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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



746
Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305


nan(Bamidbar 27:18) "And the L-rd said to Moses:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.6, 28.47-28.48, 31.15, 33.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.6. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נָסְעוּ מִבְּאֵרֹת בְּנֵי־יַעֲקָן מוֹסֵרָה שָׁם מֵת אַהֲרֹן וַיִּקָּבֵר שָׁם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃ 28.47. תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָבַדְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְטוּב לֵבָב מֵרֹב כֹּל׃ 28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 33.3. אַף חֹבֵב עַמִּים כָּל־קְדֹשָׁיו בְּיָדֶךָ וְהֵם תֻּכּוּ לְרַגְלֶךָ יִשָּׂא מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ׃ 10.6. And the children of Israel journeyed from Beeroth-benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died, and there he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest’s office in his stead." 28.47. because thou didst not serve the LORD thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, by reason of the abundance of all things;" 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee." 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 33.3. Yea, He loveth the peoples, All His holy ones—they are in Thy hand; And they sit down at Thy feet, Receiving of Thy words."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.21-13.22, 14.19-14.20, 16.10, 21.2, 34.5, 40.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 40.38. כִּי עֲנַן יְהוָה עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹמָם וְאֵשׁ תִּהְיֶה לַיְלָה בּוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָל־בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל־מַסְעֵיהֶם׃ 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 14.20. and it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the darkness here, yet gave it light by night there; and the one came not near the other all the night." 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 40.38. For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and there was fire therein by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.9. מְאַחֵז פְּנֵי־כִסֵּה פַּרְשֵׁז עָלָיו עֲנָנוֹ׃ 26.9. He closeth in the face of His throne, And spreadeth His cloud upon it."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.15-9.16, 10.34-10.35, 12.5, 12.8-12.10, 16.10, 17.7, 21.1, 27.12-27.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.15. וּבְיוֹם הָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כִּסָּה הֶעָנָן אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 9.16. כֵּן יִהְיֶה תָמִיד הֶעָנָן יְכַסֶּנּוּ וּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 10.34. וַעֲנַן יְהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּנָסְעָם מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 10.35. וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה קוּמָה יְהוָה וְיָפֻצוּ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְיָנֻסוּ מְשַׂנְאֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 12.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 12.9. וַיִּחַר אַף יְהוָה בָּם וַיֵּלַךְ׃ 17.7. וַיְהִי בְּהִקָּהֵל הָעֵדָה עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִנֵּה כִסָּהוּ הֶעָנָן וַיֵּרָא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 21.1. וַיִּשְׁמַע הַכְּנַעֲנִי מֶלֶךְ־עֲרָד יֹשֵׁב הַנֶּגֶב כִּי בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל דֶּרֶךְ הָאֲתָרִים וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁבְּ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁבִי׃ 21.1. וַיִּסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּאֹבֹת׃ 27.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה וּרְאֵה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.14. כַּאֲשֶׁר מְרִיתֶם פִּי בְּמִדְבַּר־צִן בִּמְרִיבַת הָעֵדָה לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי בַמַּיִם לְעֵינֵיהֶם הֵם מֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן׃ 27.15. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 27.16. יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.22. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.23. וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיְצַוֵּהוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 9.15. And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, even the tent of the testimony; and at even there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning." 9.16. So it was alway: the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night." 10.34. And the cloud of the LORD was over them by day, when they set forward from the camp." 10.35. And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said: ‘Rise up, O LORD, and let Thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee.’" 12.5. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth." 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 12.9. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed." 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 16.10. and that He hath brought thee near, and all thy brethren the sons of Levi with thee? and will ye seek the priesthood also?" 17.7. And it came to pass, when the congregation was assembled against Moses and against Aaron, that they looked toward the tent of meeting; and, behold, the cloud covered it, and the glory of the LORD appeared." 21.1. And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel, and took some of them captive." 27.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, and behold the land which I have given unto the children of Israel." 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;" 27.14. because ye rebelled against My commandment in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify Me at the waters before their eyes.’—These are the waters of Meribath-kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.—" 27.15. And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying:" 27.16. ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation," 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 27.18. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him;" 27.19. and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight." 27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’" 27.22. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation." 27.23. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD spoke by the hand of Moses."
6. New Testament, Acts, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service.
7. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 62.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62.4. וְאֵלֶּה תֹּלְדֹת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן אַבְרָהָם (בראשית כה, יב), רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר עוּקְבָא וְרַבָּנָן הֲווֹ יָתְבִין וּמִתְקַשִּׁין מַה רָאָה הַכָּתוּב לְיַחֵס תּוֹלְדוֹתָיו שֶׁל רָשָׁע כָּאן, עָבַר רַבִּי לֵוִי, אָמְרֵי הָא אֲתָא מָרָה דִּשְׁמַעְתָּה נִשְׁאֲלוּנֵיהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ בֶּן כַּמָּה שְׁנִין נִתְבָּרֵךְ זְקֵנֶךָ. (בראשית כה, יז): וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, מָה רָאָה הַכָּתוּב לְיַחֵס שָׁנָיו שֶׁל רָשָׁע כָּאן, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבָּא מִקָּדְקָדָהּ שֶׁל מִדְבָּר לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד לְאָבִיו. (בראשית כה, יח): וַיִּשְׁכְּנוּ מֵחֲוִילָה וגו', הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר נָפָל, וּלְהַלָּן אַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית טז, יב): יִשְׁכֹּן, אֶלָּא כָּל יָמִים שֶׁהָיָה אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם קַיָּם יִשְׁכֹּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמֵּת אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם נָפָל. עַד שֶׁלֹא פָּשַׁט יָדוֹ בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ יִשְׁכֹּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁפָּשַׁט בּוֹ יָדוֹ נָפָל. בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה יִשְׁכֹּן, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא נָפָל.
11. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306, 176 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140, 84, 106 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60a. מי קוראין לא הוה בידיה אתא ושייליה לרבי יצחק נפחא א"ל אחריהן קוראין ת"ח הממונין פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ת"ח הראויין למנותם פרנסים על הציבור ואחריהן בני ת"ח שאבותיהן ממונים פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ראשי כנסיות וכל אדם,שלחו ליה בני גליל לר' חלבו מהו לקרות בחומשים בבהכ"נ בציבור לא הוה בידיה אתא שייליה לר' יצחק נפחא לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא ופשטוה מהא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן ס"ת שחסר יריעה אחת אין קורין בו,ולא היא התם מחסר במילתיה הכא לא מחסר במילתיה רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין קוראין בחומשין בבית הכנסת משום כבוד צבור,ורבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו האי ספר אפטרתא אסור למקרי ביה בשבת מאי טעמא דלא ניתן ליכתב,מר בר רב אשי אמר לטלטולי נמי אסור מ"ט דהא לא חזי למיקרי ביה ולא היא שרי לטלטולי ושרי למיקרי ביה,דר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש מעייני בספרא דאגדתא בשבתא והא לא ניתן ליכתב אלא כיון דלא אפשר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך ה"נ כיון דלא אפשר עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,בעא מיניה אביי מרבה מהו לכתוב מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה חתומה ניתנה,תיבעי למ"ד תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה כיון דמגילה מגילה ניתנה כותבין או דילמא כיון דאידבק אידבק,תיבעי למ"ד תורה חתומה ניתנה כיון דחתומה ניתנה אין כותבין או דילמא כיון דלא אפשר כתבינן א"ל אין כותבין ומה טעם לפי שאין כותבין,איתיביה אף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה א"ר שמעון בן לקיש משום ר' ינאי באל"ף בי"ת,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא אימא כמה שכתוב בטבלא,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה בטבלא וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא מה הוא כתוב בטבלא (במדבר ה, יט) אם שכב אם לא שכב הכא במאי עסקינן בסירוגין,כתנאי אין כותבין מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה ואם דעתו להשלים מותר ר' יהודה אומר בבראשית עד דור המבול בתורת כהנים עד ויהי ביום השמיני,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי בנאה תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה שנא' (תהלים מ, ח) אז אמרתי הנה באתי במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ר"ש בן לקיש אומר תורה חתומה ניתנה שנאמר (דברים לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזאת,ואידך נמי הכתיב לקוח ההוא לבתר דאידבק,ואידך נמי הכתיב במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ההוא דכל התורה כולה איקרי מגילה דכתיב (זכריה ה, ב) ויאמר אלי מה אתה רואה ואומר אני רואה מגילה עפה,אי נמי לכדרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי שמנה פרשיות נאמרו ביום שהוקם בו המשכן אלו הן פרשת כהנים ופרשת לוים ופרשת טמאים ופרשת שילוח טמאים ופרשת אחרי מות 60a. bwho readsfrom the Torah? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,who bsaid to him: After them readthe bTorah scholars who are appointed as leaders [ iparnasim /i] of the community. And after themread bTorah scholars who are fit to be appointed as leaders of the community,even if in practice they received no such appointment. The Sages said that a Torah scholar who knows how to answer any question asked of him is fit to be appointed as leader of the community. bAnd after themread bthe sons of Torah scholars whose fathers were appointed as leaders of the community. And after themread bthe heads of synagogues, andafter them bany person. /b, bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: What isthe ihalakhawith regard bto reading from iḥumashim /i,i.e., scrolls containing only one of the five books of the Torah, bin the synagogue in public?Is this permitted, or is it necessary to read from a complete Torah scroll? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,but an answer bwas notreadily bavailable to himeither. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bcame and askedthis question bin the study hall, and they resolvedthe difficulty bfrom that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to ba Torah scroll that is missingeven bone sheetof parchment, bone may not read from itin public. This indicates that an incomplete Torah scroll may not be used for a public Torah reading.