה ר' שמעון דקא מסתפינא קביל עליה דלא ליענשיה אפילו הכי ענשיה,כשהיו מהלכין בדרך נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מנין לדם השרץ שהוא טמא עקם פיו ר' אלעזר בר רבי יוסי ואמר (ויקרא יא, כט) וזה לכם הטמא אמר ליה ר' שמעון מעקימת שפתיך אתה ניכר שתלמיד חכם אתה אל יחזור הבן אצל אביו,יצא לקראתו בן תמליון רצונכם אבוא עמכם בכה ר' שמעון ואמר מה שפחה של בית אבא נזדמן לה מלאך שלש פעמים ואני לא פעם אחת יבא הנס מכל מקום,קדים הוא על בברתיה דקיסר כי מטא התם אמר בן תמליון צא בן תמליון צא וכיון דקרו ליה נפק אזל אמר להון שאילו כל מה דאית לכון למישאל ועיילינהו לגנזיה לשקול כל דבעו אשכחו ההוא איגרא שקלוה וקרעוה,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר בר רבי יוסי אני ראיתיה בעיר [רומי] והוו עליה כמה טיפי דמים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הפיגול והנותר אין מצטרפין מפני שהן שני שמות השרץ והנבלה וכן הנבלה ובשר המת אין מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא אפילו בקל שבשניהן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא לטומאת הידים דמדרבנן היא אבל לענין אכילה מצטרפין דתניא ר' אליעזר אומר (שמות כט, לד) לא יאכל כי קדש הוא כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האוכל שנטמא באב הטומאה ושנטמא בולד הטומאה מצטרפין זה עם זה לטמא בקל שבשניהם כל האוכלים מצטרפין זה עם זה לפסול הגוייה כבחצי פרס כבמזון,שתי סעודות לעירוב וכביצה לטמא טומאת אוכלין וכגרוגרת להוצאת שבת וככותבת ביום הכפורים כל המשקין מצטרפין זו עם זו לפסול את הגוייה ברביעית וכמלא לוגמא ביום הכפורים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי שמעון אומר מה טעם שאפשר לשני שיעשה ראשון ומי קא עביד שני ראשון הא לא אפשר,אמר רבא הכי קאמר מי גרם לשני לאו ראשון רב אשי אמר ראשון ושני לגבי שלישי בני חדא ביקתא אינון: 17b. Let bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai goto Rome, bas he is accustomed toexperiencing bmiracles. And who shall go after him,i.e., with him? bRabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei. /b,When bRabbi Yosei,Rabbi Elazar’s father, heard this suggestion, he bsaid tothe Sages: bBut if Abba Ḥalafta,my father, bwere alive,would byou be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed?If so, how can you ask me to send my son to Rome, where he is likely to be killed? bRabbi Shimon said tothe Sages: bIf Yoḥai,my bfather, were alive,would byou be able to say to him: Give your son to be killed?Nevertheless, I am prepared to risk my life and go to Rome, and if so, Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei should accompany me.,Upon hearing this, bRabbi Yosei said tothe Sages: If so, bI will goin place of my son. I do not want him to go with Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, basthis is what bI fear:My son Elazar is young and quick to answer, and I am concerned blest Rabbi Shimon,who is hot-tempered, will become angry with him and bpunishhim. Rabbi Shimon baccepted upon himself that he would not punishRabbi Elazar. The Gemara notes that beven so,Rabbi Shimon did bpunish himwhile they were on their journey.,Why did Rabbi Shimon end up punishing Rabbi Elazar? bWhen they were walking on the road, thisfollowing bquestion was asked before them: From whereis it derived bwith regard to blood of a creeping animal that it is impure? Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei twisted his mouthto whisper band said:It is derived from the verse: b“And these are they that are impurefor you among the creeping animals” (Leviticus 11:29). Although Rabbi Elazar tried to whisper so that Rabbi Shimon would not hear, bRabbi Shimon said to him: From the twisting of your mouthand your answer bit is clearthat byou are a Torah scholar.Nevertheless, it is prohibited for a student to issue a ruling of ihalakhain the presence of his teacher. Therefore, I curse you that bthe son will not returnfrom this journey bto his father. /b,The Gemara continues the story: As they were journeying, a demon named bben Temalyon emerged to greet them.He said to them: Do byou wishthat bIwill join you and bcome with youin order to help nullify this decree? When he saw that a demon was coming to help save the Jewish people, bRabbi Shimon cried and said: What,even for ba maidservant ofmy bfather’s home,Hagar the Egyptian, who was Abraham’s handmaid, ban angel was made availableto appear bto her three timesto help her. Each of the three mentions of “and the angel of the Lord said unto her” (Genesis 16:9–11) in the story of Hagar is understood as a reference to a different angel. bBut Iapparently do bnotdeserve assistance from an angel even bone time,but only help from a demon. bIn any case, let the miracle comeand save the Jewish people, even if only through a demon.,The demon ben Temalyon went bbeforethem and bascended into the emperor’s daughterand possessed her. bWhenRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai