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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



746
Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306


nanR. Meir was wont to say: When Israel were meritorious, they bore witness over themselves, viz. (Joshua 24:22) "And Joshua said to the people: Bear witness over yourselves that you have chosen the L-rd to serve Him. And they said: We are witnesses." When they went astray, viz. (Hoshea 12:1) "Ephraim has surrounded Me with falsehood, and the house of Israel with deceit," the tribe of Judah and Benjamin testified against them, viz. (Isaiah 5:3-4) "And now, dweller of Jerusalem and man of Judah. What more could have been done for my vineyard that I did not do for it?" When the tribe of Judah went astray, viz. (Malachi 2:11) "Judah has been faithless, etc.", He had the prophets bear witness against them, viz. (II Kings 17:13) "The L-rd has borne witness against Israel and Judah by the prophets of every vision, etc." When they went astray with the prophets, viz. (II Chronicles 36:16) "And they mocked the messengers of G-d and despised His prophets," He had the heavens bear witness against them, viz. (Devarim 4:26, 30:19) "I call to bear witness against you this day, the heavens." When they went astray with the heavens, viz. (Jeremiah 7:17) "Do you not see what they are doing in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? (18) The children are gathering wood, and the gatherers are kindling the fire, and the women are kneading dough to make cakes for the queen of


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82 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.12, 5.4, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21, 17.19-17.20, 21.8, 27.3, 27.8, 28.58, 29.28, 31.12, 32.1-32.18, 32.20-32.21, 32.26, 32.28-32.31, 32.35-32.42, 32.46, 33.2, 33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 21.8. כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם׃ 27.3. וְכָתַבְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בְּעָבְרֶךָ לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר תָּבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲ‍שֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ׃ 27.8. וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב׃ 28.58. אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתוּבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 29.28. הַנִּסְתָּרֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהַנִּגְלֹת לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ עַד־עוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 32.1. יִמְצָאֵהוּ בְּאֶרֶץ מִדְבָּר וּבְתֹהוּ יְלֵל יְשִׁמֹן יְסֹבְבֶנְהוּ יְבוֹנְנֵהוּ יִצְּרֶנְהוּ כְּאִישׁוֹן עֵינוֹ׃ 32.1. הַאֲזִינוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וַאֲדַבֵּרָה וְתִשְׁמַע הָאָרֶץ אִמְרֵי־פִי׃ 32.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַסְתִּירָה פָנַי מֵהֶם אֶרְאֶה מָה אַחֲרִיתָם כִּי דוֹר תַּהְפֻּכֹת הֵמָּה בָּנִים לֹא־אֵמֻן בָּם׃ 32.2. יַעֲרֹף כַּמָּטָר לִקְחִי תִּזַּל כַּטַּל אִמְרָתִי כִּשְׂעִירִם עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא וְכִרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב׃ 32.3. אֵיכָה יִרְדֹּף אֶחָד אֶלֶף וּשְׁנַיִם יָנִיסוּ רְבָבָה אִם־לֹא כִּי־צוּרָם מְכָרָם וַיהוָה הִסְגִּירָם׃ 32.3. כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.5. וּמֻת בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹלֶה שָׁמָּה וְהֵאָסֵף אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר־מֵת אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ בְּהֹר הָהָר וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 32.5. שִׁחֵת לוֹ לֹא בָּנָיו מוּמָם דּוֹר עִקֵּשׁ וּפְתַלְתֹּל׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 32.7. זְכֹר יְמוֹת עוֹלָם בִּינוּ שְׁנוֹת דּוֹר־וָדוֹר שְׁאַל אָבִיךָ וְיַגֵּדְךָ זְקֵנֶיךָ וְיֹאמְרוּ לָךְ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 32.11. כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃ 32.12. יְהוָה בָּדָד יַנְחֶנּוּ וְאֵין עִמּוֹ אֵל נֵכָר׃ 32.13. יַרְכִּבֵהוּ עַל־במותי [בָּמֳתֵי] אָרֶץ וַיֹּאכַל תְּנוּבֹת שָׂדָי וַיֵּנִקֵהוּ דְבַשׁ מִסֶּלַע וְשֶׁמֶן מֵחַלְמִישׁ צוּר׃ 32.14. חֶמְאַת בָּקָר וַחֲלֵב צֹאן עִם־חֵלֶב כָּרִים וְאֵילִים בְּנֵי־בָשָׁן וְעַתּוּדִים עִם־חֵלֶב כִּלְיוֹת חִטָּה וְדַם־עֵנָב תִּשְׁתֶּה־חָמֶר׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.18. צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּח אֵל מְחֹלְלֶךָ׃ 32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.26. אָמַרְתִּי אַפְאֵיהֶם אַשְׁבִּיתָה מֵאֱנוֹשׁ זִכְרָם׃ 32.28. כִּי־גוֹי אֹבַד עֵצוֹת הֵמָּה וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּבוּנָה׃ 32.29. לוּ חָכְמוּ יַשְׂכִּילוּ זֹאת יָבִינוּ לְאַחֲרִיתָם׃ 32.31. כִּי לֹא כְצוּרֵנוּ צוּרָם וְאֹיְבֵינוּ פְּלִילִים׃ 32.35. לִי נָקָם וְשִׁלֵּם לְעֵת תָּמוּט רַגְלָם כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם אֵידָם וְחָשׁ עֲתִדֹת לָמוֹ׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 32.37. וְאָמַר אֵי אֱלֹהֵימוֹ צוּר חָסָיוּ בוֹ׃ 32.38. אֲשֶׁר חֵלֶב זְבָחֵימוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ יִשְׁתּוּ יֵין נְסִיכָם יָקוּמוּ וְיַעְזְרֻכֶם יְהִי עֲלֵיכֶם סִתְרָה׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 32.46. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מֵעִיד בָּכֶם הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תְּצַוֻּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 33.2. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת [אֵשׁ] [דָּת] לָמוֹ׃ 33.2. וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃ 4.12. And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 21.8. Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them." 27.3. And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over; that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath promised thee." 27.8. And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.’" 28.58. If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and awful Name, the LORD thy God;" 29.28. The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 32.1. Give ear, ye heavens, and I will speak; And let the earth hear the words of my mouth." 32.2. My doctrine shall drop as the rain, My speech shall distil as the dew; As the small rain upon the tender grass, And as the showers upon the herb." 32.3. For I will proclaim the name of the LORD; Ascribe ye greatness unto our God." 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.5. Is corruption His? No; His children’s is the blemish; A generation crooked and perverse." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?" 32.7. Remember the days of old, Consider the years of many generations; Ask thy father, and he will declare unto thee, Thine elders, and they will tell thee." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance." 32.10. He found him in a desert land, and in the waste, a howling wilderness; He compassed him about, He cared for him, He kept him as the apple of His eye." 32.11. As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—" 32.12. The LORD alone did lead him, And there was no strange god with Him." 32.13. He made him ride on the high places of the earth, And he did eat the fruitage of the field; And He made him to suck honey out of the crag, And oil out of the flinty rock;" 32.14. Curd of kine, and milk of sheep, With fat of lambs, And rams of the breed of Bashan, and he-goats, With the kidney-fat of wheat; And of the blood of the grape thou drankest foaming wine." 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation." 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not." 32.18. of the Rock that begot thee thou wast unmindful, And didst forget God that bore thee. ." 32.20. And He said: ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a very froward generation, Children in whom is no faithfulness." 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation." 32.26. I thought I would make an end of them, I would make their memory cease from among men;" 32.28. For they are a nation void of counsel, And there is no understanding in them." 32.29. If they were wise, they would understand this, They would discern their latter end." 32.30. How should one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Except their Rock had given them over And the LORD had delivered them up?" 32.31. For their rock is not as our Rock, Even our enemies themselves being judges." 32.35. Vengeance is Mine, and recompense, Against the time when their foot shall slip; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things that are to come upon them shall make haste." 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large." 32.37. And it is said: Where are their gods, The rock in whom they trusted;" 32.38. Who did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering? Let him rise up and help you, Let him be your protection." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 32.40. For I lift up My hand to heaven, And say: As I live for ever," 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’" 32.46. he said unto them: ‘Set your heart unto all the words wherewith I testify against you this day; that ye may charge your children therewith to observe to do all the words of this law." 33.2. And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.2, 12.23, 13.22, 19.5, 20.2, 20.6, 20.15, 20.19, 21.2-21.6, 21.35, 24.4, 24.7, 25.30, 26.36-26.37, 27.20, 30.8, 34.27, 35.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.23. וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.19. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם כִּי מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.3. אִם־כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁת עָלָיו׃ 21.3. אִם־בְּגַפּוֹ יָבֹא בְּגַפּוֹ יֵצֵא אִם־בַּעַל אִשָּׁה הוּא וְיָצְאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 21.4. אִם־אֲדֹנָיו יִתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה וְיָלְדָה־לוֹ בָנִים אוֹ בָנוֹת הָאִשָּׁה וִילָדֶיהָ תִּהְיֶה לַאדֹנֶיהָ וְהוּא יֵצֵא בְגַפּוֹ׃ 21.5. וְאִם־אָמֹר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד אָהַבְתִּי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי וְאֶת־בָּנָי לֹא אֵצֵא חָפְשִׁי׃ 21.6. וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֲדֹנָיו אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֶל־הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָה וְרָצַע אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ בַּמַּרְצֵעַ וַעֲבָדוֹ לְעֹלָם׃ 21.35. וְכִי־יִגֹּף שׁוֹר־אִישׁ אֶת־שׁוֹר רֵעֵהוּ וָמֵת וּמָכְרוּ אֶת־הַשּׁוֹר הַחַי וְחָצוּ אֶת־כַּסְפּוֹ וְגַם אֶת־הַמֵּת יֶחֱצוּן׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 26.36. וְעָשִׂיתָ מָסָךְ לְפֶתַח הָאֹהֶל תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵם׃ 26.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ לַמָּסָךְ חֲמִשָּׁה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב וְיָצַקְתָּ לָהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.1. וְכָל־חֲכַם־לֵב בָּכֶם יָבֹאוּ וְיַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 35.1. וַיַּקְהֵל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָם׃ 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.23. For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.19. And the LORD said unto Moses: Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel: Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven." 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.3. If he come in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he be married, then his wife shall go out with him." 21.4. If his master give him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself." 21.5. But if the servant shall plainly say: I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;" 21.6. then his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the door-post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever." 21.35. And if one man’s ox hurt another’s, so that it dieth; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the price of it; and the dead also they shall divide." 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 25.30. And thou shalt set upon the table showbread before Me always." 26.36. And thou shalt make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the weaver in colours." 26.37. And thou shalt make for the screen five pillars of acacia, and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold; and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them." 27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations." 34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’" 35.1. And Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel, and said unto them: ‘These are the words which the LORD hath commanded, that ye should do them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 17.5, 17.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 17.7. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 17.7. And I will establish My covet between Me and thee and thy seed after thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covet, to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.6, 10.10-10.11, 19.19, 21.19, 21.21, 22.32, 24.2, 24.6, 24.8, 26.1, 26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. אֵשׁ תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא תִכְבֶה׃ 10.11. וּלְהוֹרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 21.19. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בוֹ שֶׁבֶר רָגֶל אוֹ שֶׁבֶר יָד׃ 21.21. כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב׃ 22.32. וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 24.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד׃ 24.2. שֶׁבֶר תַּחַת שֶׁבֶר עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן כַּאֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מוּם בָּאָדָם כֵּן יִנָּתֶן בּוֹ׃ 24.6. וְשַׂמְתָּ אוֹתָם שְׁתַּיִם מַעֲרָכוֹת שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲרָכֶת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַטָּהֹר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 24.8. בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת יַעַרְכֶנּוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 6.6. Fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually; it shall not go out." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 10.11. and that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.’" 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 21.19. or a man that is broken-footed, or broken-handed," 21.21. no man of the seed of Aaron the priest, that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire; he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God." 22.32. And ye shall not profane My holy name; but I will be hallowed among the children of Israel: I am the LORD who hallow you," 24.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 24.6. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six in a row, upon the pure table before the LORD." 24.8. Every sabbath day he shall set it in order before the LORD continually; it is from the children of Israel, an everlasting covet." 26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God." 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.51, 3.10, 3.38, 4.5-4.20, 18.1-18.7, 18.22-18.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.51. וּבִנְסֹעַ הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וּבַחֲנֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָקִימוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 3.38. וְהַחֹנִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן קֵדְמָה לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִזְרָחָה מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו שֹׁמְרִים מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 4.5. וּבָא אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו בִּנְסֹעַ הַמַּחֲנֶה וְהוֹרִדוּ אֵת פָּרֹכֶת הַמָּסָךְ וְכִסּוּ־בָהּ אֵת אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת׃ 4.6. וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו כְּסוּי עוֹר תַּחַשׁ וּפָרְשׂוּ בֶגֶד־כְּלִיל תְּכֵלֶת מִלְמָעְלָה וְשָׂמוּ בַּדָּיו׃ 4.7. וְעַל שֻׁלְחַן הַפָּנִים יִפְרְשׂוּ בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו אֶת־הַקְּעָרֹת וְאֶת־הַכַּפֹּת וְאֶת־הַמְּנַקִּיֹּת וְאֵת קְשׂוֹת הַנָּסֶךְ וְלֶחֶם הַתָּמִיד עָלָיו יִהְיֶה׃ 4.8. וּפָרְשׂוּ עֲלֵיהֶם בֶּגֶד תּוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְכִסּוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמִכְסֵה עוֹר תָּחַשׁ וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־בַּדָּיו׃ 4.9. וְלָקְחוּ בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וְכִסּוּ אֶת־מְנֹרַת הַמָּאוֹר וְאֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת־מַלְקָחֶיהָ וְאֶת־מַחְתֹּתֶיהָ וְאֵת כָּל־כְּלֵי שַׁמְנָהּ אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ־לָהּ בָּהֶם׃ 4.11. וְעַל מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב יִפְרְשׂוּ בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וְכִסּוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמִכְסֵה עוֹר תָּחַשׁ וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־בַּדָּיו׃ 4.12. וְלָקְחוּ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ־בָם בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְנָתְנוּ אֶל־בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וְכִסּוּ אוֹתָם בְּמִכְסֵה עוֹר תָּחַשׁ וְנָתְנוּ עַל־הַמּוֹט׃ 4.13. וְדִשְּׁנוּ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד אַרְגָּמָן׃ 4.14. וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ עָלָיו בָּהֶם אֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּת אֶת־הַמִּזְלָגֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקֹת כֹּל כְּלֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו כְּסוּי עוֹר תַּחַשׁ וְשָׂמוּ בַדָּיו׃ 4.15. וְכִלָּה אַהֲרֹן־וּבָנָיו לְכַסֹּת אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּנְסֹעַ הַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יָבֹאוּ בְנֵי־קְהָת לָשֵׂאת וְלֹא־יִגְּעוּ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וָמֵתוּ אֵלֶּה מַשָּׂא בְנֵי־קְהָת בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.16. וּפְקֻדַּת אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁמֶן הַמָּאוֹר וּקְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים וּמִנְחַת הַתָּמִיד וְשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה פְּקֻדַּת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ בְּקֹדֶשׁ וּבְכֵלָיו׃ 4.17. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 4.18. אַל־תַּכְרִיתוּ אֶת־שֵׁבֶט מִשְׁפְּחֹת הַקְּהָתִי מִתּוֹךְ הַלְוִיִּם׃ 4.19. וְזֹאת עֲשׂוּ לָהֶם וְחָיוּ וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּגִשְׁתָּם אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו יָבֹאוּ וְשָׂמוּ אוֹתָם אִישׁ אִישׁ עַל־עֲבֹדָתוֹ וְאֶל־מַשָּׂאוֹ׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבֵית־אָבִיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם׃ 18.1. בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים תֹּאכֲלֶנּוּ כָּל־זָכָר יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ׃ 18.2. וְגַם אֶת־אַחֶיךָ מַטֵּה לֵוִי שֵׁבֶט אָבִיךָ הַקְרֵב אִתָּךְ וְיִלָּווּ עָלֶיךָ וִישָׁרְתוּךָ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאַרְצָם לֹא תִנְחָל וְחֵלֶק לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּתוֹכָם אֲנִי חֶלְקְךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 18.4. וְנִלְווּ עָלֶיךָ וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לְכֹל עֲבֹדַת הָאֹהֶל וְזָר לֹא־יִקְרַב אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד קֶצֶף עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.6. וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֶם מַתָּנָה נְתֻנִים לַיהוָה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.7. וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ תִּשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם לְכָל־דְּבַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וַעֲבַדְתֶּם עֲבֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 1.51. And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down; and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death." 3.10. And thou shalt appoint Aaron and his sons, that they may keep their priesthood; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’" 3.38. And those that were to pitch before the tabernacle eastward, before the tent of meeting toward the sunrising, were Moses, and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary, even the charge for the children of Israel; and the common man that drew nigh was to be put to death." 4.5. when the camp setteth forward, Aaron shall go in, and his sons, and they shall take down the veil of the screen, and cover the ark of the testimony with it;" 4.6. and shall put thereon a covering of sealskin, and shall spread over it a cloth all of blue, and shall set the staves thereof." 4.7. And upon the table of showbread they shall spread a cloth of blue, and put thereon the dishes, and the pans, and the bowls, and the jars wherewith to pour out; and the continual bread shall remain thereon." 4.8. And they shall spread upon them a cloth of scarlet, and cover the same with a covering of sealskin, and shall set the staves thereof." 4.9. And they shall take a cloth of blue, and cover the candlestick of the light, and its lamps, and its tongs, and its snuffdishes, and all the oil vessels thereof, wherewith they minister unto it." 4.10. And they shall put it and all the vessels thereof within a covering of sealskin, and shall put it upon a bar." 4.11. And upon the golden altar they shall spread a cloth of blue, and cover it with a covering of sealskin, and shall set the staves thereof." 4.12. And they shall take all the vessels of ministry, wherewith they minister in the sanctuary, and put them in a cloth of blue, and cover them with a covering of sealskin, and shall put them on a bar." 4.13. And they shall take away the ashes from the altar, and spread a purple cloth thereon." 4.14. And they shall put upon it all the vessels thereof, wherewith they minister about it, the fire-pans, the flesh-hooks, and the shovels, and the basins, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread upon it a covering of sealskin, and set the staves thereof." 4.15. And when Aaron and his sons have made an end of covering the holy furniture, and all the holy vessels, as the camp is to set forward—after that, the sons of Kohath shall come to bear them; but they shall not touch the holy things, lest they die. These things are the burden of the sons of Kohath in the tent of meeting." 4.16. And the charge of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest shall be the oil for the light, and the sweet incense, and the continual meal-offering, and the anointing oil: he shall have the charge of all the tabernacle, and of all that therein is, whether it be the sanctuary, or the furniture thereof.’" 4.17. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 4.18. ’Cut ye not off the tribe of the families of the Kohathites from among the Levites;" 4.19. but thus do unto them, that they may live, and not die, when they approach unto the most holy things: Aaron and his sons shall go in, and appoint them every one to his service and to his burden;" 4.20. but they shall not go in to see the holy things as they are being covered, lest they die.’" 18.1. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou and thy sons and thy fathers’ house with thee shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood." 18.2. And thy brethren also, the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou near with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee, thou and thy sons with thee being before the tent of the testimony." 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye." 18.4. And they shall be joined unto thee, and keep the charge of the tent of meeting, whatsoever the service of the Tent may be; but a common man shall not draw nigh unto you." 18.5. And ye shall keep the charge of the holy things, and the charge of the altar, that there be wrath no more upon the children of Israel." 18.6. And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel; for you they are given as a gift unto the LORD, to do the service of the tent of meeting." 18.7. And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood in everything that pertaineth to the altar, and to that within the veil; and ye shall serve; I give you the priesthood as a service of gift; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’" 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.23, 74.19, 82.6-82.7, 122.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.23. כִּי־עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל־הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה׃ 74.19. אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח׃ 82.6. אֲ‍נִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 82.7. אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃ 122.3. יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַבְּנוּיָה כְּעִיר שֶׁחֻבְּרָה־לָּהּ יַחְדָּו׃ 44.23. Nay, but for Thy sake are we killed all the day; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter." 74.19. O deliver not the soul of Thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast; Forget not the life of Thy poor for ever." 82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High." 82.7. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'" 122.3. Jerusalem, that art builded as a city that is compact together;"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.29, 6.35, 7.36, 18.45 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.29. וְאֵת כָּל־קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת מֵסַב קָלַע פִּתּוּחֵי מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים מִלִּפְנִים וְלַחִיצוֹן׃ 6.35. וְקָלַע כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרוֹת וּפְטֻרֵי צִצִּים וְצִפָּה זָהָב מְיֻשָּׁר עַל־הַמְּחֻקֶּה׃ 7.36. וַיְפַתַּח עַל־הַלֻּחֹת יְדֹתֶיהָ וְעַל ומסגרתיה [מִסְגְּרֹתֶיהָ] כְּרוּבִים אֲרָיוֹת וְתִמֹרֹת כְּמַעַר־אִישׁ וְלֹיוֹת סָבִיב׃ 18.45. וַיְהִי עַד־כֹּה וְעַד־כֹּה וְהַשָּׁמַיִם הִתְקַדְּרוּ עָבִים וְרוּחַ וַיְהִי גֶּשֶׁם גָּדוֹל וַיִּרְכַּב אַחְאָב וַיֵּלֶךְ יִזְרְעֶאלָה׃ 6.29. And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, within and without." 6.35. And he carved thereon cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers; and he overlaid them with gold fitted upon the graven work." 7.36. And on the plates of the stays thereof, and on the borders thereof, he graved cherubim, lions, and palm-trees, according to the space of each, with wreaths round about." 18.45. And it came to pass in a little while, that the heaven grew black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain. And Ahab rode, and went to Jezreel."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 21.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.7. וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ כִּי לֹא־הָיָה שָׁם לֶחֶם כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים הַמּוּסָרִים מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה לָשׂוּם לֶחֶם חֹם בְּיוֹם הִלָּקְחוֹ׃ 21.7. So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the showbread, that was taken from before the Lord, to put hot bread in its place on the day when it was taken away."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.24. וְגַם אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִים וְאֶת־הַגִּלֻּלִים וְאֵת כָּל־הַשִּׁקֻּצִים אֲשֶׁר נִרְאוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם בִּעֵר יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר מָצָא חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 23.24. Moreover them that divined by a ghost or a familiar spirit, and the teraphim, and the idols, and all the detestable things that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might confirm the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. וְהָיָה כִּי תִרְבּוּ וּפְרִיתֶם בָּאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה לֹא־יֹאמְרוּ עוֹד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל־לֵב וְלֹא יִזְכְּרוּ־בוֹ וְלֹא יִפְקֹדוּ וְלֹא יֵעָשֶׂה עוֹד׃ 3.16. And it shall come to pass, when ye are multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more: The ark of the covet of the LORD; neither shall it come to mind; neither shall they make mention of it; neither shall they miss it; neither shall it be made any more."
11. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
12. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. חֵטְא חָטְאָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַל־כֵּן לְנִידָה הָיָתָה כָּל־מְכַבְּדֶיהָ הִזִּילוּהָ כִּי־רָאוּ עֶרְוָתָהּ גַּם־הִיא נֶאֶנְחָה וַתָּשָׁב אָחוֹר׃ 1.8. Jerusalem sinned grievously, therefore she became a wanderer; all who honored her despised her, for they have seen her shame; moreover, she herself sighed and turned away."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.5, 44.7 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי יְהֹוָה בֶּן־אָדָם שִׂים לִבְּךָ וּרְאֵה בְעֵינֶיךָ וּבְאָזְנֶיךָ שְּׁמָע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר אֹתָךְ לְכָל־חֻקּוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־תורתו [תּוֹרֹתָיו] וְשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ לִמְבוֹא הַבַּיִת בְּכֹל מוֹצָאֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ׃ 44.7. בַּהֲבִיאֲכֶם בְּנֵי־נֵכָר עַרְלֵי־לֵב וְעַרְלֵי בָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לְחַלְּלוֹ אֶת־בֵּיתִי בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם אֶת־לַחְמִי חֵלֶב וָדָם וַיָּפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 44.5. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Son of man, mark well, and behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordices of the house of the LORD, and all the laws thereof; and mark well the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary." 44.7. in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covet, to add unto all your abominations."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 34.19 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.19. וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 34.19. And it came to pass, when the king had heard the words of the Law, that he rent his clothes."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים יְגֵעִים לֹא־יוּכַל אִישׁ לְדַבֵּר לֹא־תִשְׂבַּע עַיִן לִרְאוֹת וְלֹא־תִמָּלֵא אֹזֶן מִשְּׁמֹעַ׃ 1.8. All things toil to weariness; Man cannot utter it, The eye is not satisfied with seeing, Nor the ear filled with hearing."
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.9, 8.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.9. וַיֹּאמֶר נְחֶמְיָה הוּא הַתִּרְשָׁתָא וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לְכָל־הָעָם הַיּוֹם קָדֹשׁ־הוּא לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְאַבְּלוּ וְאַל־תִּבְכּוּ כִּי בוֹכִים כָּל־הָעָם כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.13. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי נֶאֶסְפוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְכָל־הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם אֶל־עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.9. And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law." 8.13. And on the second day were gathered together the heads of fathers’houses of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to give attention to the words of the Law."
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.8, 7.14, 7.16, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.8, 7.14, 7.16, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.1-2.8, 3.13-3.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. One finds in the records that Jeremiah the prophet ordered those who were being deported to take some of the fire, as has been told,' 2.2. and that the prophet after giving them the law instructed those who were being deported not to forget the commandments of the Lord, nor to be led astray in their thoughts upon seeing the gold and silver statues and their adornment.' 2.3. And with other similar words he exhorted them that the law should not depart from their hearts. 2.4. It was also in the writing that the prophet, having received an oracle, ordered that the tent and the ark should follow with him, and that he went out to the mountain where Moses had gone up and had seen the inheritance of God.' 2.5. And Jeremiah came and found a cave, and he brought there the tent and the ark and the altar of incense, and he sealed up the entrance.' 2.6. Some of those who followed him came up to mark the way, but could not find it.' 2.7. When Jeremiah learned of it, he rebuked them and declared: 'The place shall be unknown until God gathers his people together again and shows his mercy.' 2.8. And then the Lord will disclose these things, and the glory of the Lord and the cloud will appear, as they were shown in the case of Moses, and as Solomon asked that the place should be specially consecrated.' 3.13. But Heliodorus, because of the king's commands which he had, said that this money must in any case be confiscated for the king's treasury.' 3.14. So he set a day and went in to direct the inspection of these funds.There was no little distress throughout the whole city. 3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.' 3.16. To see the appearance of the high priest was to be wounded at heart, for his face and the change in his color disclosed the anguish of his soul.' 3.17. For terror and bodily trembling had come over the man, which plainly showed to those who looked at him the pain lodged in his heart.' 3.18. People also hurried out of their houses in crowds to make a general supplication because the holy place was about to be brought into contempt. 3.19. Women, girded with sackcloth under their breasts, thronged the streets. Some of the maidens who were kept indoors ran together to the gates, and some to the walls, while others peered out of the windows.' 3.20. And holding up their hands to heaven, they all made entreaty.' 3.21. There was something pitiable in the prostration of the whole populace and the anxiety of the high priest in his great anguish. 3.22. While they were calling upon the Almighty Lord that he would keep what had been entrusted safe and secure for those who had entrusted it,' 3.23. Heliodorus went on with what had been decided. 3.24. But when he arrived at the treasury with his bodyguard, then and there the Sovereign of spirits and of all authority caused so great a manifestation that all who had been so bold as to accompany him were astounded by the power of God, and became faint with terror.' 3.25. For there appeared to them a magnificently caparisoned horse, with a rider of frightening mien, and it rushed furiously at Heliodorus and struck at him with its front hoofs. Its rider was seen to have armor and weapons of gold.' 3.26. Two young men also appeared to him, remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed, who stood on each side of him and scourged him continuously, inflicting many blows on him.' 3.27. When he suddenly fell to the ground and deep darkness came over him, his men took him up and put him on a stretcher' 3.28. and carried him away, this man who had just entered the aforesaid treasury with a great retinue and all his bodyguard but was now unable to help himself; and they recognized clearly the sovereign power of God.'
20. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 40.3.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.69, 1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.69. And the most evident proof of this may be found in the events which actually took place. For innumerable companies of men from a countless variety of cities, some by land and some by sea, from east and from west, from the north and from the south, came to the temple at every festival, as if to some common refuge and safe asylum from the troubles of this most busy and painful life, seeking to find tranquillity, and to procure a remission of and respite from those cares by which from their earliest infancy they had been hampered and weighed down 1.72. And in the centre was the temple itself, beautiful beyond all possible description, as one may conjecture from what is now seen around on the outside; for what is innermost is invisible to every human creature except the high priest alone, and even he is enjoined only to enter that holy place once in each year. Everything then is invisible. For he carries in a brasier full of coals and frankincense; and then, when a great smoke proceeds from it, as is natural, and when everything all around is enveloped in it, then the sight of men is clouded, and checked, and prevented from penetrating in, being wholly unable to pierce the cloud.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. on which account they frequent all the most prosperous and fertile countries of Europe and Asia, whether islands or continents, looking indeed upon the holy city as their metropolis in which is erected the sacred temple of the most high God, but accounting those regions which have been occupied by their fathers, and grandfathers, and great grandfathers, and still more remote ancestors, in which they have been born and brought up, as their country; and there are even some regions to which they came the very moment that they were originally settled, sending a colony of their people to do a pleasure to the founders of the colony.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 281, 278 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

