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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



752
Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.706-3.829


nanThe face of God the mighty. And all soul


nanOf men, with mighty groaning lifting up


nanTheir hands to the broad heaven, shall begin


nanTo call the great King helper, and to seek


nan710 The rescuer from great wrath who is to be.


nanBut come and learn this and store in your hearts


nanWhat troubles in the rolling years shall come.


nanAnd what as whole burnt-offering Hellas brought


nanOf cows and bellowing bulls unto the temple


nan715 Of the great God, she from ill-sounding war


nanAnd fear and pestilence shall flee away


nanAnd from the servile yoke escape again.


nanBut until that time there shall be a race


nanOf godless men, even when that fated day


nan720 Shall reach its end. For offering to God


nanYe should not make till all things come to pass


nanWhich God alone shall purpose not in vain


nanTo be all fulfilled; and strong force shall urge.


nanAnd there shall be again a holy race


nan725 Of godly men who, keeping to the counsel


nanAnd mind of the Most High, shall honor much


nanThe great God's temple with drink-offerings


nanBurnt-offerings, and holy hecatombs


nanWith sacrifices of fat bulls, choice rams


nan730 Firstlings of sheep and the fat thighs of lambs


nanSacredly offering whole burnt-offering


nanOn the great altar. And in righteousness


nanHaving obtained the law of the Most High


nanBlest shall they dwell in cities and rich fields.


nan735 And prophets shall be set on high for them


nanBy the Immortal, bringing great delight


nanUnto all mortals. For to them alone


nanThe mighty God his gracious counsel gave


nanAnd faith and noblest thought within their hearts;


nan740 They have not by vain things been led astray


nanNor pay they honor to the works of men


nanMade of gold, brass, silver, and ivory


nanNor statues of dead gods of wood and stone


nan[Besmeared clay, figures of the painter's art]


nan745 And all that empty-minded mortals will;


nanBut they lift up their pure arms unto heaven


nanRise from the couch at daybreak, always hand


nanWith water cleanse, and honor only Him


nanWho is immortal and who ever rules


nan750 And then their parents; and above all men


nanDo they respect the lawful marriage-bed;


nanAnd they have not base intercourse with boys


nanAs do Phœnicians, Latins, and Egyptian


nanAnd spacious Greece, and nations many more


nan755 Of Persians and Galatians and all Asia


nanTransgressing the immortal God's pure law


nanWhich they were under. Therefore on all men


nanWill the Immortal put bane, famine, pains


nanGroans, war, and pestilence and mournful woes;


nan760 Because they would not honor piously


nanThe immortal Sire of all men, but revered


nanAnd worshiped idols made with hands, which thing


nanMortals themselves will cast down and for shame


nanConceal in clefts of rocks, when a young king


nan765 The seventh of Egypt, shall rule his own land


nanReckoned from the dominion of the Greeks


nanWhich countless Macedonian men shall rule;


nanAnd there shall come from Asia a great king


nanfiery eagle, who with foot and horse


nan770 Shall cover all the land, cut up all things


nanAnd fill all things with evils; he will cast


nanThe Egyptian kingdom down; and taking off


nanAll its possessions carry them away


nanOver the spacious surface of the sea.


nan775 And then shall they before, the mighty God


nanThe King immortal, bend the fair white knee


nanOn the much-nourishing earth; and all the work


nanMade with hands shall fall by a flame of fire.


nanAnd then will God bestow great joy on men;


nan780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep


nanTheir genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine


nanAnd the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat


nanWhich is for mortals of all things the best.


nanBut thou, O mortal full of various wiles
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN
NaN


nan795 The cause of the wrath of the mighty God


nanWhen on all mortals there shall come the height


nanOf pestilence and conquered they shall meet


nanA fearful judgment, and king shall seize king


nanAnd wrest his land away, and nations bring


nan800 Ruin on nations and lords plunder tribes


nanAnd chiefs all flee into another land


nanAnd the land change its men, and foreign rule


nanRavage all Hellas and drain the rich land.


nanOf its wealth, and to strife among themselve


nan805 Because of gold and silver they shall come–


nanThe love of gain an evil shepherde


nanWill be for cities–in a foreign land.


nanAnd they shall all be without burial


nanAnd vultures and wild beasts of earth shall spoil


nan810 Their flesh; and when these things are brought to pass


nanVast earth shall waste the relics of the dead.


nanAnd all unsown shall it be and unplowed


nanProclaiming sad the filth of men defiled


nanMany lengths of time in the revolving years


nan815 And shields and javelins and all sorts of arms;


nanNor shall the forest wood be cut for fire.