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so,i.e., this cannot serve as a proof to the matter at hand. bThere,it is blackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as a sheet of parchment is missing, whereas bhere, it is not lackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as it contains a complete book. bRabba and Rav Yosef both say: One does not read from iḥumashimin the synagogue out of respect for the community. /b, bAnd Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: It is prohibited topublicly breadthe ihaftara /i, the portion from the Prophets that is read after the weekly Torah portion, bon Shabbat, from a scrollcontaining only bthe ihaftarot /i. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecausethis type of scroll bmay not be written,as the words of the Prophets must also be written as complete books., bMar bar Rav Ashi said: To handlesuch a scroll on Shabbat bis also prohibited. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause it is not fit to be read.Consequently, it is treated as set-aside [ imuktze /i] on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so;rather, bit is permitted to handlesuch a scroll band it is permitted to read from it. /b,And a proof for this is bthat Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish used to read from a scroll of iaggada /icontaining the words of the Sages bon Shabbat. Butsuch a scroll bmay not be written,for in principle, the statements of the Oral Law may not be committed to writing. bRather, since it is not possibleto remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126). bHere too,in the case of a ihaftarascroll, bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write complete books of the Bible, due to the expense, it is permitted to apply the reasoning of b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah.” /b, bAbaye raised a dilemma before Rabba: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether it is permitted bto write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study it?The Gemara notes: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll,meaning that Moses would teach the Jewish people one portion of the Torah, and then write it down, and then teach them the next portion of the Torah, and then write that down, and continue in this way until he committed the entire Torah to writing. And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook, meaning that the Torah was not written down incrementally, but rather, after teaching the Jewish people the entire Torah, Moses committed it to writing all at once.,The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma according to each opinion: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was given scroll by scroll.On the one hand it is possible to say that bsincethe Torah bwasoriginally bgiven scroll by scroll,today as well bone may writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone should say that bsince it wasultimately bjoinedtogether to form a single scroll, bit was joinedtogether and can no longer be written in separate scrolls.,And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook. On the one hand it is possible to say that bsince it was givenfrom the outset as ba completebook, bone may not writeit today in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone could say that bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write a complete Torah, bone may writeit in separate scrolls. Rabba bsaid to him: One may not writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bAnd what is the reason? Because one may not writea scroll that is only part of the Torah.,Abaye braised an objection to hisopinion from a mishna ( iYoma37b) where it was taught: Queen Helene balso fashioned a golden tabletas a gift for the Temple bon which theTorah bportiondiscussing ba isotawas written.When the priest would write the scroll of a isotain the Temple, he would copy this Torah portion from the tablet, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. This indicates that it is permitted for one to write a single portion of the Torah. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of Rabbi Yannai:There is no proof from this mishna, as the tablet prepared by Queen Helene was not written in an ordinary manner, but rather it consisted of the letters bofthe ialef-beit /i,i.e., only the first letter of each word was written on the tablet, and by looking at it the priest writing the isotascroll would remember what to write.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a ibaraitathat teaches: bWhenthe priest bwritesthe isotascroll, bhe looksat band writes that which is written on the tablet,which indicates that the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara rejects this argument: Emend the ibaraitaand bsaythat it should read as follows: He looks at and writes blike that which is written on the tablet.The tablet aids the priest in remembering the text that must actually be written.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a different ibaraita /i: bWhen he writes, he looks at the tablet and writes that which is written on the tablet.And bwhat is written on the tablet? “Ifa man blaywith you…and bif he did not laywith you” (see Numbers 5:19). Apparently, the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here?The tablet fashioned by Queen Helene was written bby alternatingcomplete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.,The Gemara comments: The question of whether or not writing a scroll for a child is permitted is bsubject toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne may not write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study, but ifthe writer’s bintention is to completethe scroll, bit is permitted. Rabbi Yehuda says: Inthe book of bGenesishe may write a scroll from the beginning buntil the generation of the flood. In iTorat Kohanim /i,the book of Leviticus, he may write a scroll from the beginning buntil “And it came to pass on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1).,The Gemara returns to discuss the previously mentioned dispute. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Bana’a: The Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll, as it is stated: “Then I said, behold, I come with the scroll of the book that is written for me”(Psalms 40:8). King David is saying about himself that there is a section of the Torah, “the scroll of the book,” that alludes to him, i.e., “that is written for me.” This indicates that each portion of the Torah constitutes a separate scroll. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The Torah was givenas ba completebook, bas it is stated: “Take this scroll of the Torah”(Deuteronomy 31:26), which teaches that from the outset the Torah was given as a complete unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written “take,”indicating that the Torah scroll was given whole? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is speaking about the Torah bafter it was joinedtogether to form a single unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Reish Lakish, bas well, isn’t it written: “With the scroll of the book that is written for me,”indicating that the Torah was given scroll by scroll? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse teaches that bthe entire Torah is called a scroll.This is indicated in another verse as well, bas it is written: “And He said to me: What do you see? And I said: I see a flying scroll”(Zechariah 5:2)., bAlternatively,this verse serves to allude btothe sections of the Torah discussed in bthatstatement bof Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says: Eight sections were said on the day that the Tabernacle was erected,on the first of Nisan. bThey are: The section of the priests(Leviticus 21:1–22:26); bthe section of the Levites(Numbers 8:5–26); bthe section of the impure(Leviticus 13:1– 14:57); bthe section of the sending away of the impure(Numbers 5:1–4); bthe sectionbeginning with the words b“After the death”(Leviticus, chapter 16);
14. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מאי דרש אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן (דברים לג, ב) (ואתא) מרבבות קדש אות הוא ברבבה שלו,ורבי אבהו אמר (שיר השירים ה, י) דגול מרבבה דוגמא הוא ברבבה שלו,וריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו מח, ב) ה' צבאות שמו אדון הוא בצבא שלו,ורבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מלכים א יט, יא) לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה והנה ה' עובר,ת"ר ששה דברים נאמרו בשדים שלשה כמלאכי השרת ושלשה כבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם כנפים כמלאכי השרת וטסין מסוף העולם ועד סופו כמלאכי השרת ויודעין מה שעתיד להיות כמלאכי השרת,יודעין ס"ד אלא שומעין מאחורי הפרגוד כמלאכי השרת,ושלשה כבני אדם אוכלין ושותין כבני אדם פרין ורבין כבני אדם ומתים כבני אדם,ששה דברים נאמרו בבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם דעת כמלאכי השרת ומהלכין בקומה זקופה כמלאכי השרת ומספרים בלשון הקדש כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה אוכלין ושותין כבהמה ופרין ורבין כבהמה ומוציאין רעי כבהמה:,כל המסתכל בד' דברים רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם כו': בשלמא מה למעלה מה למטה מה לאחור לחיי אלא לפנים מה דהוה הוה,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרוייהו משל למלך ב"ו שאמר לעבדיו בנו לי פלטירין גדולין על האשפה הלכו ובנו לו אין רצונו של מלך להזכיר שם אשפה:,כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם: מאי היא ר' אבא אמר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר מסתכל בקשת דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כח) כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם כן מראה הנגה סביב הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה',רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר כדר' יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנא' (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,איני והאמר ר' אלעא הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורין ויתעטף שחורין ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליה ליצריה הא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש כל המסתכל בג' דברים עיניו כהות בקשת ובנשיא ובכהנים בקשת דכתיב כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה' בנשיא דכתיב (במדבר כז, כ) ונתת מהודך עליו המסתכל בכהנים בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים שהיו עומדין על דוכנן ומברכין את ישראל בשם המפורש,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (מיכה ז, ה) אל תאמינו ברע אל תבטחו באלוף אם יאמר לך יצר הרע חטוא והקב"ה מוחל אל תאמן (שנא') אל תאמן ברע ואין רע אלא יצר הרע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע,ואין אלוף אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ד) אלוף נעורי אתה שמא תאמר מי מעיד בי אבני ביתו וקורות ביתו של אדם הם מעידין בו שנאמר (חבקוק ב, יא) כי אבן מקיר תזעק וכפיס מעץ יעננה,וחכ"א נשמתו של אדם מעידה בו שנאמר (מיכה ז, ה) משכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אי זו היא דבר ששוכבת בחיקו של אדם הוי אומר זו נשמה ר' זריקא אמר שני מלאכי השרת המלוין אותו הן מעידין בו שנאמר (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך (וחכ"א) אבריו של אדם מעידין בו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יב) ואתם עדי נאם ה' ואני אל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (יוסי) בן יועזר אומר שלא לסמוך יוסף בן יוחנן אומר לסמוך יהושע בן פרחיה אומר שלא לסמוך ניתאי הארבלי אומר לסמוך יהודה בן טבאי אומר שלא לסמוך שמעון בן שטח אומר לסמוך שמעיה אומר לסמוך אבטליון אומר שלא לסמוך הלל ומנחם לא נחלקו יצא מנחם נכנס שמאי שמאי אומר שלא לסמוך הלל אומר לסמוך 16a. The Gemara asks: bWhatverse did Rabbi Akiva bexpoundthat prevented him from making the same mistake as iAḥer /i? bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:It was the following: b“And He came [ ive’ata /i] from the holy myriads”(Deuteronomy 33:2), which he explained in this manner: bHe,God, bis unique [ iot /i] among His myriadsof angels. Therefore, he knew that he had merely seen an angel., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said:Rabbi Akiva expounded the verse: b“Preeminent above a myriad”(Song of Songs 5:10) to indicate that bHe is exemplary among His myriad. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish said:He expounded the verse: b“The Lord of hosts is His name”(Isaiah 48:2); bHe is the Master in His host. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:He expounded the verses: b“But the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind, an earthquake; the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake, fire;but bthe Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire, a still, small voice,”and it states in that verse: b“And behold, the Lord passed by”(I Kings 19:11–12). Rabbi Akiva used this verse in order to recognize the place of His presence and refrain from trespassing there.,§ The Gemara returns to discussing the heavenly beings. bThe Sages taught: Sixstatements bwere said with regard to demons:In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels, andin bthreeways they are blike humans.The ibaraitaspecifies: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have wings like ministering angels; and they fly from one end of the world to the other like ministering angels; and they know what will be in the future like ministering angels. /b,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bShould it enter your mind that they knowthis? Not even the angels are privy to the future. bRather, they hear from behind the curtainwhen God reveals something of the future, blike ministering angels. /b, bAndin bthreeways they are similar bto humans: They eat and drink like humans; they multiply like humans; and they die like humans. /b, bSixstatements bwere said with regard to humans:In bthreeways, they are blike ministering angels,and in bthreeways they are blike animals.The ibaraitaexplains: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have intelligence like ministering angels; and they walk upright like ministering angels; and they speak in the holy tongue like ministering angels.In bthreeways humans are blike animals: They eat and drink like animals; and they multiply like animals; and they emit excrement like animals. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhoever looks at four things, it would have been better for him had he never entered the world:Anyone who reflects upon that which is above the firmament; that which is below the earth; what was before the creation of the world; and what will be after the end of the world. The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited to reflect on bwhat is above, what is below,and bwhat is after.This is bfine,since one is examining things that are not part of the world but lie beyond it. bBut beforethe creation of the world, bwhat has happened has happened.Why is it prohibited to reflect upon this?,The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:This can be demonstrated through ba parablewith regard to ba flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Build for me large palaces on a garbage dump. They went and builtthem bfor him.Clearly, in that case, bthe king does not desirethat they bmention the garbage dump.Here too, God does not want people to concern themselves with the chaos that preceded the world.,It is taught in the mishna: bWhoever has no concern for the honor of his Maker deserves to have never come to the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat islack of concern for the honor of one’s Maker? bRabbi Abba said: This isone bwho looks at a rainbow. Rav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private.They proceed to clarify their opinions: bLooking at a rainbowconstitutes an act of disrespect toward the Divine Presence, bas it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28), and it is a dishonor to God to stare at His likeness., bRav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private, in accordance with Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Whoever commits a transgression in private, it is as though he pushedaway bthe feet of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). If one believes that no one can see what he is doing in private, it is as though he said that God is absent from that place. He is therefore compared to one who attempts to remove God from His footstool.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: And bis that so? But didn’t Rabbi Ela the Elder say: If a person sees that his inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is unknown, and wear black, and wrap himself in black,in the manner of mourners, because he should be ashamed of his weakness, band dothere bwhat his heart desires, but let him not desecrate the Name of Heaven in public.This shows that sinning in private is sometimes preferable to the public performance of a transgression. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one who commits a transgression in public has no concern for the honor of his Maker, occurs bwhen one is capable of overcoming his inclinationand fails to do so. bThatcase, where it is preferable to sin in private, occurs bwhen one is incapable of overcoming his inclination.He is therefore advised to, at the very least, refrain from desecrating God’s name in public., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whoever looks atthe following bthree things, his eyes will grow dim:One who looks bat a rainbow, at a iNasi /i, and at the priests.He explains: bAt a rainbow, as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain,so was the appearance of the brightness round about, bthis was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28). bAt a iNasi /i, as it is written: “And you shall put of your splendor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that the splendor of the Divine Presence rested upon Moses, who was the iNasiof Israel. The third item, looking at priests, is referring to one bwho looks at the priests when the Temple is standing, as they would stand on their platform and bless Israel with the ineffable name,at which point the Divine Presence would rest above the joints of their fingers.,Apropos this Sage, the Gemara cites another statement of his: bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust not in a companion, do not put your confidence in an intimate friend”(Micah 7:5)? bIf the evil inclination says to you: Sin, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, will forgive, do not trustit, bsince it is stated: “Trust not in a companion [ irei’a /i].” And irei’ais referring to none otherthan bthe evil [ ira /i] inclination, as it is stated: “For the inclination of the heart of man is evil [ ira /i]”(Genesis 8:21)., bAnd “intimate friend” is referring to none otherthan bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “You are the intimate friend of my youth”(Jeremiah 3:4). bLest you say:Since I am acting in private, bwho will testify against me? The stones of the house and the beams of the house ofeach bperson testify against him, as it is stated:“For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it” (Habakkuk 2:11)., bAnd the Sages say: A person’s soulshall itself btestify against him, as it is stated: “Guard the doors of your mouth from she who lies in your bosom”(Micah 7:5). bWhat thing lies in a person’s bosom? You must say it ishis bsoul. Rabbi Zerika said:The btwo ministering angels who accompany him,i.e., each individual, bthey testify against him, as it is stated: “For He will command his angels over you, to guard you in all your ways”(Psalms 91:11). bAnd the Sages say: A person’s limbs testify against him, as it is stated: “Therefore you are My witnesses, says the Lord, and I am God”(Isaiah 43:12), which indicates that each individual becomes his own witness and testifies against himself on the Day of Judgment., strongMISHNA: /strong bYosei ben Yo’ezer says not to placeone’s hands on offerings before slaughtering them on a Festival because this is considered performing labor with an animal on a Festival. His colleague, bYosef ben Yoḥa, says to placethem; bYehoshua ben Peraḥya says not to placethem; bNitai HaArbeli says to placethem; bYehuda ben Tabbai says not to placethem; bShimon ben Shataḥ says to placethem; bShemaya says to placethem; bAvtalyon says not to placethem. bHillel and Menaḥem did not disagreewith regard to this issue. bMenaḥem departedfrom his post, and bShammai enteredin his stead. bShammai says not to placethem; bHillel says to placethem.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50b. ואל ישנה אדם מפני המחלוקת כיוצא בו המוליך פירות שביעית ממקום שכלו למקום שלא כלו או ממקום שלא כלו למקום שכלו חייב לבער ר' יהודה אומר צא והבא לך אף אתה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי איריא ערבי פסחים אפילו ערבי שבתות וערבי ימים טובים נמי דתניא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות וימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם התם מן המנחה ולמעלה הוא דאסור סמוך למנחה לא הכא מחצות אי נמי התם סימן ברכה הוא דלא חזי אבל שמותי לא משמתינן ליה הכא שמותי נמי משמתינן ליה,גופא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות ובערבי ימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה ובמוצאי שבת ובמוצאי יו"ט ובמוצאי יום הכפורים ובכל מקום שיש שם נידנוד עבירה לאתויי תענית ציבור אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם:,ת"ר יש זריז ונשכר ויש זריז ונפסד יש שפל ונשכר ויש שפל ונפסד זריז ונשכר דעביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא זריז ונפסד דעביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונשכר דלא עביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונפסד דלא עביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא אמר רבא הני נשי דמחוזא אע"ג דלא עבדן עבידתא במעלי שבתא משום מפנקותא הוא דהא כל יומא נמי לא קא עבדן אפילו הכי שפל ונשכר קרינן להו,רבא רמי כתיב (תהלים נז, יא) כי גדול עד שמים חסדך וכתיב (תהלים קח, ה) כי גדול מעל שמים חסדך הא כיצד כאן בעושין לשמה וכאן בעושין שלא לשמה וכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ומצות אף על פי שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה:,תנו רבנן המצפה לשכר אשתו וריחים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שכר אשתו מתקולתא ריחייא אגרתא אבל עבדה ומזבנה אישתבוחי משתבח בה קרא דכתיב (משלי לא, כד) סדין עשתה ותמכור:,ת"ר המשתכר בקנים ובקנקנים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא כיון דנפיש אפחזייהו שלטא בהו עינא: תנו רבנן תגרי סימטא ומגדלי בהמה דקה וקוצצי אילנות טובות ונותנין עיניהן בחלק יפה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא דתהו ביה אינשי:,ת"ר ד' פרוטות אין בהן סימן ברכה לעולם שכר כותבין ושכר מתורגמנין ושכר יתומים ומעות הבאות ממדינת הים,בשלמא שכר מתורגמנין משום דמיחזי כשכר שבת ומעות יתומים נמי לאו בני מחילה נינהו מעות הבאות ממדינת הים משום דלאו כל יומא מתרחיש ניסא,אלא שכר כותבין מאי טעמא א"ר יהושע בן לוי כ"ד תעניות ישבו אנשי כנסת הגדולה על כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות שלא יתעשרו שאילמלי מתעשרין אין כותבין: ת"ר כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות הן ותגריהן ותגרי תגריהן וכל העוסקין במלאכת שמים לאיתויי מוכרי תכלת אינן רואין סימן ברכה לעולם ואם עוסקין לשמה רואין:,בני ביישן נהוג דלא הוו אזלין מצור לצידון במעלי שבתא אתו בנייהו קמיה דר' יוחנן אמרו לו אבהתין אפשר להו אנן לא אפשר לן אמר להו כבר קיבלו אבותיכם עליהם שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך:,בני חוזאי נהגי דמפרשי חלה מארוזא אתו ואמרו ליה לרב יוסף אמר להו ניכלה זר באפייהו איתיביה אביי דברים המותרים ואחרים נהגו בהן איסור 50b. The Sages stated a principle: bAnd a personmay bnot deviatefrom the local custom, bdue topotential bdispute. Similarly,one bwho transports SabbaticalYear produce bfrom a placewhere a crop bhas ceasedin the fields bto a place where it has notyet bceased or from a place where it has notyet bceased to a place where it hasalready bceased is obligated to removethe produce from his possession, in accordance with the stringencies of both locations. It is permitted for homeowners to eat Sabbatical Year produce in their houses only as long as that species of fruit remains in the field as ownerless property. However, once that particular fruit is no longer available for animals in the fields, one is required to remove what remains of that species from his home. The statement in the mishna is referring to one who transported fruit from a location where it ceased in the fields to one where it did not, and vice versa. bRabbi Yehuda saysthat he need not remove the produce, as he can say to a local resident: bYou, too, go out and bringthis produce from a place where it remains in the field., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhydiscuss this prohibition bparticularlywith regard to bPassover eves? Itis prohibited to perform labor bevenon bShabbat eves and Festival eves as well, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves and Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward never sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. The Gemara answers that there is a difference between the two situations: bThere,in the case of Shabbat and Festivals, performing labor is prohibited bfrom iminḥa /itime bonward;it is bnotprohibited badjacent to iminḥa /itime, i.e., just before it. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, it is prohibited bfrom midday. Alternatively, there,on Shabbat eve and Festival eve, it is ba sign of blessing that he does not see; however,the Sages bdo not excommunicate himfor performing labor. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, the Sages balso excommunicate himfor performing labor, as it is explicitly prohibited.,The Gemara cites the source of the bmatter itselfin its entirety: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves or on Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward,and similarly one who works immediately upon bthe conclusion of Shabbat,or bthe conclusion of a Festival,or bthe conclusion of Yom Kippur, or on any occasion where there is a trace of sin,which comes bto include a communal fast,e.g., the Ninth of Av or a fast for rain, when it is prohibited to perform labor, bnever sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. If one performs labor just before Shabbat or immediately after Shabbat, the concern is that even a slight miscalculation could lead to performance of labor on Shabbat itself, when it is prohibited.,Apropos reward or lack thereof, the Gemara cites th ie Toseftain which bthe Sages taught: There isone who is bdiligent and rewardedfor his diligence; band there isone who is bdiligent and penalizeddue to his diligence; bthere isone who is blazy and rewarded; and there isone who is blazy and penalized.How so? bDiligent and rewardedis referring to one bwho works the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Diligent and penalizedis one who bworks all week and works on Shabbat eve. Lazy and rewardedis one bwho does not work the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Lazy and penalizedis one who does bnot work the entire week and works on Shabbat eveto complete the work he neglected to perform during the week. bRava said:With regard to bthose women of Meḥoza, even though they do not perform labor on Shabbat eve, it is due toexcessive bpampering, as neither do they work on anyother bday. Even so, we call them lazy and rewarded.Despite the fact that their laziness is not motivated by piety, their inactivity has a positive aspect to it.,On the topic of reward for a mitzva fulfilled without intent, bRava raised a contradiction:It bis written: “For Your mercy is great unto the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 57:11); band it is writtenelsewhere: b“For Your mercy is great above the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 108:5). bHow so?How can these verses be reconciled? The Gemara explains: bHere,where the verse says that God’s mercy is above the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bfor its own sake; and here,where the verse says that God’s mercy reaches the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bnot for its own sake.Even a mitzva performed with ulterior motives garners reward, bas Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: A person should always engage in Torahstudy and performance of bmitzvot, even ifhe does so bnot for theirown bsake, as throughthe performance of mitzvot bnot for theirown bsake,one gains understanding and bcomesto perform them bfor theirown bsake. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who anticipatesreceiving bthe earnings of his wife orof ba mill never sees a sign of blessingfrom them. The Gemara explains: bEarnings of his wifeis referring to a case where she spins thread for others and charges by weight on ba scale(Rabbeinu Ḥael). The profit is small and it is demeaning to walk in public to solicit customers. Earnings of the bmillis referring to a hand mill for which people pay brentand grind their grain. In that case too, the profits are meager. bHowever, if a woman works and sellsthe product of her labor, bthe verse praises her, as it is writtenabout a woman of valor: b“She made a cloak and sold it,and delivered a belt to the peddler” (Proverbs 31:24)., bThe Sages taughtwith regard to a sign of blessing: bOne who earnsa living bfromselling brods or jugs will never see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? bSince their volumeis great, btheevil beye dominates them.People believe that one is selling more than he is actually selling. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Merchantswho sell their wares bin an alleyway [ isimta /i]adjacent to a thoroughfare, where they are seen by all; band those who raise small livestock,which tend to damage other people’s fields; band those who chop down goodfruit btrees,even if they were permitted to do so; and bthose who direct their eyes to the fine portionwith the intention of taking that portion for himself when dividing an item with others, will bnever see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bthatdue to these actions bpeople wonder about himand pay special attention to his conduct. Due to that attention, his actions will not be blessed.,Similarly bthe Sages taught: In four iperutot /i,payments, bthere is never a sign of blessing: Wages of scribesof sacred books; bwages of disseminators,who repeat and explain the lectures delivered by the Sages on Shabbat; bpayment of orphans,which one receives when engaging in a partnership with the executor of an orphan’s estate; band money that comes from a country overseas. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,one will be unsuccessful when receiving bwages of disseminators, as it appears asif he is receiving bwagesfor work performed on bShabbat,even though what he is doing is not actually prohibited. bAndit is also understandable that one will see no blessing from borphans’ money,as minors bare not capable of relinquishingproperty. Minors do not have the legal right to forgive even negligible losses, which partners typically overlook. Therefore, one who in the course of business takes even the smallest amount of money from them beyond the sum to which he is entitled is considered a thief. One sees no blessing from bmoney that comes from a country overseas,because ba miracle does not transpire every day.Since the risks involved in shipping cargo on long sea voyages are great, one’s merit is diminished each time his merchandise miraculously arrives intact.,However, bwhat is the reasonthat one sees no blessing from bwages of scribes? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The members of the Great Assembly observed twenty-four fasts,corresponding to the twenty-four priestly watches (Maharsha), bfor scribeswho write Torah bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i, so that they will not become wealthyfrom their craft, bas were theyto bbecome wealthy, theywould no longer bwritethese sacred items. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Scribeswho write bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i;and btheir merchants,who buy the sacred scrolls from the scribes to sell them; and btheir merchants’ merchants; and all those engaged in the work of Heavenand earn their living from it, a phrase that comes bto include those who sell the sky-bluedye for ritual fringes, bnever see a sign of blessingfrom their labor. bAnd if they engagein these activities bfor their own sake,to ensure that there will be more sacred items available to the public, then btheydo bseeblessing from their labor.,As the mishna discusses the requirement to observe local customs, the Gemara relates: bThe residents of Beit She’an were accustomed not to travel from Tyre tomarket day in bSidon on Shabbat eve.In deference to Shabbat, they adopted a stringency and would not interrupt their Shabbat preparations even for a short sea voyage. bTheir children came before Rabbi Yoḥato request that he repeal this custom. bThey said to him:Due to their wealth, it was possible for bour fathersto earn a living without traveling to the market on Friday; bhowever, it is not possible for usto do so. bHe said to them: Your fathers already acceptedthis virtuous custom bupon themselves,and it remains in effect for you, bas it is stated: “My son, hear your father’s rebuke and do not abandon your mother’s teaching”(Proverbs 1:8). In addition to adhering to one’s father’s rebuke, i.e., ihalakha /i, one is also required to preserve his mother’s teaching, i.e., ancestral customs.,The Gemara relates additional customs: bThe residentsof the city of bḤozai were accustomed to separate iḥallafrom ricedough. bThey came and told Rav Yosefabout this custom. bHe said to them: Let a non-priest eatthis dough bin their presenceto show them unequivocally that this custom has no legal basis. bAbaye raised an objection to him:With regard to bmattersthat are bpermitted, but others were accustomed totreat bthemas a bprohibition, /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומביאו לחיי העולם הבא,אמר רבי אבהו כגון אבימי ברי קיים מצות כיבוד חמשה בני סמכי הוה ליה לאבימי בחיי אביו וכי הוה אתא רבי אבהו קרי אבבא רהיט ואזיל ופתח ליה ואמר אין אין עד דמטאי התם,יומא חד אמר ליה אשקיין מיא אדאייתי ליה נמנם גחין קאי עליה עד דאיתער איסתייעא מילתיה ודרש אבימי (תהלים עט, א) מזמור לאסף,אמר ליה רב יעקב בר אבוה לאביי כגון אנא דעד דאתינא מבי רב אבא מדלי לי כסא ואמא מזגה לי היכי איעביד א"ל מאמך קביל ומאבוך לא תקבל דכיון דבר תורה הוא חלשה דעתיה,רבי טרפון הוה ליה ההיא אמא דכל אימת דהות בעיא למיסק לפוריא גחין וסליק לה וכל אימת דהות נחית נחתת עלויה אתא וקא משתבח בי מדרשא אמרי ליה עדיין לא הגעת לחצי כיבוד כלום זרקה ארנקי בפניך לים ולא הכלמתה,רב יוסף כי הוה שמע קל כרעא דאמיה אמר איקום מקמי שכינה דאתיא אמר רבי יוחנן אשרי מי שלא חמאן רבי יוחנן כי עברתו אמו מת אביו ילדתו מתה אמו וכן אביי איני והאמר אביי אמרה לי אם ההיא מרבינתיה הואי,רב אסי הוה ליה ההיא אמא זקינה אמרה לי' בעינא תכשיטין עבד לה בעינא גברא נייעין לך בעינא גברא דשפיר כותך שבקה ואזל לארעא דישראל,שמע דקא אזלה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר לי' מהו לצאת מארץ לחוצה לארץ א"ל אסור לקראת אמא מהו א"ל איני יודע [אתרח] פורתא הדר אתא אמר ליה אסי נתרצית לצאת המקום יחזירך לשלום,אתא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר א"ל חס ושלום דלמא מירתח רתח א"ל מאי אמר לך אמר ליה המקום יחזירך לשלום אמר ליה ואם איתא דרתח לא הוה מברך לך אדהכי והכי שמע לארונא דקאתי אמר אי ידעי לא נפקי,ת"ר מכבדו בחייו ומכבדו במותו בחייו כיצד הנשמע בדבר אביו למקום לא יאמר שלחוני בשביל עצמי מהרוני בשביל עצמי פטרוני בשביל עצמי אלא כולהו בשביל אבא,במותו כיצד היה אומר דבר שמועה מפיו לא יאמר כך אמר אבא אלא כך אמר אבא מרי הריני כפרת משכבו והני מילי תוך שנים עשר חדש מכאן ואילך אומר זכרונו לברכה לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן חכם משנה שם אביו ושם רבו תורגמן אינו משנה לא שם אביו ולא שם רבו אבוה דמאן אילימא אבוה דמתורגמן אטו תורגמן לאו בר חיובא הוא,אלא אמר רבא שם אביו של חכם ושם רבו של חכם כי הא דמר בר רב אשי כי הוה דריש בפירקא איהו אמר אבא מרי ואמוריה אמר הכי אמר רב אשי,ת"ר איזהו מורא ואיזהו כיבוד מורא לא עומד במקומו ולא יושב במקומו ולא סותר את דבריו ולא מכריעו כיבוד מאכיל ומשקה מלביש ומכסה מכניס ומוציא,איבעיא להו 31b. and this action bbrings him to the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bRabbi Abbahu said:One bsuch as Avimi, my son,properly bfulfilled the mitzva of honoringhis parents. The Gemara relates: bAvimi had five sons during his father’s lifetimewho were bordainedto issue halakhic rulings, and he too was ordained. bAndyet bwhen Rabbi Abbahu,his father, bcame and called at the gateto enter, Avimi bwouldhimself brun and go to openthe door bfor him. And before he arrived there, hewould already bsay: Yes, yes,so that his father would not think that he was being ignored., bOne dayRabbi Abbahu bsaid toAvimi his son: bGive me water to drink. Before he brought himthe water, Rabbi Abbahu bdozed off.Avimi bbent overand bstood over him untilhis father bawoke.The performance of this mitzva baided him,i.e., as a reward God helped him in his studies, bandAvimi succeeded in homiletically binterpretingthe psalm: b“A song to Asaph”(Psalms 79)., bRav Ya’akov bar Avuh said to Abaye:With regard to one bsuch as I,so beloved by my parents that bbefore I return from the study hall my father brings me a cup and my mother pours for me, how should I act?Is it disrespectful to accept this honor from them? Abaye bsaid to him: Acceptit bfrom your mother, but do not accept it from your father, as, since he is a Torah scholar he will be disheartenedif his son does not show him the proper level of respect.