278. And I am, as you know, a Jew; and Jerusalem is my country, in which there is erected the holy temple of the most high God. And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
24. Anon., 2 Baruch, 6.4-6.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.122-3.123, 3.125, 3.128, 3.145-3.146, 7.158-7.159, 7.162, 8.90, 8.104, 12.145, 12.250, 14.71-14.72, 14.482-14.483, 15.407, 15.419-15.420, 18.90-18.95, 20.6-20.14, 20.189-20.196 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.122. 4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests. 3.123. However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only. 3.125. The first veil was ten cubits every way, and this they spread over the pillars which parted the temple, and kept the most holy place concealed within; and this veil was that which made this part not visible to any. Now the whole temple was called The Holy Place: but that part which was within the four pillars, and to which none were admitted, was called The Holy of Holies. 3.128. Over this there was a veil of linen, of the same largeness with the former: it was to be drawn this way or that way by cords, the rings of which, fixed to the texture of the veil, and to the cords also, were subservient to the drawing and undrawing of the veil, and to the fastening it at the corner, that then it might be no hinderance to the view of the sanctuary, especially on solemn days; 3.145. It was made with its knops, and lilies, and pomegranates, and bowls (which ornaments amounted to seventy in all); by which means the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base, and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets, including the sun among them. 3.146. It terminated in seven heads, in one row, all standing parallel to one another; and these branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imitation of the number of the planets. These lamps looked to the east and to the south, the candlestick being situate obliquely. 7.158. and instructed them how he had hopes of the recovery of the child while it was alive, and accordingly did all that was proper for him to do, as thinking by such means to render God propitious to him; but that when the child was dead, there was no longer any occasion for grief, which was then to no purpose. When he had said this, they commended the king’s wisdom and understanding. He then went in unto Bathsheba his wife, and she conceived and bare a son; and by the command of Nathan the prophet called his name Solomon. 7.159. 5. But Joab sorely distressed the Ammonites in the siege, by cutting off their waters, and depriving them of other means of subsistence, till they were in the greatest want of meat and drink, for they depended only on one small well of water, and this they durst not drink of too freely, lest the fountain should entirely fail them. 7.162. 1. When the king was returned to Jerusalem, a sad misfortune befell his house, on the occasion following: He had a daughter, who was yet a virgin, and very handsome, insomuch that she surpassed all the most beautiful women; her name was Tamar; she had the same mother with Absalom. 8.104. Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments, which God spake to Moses in Mount Sinai, and which were engraved upon them; but they set the candlestick, and the table, and the golden altar in the temple, before the most secret place, in the very same places wherein they stood till that time in the tabernacle. So they offered up the daily sacrifices; 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 14.71. of the Jews there fell twelve thousand, but of the Romans very few. Absalom, who was at once both uncle and father-in-law to Aristobulus, was taken captive; and no small enormities were committed about the temple itself, which, in former ages, had been inaccessible, and seen by none; 14.72. for Pompey went into it, and not a few of those that were with him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful for any other men to see but only for the high priests. There were in that temple the golden table, the holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a great quantity of spices; and besides these there were among the treasures two thousand talents of sacred money: yet did Pompey touch nothing of all this, on account of his regard to religion; and in this point also he acted in a manner that was worthy of his virtue. 14.482. 3. And now Herod having overcome his enemies, his care was to govern those foreigners who had been his assistants, for the crowd of strangers rushed to see the temple, and the sacred things in the temple; 14.483. but the king, thinking a victory to be a more severe affliction than a defeat, if any of those things which it was not lawful to see should be seen by them, used entreaties and threatenings, and even sometimes force itself, to restrain them. 15.407. for that they ought to have them in their power, as they formerly had. However, the Jews sent ambassadors to Claudius Caesar, to intercede with him for them; upon whose coming, king Agrippa, junior, being then at Rome, asked for and obtained the power over them from the emperor, who gave command to Vitellius, who was then commander in Syria, to give it them accordingly. 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 18.91. although at this time they were laid up in the tower of Antonia, the citadel so called, and that on the occasion following: There was one of the [high] priests, named Hyrcanus; and as there were many of that name, he was the first of them; this man built a tower near the temple, and when he had so done, he generally dwelt in it, and had these vestments with him, because it was lawful for him alone to put them on, and he had them there reposited when he went down into the city, and took his ordinary garments; 18.92. the same things were continued to be done by his sons, and by their sons after them. But when Herod came to be king, he rebuilt this tower, which was very conveniently situated, in a magnificent manner; and because he was a friend to Antonius, he called it by the name of Antonia. And as he found these vestments lying there, he retained them in the same place, as believing, that while he had them in his custody, the people would make no innovations against him. 18.93. The like to what Herod did was done by his son Archelaus, who was made king after him; after whom the Romans, when they entered on the government, took possession of these vestments of the high priest, and had them reposited in a stone-chamber, under the seal of the priests, and of the keepers of the temple, the captain of the guard lighting a lamp there every day; 18.94. and seven days before a festival they were delivered to them by the captain of the guard, when the high priest having purified them, and made use of them, laid them up again in the same chamber where they had been laid up before, and this the very next day after the feast was over. This was the practice at the three yearly festivals, and on the fast day; 18.95. but Vitellius put those garments into our own power, as in the days of our forefathers, and ordered the captain of the guard not to trouble himself to inquire where they were laid, or when they were to be used; and this he did as an act of kindness, to oblige the nation to him. Besides which, he also deprived Joseph, who was also called Caiaphas, of the high priesthood, and appointed Jonathan the son of Aus, the former high priest, to succeed him. After which, he took his journey back to Antioch. 20.6. He also at this time sent for the high priests and the principal citizens of Jerusalem, and this at the command of the emperor, and admonished them that they should lay up the long garment and the sacred vestment, which it is customary for nobody but the high priest to wear, in the tower of Antonia, that it might be under the power of the Romans, as it had been formerly. 20.6. 2. When he had said this, he set Artabanus upon his horse, and followed him on foot, in honor of a king whom he owned as greater than himself; which, when Artabanus saw, he was very uneasy at it, and sware by his present fortune and honor that he would get down from his horse, unless Izates would get upon his horse again, and go before him. 20.7. Now the Jews durst not contradict what he had said, but desired Fadus, however, and Longinus, (which last was come to Jerusalem, and had brought a great army with him, out of a fear that the [rigid] injunctions of Fadus should force the Jews to rebel,) that they might, in the first place, have leave to send ambassadors to Caesar, to petition him that they may have the holy vestments under their own power; and that, in the next place, they would tarry till they knew what answer Claudius would give to that their request. 20.7. but he could not prevail with him. For Izates so well knew the strength and good fortune of the Romans, that he took Bardanes to attempt what was impossible to be done; 20.8. So they replied, that they would give them leave to send their ambassadors, provided they would give them their sons as pledges [for their peaceable behavior]. And when they had agreed so to do, and had given them the pledges they desired, the ambassadors were sent accordingly. 20.8. and forced all the rest to betake themselves to flight. He also pursued their king, and drove him into a fortress called Arsamus, and following on the siege vigorously, he took that fortress. And when he had plundered it of all the prey that was in it, which was not small, he returned to Adiabene; yet did not he take Abia alive, because, when he found himself encompassed on every side, he slew himself. 20.9. But when, upon their coming to Rome, Agrippa, junior, the son of the deceased, understood the reason why they came, (for he dwelt with Claudius Caesar, as we said before,) he besought Caesar to grant the Jews their request about the holy vestments, and to send a message to Fadus accordingly. 20.9. “O Lord and Governor, if I have not in vain committed myself to thy goodness, but have justly determined that thou only art the Lord and principal of all beings, come now to my assistance, and defend me from my enemies, not only on my own account, but on account of their insolent behavior with regard to thy power, while they have not feared to lift up their proud and arrogant tongue against thee.” 20.11. “Claudius Caesar Germanicus, tribune of the people the fifth time, and designed consul the fourth time, and imperator the tenth time, the father of his country, to the magistrates, senate, and people, and the whole nation of the Jews, sendeth greeting. 20.11. But when he could not induce them to be quiet for they still went on in their reproaches to him, he gave order that the whole army should take their entire armor, and come to Antonia, which was a fortress, as we have said already, which overlooked the temple; 20.12. Upon the presentation of your ambassadors to me by Agrippa, my friend, whom I have brought up, and have now with me, and who is a person of very great piety, who are come to give me thanks for the care I have taken of your nation, and to entreat me, in an earnest and obliging manner, that they may have the holy vestments, with the crown belonging to them, under their power,—I grant their request, as that excellent person Vitellius, who is very dear to me, had done before me. 20.12. upon which the Galileans were much displeased, and persuaded the multitude of the Jews to betake themselves to arms, and to regain their liberty, saying that slavery was in itself a bitter thing, but that when it was joined with direct injuries, it was perfectly intolerable 20.13. And I have complied with your desire, in the first place, out of regard to that piety which I profess, and because I would have every one worship God according to the laws of their own country; and this I do also because I shall hereby highly gratify king Herod, and Agrippa, junior, whose sacred regards to me, and earnest good-will to you, I am well acquainted with, and with whom I have the greatest friendship, and whom I highly esteem, and look on as persons of the best character. 20.13. From whence he came to a certain village called Lydda, which was not less than a city in largeness, and there heard the Samaritan cause a second time before his tribunal, and there learned from a certain Samaritan that one of the chief of the Jews, whose name was Dortus, and some other innovators with him, four in number, persuaded the multitude to a revolt from the Romans; 20.14. Now I have written about these affairs to Cuspius Fadus, my procurator. The names of those that brought me your letter are Cornelius, the son of Cero, Trypho, the son of Theudio, Dorotheus, the son of Nathaniel, and John, the son of Jotre. This letter is dated before the fourth of the calends of July, when Rufus and Pompeius Sylvanus are consuls.” 20.14. He also gave Mariamne in marriage to Archelaus, the son of Helcias, to whom she had formerly been betrothed by Agrippa her father; from which marriage was derived a daughter, whose name was Bernice. 20.189. 11. About the same time king Agrippa built himself a very large dining-room in the royal palace at Jerusalem, near to the portico. 20.191. which thing, when the chief men of Jerusalem saw they were very much displeased at it; for it was not agreeable to the institutions of our country or law that what was done in the temple should be viewed by others, especially what belonged to the sacrifices. They therefore erected a wall upon the uppermost building which belonged to the inner court of the temple towards the west 20.192. which wall when it was built, did not only intercept the prospect of the dining-room in the palace, but also of the western cloisters that belonged to the outer court of the temple also, where it was that the Romans kept guards for the temple at the festivals. 20.193. At these doings both king Agrippa, and principally Festus the procurator, were much displeased; and Festus ordered them to pull the wall down again: but the Jews petitioned him to give them leave to send an embassage about this matter to Nero; for they said they could not endure to live if any part of the temple should be demolished; 20.194. and when Festus had given them leave so to do, they sent ten of their principal men to Nero, as also Ismael the high priest, and Helcias, the keeper of the sacred treasure. 20.195. And when Nero had heard what they had to say, he not only forgave them what they had already done, but also gave them leave to let the wall they had built stand. This was granted them in order to gratify Poppea, Nero’s wife, who was a religious woman, and had requested these favors of Nero, and who gave order to the ten ambassadors to go their way home; but retained Helcias and Ismael as hostages with herself. 20.196. As soon as the king heard this news, he gave the high priesthood to Joseph, who was called Cabi, the son of Simon, formerly high priest.
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.152-1.153, 1.354-1.355, 5.216-5.219, 6.420-6.425, 7.148 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.152. 6. But there was nothing that affected the nation so much, in the calamities they were then under, as that their holy place, which had been hitherto seen by none, should be laid open to strangers; for Pompey, and those that were about him, went into the temple itself whither it was not lawful for any to enter but the high priest, and saw what was reposited therein, the candlestick with its lamps, and the table, and the pouring vessels, and the censers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of spices heaped together, with two thousand talents of sacred money. 1.153. Yet did not he touch that money, nor any thing else that was there reposited; but he commanded the ministers about the temple, the very next day after he had taken it, to cleanse it, and to perform their accustomed sacrifices. Moreover, he made Hyrcanus high priest, as one that not only in other respects had showed great alacrity, on his side, during the siege, but as he had been the means of hindering the multitude that was in the country from fighting for Aristobulus, which they were otherwise very ready to have done; by which means he acted the part of a good general, and reconciled the people to him more by benevolence than by terror. 1.354. 3. But Herod’s concern at present, now he had gotten his enemies under his power, was to restrain the zeal of his foreign auxiliaries; for the multitude of the strange people were very eager to see the temple, and what was sacred in the holy house itself; but the king endeavored to restrain them, partly by his exhortations, partly by his threatenings, nay, partly by force, as thinking the victory worse than a defeat to him, if anything that ought not to be seen were seen by them. 1.355. He also forbade, at the same time, the spoiling of the city, asking Sosius in the most earnest manner, whether the Romans, by thus emptying the city of money and men, had a mind to leave him king of a desert,—and told him that he judged the dominion of the habitable earth too small a compensation for the slaughter of so many citizens. 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 6.421. the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation [with the citizens of Jerusalem], but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army, which, at the very first, occasioned so great a straitness among them that there came a pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly. 6.422. And that this city could contain so many people in it, is manifest by that number of them which was taken under Cestius, who being desirous of informing Nero of the power of the city, who otherwise was disposed to contemn that nation, entreated the high priests, if the thing were possible, to take the number of their whole multitude. 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company 6.424. found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy; 7.148. and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of;
27. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.194-1.199, 2.74-2.78, 2.102-2.109, 2.190-2.192 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.194. He also speaks of the mighty populousness of our nation, and says that “the Persians formerly carried away many ten thousands of our people to Babylon; as also that not a few ten thousands were removed after Alexander’s death into Egypt and Phoenicia, by reason of the sedition that was arisen in Syria.” 1.195. The same person takes notice in his history, how large the country is which we inhabit, as well as of its excellent character; and says that “the land in which the Jews inhabit contains three millions of arourae, and is generally of a most excellent and most fruitful soil: nor is Judea of lesser dimensions.” 1.196. The same man describes our city Jerusalem also itself as of a most excellent structure, and very large, and inhabited from the most ancient times. He also discourses of the multitude of men in it, and of the construction of our temple, after the following manner:— 1.197. “There are many strong places and villages (says he) in the country of Judea: but one strong city there is, about fifty furlongs in circumference, which is inhabited by a hundred and twenty thousand men, or thereabouts: they call it Jerusalem. 1.198. There is about the middle of the city, a wall of stone, the length of which is five hundred feet, and the breadth a hundred cubits, with double cloisters; wherein there is a square altar, not made of hewn stone, but composed of white stones gathered together, having each side twenty cubits long, and its altitude ten cubits. Hard by it is a large edifice, wherein there is an altar and a candlestick, both of gold, and in weight two talents; 1.199. upon these there is a light that is never extinguished, neither by night nor by day. There is no image, nor any thing, nor any donations therein; nothing at all is there planted, neither grove, nor any thing of that sort. The priests abide therein both nights and days, performing certain purifications, and drinking not the least drop of wine while they are in the temple.” 2.74. Accordingly, since the Grecians and some other nations think it a right thing to make images, nay, when they have painted the pictures of their parents, and wives, and children, they exult for joy; and some there are who take pictures for themselves of such persons as were no way related to them: nay, some take the pictures of such servants as they were fond of. What wonder is it then if such as these appear willing to pay the same respect to their princes and lords? 2.75. But then our legislator hath forbidden us to make images, not by way of denunciation beforehand, that the Roman authority was not to be honored, but as despising a thing that was neither necessary nor useful for either God or man; and he forbade them, as we shall prove hereafter, to make these images for any part of the animal creation 2.76. and much less for God himself, who is no part of such animal creation. Yet hath our legislator no where forbidden us to pay honors to worthy men, provided they be of another kind, and inferior to those we pay to God; with which honors we willingly testify our respect to our emperors, and to the people of Rome; 2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever. 2.78. And let this suffice for an answer in general to Apion as to what he says with relation to the Alexandrian Jews. /p 2.102. But I leave this matter; for the proper way of confuting fools is not to use bare words, but to appeal to the things themselves that make against them. Now then, all such as ever saw the construction of our temple, of what nature it was, know well enough how the purity of it was never to be profaned; 2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it; 2.104. all the Jews went into the second court, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments; 2.105. but for the most sacred place, none went in but the high priests, clothed in their peculiar garments. Now there is so great caution used about these offices of religion, that the priests are appointed to go into the temple but at certain hours: for, in the morning, at the opening of the inner temple, those that are to officiate receive the sacrifices, as they do again at noon, till the doors are shut. 2.106. Lastly, it is not so much as lawful to carry any vessel into the holy house; nor is there any thing therein, but the altar [of incense], the table [of show-bread], the censer, and the candlestick, which are all written in the law: 2.107. for there is nothing farther there, nor are there any mysteries performed that may not be spoken of; nor is there any feasting within the place. For what I have now said is publicly known, and supported by the testimony of the whole people, and their operations are very manifest; 2.108. for although there be four courses of the priests, and every one of them have above five thousand men in them, yet do they officiate on certain days only; and when those days are over, other priests succeed in the performance of their sacrifices, and assemble together at mid-day, and receive the keys of the temple, and the vessels by tale, without any thing relating to food or drink being carried into the temple; 2.109. nay, we are not allowed to offer such things at the altar, excepting what is prepared for the sacrifices. /p9. What then can we say of Apion, but that he examined nothing that concerned these things, while still he uttered incredible words about them! But it is a great shame for a grammarian not to be able to write true history. 2.191. All materials, let them be ever so costly, are unworthy to compose an image for him; and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is it agreeable to piety to form a resemblance of him. 2.192. We see his works, the light, the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the waters, the generations of animals, the productions of fruits. These things hath God made, not with hands, nor with labor, nor as wanting the assistance of any to cooperate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good also, they were made, and became good immediately. All men ought to follow this Being, and to worship him in the exercise of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most holy of all others. /p
28. Mishnah, Avot, 3.7, 3.14, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty." 3.14. He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2)." 5.20. Judah ben Tema said: Be strong as a leopard, and swift as an eagle, and fleet as a gazelle, and brave as a lion, to do the will of your Father who is in heaven. He used to say: the arrogant is headed for Gehinnom and the blushing for the garden of Eden. May it be the will, O Lord our God, that your city be rebuilt speedily in our days and set our portion in the studying of your Torah."
29. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages."
30. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
31. Mishnah, Hagigah, 3.7-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. One who opened his jar [of wine] or broke into his dough [to sell them] on account of the festival [and an am haaretz touched the wine or dough]: Rabbi Judah says: he may finish [selling them after the festival]; But the sages say: he may not finish. When the festival was over, they undertook the purification of the Temple court. If the festival ended on Friday, they did not undertake [the purification of the Temple court] because of the honor of the Shabbat. Rabbi Judah said: even not on Thursday, for the priests are not free." 3.8. How did they undertake the purification of the Temple court? They immersed the vessels which were in the Temple, and they say to them: “Be cautious lest you touch the table or menorah and defile them.” All the vessels that were in the Temple had second and third sets, so that if the first was defiled, they might bring a second set in its place. All the vessels that were in the Temple required immersion, except the altar of gold and the altar of bronze, for they are like the ground, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: because they were overlaid [with metal]."
32. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.8-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving." 1.9. The area between the porch (ulam) and the altar is holier, for [priests] who have blemishes or unkempt hair may not enter it. The Hekhal is holier, for no one whose hands or feet are unwashed may enter it. The Holy of Holies is holier, for only the high priest, on Yom Kippur, at the time of the service, may enter it. Rabbi Yose said: in five respects the area between the porch and the altar is equal to the Hekhal, for those afflicted with blemishes or with a wild growth of hair, or who have drunk wine or whose hands or feet are unwashed may not enter there, and the people must keep away from the area between the porch and the altar when the incense is being burned."
33. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.14. Rabbi Judah said: an unmarried man must not tend cattle, nor may two unmarried men sleep together under the same cover. But the sages permit it. One whose business is with women must not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a woman’s trade. Rabbi Meir says: one should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and pray to Him to whom wealth and property belong. For a profession does not contain [the potential for] poverty and wealth, for poverty is not due to one’s profession nor is wealth due to the profession, but all depends on merit. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: have you ever seen a wild beast or a bird with a profession? Yet they are sustained without trouble. Now, were they not were created only to serve me, while I was created to serve my master: surely then I should make a living without trouble! But my evil acts have done me in and withheld my livelihood. Abba Gurion a man of Sidon says in the name of Abba Guria: one should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, camel-driver, wagon-driver, sailor, shepherd, or shopkeeper, because their profession is the profession of robbers. Rabbi Judah says in his name: most donkey-drivers are wicked, while most camel-drivers are worthy men; and most sailors are pious. The best of doctors are destined for Gehenna, and the worthiest of butchers is Amalek’s partner. Rabbi Nehorai says: I will abandon every profession in the world and I will not teach my son anything but Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come. But all other professions are not so; for when a man comes to sickness or old age or suffering and cannot engage in his profession, he must die of starvation, whereas the Torah is not so, for it guards him from all evil in his youth and gives him a future and hope in his old age. of his youth what is said? “But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). of his old age what is said? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15). And it is also said of our father Abraham, “And Abraham was old … And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father observed the whole Torah before it was given, for it is said, “Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5)."
34. Mishnah, Kilayim, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.8. Only that which is spun or woven is forbidden under the law of kilayim, as it says, “You shall not wear shatnez” (Deuteronomy 22:1, that which is shua (combed) tavui (spun) and nuz (woven). Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: [the word shaatnez means that] he [the transgressor] is perverted (naloz) and causes his father in heaven to avert himself [from him]."
35. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place."
36. Mishnah, Middot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. In three places the priests keep watch in the Temple: in the chamber of Avtinas, in the chamber of the spark, and in the fire chamber. And the Levites in twenty-one places: Five at the five gates of the Temple Mount; Four at its four corners on the inside; Five at five of the gates of the courtyard; Four at its four corners on the outside; One at the offering chamber; One at the chamber of the curtain, And one behind the place of the kapporet."
37. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. “And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand Israel prevailed” etc. (Exodus 17:1. Did the hands of Moses wage war or break [Israel’s ability] to wage war? Rather this teaches that as long as Israel would look upwards and subject their hearts to their Father in heaven they prevailed, and if not they fell. Similarly, “Make for yourself a fiery serpent and mount it on a pole. And if anyone who is bitten shall look at it, he shall live” (Numbers 21:8). Did the serpent kill or did the serpent keep alive? Rather, when Israel would look upwards and subject their hearts to their Father in heaven, they were healed, and if not their [flesh] would melt away. A deaf-mute, a lunatic and a minor cannot cause others to fulfill their religious obligation. This is the general principle: one who is not himself obligated in the matter cannot perform it on behalf of others."
38. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
40. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”"
41. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
42. Mishnah, Yoma, 5, 2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Mishnah, Shekalim, 6.1-6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. There were in the Temple thirteen chests, thirteen tables and thirteen prostrations. [Members] of the household of Rabban Gamaliel and of Rabbi Haiah the chief of the priests used would prostrate fourteen [times. And where was the additional [prostration]? In front of the wood storage yard, for they had a tradition from their forefathers that the Ark was hidden there." 6.2. It once happened that a priest who was busy [there] noticed that the floor [of the wood storage area] was different from the others. He went and told it to his friend but before he had time to finish his words his soul departed. Then they knew for certain that there the Ark was hidden."
44. New Testament, Apocalypse, 7.2, 7.9, 8.3, 13.8, 20.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 8.3. Another angel came and stood over the altar, having a golden censer. Much incense was given to him, that he should add it to the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar which was before the throne. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 20.8. and he will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.
45. New Testament, Galatians, 3.16, 4.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman.
46. New Testament, Romans, 4.18, 10.8, 11.1-11.2, 11.4, 11.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy.
47. New Testament, Luke, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
48. New Testament, Mark, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power.
49. Tacitus, Histories, 5.9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.5-3.6, 3.14, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.5. Ben Azzai says, “Anyone whose body was stricken [with some decease], because of his wisdom it is a good sign for him. [And] anyone whose wisdom was stricken [with some decease], because of his body it is a bad sign for him.” He used to say, “Anyone who lost his mind, because of his wisdom it is a good sign for him. And anyone who lost his wisdom because of his mind it is a bad sign for him.”" 3.6. [A person] who prays [Shmoneh Esreh] must pay attention [to the meaning of the words]. Abba Shaul says, “There is a reference for [the need of attention in] prayer [in the Tanach], ‘Prepare their hearts, pay attention.’ “ (Psalms 10:17)" 3.14. Any [holiday] on which there is no Mussaf [prayer] for example, Chanukah and Purim, on Shacharit and Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot (blessings)] and he says [the paragraph] about the occasion in [the Beracha of] Hodaah (Thanks). And if he did not say [the paragraph] about the occasion, he does not have to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh]. And any [holiday] which has on it [the] Mussaf [prayer], for example Rosh Chodesh (New Month), and Chol Hamoed (the intermediate days of Sukkot and Pesach), on Shacharit and Mincha10 he would pray [the prayer of Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph] about the holiness of the day11 in [the Beracha of] Avodah (Temple Service).12 Rebbi Eliezer says, “[he says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. [On] Shabbat that fell out on Rosh Chodesh or on Chol Hamoed, during Shacharit and during Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh prayer that consists of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] occasion in [the Beracha of] Avodah. Rebbi Eliezer says, “[He says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. On Shabbat, on Yom Tov (Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot), and on Yom Kippur] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel and Rebbi Yishmael the son of Rebbi Yocha Ben Beroka say, “Any time that he is supposed to say seven [Berachot in Shmoneh Esreh] he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha].”" 6.7. [A person] that sees beautiful people and beautiful trees says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Mi Shekacha Lo Beriot Naot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has such beautiful creations [in His world])."
51. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1, 3.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