nanAnd then shall God send from the East a king


nanWho shall make all earth cease from evil war


nanKilling some, others binding with strong oaths.


nan820 And he will not by his own counsels do


nanAll these things, but obey the good decree


nanOf God the mighty. And with goodly wealth


nanWith gold and silver and purple ornament


nanThe temple of the mighty God again


nan825 Shall be weighed down; and the full-bearing earth


nanAnd the sea shall be filled full of good things.


nanAnd kings against each other shall begin


nanTo hold ill will, in heart abetting evils.


nanEnvy is not a good to wretched men.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 22.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.5. כִּי־תֵצֵא אֵשׁ וּמָצְאָה קֹצִים וְנֶאֱכַל גָּדִישׁ אוֹ הַקָּמָה אוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִר אֶת־הַבְּעֵרָה׃ 22.5. If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the shocks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field are consumed; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 115.3-115.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

115.3. וֵאלֹהֵינוּ בַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־חָפֵץ עָשָׂה׃ 115.4. עֲ‍צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 115.6. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן׃ 115.7. יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ לֹא־יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם׃ 115.8. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 115.3. But our God is in the heavens; Whatsoever pleased Him He hath done." 115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 115.6. They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not;" 115.7. They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. ." 115.8. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.6-11.10, 44.9-44.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.7. וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃ 11.8. וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃ 11.9. לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת־יְהוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים׃ 44.9. יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃ 44.11. הֵן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו יֵבֹשׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם יִתְקַבְּצוּ כֻלָּם יַעֲמֹדוּ יִפְחֲדוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ יָחַד׃ 44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.13. חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד יַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּמַּקְצֻעוֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָה יְתָאֳרֵהוּ וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּתַבְנִית אִישׁ כְּתִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם לָשֶׁבֶת בָּיִת׃ 44.14. לִכְרָת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃ 44.15. וְהָיָה לְאָדָם לְבָעֵר וַיִּקַּח מֵהֶם וַיָּחָם אַף־יַשִּׂיק וְאָפָה לָחֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ עָשָׂהוּ פֶסֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָמוֹ׃ 44.16. חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַף בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ בָּשָׂר יֹאכֵל יִצְלֶה צָלִי וְיִשְׂבָּע אַף־יָחֹם וְיֹאמַר הֶאָח חַמּוֹתִי רָאִיתִי אוּר׃ 44.17. וּשְׁאֵרִיתוֹ לְאֵל עָשָׂה לְפִסְלוֹ יסגוד־[יִסְגָּד־] לוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּחוּ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וְיֹאמַר הַצִּילֵנִי כִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה׃ 44.18. לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃ 44.19. וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶל־לִבּוֹ וְלֹא דַעַת וְלֹא־תְבוּנָה לֵאמֹר חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַפְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵשׁ וְאַף אָפִיתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו לֶחֶם אֶצְלֶה בָשָׂר וְאֹכֵל וְיִתְרוֹ לְתוֹעֵבָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבוּל עֵץ אֶסְגּוֹד׃ 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 11.7. And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox." 11.8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den." 11.9. They shall not hurt nor destroy In all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea." 11.10. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the root of Jesse, that standeth for an ensign of the peoples, Unto him shall the nations seek; And his resting-place shall be glorious." 44.9. They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed." 44.10. Who hath fashioned a god, or molten an image That is profitable for nothing?" 44.11. Behold, all the fellows thereof shall be ashamed; And the craftsmen skilled above men; Let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; They shall fear, they shall be ashamed together." 