barrived there,the emperor’s palace, bhe said: Ben Temalyon, emerge! Ben Temalyon, emerge! And onceRabbi Shimon bcalledto bhim,ben Temalyon bemerged and leftthe emperor’s daughter, and she was cured. When the emperor saw that Rabbi Shimon had cured his daughter, bhe said to them: Askfrom me banyreward bthat you want to ask. And he took them up to his treasury to take whatever they wanted. They found that letterthere that contained the decrees against the Jewish people, and bthey took it and tore itup, and thereby nullified the decrees.,The Gemara adds: bAnd this isthe background for that bwhich Rabbi Elazar bar Rabbi Yosei said( iYoma57a): bI sawthe Curtain of the Sanctuary bin the city of Rome, and onthe Curtain bwere several drops of bloodfrom the bull and the goat of Yom Kippur. When the emperor took them into his treasury Rabbi Elazar saw the Temple vessels that the Romans had captured when they conquered Jerusalem, including the Curtain., strongMISHNA: /strong Sacrificial meat that is ipiggulandsacrificial meat that is inotardo not join togetherto constitute the requisite measure of an olive-bulk, bdue tothe fact bthat theybelong to btwoseparate bcategoriesof prohibition. The flesh of the carcass of bthe creeping animal andthe flesh of bthe animal carcass, and likewisethe flesh of bthe animal carcass and the flesh of the corpse, do not join together to transmit ritual impurity,not beven for themore blenient of the twoimpurities, i.e., the impurity that requires the greater measure., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The mishna btaughtthat ipigguland inotardo not join together bonly with regard tothe ritual bimpurity of the handsif one touched them, which bis by rabbinic law. But with regard tothe bmatter of eating, they do join together. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:The verse states with regard to leftover sacrificial food from meat and bread: b“It shall not be eaten because it is sacred”(Exodus 29:34). This teaches with regard to banything sacredthat has been bdisqualifiedfor whatever reason, that bthe verse comes to apply a prohibition with regard to its consumption. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe food that became ritually impurethrough contact bwith a primary source of ritual impurity,thereby assuming first-degree ritual impurity, bandthe food bthat became ritually impurethrough contact bwith a secondary source of ritual impurity,thereby assuming second-degree ritual impurity, bjoin togetherto constitute the requisite measure of an egg-bulk bto transmit impurity in accordance with themore blenient of the two,i.e., second-degree ritual impurity. bAll theritually impure bfoods join togetherto constitute the requisite measure bto disqualify the body [ ihageviyya /i]of one who eats bhalf of a half-loaf-bulk [ iperas /i]of the impure foods from partaking of iteruma /i.,Likewise, all foods join together to constitute the requisite measure bof foodsufficient for btwo meals, toestablish ba joining ofShabbat bboundaries; andto form the requisite measure bof an egg-bulk, to renderan item bimpurewith bthe ritual impurity of food; andto form the measure bofa dried bfig-bulk,which establishes liability bfor carrying outfood on bShabbat; andto form the volume bof a large date,which establishes liability for eating bon Yom Kippur. All the liquids join togetherto constitute the requisite measure bto disqualify the body ofone who drinks ba quarter- ilog /iof ritually impure liquid from partaking of iteruma /i; bandto constitute the measure bof a cheekful,which establishes liability for drinking bon Yom Kippur. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: What is the reasonthat food with first-degree ritual impurity joins together with food that has second-degree ritual impurity? The reason is bthat it is possible forthe food with bsecond- /bdegree impurity bto renderanother food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity. The Gemara asks: bBut cana food with bsecond- /bdegree impurity brenderanother food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity? That is bnot possible.If food impure with second-degree impurity touches other food, it renders that food impure with third-degree impurity, not first-degree impurity., bRava saidthat bthisis what Rabbi Shimon bis saying: What causedthat food to become impure with bsecond- /bdegree impurity? Is it bnotthat it was touched by food with bfirst- /bdegree impurity? Since they share a common source, they join together. bRav Ashisimilarly bsaid:Food impure with bfirst- /bdegree impurity bandfood impure with bsecond- /bdegree impurity, bwith regard tofood impure with bthird- /bdegree impurity, bareconsidered like bmembers of one house,i.e., they both lead to third-degree impurity, either directly or indirectly, and for this reason they join together.
41. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.3.3

1.3.3. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַר קְרָיָיא בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, לְמָה הָיָה דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פּוֹלְיָטוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית אַחַת וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, בָּא אֶחָד וְטִלְטְלָהּ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ וְהָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, אַף כֵּן אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם, אַבְרָהָם הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים יֵשׁ לְךָ, הַרְבֵּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ לְךָ, טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ בָּעוֹלָם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בְּעוֹלָמִי, לֶךְ לְךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (בראשית יב, א): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵא לְךָ עֲלָמוֹת הַרְבֵּה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ה): וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת לוֹט בֶּן אָחִיו וְאֶת כָּל רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, וַהֲלֹא אִם מִתְכַּנְּשִׁים כָּל הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹאת יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִבְרֹאתוֹ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן. אָמַר רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֲנָשִׁים, וְשָׂרָה הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מַכְנִיסָן לְבֵיתוֹ וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וּמַאֲהִיבָן וּמְקָרְבָן וּמְגַיְּרָן וּמַכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הַמַּכְנִיס בְּרִיָה אַחַת לְתוֹךְ כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה מַעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּרָאוֹ וִיצָרוֹ וְרִיקְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִמַּה שֶּׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, שִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הִיא הָאוֹרָה, גְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא לָנוּ אוֹרָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים בָּאִים וּמִתְגַּיְּרִים וְנוֹסָפִים עָלֵינוּ, כְּגוֹן יִתְרוֹ וְרָחָב, יִתְרוֹ שָׁמַע וַאֲתָא, רָחָב שָׁמְעָה וְאַתְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֵס לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים נִתְגַּיְּרוּ, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, כג): כִּי בִרְאוֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: וְיָדְעוּ תֹעֵי רוּחַ בִּינָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לָנוּ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, וּבִזַּת הַיָּם, וּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, וּבִזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים, אָנוּ אוֹהֲבִים אוֹתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם יוֹם הַמִּיתָה וְיוֹם הַנֶּחָמָה, אֲהֵבוּךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, בְּעַלֵּמוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי תְּשׁוּבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זוֹ כַּת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה יג, ט): וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (חבקוק ג, ב): ה' שָׁמַעְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ יָרֵאתִי ה' פָּעָלְךָ בְּקֶרֶב שָׁנִים וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז, ח): כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה' אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ, עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת רֹאשׁ חוּלָה לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לִבְּכֶם לְחֵילָה, לְחוֹלָה כְּתִיב, צַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְצַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאֶמְצָעָם, וְהֵם חָלִים לְפָנָיו בְּעַלְמוּת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים (תהלים מח, טו): כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בְּעַלֵימוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, כְּאִילֵין עוּלֵימְתָא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים סח, כו): בְּתוֹךְ עֲלָמוֹת תּוֹפֵפוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, תִּרְגֵּם עֲקִילַס אַתְנִסָיָא, עוֹלָם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָוֶת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים: כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דִּכְתִיב (דברים טו, ו): כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּרַכְךָ, וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה נח, יא): וְנָחֲךָ ה' תָּמִיד.
42. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 207

207. The king received the answer with great delight and looking at another said, 'What is the teaching of wisdom?' And the other replied, 'As you wish that no evil should befall you, but to be a partaker of all good things, so you should act on the same principle towards your subjects and offenders, and you should mildly admonish the noble and good. For God draws all men to himself by his benignity.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
a convert requires three (statement) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 127
abraham Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 108, 109
akedah (binding of isaac), and the sacrificial cult Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 53
akedah (binding of isaac), transformation into normative text, through rabbinic exegesis Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 53
antigonus of sokho Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
aqiva, r. Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
babylonian agenda, authority of the sage upon conversion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 127
babylonian talmud, anonymous layer of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
baraita, babylonian, pseudo-baraita (midrash-halakhahstyle) Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
beit ha-midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
berurias sister Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
church Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 147
conversion Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 108, 109
conversion court Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 127
corinth Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
demons, and multiplicity Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 158
demons, internalized Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 170
demons, physiology of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 158
eliezer, rr. Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
emperor Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
enemies, enmity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
eusebius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
fear, as motive for worship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
fear, vs. love Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
focus more on commandments than on martyrs, love of god Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 251
gamaliel, rabban Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
genitals Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
gentile Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 108, 109
gentiles, seclusion with Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
god, love for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
god, motives for serving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
halakhah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 178
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
heart, singleness of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 147
heart, unity of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 158
hillel and shammai Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 126, 127
homilies, on double letters Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146, 147
identity, as motive for martyrdom, unclean food, in early rabbinic sources Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 251
imagery, birth and renewal Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 126
imagery, wings of shekhinah Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 126
inclination (evil, good) Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 309
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
interpretation, targumic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
julius caesar Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
land of israel Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
leichensekret des osiris Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 51
leontius Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146, 147
love, for god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
love, vs. fear Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113, 222
love of god, generation of persecution Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 251
love of god, r. akiva Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 167, 168
martyrdom, jewish Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
martyrdom Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 53; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 109
martyrology, genre of Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
martyrology Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
martyrs, martyrdom, sanctification of the name Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
matya ben harash, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
maʿaser Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
missionaries, rabbinic Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 108, 109
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
mysticism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
non-jews, approach to rabbis concerning conversion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 127
non-jews, converts and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 126, 127
origen, demons in Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 158
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
persecution, hadrianic Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
plato, soul in Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 147
potiphars wife Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
powers of god, love and fear related to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
powers of god, ruling Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
prophecy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
proselytes Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 109
prostitute Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
purity, ritual Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 53
r. akiva, love of god Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 167, 168
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
righteous, righteousness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
roman, rome Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
rome Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
school/academy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
self-sacrifice Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 53
semen Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
shekhinah Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 126; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 109
shema Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 309, 310, 311
shimon bar yohai, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
shimon ben menasya, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 496
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
soul, unity of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 147
synagogue Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
synopsis (bavli and yerushalmi) Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 108
tannaitic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
tannaitic parallels, source' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 310
tannaitic parallels Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 309
targum Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
terumah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
the three visitors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 274
timna Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 127
tineius rufus Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 311
torah, giving of Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
torah, teaching Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
torah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 311; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
torah and prophets, commandments Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
torah and prophets, great principle of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
women, seclusion with Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
yehoshua (ben hananiah), rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
yetzer, adjuration of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yetzer, and heart Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 209
yetzer, dual Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yetzer, erroneous uses of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
yetzer, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yishmael, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233
ḥaver/ḥavurah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 233