55. Tosefta, Sotah, 11.8, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together."
57. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.15-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Tosefta, Shekalim, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.14, 82.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.14. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ אֶת נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוּ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִין, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִן, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא, מַה הוּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ, אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, הָיִינוּ אוֹמְרִים הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ אֱלָהוּת הֵן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, לָמָּה שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִין לִדְרשׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאִי אַתֶּם יְגֵעִין בּוֹ, (דברים לב, מז): כִּי הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם, אֵימָתַי הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתֶּם יְגֵעִין בּוֹ. אֶלָּא אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְרַבּוֹת חַמָּה וּלְבָנָה וּמַזָּלוֹת, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, לְרַבּוֹת אִילָנוֹת וּדְשָׁאִין וְגַן עֵדֶן. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִשּׁוּם רַב הוּנָא אָמַר (שמות לח, כב): וּבְצַלְאֵל בֶּן אוּרִי בֶּן חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה עָשָׂה אֵת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ משֶׁה, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה' אֶת משֶׁה, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹא שָׁמַע מִפִּי רַבּוֹ, הִסְכִּימָה דַעְתּוֹ לְמַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר לְמשֶׁה בְּסִינַי. רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר (מלאכי ב, ו): תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ, אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁשָּׁמַע מִפִּי רַבּוֹ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי (משלי ג, כו): כִּי ה' יִהְיֶה בְכִסְלֶךָ, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה כְּסִיל בָּהֶן, (משלי ג, כו): וְשָׁמַר רַגְלְךָ מִלָּכֶד, רַבִּי דוֹסָאי אָמַר, מִן הַהוֹרָיָה. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר, מִן הָעֲבֵרָה. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבְדִימוּס, אִם נָתַתָּ מִכִּסְךָ צְדָקָה, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשַׁמֶּרְךָ מִן הַפִּיסִין וּמִן הַזִּמְיוֹנוֹת, מִן הַגֻּלְגְּלָאוֹת וּמִן הָאַרְנוֹנִית. 82.8. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וגו' (בראשית לה, יז), שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידִים מִשֶּׁל רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׁנּוּ עֲטִיפָתָן בִּשְׁעַת הַשְּׁמַד, פָּגַע בָּהֶם סַרְדְּיוֹט אֶחָד, אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם אַתֶּם בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה תְּנוּ נַפְשְׁכֶם עָלֶיהָ, וְאִם אֵין אַתֶּם בָּנֶיהָ לָמָּה אַתֶּם נֶהֱרָגִים עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בָּנֶיהָ אָנוּ וְעָלֶיהָ אָנוּ נֶהֱרָגִים אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לְאַבֵּד אֶת עַצְמוֹ לָדַעַת. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלשָׁה שְׁאֵלוֹת אֲנִי שׁוֹאֵל אֶתְכֶם אִם הֲשִׁיבוֹתֶם לִי הֲרֵי מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי אֲנִי מְשַׁמֵּד אֶתְכֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (ישעיה ג, יג): נִצָּב לָרִיב ה', וּכְתִיב (יואל ד, יב): כִּי שָׁם אֵשֵׁב לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם וגו'. אָמְרִין לוֹן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּן אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל דָּן אוֹתָן מְעֻמָּד מְקַצֵּר בַּדִּין וּמְפַשֵּׁר בַּדִּין, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא דָּן אֶת אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, דָּן מְיֻשָּׁב וּמְדַקְדֵּק בַּדִּין וּמַאֲרִיךְ בַּדִּין. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם אֶלָּא אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה בְּאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, מִשֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּן אֶת אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מְיֻשָּׁב דָּן אוֹתָם וּמְדַקְדֵּק בַּדִּין וּמַאֲרִיךְ בַּדִּין, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא נַעֲשָׂה אַנְטְדִיקוֹס כְּנֶגְדָן. אָמַר לָהֶם, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (משלי כח, יט): עֹבֵד אַדְמָתוֹ יִשְׂבַּע לָחֶם וגו'. אָמְרוּ לוֹ טוֹב מִי שֶׁהוּא חוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה אַחַת וּמְזַבְּלָהּ וּמְעַדְּרָהּ מִמִּי שֶׁהוּא חוֹכֵר שָׂדוֹת הַרְבֵּה וּמוֹבִירָן. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם, אֶלָּא עוֹבֵד אֱלֹהִים עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ יִשְׂבַּע לָחֶם, מִלַּחְמוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא. (משלי כח, יט): וּמְרַדֵּף רֵיקִים יִשְׂבַּע רִישׁ, אֵלּוּ עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁמְרַדְּפִים אַחֲרֵי הָרֵיק אַחַר עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלָּהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם, מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב: וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ כָּךְ מְמַסְמְסִין נַפְשָׁהּ שֶׁל חָיָה וְאוֹמְרִים לָהּ בִּשְׁעַת הַלֵּדָה אַל תִּירְאִי כִּי בֵּן זָכָר יָלָדְתְּ. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם אֶלָּא כָּל שֵׁבֶט וְשֵׁבֶט נוֹלְדָה תְּאוֹמָתוֹ עִמּוֹ, כְּהַהִיא דְּאָמַר אַבָּא חַלְפוֹי בֶּן קוּרְיָה תְּאוֹמָה יְתֵרָה נוֹלְדָה עִם בִּנְיָמִין. 1.14. Rabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Akiva and said to him \"seeing as you served Nahum, the man from Gamzu, twenty two years, [who teaches that] iachand iraqare [hermeneutic tools for] dimunition ( imi'ut /i) and ietand igamare [tools for] expansion ( iribuy /i) what is your opinion on the ietwritten here; what is it?\" and he said to him: \"if it was said \"in the beginning God created heavens and earth\" we would say that the heavens and the earth are divinities.\" He said to him \"\"for this is no empty thing for you\" (Deuteronomy 32:47) and if it seems empty to you, then it is because you do not know to interpret correctly when you are not careful with it \"for it is your life\" (Deuteronomy 32:47). When is it your life? When you are careful with it.\" But, ietthe heavens, [this iet /i] expands to include the sun and moon and zodiac signs, and ietthe earth, [this iet /i] expands to include the trees and grass and the Garden of Eden. Rabbi Tanchuma from Rav Huna said \"And Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur from the tribe of Judah made what Moses commanded him\" (Exodus 38:22), does it not say \" ietall which Hashem commanded Moses\", even the words which he did not hear from the mouth of his master, he planned his judgment from what was spoken to Moses on Sinai. Rabbi Chonya in the name of Rabbi said \"\"The Torah of truth was from his mouth\" (Malachi 2:6) these are the words which he heard from the mouth of his master\". And the rabbis said \"For Hashem will be your confidence\" (Proverbs 3:26), even though you are confident in them, \"He will guard your foot from being caught\" (Proverbs 3:26)\". Rabbi Dosai said \"from erroneous decisions\". Rabbi Abbahu said \"from sin\". Rabbi Levi said \"from harm\". Said Rabbi Avdimus \"if you gave charity from your money, the Holy One, blessed be He, guards you from tariffs and from fines, from head-taxes and from forced contributions\". "
61. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.2. אֵיכָה יָעִיב בְּאַפּוֹ ה' אֶת בַּת צִיּוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֵיךְ חַיֵּיב ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ יָת בַּת צִיּוֹן. אִית אַתְרָא דְּצָוְוחִין לְחַיָּיבָא עֲיָיבָא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר, אֵיךְ כַּיֵּיב ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ. אִית אַתְרָא דְּצַוְוחִין לְכֵיבָא עֵייבָא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֵיךְ שַׁיֵּים ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ יָת בַּת צִיּוֹן. הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֵּן, בָּכָה וּנְתָנוֹ עַל אַרְכּוּבוֹתָיו, בָּכָה וּנְתָנוֹ עַל זְרוֹעוֹתָיו, בָּכָה וְהִרְכִּיבוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ, טִנֵּף עָלָיו וּמִיָּד הִשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאָרֶץ, וְלָא הֲוַת מְחוּתִיתֵיהּ כִּמְסוּקִיתֵיהּ, מְסוּקִיתֵיהּ צִיבְחַר צִיבְחַר, וּמְחוּתִיתֵיהּ כּוֹלָּא חֲדָא. כָּךְ (הושע יא, ג): וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל זְרוֹעֹתָיו. וְאַחַר כָּךְ (הושע י, יא): אַרְכִּיב אֶפְרַיִם יַחֲרוֹשׁ יְהוּדָה יְשַׂדֶּד לוֹ יַעֲקֹב. וְאַחַר כָּךְ: הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי נַחְמָן מָשָׁל לִבְנֵי מְדִינָה שֶׁעָשׂוּ עֲטָרָה לַמֶּלֶךְ, הִקְנִיטוּהוּ וּסְבָלָן, הִקְנִיטוּהוּ וּסְבָלָן, אָחַר כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּלוּם אַתֶּם מַקְנִיטִין אוֹתִי אֶלָּא בַּעֲבוּר עֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטַּרְתֶּם לִי, הֵא לְכוֹן טְרוֹן בְּאַפֵּיכוֹן, כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּלוּם אַתֶּם מַקְנִיטִין אוֹתִי אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל אִיקוּנִין שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב שֶׁחֲקוּקָה עַל כִּסְאִי, הֵא לְכוֹן טְרוֹן בְּאַפֵּיכוֹן, הֱוֵי: הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ וגו'.
62. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

63. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 161, 232, 26, 305, 307, 310, 313-315, 317, 320-323, 327-329, 331-333, 335-336, 343, 351-352, 357, 41, 48-49, 157 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 116 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

66. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 2.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

67. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
68. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
69. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' צבאות לעטרת צבי [וגו'] מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה [אלו ת"ח] שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד 15b. basone with the heritage of ba poor man [ iperozeboti /i],as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. bRav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold fora loaf of bbread. /b,Haman’s previously quoted statement: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13), bteaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said:As long as Mordecai is around, ball thisthat I wear on my heart bavails me nothing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory,and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah 28:5). bWhat isthe meaning of b“for a crown of glory [ itzevi /i], and for a diadem [ ivelitzefirat /i] of beauty”?A crown bfor those that do His will [ itzivyono /i] anda diadem bfor those that await [ ivelamtzapin /i] His glory.One bmighthave thought that this extends bto allsuch individuals. Therefore, bthe verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder,i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). b“And for a spirit of justice”; thisis referring to bone who brings hisevil binclination to trialand forces himself to repent. b“To him that sits in judgment”; thisis referring to bone who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; thisis referring to bone who triumphs over hisevil binclination. “Them that turn back the battle”;this is referring to those bthat give and takein their discussion of ihalakha bin the battle ofunderstanding bthe Torah. “To the gate”;this is referring to bthe Torah scholars who arrive early and stay lateat the darkened gates bof the synagogues and study halls. /b,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. bThe Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these,referring to the Jewish people, bdifferent from those,the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toit: bThe Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah,whereas btheother bnations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah. /b,The Attribute of Justice bsaid to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink;the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, bthey stumble [ ipaku /i] in judgment [ ipeliliyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:7). The word ipaku /iin this context is referring bonly to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling [ ipuka /i] to you”(I Samuel 25:31), bandthe word ipeliliyya /ihere is referring bonly to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine [ ibifelilim /i]”(Exodus 21:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: b“And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house”(Esther 5:1). bRabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols,which was in the inner court, bthe Divine Presence left her. Sheimmediately bsaid: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”(Psalms 22:2). bPerhapsit is because bYou judge an unintentional sin as oneperformed bintentionally, andan action bdone due tocircumstances bbeyond one’s control asone done bwillingly. /b, bOr perhapsYou have left me bbecausein my prayers bI calledHaman ba dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”(Psalms 22:21). bSheat once bretracted and called himin her prayers ba lion, as it is statedin the following verse: b“Save me from the lion’s mouth”(Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: b“And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queenstanding in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck,so that she could stand erect, free of shame; bone that strung a cordof divine bgrace around her,endowing her with charm and beauty; band one that stretched theking’s bscepter. /b, bHow muchwas it stretched? bRabbi Yirmeya said:The scepter bwas two cubits, and he made it twelvecubits. bAnd some saythat he made it bsixteencubits, bandyet bothers say twenty-fourcubits. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:He made it bsixtycubits. bAnd similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter,which she stretched out to take Moshe. bAnd so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked”(Psalms 3:8), with regard to which bReish Lakish said: Do not readit as b“You have broken [ ishibbarta /i],” butas: bYou have enlarged [ isheribavta /i]. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, whoin turn heard it bfrom his teacher:The scepter was stretched btwo hundredcubits.,The verse states: b“Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed”(Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only bhalf the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom,as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. bAnd what is that? The building of the Temple;if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, blet the king and Haman come this day to the banquetthat I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat did Esther see to invite Hamanto the banquet? bRabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them”(Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet., bRabbi Yehoshua says: She learnedto do bthis fromthe Jewish teachings of bher father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat”(Proverbs 25:21). bRabbi Meir says:She invited him bin orderthat he be near her at all times, bso that he would not take counsel and rebelagainst Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him., bRabbi Yehuda says:She invited Haman bso that it not be found out that she was a Jew,as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. bRabbi Neḥemya says:She did this bso that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, andconsequently bneglect theirprayers for divine bmercy. Rabbi Yosei says:She acted in this manner, bso thatHaman would balways be on hand for her,as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya saidthat Esther said to herself: bPerhaps the Omnipresent will take noticethat all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, band He will perform for us a miracle. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:She said to herself: bI will act kindly toward himand thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so bin order thatboth bhe and she would be killed.Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. bRabban Gamliel says:Ahasuerus bwas a fickle king,and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe words of Rabbi Eliezer bHaModa’ito understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made theother bministers jealous of him,and in this way she brought about his downfall., bRabba says:Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: b“Pride goes before destruction”(Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to bAbaye and Rava, who both saythat she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: b“When they are heated, I will make feasts for them,and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that bRabba bar Avuhonce bhappened upon Elijahthe Prophet and bsaid to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther seefit to bact in this manner?What was the true reason behind her invitation? bHe,Elijah, bsaid to him:Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so bfor allthe reasons previously stated by bthe itanna’imand allthe reasons stated by bthe iamora’im /i. /b,The verse states: b“And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons”(Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: bAnd how manysons did he in fact have that are referred to as b“the multitude of his sons”? Rav said:There were bthirtysons; btenof them bdiedin childhood, bten of them were hangedas recorded in the book of Esther, band tensurvived and were forced to bbeg atother people’s bdoors. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Those that begged atother people’s bdoorsnumbered bseventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread”(I Samuel 2:5). bDo not read it as: “Those that were full” [ iseve’im/b]; brather,read it as bseventy [ ishivim /i],indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”, bAnd Rami bar Abba said: All ofHaman’s sons together numbered btwo hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude [ iverov /i] of his sons.”The numerical value of the word iverovequals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: bButin fact, bthe numerical value [ igimatriyya /i] ofthe word iverovequals two hundred and fourteen,not two hundred and eight. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The word iverovis writtenin the Bible without the second ivav /i, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: b“On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed”(Esther 6:1). bRabbi Tanḥum said:The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; bthe sleep of the King of the universe,the Holy One, Blessed be He, bwas disturbed. And the Sages say:The sleep of bthe higher ones,the angels, bwas disturbed, andthe sleep of bthe lower ones,the Jewish people, bwas disturbed. Rava said:This should be understood bliterally: The sleep of King Ahasueruswas disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: bA thought occurred to himand bhe saidto himself: bWhat is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man,i.e., against me, bto kill him. Hethen bsaid againto himself: bIf this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform meof this conspiracy? bHethen bsaid againto himself: bPerhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have notproperly brewarded him, and due to thatreason bpeople refrain from revealing to meinformation regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. bImmediatelyafterward, the verse states: b“And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought”(Esther 6:1).,The verse states: b“And they were readbefore the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that bthispassive form: “And they were read,” bteaches that they were readmiraculously bby themselves.It further says: b“And it was found written [ ikatuv /i]”(Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word ikatuv /i, which indicates that it was newly written? bIt should have said: A writing [ iketav /i]was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This bteaches /b
70. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. bandthe beighteen of thesix bbranches; thisequals btwenty-twogoblets. Concerning the bknobs as well,it is clear how the number belevenwas reached. The Candelabrum contains the btwo knobs of itsmain shaft, as the verse states: “Its knobs” (Exodus 25:34), with the plural “knobs” indicating that there were two, bandthe bsix ofthe six bbranches,as it is written: “In one branch, a knob and a flower” (Exodus 25:33). In addition to these eight knobs, the verse states: b“And a knobunder two branches of one piece with it, band a knobunder two branches of one piece with it, band a knobunder two branches of one piece with it” (Exodus 25:35); bthisequals belevenknobs., bBut from where do wederive that the Candelabrum contained bnine flowers?According to the verse there are the btwo flowers of itsmain shaft, as it is written: “And its flowers” (Exodus 25:34), band the six ofthe six bbranches,as it is written: “In one branch, a knob and a flower” (Exodus 25:33), meaning that bthere are eight,not nine, flowers on the Candelabrum. bRav Shalman saidin response: bIt is written: “It was a beaten work, from the base to the flower”(Numbers 8:4), which teaches that there was a ninth flower near the base., bRav says: The height ofthe bCandelabrumis bnine handbreadths. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRav:We learned in a mishna ( iTamid30b): bThere was a stone beforethe bCandelabrum and it had three steps, upon which the priestwould bstand and prepare the lampsfor kindling. If the Candelabrum was only nine handbreadths high, why would it be necessary for the priest to stand on an elevated surface to reach the lamps?,Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is asking me such a question? bWhen I saidthat the height of the Candelabrum is nine handbreadths, I was referring not to the total height, which is eighteen handbreadths; rather, I meant that the Candelabrum is nine handbreadths bfrom the pointat which the bbranchesextend from the main shaft band above. /b,§ bIt is written: “And the flowers, and the lamps, and the tongs, of gold, and that perfect gold [ imikhlot zahav /i]”(II Chronicles 4:21). The Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by imikhlot zahav /i? Rav Ami says:It is a reference to the fact bthatthe Candelabrum and its vessels bexhausted [ ikilattu /i] all of Solomon’s pure [ isagur /i] gold [ izahav /i],which was used in its fashioning in such great quantities. bAs Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav said: Solomon made ten Candelabrums, and for each and every one he brought one thousand talents of gold, and they placedthe gold bin the furnaceto refine it bone thousand times, until they reducedthe gold btoone btalentfor each Candelabrum, as it is stated: “of a talent of pure gold shall it be made” (Exodus 25:39).,The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat all of Solomon’s gold was exhausted for the fashioning of the Candelabrum and its vessels? bBut isn’t it written: “And all King Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold;silver was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon”(II Chronicles 9:20)? The Gemara answers: bWe are sayingthat Solomon’s bpure goldwas exhausted for the fashioning of the Candelabrum, but not all of his gold.,The Gemara asks: bAnd wouldrefining the gold breduceit bto this extent,that one thousand talents of gold would be reduced to one talent? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: An incidentoccurred where the weight of bthe Candelabrum of the Temple wasfound to be bgreater thanthe weight of the Candelabrum bof Moses byone iKordikinigold dinar, and they placed it in the furnace eighty times untilthe weight of the Candelabrum bstood atprecisely one btalent.Evidently, putting the Candelabrum into a furnace reduces its weight by very little. The Gemara answers: bOnce it is standing, it is standing,i.e., since the gold was refined to such a degree in the time of Solomon, later when it was refined eighty times it was reduced by the weight of only one dinar.,§ bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Upon the pure Candelabrum”(Leviticus 24:4)? It teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning it descended,i.e., was shown to Moses, bfrom the place of purity,i.e., by God, who showed Moses a model of the Candelabrum. The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,is that to say that phrase b“upon the pure Table”(Leviticus 24:6) also teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning itwas shown to Moses bfrom the place of purity? Rather,the expression “the bpureTable” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure. Here too,the expression “the bpureCandelabrum” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure. /b,The Gemara rejects this: bGranted,the inference drawn btherewith regard to the Table is bin accordance withthat bwhich Reish Lakishsays; bas Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Upon the pure Table”(Leviticus 24:6)? The expression “pure Table” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure,but why? Isn’t the Table ba wooden vessel designated to restin a fixed place, band any wooden vessel that is designated to restin a fixed place bis not susceptible tobecoming britually impure? Rather,this bteaches thatthe Table was not always left in a fixed place; the priests would bliftthe Table with its shewbread bto display the shewbread to the pilgrimsstanding in the Temple courtyard, banda priest would bsay to them: See your affection before the Omnipresent.For this reason, the Table is susceptible to becoming ritually impure.,Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by: See byour affectionbefore God? It is bin accordance withthat bwhich Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levisays, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: A great miracle was performed with the shewbread:Its condition at the time of bits removalfrom the Table, after having been left there for a week, was blikeits condition at the time of bits arrangementon the Table, bas it is stated: “To place hot bread on the day when it was taken away”(I Samuel 21:7), indicating that it was as hot on the day of its removal as it was on the day when it was placed on the Table.,The Gemara resumes stating its objection: bBut here,with regard to the Candelabrum, there is no reason to explain that the expression “the bpureCandelabrum” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure;this is bobvious,as the Candelabrums bare metal vessels, and metal vessels are susceptible tobecoming britually impurewhether or not they remain in a fixed location. bRather,it must be that the expression “the pure Candelabrum” teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning it descended,i.e., was shown to Moses, bfrom the place of purity. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: An Ark of fire and a Table of fire and a Candelabrum of fire descended from the Heavens, and Moses sawtheir format band fashionedthe vessels for the Tabernacle bin their likeness. As it is statedafter the command to fashion these items: b“And see that you make them after their pattern, which is being shown to you in the mount”(Exodus 25:40).,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,is that to say that the verse: b“And you shall set up the Tabernacle according to its fashion which has been shown to you in the mount”(Exodus 26:30), balsoindicates that God showed Moses a Tabernacle of fire? The Gemara answers: bHere,with regard to the Tabernacle, bit is written: “According to its fashion,”meaning that it should be built according to the instructions given to Moses, whereas bthere,with regard to the Ark, Table, and Candelabrum, bit is written: “After their pattern,”indicating that an actual model of the items was shown to Moses.,Apropos this discussion the Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The angel bGabrielwas bgirded with a type ofwide bbelt [ ipesikiyya /i]in the manner of artisans who tie up their clothes to prevent these clothes from hindering them in their work. bAnd he showedthe precise bway to fashion the Candelabrum to Moses, as it is written: “And this is the work of the Candelabrum”(Numbers 8:4), and the term “this” indicates that an exact replica was shown to him., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Three matters were difficult for Mosesto comprehend precisely, buntil the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedthem to bhim with His finger, and these arethe three matters: The form of the bCandelabrum, andthe exact size of the bnew moon, andthe impure bcreeping animals.The bCandelabrumwas shown to him, bas it is written: “And this is the work of the Candelabrum”(Numbers 8:4). The bnew moonwas shown to him, bas it is written: “This month shall be for you the beginning of months”(Exodus 12:2). The bcreeping animalswere shown to him, bas it is written: “And these are they which are unclean for youamong the swarming things” (Leviticus 11:29). bAnd there arethose bwho saythat God balsoshowed Moses bthe ihalakhotof slaughtering, as it is stated: “Now this is that which you shall sacrifice upon the altar”(Exodus 29:38), and slaughtering is the first ritual of sacrifice.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the btwo passages that are in the imezuza /i,the absence of beach prevents fulfillment of the mitzva with the others. Andfurthermore, the absence of beven one letter prevents fulfillment of the mitzva withthe rest of bthem.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat the absence of even one letter prevents fulfillment of the mitzva, since it is written: “And you shall write them [ iukhtavtam /i]” (Deuteronomy 6:9), which teaches that the writing [ iketav /i] must be complete [ itam /i]?, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It bwas necessaryto state that bonlyto teach that even the absence of bthe thorn,i.e., the small stroke, bofa letter iyod /iprevents fulfillment of the mitzva. The Gemara asks: bButisn’t bthis also obvious,since the letter is not formed properly? bRather,it is necessary baccording to anotherstatement bthat Rav Yehuda saysthat bRavsays, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Any letter that is not encircled withblank bparchment onall bfour of its sides,i.e., where its ink connects to the letter above it, below it, preceding it, or succeeding it, is bunfit.When the mishna makes reference to one letter preventing fulfillment of the mitzva, it is referring to a letter that touches an adjacent letter., bAshiyan bar Nadbakh says in the name of Rav Yehuda:If bthe innerpart bofthe letter ihehwas perforatedit is bfit,but if the perforation was in bthe leg ofthe letter ihehit is bunfit. Rabbi Zeira says:This matter was bexplained to me by Rav Huna, and Rabbi Ya’akov says:This matter was bexplained to me by Rav Yehuda:If bthe innerpart bofthe letter ihehwas perforatedit is bfit.In a case where the perforation was in bthe leg ofthe letter iheh /i, then bif there remained inthe leg that is attached to the roof of the letter bthe equivalent of the measure of a small letter,i.e., the letter iyod /i, then it is bfit. But if not,it is bunfit. /b,The Gemara relates: bAgra, the father-in-law of Rabbi Abba, /b
71. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שמשדלתו בדברים לפיכך הקדים הקב"ה כיבוד אב לכיבוד אם וגלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שהבן מתיירא מאביו יותר מאמו מפני שמלמדו תורה לפיכך הקדים הקב"ה מורא האם למורא האב,תני תנא קמיה דרב נחמן בזמן שאדם מצער את אביו ואת אמו אמר הקב"ה יפה עשיתי שלא דרתי ביניהם שאלמלי דרתי ביניהם ציערוני אמר ר' יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אסור לאדם שיהלך ארבע אמות בקומה זקופה שנא' (ישעיהו ו, ג) מלא כל הארץ כבודו רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לא מסגי ארבע אמות בגילוי הראש אמר שכינה למעלה מראשי,שאל בן אלמנה אחת את ר' אליעזר אבא אומר השקיני מים ואימא אומרת השקיני מים איזה מהם קודם אמר ליה הנח כבוד אמך ועשה כבוד אביך שאתה ואמך חייבים בכבוד אביך בא לפני רבי יהושע אמר לו כך,אמר לו רבי נתגרשה מהו אמר ליה מבין ריסי עיניך ניכר שבן אלמנה אתה הטל להן מים בספל וקעקע להן כתרנגולין,דרש עולא רבה אפיתחא דבי נשיאה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלח, ד) יודוך ה' כל מלכי ארץ כי שמעו אמרי פיך מאמר פיך לא נאמר אלא אמרי פיך בשעה שאמר הקב"ה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ולא יהיה לך אמרו אומות העולם לכבוד עצמו הוא דורש,כיון שאמר (שמות כ, יא) כבד את אביך ואת אמך חזרו והודו למאמרות הראשונות רבא אמר מהכא (תהלים קיט, קס) ראש דברך אמת ראש דברך ולא סוף דברך אלא מסוף דברך ניכר שראש דברך אמת,בעו מיניה מרב עולא עד היכן כיבוד אב ואם אמר להם צאו וראו מה עשה עובד כוכבים אחד באשקלון ודמא בן נתינה שמו פעם אחת בקשו חכמים פרקמטיא בששים ריבוא שכר והיה מפתח מונח תחת מראשותיו של אביו ולא ציערו,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שאלו את ר' אליעזר עד היכן כיבוד אב ואם אמר להם צאו וראו מה עשה עובד כוכבים אחד לאביו באשקלון ודמא בן נתינה שמו בקשו ממנו חכמים אבנים לאפוד בששים ריבוא שכר ורב כהנא מתני בשמונים ריבוא והיה מפתח מונח תחת מראשותיו של אביו ולא ציערו,לשנה האחרת נתן הקב"ה שכרו שנולדה לו פרה אדומה בעדרו נכנסו חכמי ישראל אצלו אמר להם יודע אני בכם שאם אני מבקש מכם כל ממון שבעולם אתם נותנין לי אלא אין אני מבקש מכם אלא אותו ממון שהפסדתי בשביל כבוד אבא,וא"ר חנינא ומה מי שאינו מצווה ועושה כך מצווה ועושה עאכו"כ דאר"ח גדול מצווה ועושה ממי שאינו מצווה ועושה,אמר רב יוסף מריש ה"א מאן דהוה אמר לי הלכה כר"י דאמר סומא פטור מן המצות עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן דהא לא מיפקידנא והא עבידנא השתא דשמעיתא להא דא"ר חנינא גדול מצווה ועושה יותר ממי שאינו מצווה ועושה אדרבה מאן דאמר לי דאין הלכה כרבי יהודה עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן,כי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת היה לבוש סירקון של זהב והיה יושב בין גדולי רומי ובאתה אמו וקרעתו ממנו וטפחה לו על ראשו וירקה לו בפניו ולא הכלימה,תני אבימי בריה דרבי אבהו יש מאכיל לאביו פסיוני וטורדו מן העולם ויש מטחינו בריחים 31a. bshe persuades him withmany bstatementsof encouragement and does not treat him harshly. bTherefore,in the mitzva of: “Honor your father and your mother” (Exodus 20:11), bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, precededthe mention of bthe honordue one’s bfather beforementioning the bhonordue one’s bmother.The verse emphasizes the duty that does not come naturally. Similarly, bit is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son fears his father more than his mother, becausehis father bteaches him Torah,and consequently he is strict with him. bTherefore,in the verse: “A man shall fear his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3), bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, precededthe mention of bfear of the mother beforethe mention of bfear of the father. /b, bA itannataughta ibaraita bbefore Rav Naḥman: When a person causes his father and mother suffering, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I did well in not dwelling among them, for if I had dwelled among them they would have caused Me sufferingas well, as it were. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Anyone who transgresses in private, it isconsidered bas though he is pushing away the feet of the Divine Presence,i.e., he distances God from him, so to speak. bAs it is stated: “So says the Lord: The heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). When someone sins in secret, he demonstrates that he thinks God is absent from that place, and it is as though he pushes His feet away from the earth.,With regard to the same issue, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:It is bprohibited for a person to walkeven bfour cubits with an upright posture,which is considered an arrogant manner, bas it is stated: “The entire world is full of His glory”(Isaiah 6:3). One who walks in an arrogant manner indicates a lack of regard for the glory and honor of God that is surrounding him, and thereby chases God from that place, as it were. The Gemara relates: bRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, would not walk four cubits with an uncovered head. He said: The Divine Presence is above my head,and I must act respectfully., bThe son of one widow asked Rabbi Eliezer:If my bfather saysto me: bGive me water to drink, andmy bmotheralso bsaysto me: bGive me water to drink, which of themshould I honor bfirst?Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Setaside bthe honor of your mother, and perform the honor of your father, as you and your mother areboth bobligated in the honor of your father. He came before Rabbi Yehoshua andasked him the same question, and Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid thissame answer bto him. /b,The man bsaid to him: My teacher,if one’s mother bis divorced, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: From your eyelashes,which are filled with tears, bit is evident that you are the son of a widow,and you have no father. Why, then, are you asking this question as though it were relevant for you? Consequently, Rabbi Yehoshua answered him sarcastically: bPour water for them into a pitcher and squawk at them asone does to summon bchickens.In other words, if one’s mother is divorced, the same honor is due to both parents, and neither takes precedence.,§ bUlla the Great interpreteda verse bhomiletically at the entrance to the house of the iNasi /i. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “All the kings of the earth shall give You thanks, O Lord, for they have heard the words of Your mouth”(Psalms 138:4)? It bis not stated: The word of Your mouth,in the singular. bRather,the verse uses the expression: b“The words of Your mouth,”in the plural. To what is this phrase referring? bWhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “I amthe Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), band,in the same verse: b“You shall have noother gods before Me,” bthe nations of the world said: He teachesthis bfor His own honor,as both statements entail respect for God., bOnce He said: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), bthey returned and concededthe truth bof the first statements,which is why the verse uses the plural expression: “Words of Your mouth,” i.e., all the words of God’s mouth. bRava said:This can be derived bfrom here: “The beginning of Your word is truth”(Psalms 119:160). Is bthe beginning of Your wordtruth bbut not the end of Your word? Rather, from the end of Your word it is apparentto everyone bthat the beginning of Your word is truth. /b,The Sages braised a dilemma before Rav Ulla: How farmust one go to fulfill the mitzva of bhonoring one’s father and mother?Rav Ulla bsaid to them: Go and see what one gentile did in Ashkelon, and his name was Dama ben Netina. Once the Sages soughtto purchase bmerchandise [ iperakmatya /i]from him bfor six hundred thousandgold dinars’ bprofit, but the keyfor the container in which the merchandise was kept bwas placed under his father’s head,and he was sleeping at the time. bAndDama ben Netina would bnot disturbhis father by waking him, although he could have made a substantial profit., bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: They asked Rabbi Eliezer: How farmust one go to fulfill the mitzva bof honoring one’s father and mother?Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: Go and see what one gentile did for his father in Ashkelon, andthe bnameof the son bwas Dama ben Netina.Once bthe Sages wishedto purchase precious bstones from him for the ephodof the High Priest bfor six hundred thousandgold dinars’ bprofit, and Rav Kahana taughtthat it was beight hundred thousandgold dinars’ profit. bAnd the keyto the chest holding the jewels bwas placed under his father’s head, and hewould bnot disturb him. /b, bThe next year the Holy One, Blessed be He, gaveDama ben Netina bhis reward, as a red heifer was born in his herd,and the Jews needed it. When bthe Sages of Israel came to him he said to them: I know,concerning byou, that if Iwere to bask for all the money in the world youwould bgiveit bto me. But I ask only that money that I lost due tothe bhonor of Father. /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina says: And ifthis is related about bone who is not commandedby the Torah to honor his father, as Dama was a gentile, bandnevertheless when bhe performsthe mitzva he is given bthisgreat reward, ball the more sois one rewarded who is bcommandedto fulfill a mitzva band performsit. bAs Rabbi Ḥanina says: Greateris one who bis commandedto do a mitzva band performsit bthan one who is not commandedto do a mitzva band performsit., bRav Yosef,who was blind, bsaid: At first I would say:If bsomeone would tell methat the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who says: A blind person is exempt fromfulfilling bthe mitzvot, I would make a festive day for the rabbis, as I am not commanded and yet I performthe mitzvot. This means my reward is very great. bNow that I have heard that which Rabbi Ḥanina says: Greateris one who bis commandedto do a mitzva band performsit bthan one who is not commandedto do a mitzva band performsit, bon the contrary:If bsomeone would tell methat the ihalakha /iis bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,and a blind person is obligated in mitzvot, bI would make a festive day for the rabbis. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: OnceDama ben Netina bwas wearing a fine cloak [ isirkon /i] of gold, and was sitting among the noblesof bRome. And his mother came to him and torehis garment bfrom him and smacked him on the head and spat in his face, andyet bhe did not embarrass her. /b, bAvimi, son of Rabbi Abbahu, taught: There isa type of son bwho feeds his father pheasant [ ipasyonei /i] andyet this behavior bcauses him to be removed from the World,i.e., the World-to-Come; band there isone bwho makes him grind with a millstone,which is difficult work
72. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119b. מהדר אזוזי זוזי דרבנן א"ל במטותא מינייכו לא תחללוניה,אמר רבא ואיתימא ר' יהושע בן לוי אפי' יחיד המתפלל בע"ש צריך לומר ויכולו דאמר רב המנונא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקב"ה במעשה בראשית שנאמר ויכולו אל תקרי ויכולו אלא ויכלו אמר רבי אלעזר מניין שהדיבור כמעשה שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו שני מלאכי השרת המלוין לו לאדם מניחין ידיהן על ראשו ואומרים לו (ישעיהו ו, ז) וסר עונך וחטאתך תכופר תניא ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר שני מלאכי השרת מלוין לו לאדם בע"ש מבית הכנסת לביתו אחד טוב ואחד רע וכשבא לביתו ומצא נר דלוק ושלחן ערוך ומטתו מוצעת מלאך טוב אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך רע עונה אמן בעל כרחו ואם לאו מלאך רע אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך טוב עונה אמן בעל כרחו,אמר ר' אלעזר לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו בע"ש אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית ואמר ר' חנינא לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו במוצאי שבת אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית חמין במוצאי שבת מלוגמא פת חמה במוצאי שבת מלוגמא ר' אבהו הוה עבדין ליה באפוקי שבתא עיגלא תילתא הוה אכיל מיניה כולייתא כי גדל אבימי בריה א"ל למה לך לאפסודי כולי האי נשבוק כולייתא ממעלי שבתא שבקוהו ואתא אריא אכליה,אריב"ל כל העונה אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך בכל כחו קורעין לו גזר דינו שנאמר (שופטים ה, ב) בפרוע פרעות בישראל בהתנדב עם ברכו ה' מ"ט בפרוע פרעות משום דברכו ה' רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אפילו יש בו שמץ של עבודה זרה מוחלין לו כתיב הכא בפרוע פרעות וכתיב התם (שמות לב, כה) כי פרוע הוא אמר ריש לקיש כל העונה אמן בכל כחו פותחין לו שערי ג"ע שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ב) פתחו שערים ויבא גוי צדיק שומר אמונים אל תיקרי שומר אמונים אלא שאומרים אמן מאי אמן א"ר חנינא אל מלך נאמן,א"ר יהודה בריה דרב שמואל משמיה דרב אין הדליקה מצויה אלא במקום שיש חילול שבת שנאמר (ירמיהו יז, כז) ואם לא תשמעו אלי לקדש את יום השבת ולבלתי שאת משא וגו' והצתי אש בשעריה ואכלה ארמנות ירושלים ולא תכבה מאי ולא תכבה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בשעה שאין בני אדם מצויין לכבותה אמר אביי לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שחללו בה את השבת שנאמר (יחזקאל כב, כו) ומשבתותי העלימו עיניהם ואחל בתוכם,אמר ר' אבהו לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו ק"ש שחרית וערבית שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יא) הוי משכימי בבקר שכר ירדפו וגו' וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יב) והיה כנור ונבל תוף וחליל ויין משתיהם ואת פועל ה' לא יביטו וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יג) לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת,אמר רב המנונא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו בה תינוקות של בית רבן שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, יא) שפוך על עולל בחוץ וגו' מה טעם שפוך משום דעולל בחוץ אמר עולא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא מפני שלא היה להם בושת פנים זה מזה שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, טו) הובישו כי תועבה עשו גם בוש לא יבושו וגו' אמר ר' יצחק לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שהושוו קטן וגדול שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, ב) והיה כעם ככהן וכתיב בתריה הבוק תבוק הארץ,אמר רב עמרם בריה דר"ש בר אבא א"ר שמעון בר אבא א"ר חנינא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שלא הוכיחו זה את זה שנאמר (איכה א, ו) היו שריה כאילים לא מצאו מרעה מה איל זה ראשו של זה בצד זנבו של זה אף ישראל שבאותו הדור כבשו פניהם בקרקע ולא הוכיחו זה את זה א"ר יהודה לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביזו בה ת"ח שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, טז) ויהיו מלעיבים במלאכי האלהים ובוזים דבריו ומתעתעים בנביאיו עד עלות חמת ה' בעמו עד [ל] אין מרפא מאי עד לאין מרפא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המבזה ת"ח אין לו רפואה למכתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (דברי הימים א טז, כב) אל תגעו במשיחי ובנביאי אל תרעו אל תגעו במשיחי אלו תינוקות של בית רבן ובנביאי אל תרעו אלו ת"ח אמר ריש לקיש משום רבי יהודה נשיאה אין העולם מתקיים אלא בשביל הבל תינוקות של בית רבן א"ל רב פפא לאביי דידי ודידך מאי א"ל אינו דומה הבל שיש בו חטא להבל שאין בו חטא ואמר ריש לקיש משום ר"י נשיאה אין מבטלין תינוקות של בית רבן אפי' לבנין בית המקדש ואמר ר"ל לר"י נשיאה כך מקובלני מאבותי ואמרי לה מאבותיך כל עיר שאין בה תינוקות של בית רבן מחריבין אותה רבינא אמר מחרימין אותה,ואמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שפסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלים וראו נא [ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש] (אם יש איש) עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה איני והאמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לכה קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין בהן כשמלה ישנן בידיך והמכשלה הזאת תחת ידך 119b. bwould seek pairs of Sagesengaged in conversation on Shabbat and bsaid to them: Please do not desecrateShabbat by failing to delight in Shabbat., bRava said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said: bEven an individual who prays on Shabbat evening must recitethe passage: “And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]”(Genesis 2:1–3), bas Rav Hamnuna said: Anyone who prays on Shabbat evening and recitesthe passage of bvaykhullu, the verse ascribed himcredit bas if he became a partner with the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation. As it is stated:“And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i].” Do not readit as: bWere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]; rather,as: bThey finished [ ivaykhallu /i].It is considered as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the individual who says this become partners and completed the work together. bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat speech is like action? As it is stated: “By the word of God the heavens were made,and all of their hosts by the breath of His mouth” (Psalms 33:6)., bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said: One who prays on Shabbat evening and recites ivaykhullu /i, the two ministering angels who accompany the personat all times bplace their hands on his head and say to him: “And your iniquity has passed, and your sin has been atoned”(Isaiah 6:7). bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Two ministering angels accompany a person on Shabbat evening from the synagogue to his home, one goodangel band one evilangel. bAnd whenhe breaches his home and finds a lamp burning and a table set and his bed made, the good angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be like this for another Shabbat. And the evil angel answers against his will: Amen. And ifthe person’s home is bnotprepared for Shabbat in that manner, bthe evil angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be so for another Shabbat, and the good angel answers against his will: Amen. /b, bRabbi Elazar said: A person should always set his table on Shabbat evewith all the preparations for an important feast, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina said: A person should always set his table at the conclusion of Shabbat,Saturday night, for a feast in deference to the Shabbat that passed, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. And with regard to the meal at the conclusion of Shabbat, they said: bHot water after Shabbatis a bremedy [ imelugma /i], warm bread at the conclusion of Shabbatis a bremedy.The Gemara relates: bThey would prepare for Rabbi Abbahu at the conclusion of Shabbat a third-born calf,and bhe would eatone bkidney from it. When his son Avimi grew up,he bsaid tohis father: bWhy do you waste so much? Let us leave a kidney over from Shabbat eve,and you will not need to slaughter an entire calf for that purpose. Indeed, bthey leftthe calf and did not slaughter it, band a lion came and ate it.This teaches that one should not be miserly when it comes to honoring Shabbat.,Apropos the reward for honoring Shabbat, the Gemara cites statements about the reward for answering amen. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat banyone who answers: Amen, may His great name be blessed,wholeheartedly, bwith all his might,they brip his sentence, as it is stated: “When punishments are annulled in Israel, when the people offer themselves, bless the Lord”(Judges 5:2). bWhat is the reason for when punishments are annulled? Becausethe Jewish people bblessed God.When one recites: Amen, may His great name be blessed, and blesses God, his punishment is annulled. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Evenif bone has within him a trace of idolatry,when he answers amen bhe is forgiven. It is written here,in the verse above: b“When punishments [ ipera’ot /i] are annulled.” And it is written there,with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: “And Moses saw bthatthe nation bwas wild [ iparu’a /i],for Aaron had let them loose for anyone who might rise against them” (Exodus 32:25). Even one with the wildness of idolatry is forgiven. bReish Lakish said: One who answers amen with all his strength, they open the gates of the Garden of Eden before him, as it is stated: “Open the gates, and a righteous nation shall come who keeps the faith”(Isaiah 26:2). bDo not read: Who keeps [ ishomer /i] the faith [ iemunim /i], but rather: Who say [ ishe’omerim /i] amen. Whatis the allusion of the word iamen /i? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is an acronym of the words: bGod, faithful King [ iEl Melekh ne’eman /i]. /b, bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel, said in the name of Rav: Fire is only found in a place where there is desecration of Shabbat, as it is stated: “And if you do not heed Me to sanctify the day of Shabbat, and to refrain from carrying burdensand come to the gates of Jerusalem on the day of Shabbat, band I will light a fire in its gates and it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem and it will not be extinguished”(Jeremiah 17:27). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd it will not be extinguished? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Fire will break out bat a time when people are not found to extinguish it. Abaye said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people desecrated the Shabbat in it, as it is stated: “And from My iShabbatotthey averted their eyes, and I was profaned among them”(Ezekiel 22:26). Several punishments were decreed to befall Jerusalem as punishment for this transgression.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the destruction of Jerusalem. br bRabbi Abbahu said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits citizens intentionally bomitted recitation of iShemamorning and evening, as it is stated: “Woe to those who rise early in the morning and pursue the drinkand are aflame from wine until late in the evening” (Isaiah 5:11). bAnd it is writtenin the continuation of that passage: b“And their drinking parties have lyre and lute, drum and flute and wine, and they do not look upon the actions of God,and they do not see His hands’ creations” (Isaiah 5:12). This means that in the morning and evening, when the Jews should have been reciting iShema /i, they were drinking wine and liquor. bAnd it is writtenin that passage: b“Therefore My nation is being exiled for its ignorance;its honor will die of hunger and its multitudes will be parched with thirst” (Isaiah 5:13)., bRav Hamnuna said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because schoolchildren there were interruptedfrom studying Torah, bas it is stated:“And I am filled with the wrath of God, I cannot contain it, bpour it onto the infants in the streetand onto the gathering of youths together, for men and women alike will be captured, the elderly along with those of advanced years” (Jeremiah 6:11). Rav Hamnuna explains: bWhat is the reason thatthe wrath is bpoured?It is bbecause infants are outsidein the streets and are not studying Torah. br bUlla said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people had no shame before each other, as it is stated: “They acted shamefully; they have performed abominations, yet they neither were ashamednor did they know humiliation. Therefore, they will fall among the fallen, they will fail at the time that I punish them, said God” (Jeremiah 6:15). br bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits bsmall andthe bgreatcitizens bwere equated.They did not properly value the prominent leaders of their generation, bas it is stated: “And the common people were like the priest,the slave like his master, the maidservant like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the one indebted to him” (Isaiah 24:2). bAnd it is written afterward: “The land shall be utterly desolateand completely plundered, for God has said this” (Isaiah 24:3)., bRav Amram, sonof bRabbi Shimon bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Shimon bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because the people did not rebuke one another, as it is stated: “Her ministers were like stags that found no pasture,and they walked without strength before their pursuer” (Lamentations 1:6). bJust as this stagturns bits head toward the other’s tailwhen it grazes, and each one feeds on its own, bso too, the Jewish people in that generation lowered their faces to the ground and did not rebuke one another. br bRabbi Yehuda said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because they disparaged the Torah scholars in it, as it is stated: “And they mocked the messengers of God and disdained His words and taunted His prophets, until the wrath of God arose against His people, until it could not be healed”(II Chronicles 36:16). bWhatis the meaning of: bUntil it could not be healed? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:It means that banyone who disparages Torah scholars cannot be healed from his wound. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Do not touch My anointed ones and do My prophets no harm”(I Chronicles 16:22)? b“Do not touch My anointed ones,” these are the schoolchildren,who are as precious and important as kings and priests (Maharsha); b“and do not harm My prophets,” these are Torah scholars. Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: The world only exists because of the breath,i.e., reciting Torah, bof schoolchildren. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: MyTorah study band yours, whatis its status? Why is the Torah study of adults worth less? He bsaid to him: The breathof adults, bwhich istainted by bsin, is not similar to the breathof children, bwhich is nottainted by bsin. And Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: One may not interrupt schoolchildrenfrom studying Torah, beven in order to build the Temple. And Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: I have received from my ancestors, and some saythat he said to him: I have received bfrom your ancestors as follows: Any city in which there are no schoolchildrenstudying Torah, they bdestroy it. Ravina said:They leave bit desolate. /b, bAnd Rava said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because there were no more trustworthy people there, as it is stated: “Roam about the streets of Jerusalem and see, and search its plazas, if you can find a person, who acts justly, who seeks integrity, that I should forgive it”(Jeremiah 5:1). The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Ketina say: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s failure, trustworthy people did not cease there, as it is stated: “For a man will grab his brother of his father’s house and say: You have a garment. Come be a chief over usand let this ruin be under your care” (Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people use to cover up like a garment,secrets, bare in your handsand you know about them. Therefore, you should be a leader of the community. And that which is stated: b“And let this ruin be under your care,”meaning:
73. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