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint." 44.13. The carpenter stretcheth out a line; He marketh it out with a pencil; He fitteth it with planes, And he marketh it out with the compasses, And maketh it after the figure of a man, According to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house." 44.14. He heweth him down cedars, And taketh the ilex and the oak, And strengtheneth for himself one among the trees of the forest; He planteth a bay-tree, and the rain doth nourish it." 44.15. Then a man useth it for fuel; And he taketh thereof, and warmeth himself; Yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; Yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; He maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto." 44.16. He burneth the half thereof in the fire; With the half thereof he eateth flesh; He roasteth roast, and is satisfied; Yea, he warmeth himself, and saith: ‘Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire’;" 44.17. And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image; He falleth down unto it and worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, And saith: ‘Deliver me, for thou art my god.’" 44.18. They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand." 44.19. And none considereth in his heart, Neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say: ‘I have burned the half of it in the fire; Yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and eaten it; And shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? Shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?’" 44.20. He striveth after ashes, A deceived heart hath turned him aside, That he cannot deliver his soul, nor say: ‘Is there not a lie in my right hand?’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.18, 10.1-10.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.18. הַבָּנִים מְלַקְּטִים עֵצִים וְהָאָבוֹת מְבַעֲרִים אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְהַנָּשִׁים לָשׁוֹת בָּצֵק לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּוָּנִים לִמְלֶכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ נְסָכִים לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לְמַעַן הַכְעִסֵנִי׃ 10.1. וַיהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת הוּא־אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים וּמֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם מִקִּצְפּוֹ תִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יָכִלוּ גוֹיִם זַעְמוֹ׃ 10.1. שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל־תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל־תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי־יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה׃ 10.2. אָהֳלִי שֻׁדָּד וְכָל־מֵיתָרַי נִתָּקוּ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי וְאֵינָם אֵין־נֹטֶה עוֹד אָהֳלִי וּמֵקִים יְרִיעוֹתָי׃ 10.3. כִּי־חֻקּוֹת הָעַמִּים הֶבֶל הוּא כִּי־עֵץ מִיַּעַר כְּרָתוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־חָרָשׁ בַּמַּעֲצָד׃ 10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.6. מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ יְהוָה גָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְגָדוֹל שִׁמְךָ בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 10.7. מִי לֹא יִרָאֲךָ מֶלֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי לְךָ יָאָתָה כִּי בְכָל־חַכְמֵי הַגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מַלְכוּתָם מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.9. כֶּסֶף מְרֻקָּע מִתַּרְשִׁישׁ יוּבָא וְזָהָב מֵאוּפָז מַעֲשֵׂה חָרָשׁ וִידֵי צוֹרֵף תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁם מַעֲשֵׂה חֲכָמִים כֻּלָּם׃ 10.11. כִּדְנָה תֵּאמְרוּן לְהוֹם אֱלָהַיָּא דִּי־שְׁמַיָּא וְאַרְקָא לָא עֲבַדוּ יֵאבַדוּ מֵאַרְעָא וּמִן־תְּחוֹת שְׁמַיָּא אֵלֶּה׃ 10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.13. לְקוֹל תִּתּוֹ הֲמוֹן מַיִם בַּשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעֲלֶה נְשִׂאִים מִקְצֵה ארץ [הָאָרֶץ] בְּרָקִים לַמָּטָר עָשָׂה וַיּוֹצֵא רוּחַ מֵאֹצְרֹתָיו׃ 10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃ 10.15. הֶבֶל הֵמָּה מַעֲשֵׂה תַּעְתֻּעִים בְּעֵת פְּקֻדָּתָם יֹאבֵדוּ׃ 10.16. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 7.18. The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead the dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke Me." 10.1. Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel;" 10.2. thus saith the LORD: Learn not the way of the nations, And be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; For the nations are dismayed at them." 10.3. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; For it is but a tree which one cutteth out of the forest, The work of the hands of the workman with the axe." 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not." 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.6. There is none like unto Thee, O LORD; Thou art great, and Thy name is great in might." 10.7. Who would not fear Thee, O king of the nations? For it befitteth Thee; Forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their royalty, There is none like unto Thee." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.9. Silver beaten into plates which is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; Blue and purple is their clothing; They are all the work of skilful men." 10.10. But the LORD God is the true God, He is the living God, and the everlasting King; At His wrath the earth trembleth, And the nations are not able to abide His indignation." 10.11. Thus shall ye say unto them: ‘The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, these shall perish from the earth, and from under the heavens.’" 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;" 10.13. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens, When He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; When He maketh lightnings with the rain, And bringeth forth the wind out of His treasuries;" 10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them." 10.15. They are vanity, a work of delusion; In the time of their visitation they shall perish." 10.16. Not like these is the portion of Jacob; For He is the former of all things, And Israel is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name."
5. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.13, 4.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח־אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה פָּרַשׂ רֶשֶׁת לְרַגְלַי הֱשִׁיבַנִי אָחוֹר נְתָנַנִי שֹׁמֵמָה כָּל־הַיּוֹם דָּוָה׃ 4.11. כִּלָּה יְהוָה אֶת־חֲמָתוֹ שָׁפַךְ חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וַיַּצֶּת־אֵשׁ בְּצִיּוֹן וַתֹּאכַל יְסוֹדֹתֶיהָ׃ 1.13. From above He has hurled fire into my bones, and it broke them; He has spread a net for my feet, He has turned me back, He has made me desolate [and] faint all day long. " 4.11. The LORD hath accomplished His fury, He hath poured out His fierce anger; And He hath kindled a fire in Zion, Which hath devoured the foundations thereof."
6. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.9. וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לָּהּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה חוֹמַת אֵשׁ סָבִיב וּלְכָבוֹד אֶהְיֶה בְתוֹכָהּ׃ 2.9. For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst of her."
7. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Anon., Testament of Levi, 15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.1-3.705, 3.707-3.829 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.1. O THOU high-thundering blessed heavenly One 3.2. Who hast set in their place the cherubim 3.3. I, who have uttered what is all too true 3.4. Entreat thee, let me have a little rest; 3.5. 5 For my heart has grown weary from within. 3.6. But why again leaps my heart, and my soul 3.7. With a whip smitten from within constrained 3.8. To utter forth its message unto all? 3.9. But yet again will I proclaim all thing 3.10. 10 Which God commands me to proclaim to men. 3.11. O men, that in your image have a form 3.12. Fashioned of God, why do ye vainly stray 3.13. And walk not in the straight way, always mindful 3.14. of the immortal Maker? God is one 3.15. 15 Sovereign, ineffable, dwelling in heaven 3.16. The self-existent and invisible 3.17. Himself alone beholding everything; 3.18. Him sculptor's hand made not, nor is his form 3.19. Shown by man's art from gold or ivory; 3.20. 20 But he, eternal Lord, proclaims himself 3.21. As one who is and was erst and shall be 3.22. Again hereafter. For who being mortal 3.23. Can see God with his eyes? Or who shall bear 3.24. To hear the only name of heaven's great God 3.25. 25 The ruler of the world? He by his word 3.26. Created all things, even heaven and sea 3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars 3.28. And mighty mother Tethys, springs and rivers 3.28. 28 of the Chaldeans, nor astronomize; 3.29. Imperishable fire, and days and nights. 3.29. O For these are all deceptive, in so far 3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 3.31. The first one formed, and filling with his name 3.31. Training their souls unto no useful work; 3.32. East, west, and south, and north. The same is he 3.32. And then did they teach miserable men 3.33. Who fixed the pattern of the human form 3.33. Deceptions, whence to mortals on the earth 3.34. And made wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls. 3.35. 35 Ye do not worship neither fear ye God 3.36. But vainly go astray and bow the knee 3.37. To serpents, and make offering to cats 3.38. And idols, and stone images of men 3.39. And sit before the doors of godless temples; 3.40. 40 Ye guard him who is God, who keeps all things 3.41. And merry with the wickedness of stone 3.42. Forget the judgment of the immortal Saviour 3.43. Who made the heaven and earth. Alas! a race 3.44. That has delight in blood, deceitful, vile 3.45. 45 Ungodly, of false, double-tongued, immoral men 3.46. Adulterous, idolous, designing fraud 3.47. An evil madness raving in their hearts 3.48. For themselves plundering, having shameless soul; 3.49. For no one who has riches will impart 3.50. 