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Tarfon had a certainmanner of treating his bmother, that whenever she wished to ascend intoher bbed he would bend over andhelp bher to ascend, and whenever she wished to descendfrom the bed, bshe would descend onto him. He came and praisedhimself in the bstudy hallfor performing the mitzva of honoring one’s father and mother so thoroughly. bThey said to him: You still have not reached even half ofthe bhonordue to her. bHasit ever happened that bshe threw a purse into the sea in front of you, and you did not embarrass her? /b, bWhen Rav Yosef heard his mother’s footsteps, hewould bsay: I will stand before the arriving Divine Presence. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Fortunate is one who never sawhis father and mother, as it is so difficult to honor them appropriately. The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yoḥahimself never saw his parents. bWhen his mother was pregt with him, his father died;and when bshe gave birth to him, his mother died. And the sameis true of bAbaye.The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that Abaye never saw his mother? bBut didn’t Abaye sayon many occasions: bMy mother told me?The Gemara answers: bThatmother bwasactually bhis foster mother,not his birth mother., bRav Asi had an elderly mother. She said to him: I want jewelry,and bhe madejewelry bfor her.She said to him: bI want a manwhom I can marry, and he said to her: bI will seekone bfor you.She said to him: bI want a husband who is as handsome as you.At this point, he realized that she was senile, and that he would be unable to fulfill all her requests. Therefore, bhe left her and went to Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Asi bheard that she was following himto Eretz Yisrael. bHe came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bleaving EretzYisrael to go boutside of EretzYisrael? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:It is bprohibited.Rav Asi further asked: If one is going bto greethis bmother, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I do not know.Rav Asi bwaited a littlewhile, and bthen cameback to him. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Asi, you areevidently bdetermined to leave.May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace,and he said no more.,Rav Asi bcame before Rabbi Elazar,because he did not know how to interpret Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bHe said toRabbi Elazar: bGod forbid, perhapshe bis angrywith me that I wished to leave? Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Whatexactly bdid he say to you?Rav Asi bsaid to him:May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: If it is so that he was angry, he would not have blessed you.Rabbi Yoḥa certainly gave you permission to leave. bIn the meantime,while he was traveling to meet her, Rav Asi bheard that her coffin was coming,i.e., his mother had died and her coffin was being brought to Eretz Yisrael. bHe said: Had I known I would not have left,as after his mother’s death he was not obligated to leave Eretz Yisrael to honor her., bThe Sages taught: One honorshis father bin his life and honors him in his death. Howdoes he honor him bin his life? One who goes to a place on the command of his father should not sayto the people to whom he has been sent, to hurry them along: bSend meon my journey bon my own behalf,or: bHurry up on my own behalf,or: bAllow meto btake leaveof this business bon my own behalf. Rather,he should say ballof the above in the following manner: Act in this manner bon Father’s behalf,as a mark of respect for his father., bHowdoes he honor him bin his death?If bhe says a matter he heard from hisfather’s bmouth, he should not say: So said Father. Rather,he should say: bSo said Father, my teacher, may I be an atonement for his restingsoul. bAnd this ihalakha bapplies within twelve monthsof his death. bFrom thistime bonward he says: May his memory be for a blessing, for the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: A Sagewho lectures in public must bchange the name of his father,i.e., when he quotes his father he should not mention him by name. bAndsimilarly, he changes the bname of his teacher. The disseminator,who explains the statements of a Sage to the audience, bchanges neither the name of his father nor the name of his teacher.The Gemara asks: To bwhose fatheris this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to bthe father of the disseminator,whom the Sage mentioned in his lecture, bis that to saythat bthe disseminator is not obligatedto observe the mitzva of honoring one’s father? How can a disseminator mention his own father by name?, bRather, Rava said:This is referring to the bname of the Sage’s father and the name of the Sage’s teacher.This is blike that which Mar bar Rav Ashiwould do, as bwhen he would teachTorah bat his regular lectureand would mention a ihalakhain the name of his father, Rav Ashi, bhe would say:So said bmy father, my teacher; and his disseminatorwould bsay: So said Rav Ashi.Although a son may not mention his father’s name, the disseminator of his lecture may do so., bThe Sages taught: What is fear and what is honor? Fearof one’s father includes the following: bOne may not stand in hisfather’s fixed bplace, and may not sit in his place, and may not contradict his statementsby expressing an opinion contrary to that of his father, band he may not choose sideswhen his father argues with someone else. What is considered bhonor? He giveshis father bfood and drink, dresses and covershim, and bbringshim bin and takeshim boutfor all his household needs., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages:
17. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות מפחדה של גיהנם שדומה ללילה,דרש ר' יאשיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט והצילו גזול מיד עושק וכי בבקר דנין וכל היום אין דנין אלא אם ברור לך הדבר כבקר אמרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יונתן מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את אם ברור לך הדבר כאחותך שהיא אסורה לך אומרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שיושבין בדין קולר תלוי בצואר כולן פשיטא לא צריכא אלא לתלמיד היושב לפני רבו,רב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה מיכניף ומייתי עשרה רבנן מבי רב אמר כי היכי דלימטיי' שיבא מכשורא רב אשי כי הוה אתי טריפתא לקמיה מכניף ומייתי להו לכולהו טבחי דמתא מחסיא אמר כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשורא,כי אתא רב דימי אמר דרש רב נחמן בר כהן מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ד) מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה אם דיין דומה למלך שאינו צריך לכלום יעמיד ארץ ואם דומה לכהן שמחזר בבית הגרנות יהרסנה,דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמיר א"ל ליהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש קום עליה באמורא קם גחין עליה ולא א"ל ולא מידי,פתח ואמר (חבקוק ב, יט) הוי אומר לעץ הקיצה עורי לאבן דומם הוא יורה הנה הוא תפוש זהב וכסף וכל רוח אין בקרבו ועתיד הקב"ה ליפרע ממעמידין שנאמר (חבקוק ב, כ) וה' בהיכל קדשו הס מפניו כל הארץ,אמר ריש לקיש כל המעמיד דיין (על הציבור) שאינו הגון כאילו נוטע אשירה בישראל שנאמר (דברים טז, יח) שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך וסמיך ליה (דברים טז, כא) לא תטע לך אשירה כל עץ אמר רב אשי ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמים כאילו נטעו אצל מזבח שנאמר (דברים טז, כא) אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך,כתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב הוא דלא עבדי הא דעץ שרי אמר רב אשי אלוה הבא בשביל כסף ואלוה הבא בשביל זהב,רב כי הוה אתי לבי דינא אמר הכי ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה עייל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,כי הוי חזי אמבוהא (דספרי) אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו [וגו'] כגללו לנצח יאבד (וגו') מר זוטרא חסידא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא אמר הכי (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חוסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,דרש בר קפרא מנא הא מילתא דאמרו רבנן הוו מתונין בדין דכתיב (שמות כ, כו) לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אמר ר' אליעזר מניין לדיין שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודש שנא' לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה ואלה המשפטים,אשר תשים אשר תלמדם מיבעי ליה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא אלו כלי הדיינין רב הונא כי הוה נפק לדינא אמר הכי אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי מקל ורצועה ושופרא וסנדלא,(דברים א, טז) ואצוה את שופטיכם בעת ההיא אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריז (דברים א, טז) שמוע בין אחיכם ושפטתם אמר רבי חנינא אזהרה לבית דין שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו ואזהרה לבעל דין שלא יטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו קרי ביה נמי שמע בין אחיכם,רב כהנא אמר מהכא (שמות כג, א) מלא תשא לא תשיא,(דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק אמר ריש לקיש צדק את הדין ואחר כך חתכהו (דברים א, טז) בין איש ובין אחיו (ובין גרו) אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין בית לעלייה,ובין גרו אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין תנור לכירים,(דברים א, יז) לא תכירו פנים במשפט רבי יהודה אומר לא תכירהו רבי אלעזר אומר לא תנכרהו,אושפיזכניה דרב אתא לקמיה לדינא אמר לו לאו אושפיזכני את אמר לו אין אמר ליה דינא אית לי אמר ליה 7b. bas it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh due to dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8). The words “due to dread in the night” mean bdue to the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interprets this verse as referring to judges, who are called: Mighty men of Israel, as they preside in the Temple, which is termed: The bed of God. In this verse, God is referred to as: Solomon [ iShlomo /i], the King to Whom peace [ ishalom /i] belongs., bRabbi Yoshiya, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “House of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor”(Jeremiah 21:12)? bAndis it bsothat a court bmay judge in the morning, and allthe rest of bthe daya court bmay not judge?Why does the verse specifically relate to judging in the morning? bRather,the meaning is: bIf the matter is as clear to you as the morning, statethe verdict; band if not, do not state it. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yonatansays this principle may be derived bfrom here: “Say to wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bIf the matter isas bclear to you asthe fact bthat your sister is forbidden to you, state it, and if not, do not state it. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:If btenjudges bare sitting in judgment,a prisoner’s bcollar [ ikolar /i],referring to responsibility for the consequences of an incorrect verdict, bhangs around all of their necks.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat all of the judges bear joint responsibility for the verdict? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary onlyin order btoinclude ba student who is sitting in front of his teacherin the court, and notices that his teacher erred. Although he is not formally part of the court, he nevertheless bears responsibility if he remains silent.,The Gemara relates concerning bRav Hunathat bwhena case bwould come before himfor bjudgment,he would bgather and bring ten rabbis from Rav’s study hall.He bwould say:I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus.The greater the number of judges, the less responsibility each one assumes for the verdict. Similarly, with bRav Ashi, whena person bwould come before himwith meat suspected to be from ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifta /i],he bwould gather and bringtogether ball the butchers of Mata Meḥasyaand consult with them before ruling on the status of the meat. He bwould sayto them: I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael, he bsaid: Rav Naḥman bar Kohen interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts [ iterumot /i] overthrows it”(Proverbs 29:4)? This teaches that bif the judgeis blike a kingin bthat he does not need anythingand is not dependent on anyone, he bestablishes the land,i.e., he can serve as a judge. bBut if he is like a priest who seeks outhis iterumot bfromvarious bgranaries,as he is dependent on others, he boverthrowsthe land., bIn the house of the iNasi /i, they appointed a judge who was not learned.This judge bsaid to Yehuda bar Naḥmani,who was the binterpreter of Reish Lakishand whose role was to repeat and explain the Sage’s lectures: bStand overme bas an interpreter,and I will lecture. Yehuda bar Naḥmani baroseand bbent over himin the conventional manner, to hear the judge’s words. bAnd,being ignorant, the judge bdid not say anything to him. /b,The interpreter bbegan and said:The verse states: b“Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake, to the dumb stone: Arise. Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it”(Habakkuk 2:19). So is this judge, appointed to teach the public for gold, i.e., for payment, but no more qualified than wood and stone. bAndin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will punish those who appointsuch judges, bas it is statedin the next verse: b“But the Lord is in His holy Sanctuary; let all the earth be silent before Him”(Habakkuk 2:20). God, Who is above everything, will judge those responsible for such appointments., bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who appoints over the community a judge who is not fit,it is bas thoughhe bplants a treeused as part of idolatrous rites b[ iashera /i] among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “You shall make judges and officers for yourself”(Deuteronomy 16:18), band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“You shall not plant yourself an iasheraof any kind of tree”(Deuteronomy 16:21). By implication, appointing unfit judges is akin to planting a tree for idolatry. bRav Ashi says: And in a place where there are Torah scholars,it is bas thoughhe bplantedthe tree bnext to the altar, as it is stated:“You shall not plant yourself an iashera /i… bbeside the altar of the Lord your God.” /b,It is bwritten: “You shall not make with Me gods of [ ielohei /i] silver and gods of gold”(Exodus 20:20). The Gemara asks: It is bgods of silver and gods of gold thatyou may bnot make, butare gods bof wood permitted?Rather, bRav Ashi says:This verse discusses ba judge,called ielohim /i, bwho comes,i.e., is appointed, bdue topayment of bsilver, and a judge who comes due topayment of bgold. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav, when he would come to courtto judge a case, bwould say thisabout himself: bBy his own willhe bgoes out todanger of bdeath,as a judge who misjudges a case is liable to receive the punishment of death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not dowhat is necessary to provide for bthe needs of his house, and he enters his home empty-handed,because a judge does not receive a salary. He said: bIf onlyit should be so that his bentryinto his home bwill bethe same bashis bdeparture,without sin or transgression.,In a similar demonstration of humility, bwhenRav bwould see a convoy [ iambuha /i] of scribesfollowing bafter himto honor him, he bwould say: “Though his excellency mount up to the heavensand his head reach the clouds, byet he shall perish forever like his own dung;they who have seen him shall say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). It is said of bMar Zutra the Piousthat bwhenthe people bwould carry himto his lectures bon their shoulders during Shabbat of the Festival,he would bsay thisto avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24)., bBar Kappara taught,based on a homiletical interpretation of a verse: bFrom where is this matter that the Sages statedderived: bBe temperate in judgment( iAvot1:1)? bAs it is written: “Neither shall you go up by stepsonto My altar” (Exodus 20:23), i.e., do not ascend hurriedly, band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“Now these are the ordicesthat you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1). bRabbi Eliezer says: From whereis it derived bthat a judge may not step over the heads of the sacred nation,walking among those assembled for the lecture, who would sit upon the floor, in such a manner that he has the appearance of stepping on them? It is derived from that bwhich is stated: “Neither shall you go up by steps,” and juxtaposed to itis an introduction to civil laws and courtroom regulations: b“Now these are the ordices.”This indicates that the prohibition against ascending upon steps applies to judges.,The Gemara interprets the second part of the verse cited above: “Now these are the ordices bthat you shall setbefore them.” The verse bshould havestated: bThat you shall teach them.What is indicated by the phrase: “Set before them”? bRabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: These are the judges’ tools.To illustrate this, the Gemara relates that bRav Huna, when he would go out to a judgment, would say this: Take out for me tools from my shop: A rod and strap,with which to flog transgressors; band a shofar,necessary in the event that someone must be excommunicated; band a sandal,necessary in the event of iḥalitza /i, the procedure by which a levirate marriage is rejected.,The Gemara interprets other verses related to the topic of adjudicating cases. b“And I charged your judges at that time,saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him” (Deuteronomy 1:16). Understanding that the word “charged” indicates alacrity, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Moses urged the judges: bWith regard to the rod and the strap, be vigilant.With regard to the clause b“Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge,” Rabbi Ḥanina says:This is ba warning to a court thatit bmay not hear the statement ofone blitigant before the other litigant comes, andit is ba warning to a litigant thathe bmay not explain his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes. Read intothe phrase in the verse: b“Hear the causes between your brethren,”that it is balso concerningthe litigant. Although he is not the judge, he is also required to assure that the case is conducted in the presence of both parties., bRav Kahana saysthe litigant’s responsibility may be derived bfrom here: From “you shall not bear [ itissa /i]a false report” (Exodus 23:1). Although conjugated in this manner the verb would seem to be addressed to the judges, commanding them not to lend credence to a false report, the term may also be read as: bYou shall not deliver [ itassi /i]a false report, conjugated so that it addresses the litigants and the witnesses.,The Gemara returns to the verse in Deuteronomy cited above: “And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, band judge righteously.” Reish Lakish says: Verify the judgmentby meticulously examining the particulars of the case, bandonly bafterward, implement it.The verse continues: b“Between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him.” Rav Yehuda says:The judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ba house and the upper storywhen dividing a two-floor property among inheriting brothers.,With regard to the clause in the verse: b“And the stranger who is with him [ igero /i],”the word igeroresembles the word: Dwell [ igur /i], and bRav Yehuda says:This word teaches that the judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ban oven and a stove.The judge must carefully weigh how to divide even these domestic items in a case of inheritance, to ensure that the distribution of property is absolutely equitable.,The next verse states: b“You shall not respect [ itakiru /i] people in judgment;you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid before any man, for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it” (Deuteronomy 1:17). bRabbi Yehuda says: Do not recognize him [ itakirehu /i],i.e., do not acknowledge the litigant as a friend in your role as a judge. bRabbi Elazar says:Even if he is your opponent, bdo not estrange him [ itenakerehu /i]in such a way as to prejudge him as liable, but treat him as though you do not know him at all., bRav’s host [ iushpizekhaneih /i],with whom he would stay occasionally, bcame before him for a judgment.Rav bsaid tothe host: bAre you not my host?He bsaid to him: Yes,I am. The host then bsaid to him: I havea dispute with another that needs ba judgment.Rav bsaid to him: /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37b. ארבע ארבע וארבע הרי שמונה שמונה ושמונה הרי שש עשרה וכן בסיני וכן בערבות מואב שנא' (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית אשר צוה ה' את משה וגו' וכתיב (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת וגו' נמצא מ"ח בריתות על כל מצוה ומצוה,ר"ש מוציא הר גריזים והר עיבל ומכניס אהל מועד שבמדבר,ובפלוגתא דהני תנאי דתניא רבי ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד ר' עקיבא אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,ואין לך כל דבר מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות,ר' שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו אמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,אמר רבי לדברי רבי שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו שאמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך כל מצוה ומצוה שבתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים נמצא לכל אחד ואחד מישראל שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,מאי בינייהו אמר רב משרשיא ערבא וערבא דערבא איכא בינייהו,דרש רבי יהודה בן נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כל הפרשה כולה לא נאמרה אלא בנואף ונואפת,(דברים כז, טו) ארור האיש אשר יעשה פסל ומסכה וגו' בארור סגי ליה אלא זה הבא על הערוה והוליד בן והלך לבין עובדי כוכבים ועבד עבודת כוכבים ארורין אביו ואמו של זה שכך גרמו לו,ת"ר (דברים יא, כט) ונתת את הברכה על הר גריזים ואת הקללה וגו מה תלמוד לומר אם ללמד שתהא ברכה על הר גריזים וקללה על הר עיבל הרי כבר נאמר (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם על הר גריזים וכתיב (דברים כז, יג) ואלה יעמדו על הקללה בהר עיבל אלא להקדים ברכה לקללה,יכול יהיו כל הברכות קודמות לקללות תלמוד לומר ברכה וקללה ברכה אחת קודמת לקללה ואין כל הברכות קודמות לקללות,ולהקיש ברכה לקללה לומר לך מה קללה בלוים אף ברכה בלוים ומה קללה בקול רם אף ברכה בקול רם ומה קללה בלשון הקודש אף ברכה בלה"ק ומה קללה בכלל ופרט אף ברכה בכלל ופרט ומה קללה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן אף ברכה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברכת כהנים כיצד במדינה אומר אותה שלש ברכות ובמקדש ברכה אחת במקדש אומר את השם 37b. every mitzva contains bfouraspects. bFourgeneral aspects band fourspecific aspects add up to beight. Eightblessings band eightcurses add up to bsixteen. And so too atMount bSinai, and so too at the plains of Moab, as it is stated: “These are the words of the covet that the Lord commanded Mosesto make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covet that He made with them in Horeb” (Deuteronomy 28:69). bAnd it is written: “Observe therefore the words of this covet”(Deuteronomy 29:8). bIt followsthat between the three events where sixteen covets were made, God established bforty-eight covets for each and every mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon excludes Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebalfrom this list because only some of the mitzvot were mentioned there, band he includesinstead the covet at bthe Tent of Meeting in the desert. /b,The Gemara explains: bAndit is bin the disputebetween bthese itanna’im /ithat they disagree, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta8:11): bRabbi Yishmael says: General statements were said at Sinai,i.e., Moses received general mitzvot at Sinai, including the Ten Commandments. bAndthe bdetailsof the mitzvot were explained to Moses at a later time bin the Tent of Meeting. Rabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai, andlater brepeated in the Tent of Meeting, andreiterated ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab.Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Akiva, and counts Mount Sinai and the Tent of Meeting Tent as two distinct places where all of the mitzvot were given.,The ibaraitaconcludes: bAnd there is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko said in the name of Rabbi Shimon: There is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times,corresponding to the population of the Jewish people in the desert. This is because each member of the Jewish people received the covet both for himself and as a guarantor for the rest of the Jewish people., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: According to the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko, who spoke in the name of Rabbi Shimon, there is no mitzva in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times; it followsthat bfor every one of the Jewish peoplethere were b603,550covets.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe statements of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? What does the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi add? bRav Mesharshiyya said:The matter of ba guarantor and a guarantor for a guarantoris the difference bbetween them.According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, every Jew is not only rendered a guarantor for every other Jew, but he is also rendered a guarantor for every other Jew’s responsibility as a guarantor. Therefore, according to his calculation, the number of covets is multiplied again by 603,550.,§ bRabbi Yehuda ben Naḥmani, the disseminator of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, taught: The entire passageof the blessings and curses bis stated onlyin reference bto an adulterer and adulteress. /b,This is proved from the verse: b“Cursed is the man who makes a graven or molten image”(Deuteronomy 27:15). bIs a curse a sufficientconsequence bforthe actions of an idol worshipper? He has rebelled against the fundamental tenet of the Torah. bRather, thisis referring to bone who engaged in sexual intercourse with a forbidden relative and boreher a imamzer bson. Andthe son, who is not allowed to marry a Jew of unflawed lineage, bwentto live bamong theother bnations of the world and engaged in idol worship. His father and mother are cursed for causing himto worship idols. Likewise, the rest of the curses refer to sins that are the result of adultery., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall give the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curseon Mount Ebal” (Deuteronomy 11:29). bWhymust bthe verse statethis? bIfit is bto teach that the blessing must begiven bon Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal, it is already stated: “These shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12), band it is written: “And these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse”(Deuteronomy 27:13). bRather,the verse teaches that the proclamation of the bblessing must precedethe bcurse. /b,One bmighthave thought that ball of the blessingsshould bprecede the curses.Therefore, bthe verse states “blessing” and “curse”in the singular, to teach that bone blessing precedeseach bcurse, but all of the blessings do not precede the curses.The blessings and curses were recited alternately, first one blessing and then one curse., bAndfurthermore, the verse comes bto juxtaposethe bblessing withthe bcurse, to say to youthat bjust asthe bcurseis recited bbythe bLevites, so too,the bblessingis uttered bbythe bLevites; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bloudly, so too,the bblessingis proclaimed bloudly; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew, bso too,the bblessingis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed both bin general and in detail, so too,the bblessing isproclaimed bin general and in detail. And just asafter the bcurseis uttered, bbothgroups of people on each mountain brespond and say amen, so too,after the bblessingis uttered, bbothgroups brespond and say amen. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bHowis bthe Priestly Benedictionrecited? bIn the country,i.e., outside the Temple, the priest brecitesthe verses as bthree blessings,pausing between each verse while the people respond amen. bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite all three verses as bone blessing,after which the people respond: Blessed be the Lord, God, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity, as is the customary response to blessings in the Temple. bIn the Temple,the priest butters the nameof God
19. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. כי הא (דרבה) בר חמא כי הוו קיימי מקמיה דרב חסדא מרהטי בגמרא בהדי הדדי והדר מעייני בסברא,אמר רבא מאני משתיא במטללתא מאני מיכלא בר ממטללתא חצבא ושחיל בר ממטללתא ושרגא במטללתא ואמרי לה בר ממטללתא ולא פליגי הא בסוכה גדולה הא בסוכה קטנה:,ירדו גשמים: תנא משתסרח המקפה של גריסין,אביי הוה קא יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף במטללתא נשב זיקא וקא מייתי ציבותא אמר להו רב יוסף פנו לי מאני מהכא אמר ליה אביי והא תנן משתסרח המקפה אמר ליה לדידי כיון דאנינא דעתאי כמי שתסרח המקפה דמי לי,ת"ר היה אוכל בסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיגמור סעודתו היה ישן תחת הסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיאור,איבעיא להו עד שיעור או עד שיאור ת"ש עד שיאור ויעלה עמוד השחר תרתי אלא אימא עד שיעור ויעלה עמוד השחר:,משל למה הדבר דומה: איבעיא להו מי שפך למי ת"ש דתניא שפך לו רבו קיתון על פניו ואמר לו אי אפשי בשמושך,ת"ר בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לכל העולם כולו משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שעשה סעודה לעבדיו והניח פנס לפניהם כעס עליהם ואמר לעבדו טול פנס מפניהם והושיבם בחושך,תניא רבי מאיר אומר כל זמן שמאורות לוקין סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שמלומדין במכותיהן משל לסופר שבא לבית הספר ורצועה בידו מי דואג מי שרגיל ללקות בכל יום ויום הוא דואג,תנו רבנן בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לעובדי כוכבים לבנה לוקה סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שישראל מונין ללבנה ועובדי כוכבים לחמה לוקה במזרח סימן רע ליושבי מזרח במערב סימן רע ליושבי מערב באמצע הרקיע סימן רע לכל העולם כולו,פניו דומין לדם חרב בא לעולם לשק חיצי רעב באין לעולם לזו ולזו חרב וחיצי רעב באין לעולם לקה בכניסתו פורענות שוהה לבא ביציאתו ממהרת לבא וי"א חילוף הדברים,ואין לך כל אומה ואומה שלוקה שאין אלהיה לוקה עמה שנאמר (שמות יב, יב) ובכל אלהי מצרים אעשה שפטים ובזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום אין מתיראין מכל אלו שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה עובדי כוכבים יחתו ואין ישראל יחתו,ת"ר בשביל ארבעה דברים חמה לוקה על אב בית דין שמת ואינו נספד כהלכה ועל נערה המאורסה שצעקה בעיר ואין מושיע לה ועל משכב זכור ועל שני אחין שנשפך דמן כאחד,ובשביל ארבעה דברים מאורות לוקין על כותבי (פלסתר) ועל מעידי עדות שקר ועל מגדלי בהמה דקה בא"י ועל קוצצי אילנות טובות,ובשביל ד' דברים נכסי בעלי בתים נמסרין למלכות על משהי שטרות פרועים ועל מלוי ברבית 29a. bAsin bthatsituation involving Rava and Rami bbar Ḥama, when they would stand before Rav Ḥisda,after he taught them a ihalakha btheywould bquicklyreview bthe traditionthat they heard from him btogether andonly bthen analyze the rationaleof the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.,With regard to residence in the isukka /i, bRava said: Drinking vesselssuch as cups, which are usually clean, remain bin the isukka /i. Eating vesselsare taken bout of the isukka /iafter use. bAn earthenware jug and a wicker basket [ ishaḥil]that are used for drawing water are taken boutside the isukka /i. And a lampremains binside the isukka /i, and some sayit is taken boutside the isukka /i.The Gemara comments: bAnd they do not disagree.Rather, bthisopinion, that a lamp remains inside the isukka /i, is referring bto a large isukka /i,where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the isukka /i. And bthatopinion, that the lamp is taken outside the isukka /i, is referring bto a small isukka /i,where the lamp’s odor is offensive.,§ The mishna stated: If brain fell,it is permitted to leave the isukkafrom the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: The measure is bfrom when a congealed dish of pounded grain,a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, bwill spoil. /b, bAbaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the isukka /i. The wind blew and broughtwith it bsplintersfrom the roofing, and they fell onto the food. bRav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here,and I will eat in the house. bAbaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that one remains in the isukka buntil the congealed dish will spoil?That is not yet the case. bHe said to him: For me, since I am delicate,this situation bis as if the congealed dish will spoil. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bone was eating in the isukka /i, and rain fell,and bhe descendedfrom the isukkaon the roof to eat in his house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases buntilafter bhe finishes his meal.Similarly, if bone was sleeping underthe roofing of bthe isukka /i, and rain fell, and he descendedto sleep in the house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house buntil it becomes light. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the correct reading of the ibaraita /i: bUntil one awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, and once he awakens he returns to the isukkaeven in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: bUntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, and he need not return to the isukkauntil morning? bComeand bheara proof that will resolve the matter from a related ibaraita /i: One need not return to the isukka buntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, band dawnarrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the ibaraitarepeat the arrival of light btwotimes (Ritva)? bRather, sayinstead: bUntil he awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, band the dawnarrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.,§ The mishna continues: The Sages btold a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWho pouredthe water bin whoseface? bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtexplicitly in a ibaraita /i: bHis master poured a jugof water bon his face and said to him: I do not want your service. /b,Apropos the fact that rain on iSukkotis an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. bThe Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world.The Gemara tells ba parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [ ipanas /i] before themto illuminate the hall. bHe became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: When theheavenly blights,i.e., the sun and the moon, bare eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people,which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, bbecause they are experienced in their beatings.Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests ba parable:This is similar bto a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries?The child bwho is accustomed to be beaten each and every day isthe one who bworries. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: bWhen the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for theother bnations.When bthe moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people.This is bdue tothe fact bthat the Jewish people calculatetheir calendar primarily based bon the moon, and theother bnationscalculate based bon the sun.When the sun is beclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe east.When it is eclipsed bin the west, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe west.When it is eclipsed bin the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b,If, during an eclipse, bthe visageof the sun bisred blike blood,it is an omen that bsword,i.e., war, bis coming to the world.If the sun bisblack blike sackclothmade of dark goat hair, it is an omen that barrows of hunger are coming to the world,because hunger darkens people’s faces. When it is similar both bto this,to blood, band to that,to sackcloth, it is a sign that both bsword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world.If it was beclipsed upon its entry,soon after rising, it is an omen that bcalamity is tarrying to come.If the sun is eclipsed bupon its departureat the end of the day, it is an omen that bcalamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed:An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.,The Sages said: bThere is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: “And against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God”(Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: bWhen the Jewish people perform God’s will, theyneed bnot fear any of theseomens, bas it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed,provided they do not follow the ways of the nations., bThe Sages taughtthat bon account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: Onaccount of ba president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately,and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; bonaccount of ba betrothed young woman who screamed in the citythat she was being raped band there was no one to rescue her; onaccount of bhomosexuality; and onaccount of btwo brothers whose blood was spilled as one. /b, bAnd on account of four matters theheavenly blightsare beclipsed: Onaccount of bforgers of a fraudulent document [ ipelaster /i]that is intended to discredit others; bonaccount of btestifiers of false testimony; onaccount of braisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisraelin a settled area; band onaccount of bchoppers of good,fruit-producing btrees. /b, bAnd on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchyas punishment: bOnaccount of those bkeepers of paidpromissory bnotes,who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; band onaccount of blenders with interest; /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