40a. בנעילה דיומא דכיפורי מאי אמר אמר מר זוטרא ואמרי לה במתניתא (תהלים קכח, ד) הנה כי כן יברך גבר ירא ה' יברכך ה' מציון וראה בטוב ירושלים כל ימי חייך וראה בנים לבניך שלום על ישראל,היכן אומרן רב יוסף אמר בין כל ברכה וברכה ורב ששת אמר בהזכרת השם,פליגי בה רב מרי ורב זביד חד אמר פסוקא לקבל פסוקא וחד אמר אכל פסוקא אמר להו לכולהו,א"ר חייא בר אבא כל האומרן בגבולין אינו אלא טועה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא תדע דבמקדש נמי לא מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש לך עבד שמברכין אותו ואינו מאזין,א"ר אחא בר חנינא תדע דבגבולין נמי מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש עבד שמברכין אותו ואין מסביר פנים א"ר אבהו מריש הוה אמינא להו כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דלא אמר להו אנא נמי לא אמינא להו,ואמר רבי אבהו מריש הוה אמינא עינותנא אנא כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דאמר איהו חד טעמא ואמר אמוריה חד טעמא ולא קפיד אמינא לאו עינותנא אנא,ומאי עינוותנותיה דרבי אבהו דאמרה לה דביתהו דאמוריה דרבי אבהו לדביתיה דרבי אבהו הא דידן לא צריך ליה לדידך והאי דגחין וזקיף עליה יקרא בעלמא הוא דעביד ליה אזלא דביתהו ואמרה ליה לרבי אבהו אמר לה ומאי נפקא ליך מינה מיני ומיניה יתקלס עילאה,ותו רבי אבהו אימנו רבנן עליה לממנייה ברישא כיון דחזיה לר' אבא דמן עכו דנפישי ליה בעלי חובות אמר להו איכא רבה,ר' אבהו ור' חייא בר אבא איקלעו לההוא אתרא רבי אבהו דרש באגדתא רבי חייא בר אבא דרש בשמעתא שבקוה כולי עלמא לרבי חייא בר אבא ואזול לגביה דר' אבהו חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אמשל לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם אחד מוכר אבנים טובות ואחד מוכר מיני סידקית על מי קופצין לא על זה שמוכר מיני סידקית,כל יומא הוה מלוה רבי חייא בר אבא לרבי אבהו עד אושפיזיה משום יקרא דבי קיסר ההוא יומא אלויה רבי אבהו לרבי חייא בר אבא עד אושפיזיה ואפילו הכי לא איתותב דעתיה מיניה,בזמן ששליח צבור אומר מודים העם מה הם אומרים אמר רב מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו על שאנו מודים לך ושמואל אמר אלהי כל בשר על שאנו מודים לך רבי סימאי אומר יוצרנו יוצר בראשית על שאנו מודים לך נהרדעי אמרי משמיה דרבי סימאי ברכות והודאות לשמך הגדול על שהחייתנו וקיימתנו על שאנו מודים לך רב אחא בר יעקב מסיים בה הכי כן תחיינו ותחננו ותקבצנו ותאסוף גליותינו לחצרות קדשך לשמור חוקיך ולעשות רצונך בלבב שלם על שאנו מודים לך,אמר רב פפא הילכך נימרינהו לכולהו,אמר ר' יצחק לעולם תהא אימת צבור עליך שהרי כהנים פניהם כלפי העם ואחוריהם כלפי שכינה,רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כח, ב) ויקם המלך דוד על רגליו ויאמר שמעוני אחי ועמי אם אחי למה עמי ואם עמי למה אחי אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם דוד לישראל אם אתם שומעין לי אחי אתם ואם לאו עמי אתם ואני רודה אתכם במקל,רבנן אמרי מהכא דאין הכהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזהו אחת מתשע תקנות שהתקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאי טעמא לאו משום כבוד צבור אמר רב אשי לא התם שמא נפסקה לו רצועה בסנדלו והדר אזיל למיקטריה ואמרי בן גרושה או בן חלוצה הוא,ובמקדש ברכה אחת כו' 40a. bDuring the closing prayer [ ine’ila /i] of Yom Kippur,which also includes the Priestly Benediction, bwhat dothe people bsay? Mar Zutra says, and some saythat this was taught bin a ibaraita /i: “Behold, surely thus shall the man who fears the Lord be blessed”(Psalms 128:4), b“The Lord shall bless you out of Zion, and you shall see the good of Jerusalem all the days of your life”(Psalms 128:5), and b“And see your children’s children. Peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 128:6).,The Gemara asks: bWhere doesthe congregation bsaythese verses during the Priestly Benediction? bRav Yosef says:They are said bbetween each and every blessing. And Rav Sheshet says:They are said bduring the mention of the nameof God in each of the three blessings., bRav Mari and Rav Zevid disagree aboutthis matter. bOne says:The congregation recites one bverseat a time, bcorresponding tothe bversethat the priests recite. bAnd one says: For everysingle bversethat the priests recite, the congregation bsays allthree verses., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Anyone who recitesthese verses bin the outlying areas,i.e., outside the Temple, bis nothing other than mistakenin his practice. bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:You should bknow that in the Temple alsopeople bshould not recitethese verses. bDo you have a servant who is being blessed and does not listento the blessing, but rather speaks at the same time?,Conversely, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says:You should bknow that in the outlying areas one is also required to saythese verses. bIs there a servant who is being blessed and his face does not brighten?Therefore, one must recite these verses to give thanks for receiving the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would recitethese verses, but bsince I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko does not say them, I also do not recite themanymore., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would sayto myself that bI was humble. Since I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko himself stated one reasonfor a matter, band his interpreter stated oneother breasonof his own rather than delivering the reason that Rabbi Abba stated, bandyet Rabbi Abba bdid not mind, I sayto myself that bI am not humble. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what was the humility of Rabbi Abbahu?The Gemara relates bthat Rabbi Abbahu’s interpreter’s wife said to Rabbi Abbahu’s wife: This one of ours,i.e., my husband, bhas no need for yourhusband Rabbi Abbahu, as he could teach everything on his own. bAndthe fact bthat he bends overto listen to Rabbi Abbahu, bandthen bstands up above him,and repeats his words to the congregants bis merely to show respect for him.Rabbi Abbahu’s bwife went and toldthis bto Rabbi Abbahu. He said to her: And what difference does it make to you? Through me and through him the One above will be exalted,and it does not matter which one of us is teaching., bAnd furthermore,in another example of his humility, bthe Sages were countedand reached a decision bto appoint Rabbi Abbahu to be the headof the yeshiva. bSince he saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko had many creditorsand was impoverished, he attempted to get him out of debt. bHe said to them: There isa man who is bgreaterthan me, Rabbi Abba.,The Gemara relates another example of his humility: bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba happenedto come bto a certain place. Rabbi Abbahu taughtmatters of iaggada /i,and at the same time bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba taught ihalakha /i. Everyone left Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and went to Rabbi Abbahu,and Rabbi Ḥiyya bwas offended.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him,to appease him: bI will tell you a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto two people, onewho bsells precious stones and onewho bsells small items [ isidkit /i]. Upon whom dothe customers bspring? Don’tthey spring bupon the one who sells small items?Similarly, you teach lofty and important matters that do not attract many people. Everyone comes to me because I teach minor matters.,The Gemara relates that bevery day Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would escort Rabbi Abbahu to his lodging place [ iushpizei /i] out of respect for the house of the emperor,with which Rabbi Abbahu was associated. On bthat day, Rabbi Abbahu escorted Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba to his lodging place, and even so,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s bmind was not at ease withRabbi Abbahu and he felt insulted.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the response of the congregants to certain parts of the prayer service. bWhile the prayer leader is recitingthe blessing of: bWe give thanks, what do the people say? Rav saysthat they say: bWe give thanks to You, Lord our God, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. And Shmuel saysthat one should say: bGod of allliving bflesh, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. Rabbi Simai saysthat one should say: bOur Creator, Who createdeverything bin the beginning, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You.The Sages bof Neharde’a say in the name of Rabbi Simaithat one should say: We offer bblessings and praises to Your great name, for You have given us life and sustained us, for giving thanks to You. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akovwould bfinishthe blessing bas follows: So may You give us life, and show us favor, and collect us, and gather our exiles into Your sacred courtyards, in order to observe Your laws and to fulfill Your will wholeheartedly, for giving thanks to You. /b, bRav Pappa said:These Sages each added a different element to the prayer. bTherefore, we shouldcombine them together and brecite all of them. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak says: The awe of the public should always be upon you,i.e., one must always treat the public courteously. bAswhen the bpriestsbless the people they bface the people and their backs are toward the Divine Presence,out of respect for the congregation., bRav Naḥman saidthat this principle is derived bfrom here: “Then King David stood up upon his feet, and said: Hear me, my brethren, and my people”(I Chronicles 28:2). Evidently, King David stood up to address the people rather than remain seated. bIfhe said b“my brethren,” whydid he say b“my people”? And ifhe said b“my people” whydid he say b“my brethren”? Rabbi Elazar says: David said to the Jewish people: If you listen to me, you are my brethren. And ifyou do bnotlisten to me willingly, byou are my peopleand I am your king, band I will rule over youby force bwith a staff.This shows that if the nation acted properly, David would relate to them respectfully., bThe Sages saythat the importance of showing respect for the congregation is derived bfrom here:The ihalakhais bthat the priests are not permitted to ascend the platformto recite the benediction bin their sandals,as is taught in a ibaraita /i. bAnd this ihalakha bis one of nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. What is the reasonfor this ordice? bIs it not out of respect for the congregation,as it would be disrespectful for the priests to display their dirty sandals in front of the congregants? bRav Ashi said: No,this is not the reason. bThere,in the ibaraita /i, the reason is a concern blest a strap of his sandal break, and hewill therefore breturnto his place bto go tie itand not ascend the platform in time for the benediction, bandpeople will bsaythat he was removed from the platform because he is disqualified from the priesthood, as he bis the son ofa priest and ba divorced woman or the son ofa priest and ba iḥalutza /i. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite the three verses as bone blessing. /b
74. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. התם הוא דמבטל אבל הכא דלא מבטל לא,ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר ששבת בגליל העליון ושאלוהו שלשים הלכות בהלכות סוכה שתים עשרה אמר להם שמעתי שמונה עשר אמר להם לא שמעתי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר חילוף הדברים שמונה עשר אמר להם שמעתי שתים עשרה אמר להם לא שמעתי,אמרו לו כל דבריך אינן אלא מפי השמועה אמר להם הזקקתוני לומר דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבותי מימי לא קדמני אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הנחתי אדם בבית המדרש ויצאתי ולא שחתי שיחת חולין ולא אמרתי דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבי מעולם,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מימיו לא שח שיחת חולין ולא הלך ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא קדמו אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישן בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הרהר במבואות המטונפות ולא הניח אדם בבית המדרש ויצא ולא מצאו אדם יושב ודומם אלא יושב ושונה ולא פתח אדם דלת לתלמידיו אלא הוא בעצמו ולא אמר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו מעולם ולא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד מבית המדרש חוץ מערבי פסחים וערבי יום הכפורים וכן היה ר' אליעזר תלמידו נוהג אחריו,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו ושלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להם חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינונים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים קלים וחמורים וגזרות שוות תקופות וגימטריאות שיחת מלאכי השרת ושיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים משלות כובסין משלות שועלים דבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה דבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא וכי מאחר שקטן שבכולן כך גדול שבכולן על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו מיד נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ב"ש פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את רבי יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו שהיה יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ולא אמרו לו דבר אמרו להם ב"ש משם ראיה אף הם אמרו לו אם כן היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין מן הסוכה קטן שאינו צריך לאמו חייב בסוכה מעשה וילדה כלתו של שמאי הזקן ופיחת את המעזיבה וסיכך על גבי המטה בשביל קטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דת"ר אזרח זה אזרח (ויקרא כג, מב) האזרח להוציא את הנשים כל לרבות את הקטנים,אמר מר האזרח להוציא את הנשים למימרא דאזרח בין נשים בין גברי משמע והתניא האזרח לרבות את הנשים האזרחיות שחייבות בעינוי אלמא אזרח גברי משמע אמר רבה הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי,הי קרא והי הלכתא ותו קרא למה לי הלכתא למה לי הא סוכה מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,יום הכפורים מדרב יהודה אמר רב נפקא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אמר קרא (במדבר ה, ו) איש או אשה 28a. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the case of the shutter and the case of the sheet. bThere,in the case of the shutter, bwhere he negatesit by shuttering the window, it is considered part of the building and it is therefore prohibited. bHowever, here,in the case of the sheet, bwhere he does not negateit, as he plans on removing it, bno,it is not necessarily prohibited.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who stayed in the Upper Galilee, andthe people there basked him thirty ihalakhotin the ihalakhotof isukka /i.In response to btwelve, he said to them: I heardan answer from my teachers, and he related what he heard. In response to the other beighteen, he said to them: I did not hearan answer. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:It was bthe reverse of these matters.In response to beighteen he said to them: I heardan answer; in response to the other btwelve he said to them: I did not hearan answer., bThey said to him: Are all the mattersthat byouknow bonly from whatyou bheard?Don’t you say any matters on your own? bHe said to them:Now byou forced me to say a matter that I did not hear from my teachers,as I must describe my character traits and the manner in which I conduct myself. bInall bmy days, no person ever preceded me into the study hall,as I am always first to arrive; band I never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and I never left anyone in the study hall and exited,as I was always last to leave; band I never engaged in idle conversation;rather, I discussed only necessary matters or matters of Torah; band I never said anything that I did not hear from my teacher.That is why he did not answer those questions that his teacher did not address.,Apropos the character traits of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites character traits of his teacher. The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer: bInall bhis days he never engaged in idle conversation; and he never walked four cubits withoutengaging in bTorahstudy band withoutdonning bphylacteries; and no person ever preceded him into the study hall; and he never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and he never contemplatedmatters of Torah bin alleyways filthywith human excrement, as doing so is a display of contempt for the Torah; band he never left anyone in the study hall and exited; and no person ever found him sitting and silent,i.e., inactive; brather, hewas always bsitting and studying; and only he opened the door for his students,disregarding his own eminent standing; band he never said anything that he did not hear from his teacher; and he never saidto his students that bthe time has arrived to ariseand leave bthe study hall except on Passover eves,when they were obligated to sacrifice the Paschal lamb, and bYom Kippur eves,when there is a mitzva to eat and drink abundantly. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer, his student, accustomedhimself to model his conduct bafter hisexample.,The Gemara continues to praise the Sages. bThe Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the Divine Presenceshould brest upon them asit did upon bMoses our teacher, and thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the sunshould bstand still for them asit did for bJoshua bin Nun, and twentywere on an bintermediatelevel between the other two. bThe greatest of allthe students was bYonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of themwas bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b,The Gemara relates: The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkaithat bhe did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; ihalakhotand iaggadot /i; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes;the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to ia fortioriinferences and verbal analogies;the calculation of the calendrical bseasons;and bnumerology [ igimmatreyaot /i].In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including bthe conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers,which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; bparables of foxes;and more generally, ba great matter and a small matter. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bA great matteris referring to the secrets of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,the conduct of the transcendent universe. bA small matteris, for example, ihalakhotthat were ultimately formulated in the framework of bthe disputes of Abaye and Rava.He did not neglect any of these disciplines so as bto fulfill that which is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries”(Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom. bAnd if the youngest of them was soprolific, bthe greatest of themwas ball the more soprolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages bsaid of Yonatan ben Uzziel,the greatest of Hillel’s students, bthat when he sat and was engaged in Torahstudy, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that bany bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone whose head and most of hisbody bwere in the isukkaand his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem it unfit, and Beit Hillel deem it fit. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai:And bwasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit and they found himsuch bthat he was sitting with his head and most of hisbody bin the isukkaand his table in the house, and they said nothing to him?Even Beit Shammai did not object. bBeit Shammai said to them:Is there bproof from there?That is not what happened; rather, bthey said to him: If you were accustomedto act in bthismanner, byou have never fulfilled the mitzva of isukkain your life. /b,The mishna continues: bWomen, slaves, and minors are exempt from themitzva of isukka /i. A minor who does not need his motherany longer bis obligatedin the mitzva. There was ban incident where the daughter-in-law of Shammai the Elder gave birthjust before iSukkot /i, and Shammai bremoved thecoat of bplasterfrom the roof, leaving the beams, band roofedwith the beams bover the bed for thenewborn bminor. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the ihalakhathat women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the mitzva of isukka /i, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? The Gemara answers that it is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: “All the homeborn in Israel shall reside in isukkot /i” (Leviticus 23:42). Had the verse stated only: bHomeborn,it would have been derived bthatany bhomebornmember of the Jewish people is obligated to observe this mitzva. However, the term with the addition of the definite article: b“The homeborn,”indicates that only certain homeborn members are obligated, i.e., men, bto the exclusion of the women.The word “all” in the phrase: b“Allthe homeborn,” comes bto include the minorscapable of performing this mitzva.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: “The homeborn”is bto the exclusion of women. Is that to say thatthe term bhomebornwithout the definite article bindicates both men and women? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to Yom Kippur that it is stated: “And it shall be a statute forever unto you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls and shall do no manner of work, the homeborn, or the stranger that sojourns among you” (Leviticus 16:29). And the term b“the homeborn”in that verse comes bto include homeborn women, who are obligated inthe mitzva of bafflictionon Yom Kippur. In that case, the definite article comes to include women. Therefore, bapparently,the term homeborn, without the definite article, bindicatesonly bmen. Rabba said: They areeach a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, band the Sagesmerely bsupported them with versesas a mnemonic device. Therefore, it is not surprising that the derivations are contradictory.,The Gemara asks: bWhichof them bisderived from bthe verse and which is a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai and merely supported by a verse? bAnd furthermore, why do Ineed bthe verse and why do Ineed bthe ihalakha /i? Isn’t isukkaa positive, time-bound mitzva, andthe principle is that bwomen are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot?There is no need for a special derivation to exempt women from the mitzva of isukka /i.,And there is no need for a derivation with regard to their obligation to fast on bYom Kippur,as that can be bderived fromthat bwhich Rav Yehudasaid that bRav said, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said, and it was likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: The verse says:“When ba man or womanshall commit any sin that a person commits, to commit a trespass against the Lord, and that soul be guilty” (Numbers 5:6).
75. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. ויש אומרים אף רידייא ובעו רבנן רחמי אנשמה בשעה שיוצאה מן הגוף ובטלוה,תניא כוותיה דר' שילא היוצא לדרך קודם קריאת הגבר דמו בראשו רבי יאשיה אומר עד שישנה ויש אומרים עד שישלש ובאיזה תרנגול אמרו בתרנגול בינוני,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שישראל עולין לרגל עומדין צפופין ומשתחוים רווחים נמשכין אחת עשרה אמה אחורי בית הכפורת מאי קאמר הכי קאמר אף על פי שנמשכין אחת עשרה אמה אחורי בית הכפורת ועומדים צפופין כשהן משתחוין משתחוין רווחים וזה אחד מעשרה נסים שנעשו במקדש,דתנן עשרה נסים נעשו בבית המקדש לא הפילה אשה מריח בשר הקדש ולא הסריח בשר הקדש מעולם ולא נראה זבוב בבית המטבחים ולא אירע קרי לכהן גדול ביום הכפורים ולא נמצא פסול בעומר ובשתי הלחם ובלחם הפנים עומדים צפופים ומשתחוים רווחים ולא הזיק נחש ועקרב בירושלים מעולם ולא אמר אדם לחברו צר לי המקום שאלין בירושלים,פתח במקדש וסיים בירושלים איכא תרתי אחרנייתא במקדש תניא מעולם לא כבו גשמים אש של עצי המערכה ועשן המערכה אפי' כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ומנשבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו,ותו ליכא והתניא רב שמעיה בקלנבו שברי כלי חרס נבלעין במקומן ואמר אביי מוראה ונוצה ודישון מזבח הפנימי ודישון המנורה נבלעין במקומן,פסולי תלתא הוו חשבינהו בחד אפיק תרי ועייל תרי אי הכי בלועין נמי תרי הוו חשבינהו בחד חסרו להו איכא נמי אחריתי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי נס גדול היה נעשה בלחם הפנים סלוקו כסדורו שנאמר (שמואל א כא, ז) לשום לחם חום ביום הלקחו,ותו ליכא והאמר ר' לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה ואמר רבנאי אמר שמואל כרובים בנס היו עומדין,ניסי דבראי קא חשיב ניסי דגואי לא קא חשיב אי הכי לחם הפנים נמי ניסי דגואי הוא לחם הפנים ניסי דבראי הוא דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא כד, ו) על השלחן הטהור טהור מכלל שהוא טמא 21a. bAnd some say:The sound of bRidya as well.Ridya is the angel tasked with irrigating the earth, who calls to the heavens and to the aquifers to provide their water. The Gemara comments: bAnd the Sages asked for mercyso that the sound of bthe soul at the moment that it leaves the bodywould no longer be heard to that extent, bandGod beliminated it.In any event, clearly this ibaraitaunderstands ikeriat hageveras the proclamation of the Temple crier, in support of the opinion of Rav.,A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Sheila:With regard to bone who sets out on the pathat night bbefore ikeriat hagever /iand is killed by demons, bhis blood is on hisown bhead,i.e., he is at fault. bRabbi Yoshiya says:The prohibition of traveling at night is in effect buntilthe rooster crows btwice. And some say: Until hecrows bthree times. And with regard to what rooster didthese Sages bstatethis advisory? It is with regard to ba roosterof bmediumsize. Clearly, this ibaraitaunderstands ikeriat hageveras the crow of the rooster.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: When the Jewish people ascendto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimageFestivals bthey stand crowded, butwhen they bbowduring confession they are bspacedso that no one hears the confession of another. bAnddue to the large crowd bthey extend eleven cubits behind the Hall of the Ark Cover,the Holy of Holies. The Gemara asks: bWhat is he sayingin the reference to eleven cubits behind the Holy of Holies? The Gemara explains that bthis is what he is saying: Even thoughthe crowd is so large that the people bextend eleven cubits behind the Hall of the Ark Cover andpeople bstand crowded,still, bwhen they bow, they bow spaced. And that is one of the ten miracles that were performed in the Temple. /b, bAs we learnedin a mishna: bTen miracles were performed in the Temple. No woman miscarried from the aroma of the sacrificial meat,as a pregt woman craves various foods and occasionally that craving leads to miscarriage. bAnd the sacrificial meat never putrefied. And no fly was seen in the slaughterhouse,although flies are generally attracted to a place where there is flesh and blood. bAnd a seminal emission did not befall the High Priest on Yom Kippur. And no disqualification was found in the iomeror the two loaves,which are communal offerings, bor in the shewbread.And the Jewish people bstand crowded but bow spaced. And neither a snake nor a scorpion ever harmedanyone bin Jerusalem. And a person never said to another: There is no room for me to stay overnight in Jerusalem. /b,The Gemara notes: This list bopenedwith miracles that occurred bin the Temple, and closedwith miracles that occurred bin Jerusalem.Apparently there were not actually ten miracles performed in the Temple. The Gemara answers: bThere are two othermiracles bin the Temple, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRain never extinguished the fire of the arrangement of woodon the altar, despite the fact that the altar stood in the courtyard, exposed to the elements. bAndwith regard to bthe smoke of the arrangement, even if all the winds in the world come and blow it, they do not move it from its placeand it rises directly heavenward.,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there no moremiracles in the Temple? bBut didn’t Rav Shemaya teachin a ibaraitain the city of bKalnevo: Shards of earthenware vessels were swallowedin the earth bin their places,and there was no need to dispose of them. The vessels used for cooking the meat of the offerings of the most sacred order absorbed some of the meat. The meat that was absorbed became inotarwhen the period during which the offering may be eaten concludes. One was required to break those vessels in which the meat was absorbed. The shards of those vessels were miraculously swallowed in the earth where they were smashed. And similarly, bAbaye said: The crop and feathersof sacrificial birds, band the ashes of the inner altar, and the ashes of the candelabrum,which were not removed to the place of ashes outside the Temple like the ashes of the outer altar, bwerealso bswallowedin the earth bin their places.Apparently, there were more than ten miracles in the Temple.,The Gemara answers: bThe disqualificationsmentioned that never occurred in the Temple, in the iomer /i, the two loaves, or the shewbread, bwere three; consider them as onemiracle. bEliminate twofrom the total band introducethese btwoto complete the list of ten miracles. The Gemara asks: bIfsimilar miracles are combined and considered as one, bthe swallowingof the earthenware, crops, feathers, and ashes bare also twosimilar miracles that should be bconsidered as one,the result being that bthey are lackingone miracle to complete the total of ten. The Gemara responds: bThere is also anothermiracle, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A great miracle was performed with regard to the shewbreadin the Temple, that the bread was as hot at bits removalon Shabbat, after a week on the table, basit was at bits arrangement, as it is stated: “To put out hot bread on the day it was taken away”(I Samuel 21:7).,The Gemara asks: bAnd were there no moremiracles in the Temple? bBut didn’t Rabbi Levi saythat bthis matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: The place of the Arkof the Covet bis notincluded bin the measurementof the Holy of Holies. Based on that measurement, the Ark should not have fit inside the hall. The Holy of Holies measured twenty cubits by twenty cubits (see I Kings 6), and a ibaraitastates that there were ten cubits of space on either side of the Ark. Therefore, it was only through a miracle that the Ark fit in the Holy of Holies. bAnd Rabbenai saidthat bShmuel said:It was bthrough a miraclethat the bcherubsthat Solomon placed in the Holy of Holies bwould stand.Their wingspan was twenty cubits, and since the length of the chamber was the same, there was no room for the bodies of the cherubs. There were additional miracles performed in the Temple.,The Gemara responds: The itanna bcounts miracles thatwere performed boutsidethe Sanctuary and were visible to all, but he bdoes not count miracles thatwere performed binsidethe Sanctuary and were not visible to all. The Gemara asks: bIf so, the shewbread is also a miracleperformed on the table binsidethe Sanctuary and is not visible to all, yet the miracle that the bread’s heat did not dissipate was listed among the miracles. The Gemara answers: bThe shewbread was a miracleperformed boutside, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written:“Place them bon the pure tablebefore the Lord in two rows, six to a row” (Leviticus 24:6)? From the emphasis that the Torah places on the fact that the table was ritually bpure,it can be learned bby inference that it indicates that itcould become bimpureas well.
76. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 47.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