50 To another, but dire wickedness shall be 3.51. Among all mortals, and for sake of gain 3.52. Will many widows not at all keep faith 3.53. But secretly love others, and the bond 3.54. of life those who have husbands do not keep. 3.55. 55 But when Rome shall o'er Egypt also rule 3.56. Governing always, then shall there appear 3.57. The greatest kingdom of the immortal King 3.58. Over men. And a holy Lord shall come 3.59. To hold the scepter over every land 3.60. 60 Unto all ages of fast-hastening time. 3.61. And then shall come inexorable wrath 3.62. On Latin men; three shall by piteous fate 3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men 3.64. With their own houses, when from heaven shall flow 3.65. 65 A fiery cataract. Ah, wretched me! 3.66. When shall that day and when shall judgment come 3.67. of the immortal God, the mighty King? 3.68. But just now, O ye cities, ye are built 3.69. And all adorned with temples and race-grounds 3.70. 70 Markets, and images of wood, of gold 3.71. of silver and of stone, that ye may come 3.72. Unto the bitter day. For it shall come 3.73. When there shall pass among all men a stench 3.74. of brimstone. Yet each thing will I declare 3.75. 75 In all the cities where men suffer ills. 3.76. From the Sebastenes Beliar shall come 3.77. Hereafter, and the height of hills shall he 3.78. Establish, and shall make the sea stand still 3.79. And the great fiery sun and the bright moon 3.80. 80 And he shall raise the dead, and many sign 3.81. Work before men: but nothing shall be brought 3.82. By him unto completion but deceit 3.83. And many mortals shall be lead astray 3.84. Hebrews both true and choice, and lawless men 3.85. 85 Besides who never gave ear to God's word. 3.86. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.87. Shall draw near, and a flaming power shall come 3.88. By billow to the earth, it shall consume 3.89. Both Beliar and all the haughty men 3.90. 90 Who put their trust in him. And thereupon 3.91. Shall the whole world be governed by the hand 3.92. of a woman and obedient everywhere. 3.93. Then when a widow shall o'er all the world 3.94. Gain the rule, and cast in the mighty sea 3.95. 95 Both gold and silver, also brass and iron 3.96. of short lived men into the deep shall cast 3.97. Then all the elements shall be bereft 3.98. of order, when the God who dwells on high 3.99. Shall roll the heaven, even as a scroll is rolled; 3.100. 100 And to the mighty earth and sea shall fall 3.101. The entire multiform sky; and there shall flow 3.102. A tireless cataract of raging fire 3.103. And it shall burn the land, and burn the sea 3.104. And heavenly sky, and night, and day, and melt 3.105. 105 Creation itself together and pick out 3.106. What is pure. No more laughing spheres of light 3.107. Nor night, nor dawn, nor many days of care 3.108. Nor spring, nor winter, nor the summer-time 3.109. Nor autumn. And then of the mighty God 3.110. 110 The judgment midway in a mighty age 3.111. Shall come, when all these things shall come to pass. 3.112. O navigable waters and each land 3.113. of the Orient and of the Occident 3.114. Subject shall all things be to him who come 3.115. 115 Into the world again, and therefore he 3.116. Himself became first conscious of his power. 3.117. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.118. Are fulfilled, which he threatened mortals once 3.119. When in Assyrian land they built a tower;– 3.120. 120 (And they all spoke one language, and resolved 3.121. To mount aloft into the starry heaven; 3.122. But on the air the Immortal straightway put 3.123. A mighty force; and then winds from above 3.124. Cast down the great tower and stirred mortals up 3.125. 125 To wrangling with each other; therefore men 3.126. Gave to that city the name of Babylon);– 3.127. Now when the tower fell and the tongues of men 3.128. Turned to all sorts of sounds, straightway all earth 3.129. Was filled with men and kingdoms were divided; 3.130. 130 And then the generation tenth appeared 3.131. of mortal men, from the time when the flood 3.132. Came upon earlier men. And Cronos reigned 3.133. And Titan and Iapetus; and men called them 3.134. Best offspring of Gaia and of Uranus 3.135. 135 Giving to them names both of earth and heaven 3.136. Since they were very first of mortal men. 3.137. So there were three divisions of the earth 3.138. According to the allotment of each man 3.139. And each one having his own portion reigned 3.140. 140 And fought not; for a father's oaths were there 3.141. And equal were their portions. But the time 3.142. Complete of old age on the father came 3.143. And he died; and the sons infringing oath 3.144. Stirred up against each other bitter strife 3.145. 145 Which one should have the royal rank and rule 3.146. Over all mortals; and against each other 3.147. Cronos and Titan fought. But Rhea and Gaia 3.148. And Aphrodite fond of crowns, Demeter 3.149. And Hestia and Dione of fair lock 3.150. 