4a. לטומאת ביתו,אמר ליה ר' יוחנן לריש לקיש בשלמא לדידי דילפינא ממלואים היינו דתניא זה וזה מזין עליו כל שבעה מכל חטאות שהיו שם דהואי נמי הזאה במלואים אלא לדידך דילפת מסיני הזאה בסיני מי הואי,אמר ליה ולטעמיך מי ניחא במלואים דם הכא מים הא לא קשיא דתני רבי חייא נכנסו מים תחת דם אלא לדידך הזאה בסיני מי הואי אמר ליה מעלה בעלמא,תניא כוותי' דרבי יוחנן תניא כוותיה דריש לקיש תניא כוותיה דר' יוחנן (ויקרא טז, ג) בזאת יבא אהרן אל הקדש במה שאמור בענין מאי היא בענין דמלואים ומה אמור בענין דמלואים אהרן פירש שבעה ושמש יום אחד ומשה מסר לו כל שבעה כדי לחנכו בעבודה,ואף לדורות כהן גדול פורש שבעה ומשמש יום אחד ושני תלמידי חכמים מתלמידיו של משה לאפוקי צדוקין מוסרין לו כל שבעה כדי לחנכו בעבודה,מכאן אמרו שבעת ימים קודם יוה"כ מפרישין כהן גדול מביתו ללשכת פרהדרין וכשם שמפרישין כ"ג כך מפרישין כהן השורף את הפרה ללשכה שעל פני הבירה צפונה מזרחה ואחד זה ואחד זה מזין עליו כל שבעה מכל חטאות שהיו שם,ואם תאמר במלואים דם הכא מים אמרת נכנסו מים תחת דם ואומר כאשר עשה ביום הזה צוה ה' לעשות לכפר עליכם לעשות אלו מעשה פרה לכפר אלו מעשה יוה"כ,והאי בזאת מיבעי ליה לגופיה בפר בן בקר לחטאת ואיל לעולה אמרי אי לקרבן לחודיה לימא קרא בזה או באלה מאי בזאת שמעת מינה תרתי,מאי ואומר וכי תימא יוה"כ קמא הוא דבעי פרישה כדאשכחן במלואים אבל ביוה"כ דעלמא לא אי נמי כ"ג קמא הוא דבעי פרישה אבל כ"ג בעלמא לא ת"ש כאשר עשה וכו',תניא כוותיה דריש לקיש משה עלה בענן ונתכסה בענן ונתקדש בענן כדי לקבל תורה לישראל בקדושה שנאמר (שמות כד, טז) וישכון כבוד ה' על הר סיני זה היה מעשה אחר עשרת הדברות שהיו תחלה לארבעים יום דברי רבי יוסי הגלילי,ר"ע אומר וישכון כבוד ה' מראש חודש 4a. babout the ritual impurity ofthe priest’s bhome,i.e., his wife. This is done lest he become impure through relations with a menstruating woman, which is ritual impurity lasting seven days. Therefore, he is removed from his home for seven days., bRabbi Yoḥa said to Reish Lakish: Granted,according bto myopinion, bthat I derivethe ihalakhaof sequestering bfromthe binauguration,that explains bthat which is taughtin the ibaraita /i: With regard to both bthispriest engaged in the burning of the red heifer band thatHigh Priest prior to Yom Kippur, bone sprinkles upon himfor ball sevendays the purification water mixed with ashes from samples bfrom allthe previous red heifer bsin-offerings that weresafeguarded btherein the Temple. The reason for this practice is bthat there was also sprinkling duringthe binauguration. However, according to youropinion, bthat you derive it from Sinai, was therein fact bsprinkling at Sinai?According to your opinion, why are the priests sprinkled?,Reish Lakish bsaid to him: And according to your reasoning, does itwork out bwell?At the binauguration,the sprinkling was with bblood; here,the sprinkling was with bwater.Rabbi Yoḥa answered: bThat is not difficult, as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: Water replaced blood,but both have the status of sprinkling. bHowever, according to yourreasoning, bat Sinai, was there sprinklingat all? Reish Lakish bsaid to him:The Sages bmerelyestablished ba higher standard,and this sprinkling is not a requirement.,§ The Gemara comments: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥathat the sequestering is derived from the inauguration; banda ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakishthat it is derived from Sinai. The Gemara elaborates: A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa:It was stated with regard to the inauguration: b“With this Aaron will come into the Sanctuary,with a young bull for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering” (Leviticus 16:3). To what is the term: With this, referring? It is referring to bthat which is stated in the matter. What isthe matter? It is bthe matter of the inauguration.In the manner that the priest was prepared for the inauguration, so too is he prepared for Yom Kippur. bAnd what is stated in the matter ofthe binauguration?It is that bAaronthe priest bwithdrewfor bsevendays band served one day, and Moses transmittedthe Torah guidelines bto him all sevendays bin order to train him in theSanctuary bservice. /b, bAndthroughout the bgenerations as well,the bHigh Priest withdraws sevendays prior to Yom Kippur band serves one day. And two Torah scholars fromamong bthe students of Moses, to the exclusion of Sadducees,who are not students of Moses, btransmitthe Torah guidelines bto him all sevendays bin order to train him in theSanctuary bservice. /b, bFrom therethe Sages bsaidin the mishna: bSeven days prior to Yom Kippurthe Sages would bremove the High Priest,who performs the entire Yom Kippur service, bfrom his house to the Chamber of iParhedrin /i; and just asthe Sages would bremove the High Priest, so do they remove the priest who burns the heifer,from his house bto the chamber that was before the ibira /iat the bnortheastcorner of the courtyard on the Temple Mount. bAndwith regard to bboth thispriest whom the Sages sequester prior to Yom Kippur band thatpriest whom the Sages sequester prior to engaging in the burning of the heifer, bone sprinkles upon him,for ball sevendays of sequestering, the purification water with ashes bfrom all theprevious red heifer bsin-offerings that weresafeguarded btherein the Temple., bAnd if you saythat at the binaugurationthe sprinkling was with bblood,and bherethe sprinkling was with bwater, you said: Water replaced blood. And it saysin the verse: b“As has been done this day, so the Lord has commanded to do, to make atonement for you”(Leviticus 8:34). bTo do, these are the actionsperformed in the burning bof thered bheifer; to make atonement, these are the actionsperformed on bYom Kippur.This ibaraita /i, then, is proof for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bButthe term: bWith this [ ibezot /i], is required forthe meaning of the verse bitself;the priest is required to bring ba young bull for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering.The Sages bsayin response: bIfthe term comes to teach bonlywith regard bto the offerings, let the verse say: With this [ ibezeh /i],in the masculine, referring to the bull, bor: With these [ ibe’elleh /i],referring to the bull and the ram. bWhat,then, may be derived from the use of the feminine term ibezot /i,which refers to neither the bull nor the ram? bLearn from it twoconclusions; one with regard to the offerings and one with regard to sequestering.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the ibaraita /i. bWhatis the meaning of the term: bAnd it says?Why does the ibaraitacite an additional proof from another verse? Why wasn’t the first proof sufficient? bAnd if you saythat bit ison bthe first Yom Kippurwhen Aaron performed the service bthatthe High Priest brequires sequestering, as we find inthe binaugurationwhen the priests were sequestered before being consecrated as priests, bbut on Yom Kippur in general, no,subsequent High Priests do not require sequestering; or balternatively,if you say: bIt is the first High Priest who requires sequestering,as did all the priests during the inauguration, bbutsubsequent bHigh Priests in general, no,they do not require sequestering before Yom Kippur; then bcomeand bhearthat which it says in the verse: b“As has been donethis day, so the Lord has commanded to do,” meaning that this is a mitzva for all generations.,§ And a ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakishthat sequestering is derived from Sinai: bMoses ascended in the cloud, and was covered in the cloud, and was sanctified in the cloud, in order to receive the Torah for the Jewish people in sanctity, as it is stated: “And the glory of the Lord abode upon Mount Sinaiand the cloud covered him six days, and He called to Moses on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud” (Exodus 24:16). bThis was an incidentthat occurred bafter therevelation of bthe Ten Commandmentsto the Jewish people, and these six days bwere the beginningof the bforty daysthat Moses was on the mountain (see Exodus 24:18); this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.The opinion of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili corresponds to that of Reish Lakish; Moses withdrew for six days before receiving permission to stand in the presence of God., bRabbi Akiva says:This incident occurred before the revelation of the Ten Commandments to the Jewish people, and when the Torah says: b“And the glory of the Lord abodeupon Mount Sinai,” it is referring to the revelation of the Divine Presence that began on the bNew Moonof Sivan, which was six days before the revelation of the Ten Commandments.
21. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 34, 17 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

22. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 37 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
angel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
aramaic papyri (elephantine) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
aristeas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
bar kokhba Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
bar kokhba revolt Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 70
byzantine period, emperor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
clouds of glory, cloud Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
hebrew (ethnonym) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
historicization, contemporizing Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 70, 71
historicization, multiple signification Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 71
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
messiah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 353
meturgeman (interpreter) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
naḥmanides, nakdaimon ben gurion, daughter of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 70
onqelos, (targum) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
parnas/parnasim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
persian empire/period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
plutarch Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
ptolemies Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
roman, period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
shekhina Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
song of songs, targum of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 71
synagogue, ancient Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312
targum Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 246
tefillin, temple, destruction of' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 70
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 312; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
yehud (persian province) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
yoḥanan ben zakkai, rabban Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 70, 71
zenon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150