47.1. כְּתָב לְךָ אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע ח, יב): אֶכְתָּב לוֹ רֻבֵּי תּוֹרָתִי כְּמוֹ זָר נֶחְשָׁבוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּסִינַי לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲמָרָהּ לְמשֶׁה עַל הַסֵּדֶר מִקְרָא וּמִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד וְאַגָּדָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אֲפִלּוּ מַה שֶּׁהַתַּלְמִיד שׁוֹאֵל לָרַב אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה. מֵאַחַר שֶׁלְּמָדָהּ מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמַר לוֹ לַמְּדָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אֶכְתֹּב אוֹתָהּ לָהֶם, אָמַר לוֹ אֵינִי מְבַקֵּשׁ לִתְּנָהּ לָהֶם בִּכְתָב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגָּלוּי לְפָנַי שֶׁעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים עֲתִידִים לִשְׁלֹט בָּהֶם וְלִטֹּל אוֹתָהּ מֵהֶם וְיִהְיוּ בְּזוּיִים בְּעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, אֶלָּא הַמִּקְרָא אֲנִי נוֹתֵן לָהֶם בְּמִכְתָּב, וְהַמִּשְׁנָה וְהַתַּלְמוּד וְהָאַגָּדָה אֲנִי נוֹתֵן לָהֶם עַל פֶּה, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹאוּ עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים וְיִשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ בָּהֶם יִהְיוּ מֻבְדָּלִים מֵהֶם. אָמַר לַנָּבִיא אִם אֶכְתָּב לוֹ רֻבֵּי תּוֹרָתִי כְּמוֹ זָר נֶחְשָׁבוּ, וּמָה אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם, נוֹתֵן אֶת הַמִּקְרָא בִּכְתָב, וְהַמִּשְׁנָה וְהַתַּלְמוּד וְהָאַגָּדָה בְּעַל פֶּה. כְּתָב זֶה הַמִּקְרָא, (שמות לד, כז): כִּי עַל פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה זוֹ הַמִּשְׁנָה וְהַתַּלְמוּד, שֶׁהֵם מַבְדִּילִים בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבֵין הָעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. 47.1. 'Inscribe those words for yourself [for according to those words I have formed a covet with you and with Israel'] As it is stated: 'I write for them the great things of My law like strange things they are considered.' When God revealed Himself at Sinai to give the Torah to Israel, He said [taught] to Moses the following order: Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and Aggadah, as it says : \"God spoke all these words, saying\", even what a student will ask his teacher. God then said to Moses, after he had learnt it from the mouth of G-d, \"Teach it to Israel\". He said to him, \"G-d! Should I write it down?\" He replied \"I am not asking you to give it to them in writing because it is known to Me that in the future the nations will rule over them, and take it [the Torah] from them, and it will be degraded by the nations. So the Scriptures I will give them in writing but the Mishna, Talmud and Aggada I will give orally. If the nations will enslave them, the Jews will be different [unique] to the nations. He said to the prophet 'If I write for them the great things of My law, they will be considered like strangers.' And what am I [G-d] going to do? I will give them the Bible written, the Mishna, Talmud and Aggada orally. 'Inscribe those words for yourself ' 'Inscribe' refers to the Bible, 'for according to those words' refer to the Mishna and Talmud, for those are what separates the Jews from the nations."
77. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 28, 8, 14 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

78. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 18, 28, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

79. Anon., Leges Publicae, 2.2

80. Anon., 4 Baruch, 5

81. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 18.5

82. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 21



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 420
abraham Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
aggadah Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
aggadic passages on legal biblical units, thematized in early rabbinic literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 468
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
akiva, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
amora Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 546
amoraic literature, presumes kiddush ha-shem as public act Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
amorites Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
aphrahat Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
apocalypse/apocalyptic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 552
appearance Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
bar kokhba Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
charity supervisors Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 162
child Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
christianity, early Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 548, 549, 550, 551
circumcision Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
covenant Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 180; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
curriculum pericope Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215, 519
devotion Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179, 180
din, (lifnim mi-)surat ha- Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
education, curriculum Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 47
education, goals of, in increments Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 47
education, goals of, theory Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 48
educational metaphor, water imagery Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 47
elders and synagogue, and amidah, preacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
elite, elitism Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
epictetus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
epistemology Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 468
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124
exegesis Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 48
famines Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 162
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 155, 157
father, in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 527, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 546
fraade, steven Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 162
gentile/gentiles Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 347, 534, 541, 542, 543, 544
gnostics/gnosticism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 545
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
graeco-roman (world/period) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
gymnasiarch, quorum of ten Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
gymnasiarch, rabbinic literature Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
gymnasiarch, sabbaths and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
halakhah, as modality of tradition Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 347
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 525
hermeneutic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
hillul ha-shem, as bringing disrepute to god among non-jews Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 533, 534, 546
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
impurity/impurities Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 537, 538, 539, 540, 541
incarnation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 215, 333, 371, 519, 520, 530, 531, 540, 541, 546, 552, 561
interrelationship of christian and jewish martyrdom discourse, avoiding christian lens on jewish material Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 50
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312, 333, 347, 371, 435, 470, 519, 520, 521, 522, 526, 533, 534, 541, 543, 544, 546, 549, 561
israel Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 544, 545, 546
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
judgement Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
judges Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 561
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
kaddish, as public act Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
kaddish Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
kiddush ha-shem, biblical roots of concept Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
kiddush ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 50, 68
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215, 312, 333
kushelevsky, rella Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 546
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 215, 312, 347, 371
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
learning, preservation of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 47, 48
learning, styles of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
lichtenstein, aharon Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
maftir Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 521
measure for measure Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179, 180
messiah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
meturgeman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
midrash, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215, 371, 435, 470, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 561
midrash Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
midrash and mishna Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
mikra (scripture), as part of curriculum Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 468
minim (heretics) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
mishnah (matnyta) Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 215, 312, 371, 470, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 561; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
narrative, orality, ideological formulations of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
natural law, in rabbinic thought' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
new testament Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
nomos Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 347
orality Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 371; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358
pagans/paganism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 521, 530, 548, 549, 550, 552
parables Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
parnas/parnasim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312, 333, 470, 561
parnas Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 162
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 371, 522, 548, 549, 550, 552
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 333
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
performed traditions Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
persecution, hadrianic Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 316
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 531, 533, 534, 535, 538, 539, 545
pharisees Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
piety Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358
plutarch Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
polity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
prayer, individual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
prayer, rabbinic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 420; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 215, 312, 333, 347, 371, 435, 470, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488, 556
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 333, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 124, 435, 549, 561; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
proto-rabbinic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
pseudepigraphic attribution Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 523
public aspect of kiddush ha-shem and hillul ha-shem, assumed in amoraic literature Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
public aspect of kiddush ha-shem and hillul ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 68
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 525, 535, 536, 539
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124
qumran Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
r. benaya Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
r. hiyya bar abba Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
r. joshua b. hanania Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
rabbinic anxiety, over the disappearance of torah Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 48
rabbinic anxiety Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 48
rabbinic literature Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 551
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
reading, sabbath and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179, 180
relative, father Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
repetition Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 371, 470
roman entertainment, as distraction from torah Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 177
sabbath Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 371, 531, 538
sacrifice Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 420
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 537
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 531, 533, 534, 538, 539
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215, 312, 333, 470, 525, 541, 543, 548, 552, 561
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
scorners, sitting with Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 177
scripture, public reading of Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
scripture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 124, 524
sepphoris, great synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
sepphoris, r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
sermon (derashah), homily, sabbath and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
sermon (derashah), homily, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488, 556
shema, and amidah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
shema, blessings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 556
shema Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31, 48; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 316
sheol, and gehenna Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 192, 193
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 519, 520, 521, 522
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
sodom Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
son Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 57
statman, daniel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 313
students, beginners Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 47
study curriculum, specialization, rabbinic attitudes on Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 468
surrender formula, mesirut nefesh Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 50
synagogue, ancient Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312, 333, 547, 548, 550, 551
synagogue Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 358, 360
syria Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 162
tannaic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
tannaitic Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 360
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 215, 312, 470, 519, 524, 535, 536, 546
tannaitic midrashim Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 143
tannaitic period, vi Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
targumim Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 155, 157
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 488
temple, holy vessels of; the sancta Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552
temple Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 217
thematization Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 435, 470
tomb Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
torah, abandonment of Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 180
torah, forgetting Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 48
torah, opposite spectacle Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 177
torah, oral and written Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
torah, teaching Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 28, 124, 215, 312, 333, 347, 371, 470, 519, 520, 521, 522; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 316; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 177; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
tosefta Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 155, 157; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 177
tradition, hermeneutical functions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 90
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
urbach, e. e. Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
wilderness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 528, 529
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33
yaakov ben hanilai (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179
yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 179
yishmael, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
zoroastrianism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 33