150 Brought them to friendship, and together called 3.151. All who were kings, both brothers and near kin 3.152. And others of the same ancestral blood 3.153. And they judged Cronos should reign king of all 3.154. For he was oldest and of noblest form. 3.155. 155 But Titan laid on Cronos mighty oath 3.156. To rear no male posterity, that he 3.157. Himself might reign when age and fate should come 3.158. To Cronos. And whenever Rhea bore 3.159. Beside her sat the Titans, and all male 3.160. 160 In pieces tore, but let the females live 3.161. To be reared by the mother. But When now 3.162. At the third birth the august Rhea bore 3.163. She brought forth Hera first; and when they saw 3.164. A female offspring, the fierce Titan men 3.165. 165 Betook them to their homes. And thereupon 3.166. Rhea a male child bore, and having bound 3.167. Three men of Crete by oath she quickly sent 3.168. Him into Phrygia to be reared apart 3.169. In secret; therefore did they name him Zeus 3.170. 170 For he was sent away. And thus she sent 3.171. Poseidon also secretly away. 3.172. And Pluto, third, did Rhea yet again 3.173. Noblest of women, at Dodona bear 3.174. Whence flows Europus' river's liquid course 3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose 3.191. The Egyptian kingdom, then that of the Persian 3.192. And of the Medes, and Ethiopians 3.193. And of Assyria and Babylon 3.194. And then that of the Macedonians 3.195. 195 Egyptian yet again, then that of Rome. 3.196. And then a message of the mighty God 3.197. Was set within my breast, and it bade me 3.198. Proclaim through all earth and in royal heart 3.199. Plant things which are to be. And to my mind 3.200. 200 This God imparted first, bow many kingdom 3.201. Have been together gathered of mankind. 3.202. For first of all the house of Solomon 3.203. Shall include horsemen of Phœnicia 3.204. And Syria, and of the islands too 3.205. 205 And the race of Pamphylians and Persian 3.206. And Phrygians, Carians, and Mysian 3.207. And the race of the Lydians rich in gold. 3.208. And then shall Hellenes, proud and impure 3.209. Then shall a Macedonian nation rule 3.210. 210 Great, shrewd, who as a fearful cloud of war 3.211. Shall come to mortals. But the God of heaven 3.212. Shall utterly destroy them from the depth. 3.213. And then shall be another kingdom, white 3.214. And many-headed, from the western sea 3.215. 215 Which shall rule much land, and shake many men 3.216. And to all kings bring terror afterwards 3.217. And out of many cities shall destroy 3.218. Much gold and silver; but in the vast earth 3.219. There will again be gold, and silver too 3.220. 220 And ornament. And they will oppress mortals; 3.221. And to those men shall great disaster be 3.222. When they begin unrighteous arrogance. 3.223. And forthwith in them there shall be a force 3.224. of wickedness, male will consort with male 3.225. 225 And children they will place in dens of shame; 3.226. And in those days there shall be among men 3.227. A great affliction, and it shall disturb 3.228. All things, and break all things, and fill all thing 3.229. With evils by a shameful covetousness 3.230. 230 And by ill-gotten wealth in many lands 3.231. But most of all in Macedonia. 3.232. And it shall stir up hatred, and all guile 3.233. Shalt be with them even to the seventh kingdom 3.234. of which a king of Egypt shall be king 3.235. 235 Who shall be a descendant from the Greeks. 3.236. And then the nation of the mighty God 3.237. Shall be again strong and they shall be guide 3.238. of life to all men. But why did God place 3.239. This also in my mind to tell: what first 3.240. 240 And what next, and what evil last shall be 3.241. On all men? Which of these shall take the lead? 3.242. First on the Titans will God visit evil. 3.243. For they shall pay to mighty Cronos's son 3.244. The penal satisfaction, since they bound 3.245. 245 Both Cronos and the mother dearly loved. 3.246. Again shall there be tyrants for the Greek 3.247. And fierce kings overweening and impure 3.248. Adulterous and altogether bad; 3.249. And for men shall be no more rest from war. 3.250. 250 And the dread Phrygians shall perish all 3.251. And unto Troy shall evil come that day. 3.252. And to the Persians and Assyrian 3.253. Evil shall straightaway come, and to all Egypt 3.254. And Libya and the Ethiopians 3.255. 255 And to the Carians and Pamphylians– 3.256. Evil to pass from one place to another 3.257. And to all mortals. Why now one by one 3.258. Do I speak forth? But when the first receive 3.259. Fulfillment, then straightway shall come on men 3.260. 260 The second. So the very first I'll tell. 3.261. There shall an evil come to pious men 3.262. Who dwell by the great temple of Solomon 3.263. And who are progeny of righteous men. 3.264. Alike of all these also I will tell 3.265. 265 The tribe and line of fathers and homeland– 3.266. All things with care, O mortal shrewd in mind. 3.267. There is a city . . . on the earth 3.268. Ur of the Chaldees, whence there is a race 3.269. of men most righteous, to whom both good will 3.270. 270 And noble deeds have ever been a care. 3.271. For they have no concern about the course 3.272. of the sun's revolution, nor the moon's 3.273. Nor wondrous things beneath the earth, nor depth 3.274. of joy-imparting sea Oceanus 3.275. 275 Nor signs of sneezing, nor the wings of birds 3.276. Nor soothsayers, nor wizards, nor enchanters 3.277. Nor tricks of dull words of ventriloquists 3.278. Neither do they astrologize with skill 3.285. 285 Come many evils leading them astray 3.286. From good ways and just deeds. But they have care 3.287. For righteousness and virtue, and not greed 3.288. Which breeds unnumbered ills to mortal men 3.289. War and unending famine. But with them 3.290. 290 Just measure, both in fields and cities, holds 3.291. Nor steal they from each other in the night 3.292. Nor drive off herds of cattle, sheep, and goats 3.293. Nor neighbor remove landmarks of a neighbor 3.294. Nor any man of great wealth grieve the one 3.295. 295 Less favored, nor to widows cause distress 3.296. But rather aids them, ever helping them 3.297. With wheat and wine and oil; and always doe 3.298. The rich man in the country send a share 3.299. At the time of the harvests unto them 3.300. 300 That have not, but are needy, thus fulfilling 3.301. The saying of the mighty God, a hymn 3.302. In legal setting; for the Heavenly One 3.303. Finished the earth a common good for all. 3.304. Now when the people of twelve tribes depart 3.305. 305 From Egypt, and with leaders sent of God 3.306. Nightly pursue their way by a pillar of fire 3.307. And during all the day by one of cloud 3.308. For them then God a leader will appoint– 3.309. A great man, Moses, whom a princess found 3.310. 310 Beside a marsh, and carried off and reared 3.311. And called her son. And at the time he came 3.312. As leader for the people whom God led 3.313. From Egypt unto the. steel) Sinai mount 3.314. His own law God delivered them from heaven 3.315. 315 Writing on two flat stones all righteous thing 3.316. Which he enjoined to do; and if, perchance 3.317. One give no heed, he must unto the law 3.318. Make satisfaction, either at men's hand 3.319. Or, if men's notice he escape, he shall 3.320. 320 By ample satisfaction he destroyed. 3.321. [For the Heavenly finished earth a common good 3.322. For all, and in all hearts as best gift thought.] 3.323. A hundredfold from one, and thus complete 3.325. 325 God's measure. But to them shall also come 3.326. Misfortune, nor do they escape from plague. 3.327. And even thou, forsaking thy fair shrine 3.328. Shalt flee away when it becomes thy lot 3.329. To leave the holy land. And thou shalt be 3.330. 330 Carried to the Assyrians, and shalt see 3.331. Young children and wives serving hostile men; 3.332. And every means of life and wealth shall perish; 3.333. And every land shall be filled up with thee 3.334. And every sea; and everyone shall be 3.335. 335 offended with thy customs; and thy land 3.336. Shall all be desert; and the altar fenced 3.337. And temple of the great God and long wall 3.338. Shall all fall to the ground, since in thy heart 3.339. The holy law of the immortal God 3.340. 340 Thou didst not keep, but, erring, thou didst serve 3.341. Unseemly images, and didst not fear 3.342. The immortal Father, God of all mankind 3.343. Nor will to honor him; but image 3.344. of mortals thou didst honor Therefore now 3.345. 345 of time seven decades shall thy fruitful land 3.346. And the wonders of thy temple all be waste. 3.347. But there remains for thee a goodly end 3.348. And greatest glory, as the immortal God 3.349. Granted thee. But do thou wait and confide 3.350. 350 In the great God's pure laws, when he shall lift 3.351. Thy wearied knee upright unto the light. 3.352. And then will God from heaven send a king 3.353. To judge each man in blood and light of fire. 3.354. There is a royal tribe, the race of which 3.355. 355 Shall be unfailing; and as times revolve 3.356. This race shall bear rule and begin to build 3.357. God's temple new. And all the Persian king 3.358. Shall aid with bronze and gold and well-wrought iron. 3.359. For God himself will give the holy dream 3.360. 360 By night. And then the temple shall again 3.361. Be, as it was before. . . . 3.362. Now when my soul had rest from inspired song 3.363. And I prayed the great Father for a rest 3.364. From constraint; even in my heart again 3.365. 365 Was set a message of the mighty God 3.366. And he bade me proclaim through all the earth 3.367. And plant in royal minds things yet to be. 3.368. And in my mind God put this first to say 3.369. How many lamentable suffering 3.370. 370 The Immortal purposed upon Babylon 3.371. Because she his great temple had destroyed. 3.372. Alas, alas for thee! O Babylon 3.373. And for the offspring of the Assyrian men! 3.374. Through all the earth the rush of sinful men 3.375. 375 Shall some time come, and shout of mortal men 3.376. And stroke of the great God, who inspires songs 3.377. Shall ruin every land. For high in air to thee 3.378. O Babylon, shall it come from above 3.379. And out of heaven from holy ones to thee 3.380. 380 Shall it come down, and the soul in thy children 3.381. Shall the Eternal utterly destroy. 3.382. And then shalt thou be, as thou wast before 3.383. As one not born; and then shalt thou be filled 3.384. Again with blood, as thou thyself before 3.385. 385 Didst shed that of good, just, and holy men 3.386. Whose blood yet cries out to the lofty heaven. 3.387. To thee, O Egypt, shall a great blow come 3.388. And dreadful, to thy homes, which thou didst hope 3.389. Might never fall on thee. For through thy midst 3.390. 390 A sword shall pass, and scattering and death 3.391. And famine shall prevail until of king 3.392. The seventh generation, and then cease. 3.393. Alas for thee, O land of Gog and Magog 3.394. In the midst of the rivers of Ethiopia! 3.395. 395 What pouring out of blood shalt thou receive 3.396. And house of judgment among men be called 3.397. And thy land of much dew shall drink black blood! 3.398. Alas for thee, O Libya, and alas 3.399. Both sea and land! O daughters of the west 3.400. 400 So shall ye come unto a bitter day. 3.401. And ye shall come pursued by grievous strife 3.402. Dreadful and grievous; there shall be again 3.403. A dreadful judgment, and ye all shall come 3.404. By force unto destruction, for ye tore 3.405. 405 In pieces the great house of the Immortal 3.406. And with iron teeth ye chewed it dreadfully. 3.407. Therefore shalt thou then look upon thy land 3.408. Full of the dead, some of them fallen by war 3.409. And by the demon of all violence 3.410. 410 Famine and plague, and some by barbarous foes. 3.411. And all thy land shall be a wilderness 3.412. And desolations shall thy cities be. 3.413. And in the west there shall a star shine forth 3.414. Which they will call a comet, sign to men 3.415. 415 of the sword and of famine and of death 3.416. And murder of great leaders and chief men. 3.417. And yet again there shall be among men 3.418. Greatest signs; for deep-eddying Tanai 3.419. Shall leave Mæotis's lake, and there shall be 3.420. 420 Down the deep stream a fruitful, furrow's track 3.421. And the vast flow shall hold a neck of land. 3.422. And there are hollow chasms and yawning pits; 3.423. And many cities, men and all, shall fall:– 3.424. In Asia–Iassus, Cebren, Pandonia 3.425. 425 Colophon, Ephesus, Nicæa, Antioch 3.426. Syagra, Sinope, Smyrna, Myrina 3.427. Most happy Gaza, Hierapolis, . 3.428. Astypalaia; and in Europe–Tanagra 3.429. Clitor, Basilis, Meropeia, Antigone 3.430. 430 Magnessa, Mykene, Oiantheia. 3.431. Know then that the destructive race of Egypt 3.432. Is near destruction, and the past year then 3.433. Is better for the Alexandrians. 3.434. As much of tribute as Rome did receive 3.435. 435 of Asia, even thrice as many good 3.436. Shall Asia back again from Rome receive 3.437. And her destructive outrage pay her back. 3.438. As many as from Asia ever served 3.439. A house of the Italians, twenty time 3.440. 440 As many Italians shall in Asia serve 3.441. In poverty, and numerous debts incur. 3.442. O virgin, soft rich child of Latin Rome 3.443. oft at thy much-remembered marriage feast 3.444. Drunken with wine, now shalt thou be a slave 3.445. 445 And wedded in no honorable way. 3.446. And oft shall mistress shear thy pretty hair 3.447. And wreaking satisfaction cast thee down 3.448. From heaven to earth, and from the earth again 3.449. Raise thee to heaven, for mortals of low rank 3.450. 450 And of unrighteous life are held fast bound. 3.451. And of avenging Smyrna overthrown 3.452. There shall be no thought, but by evil plan 3.453. And wickedness of them that have command 3.454. Shall Samos be sand, Delos shall be dull 3.455. 455 And Rome a room; but the decrees of God 3.456. Shall all of them be perfectly fulfilled. 3.457. And a calm peace to Asian land shall go. 3.458. And Europe shall be happy then, well fed 3.459. Pure air, full of years, strong, and undisturbed 3.460. 460 By wintry storms and hail, bearing, all things 3.461. Even birds and creeping things and beasts of earth. 3.462. O happy upon earth shall that man be 3.463. Or woman; what a home unspeakable 3.464. of happy ones! For from the starry heaven 3.465. 465 Shall all good order come upon mankind 3.466. And justice, and the prudent unity 3.467. Which of all things is excellent for men 3.468. And kindness, confidence, and love of guests; 3.469. But far from them shall lawlessness depart 3.470. 470 Blame, envy, wrath, and folly; poverty 3.471. Shall flee away from men, and force shall flee 3.472. And murder, baneful strifes and bitter feuds 3.473. And theft, and every evil in those days. 3.474. But Macedonia shall to Asia bear 3.475. 475 A grievous suffering, and the greatest sore 3.476. To Europe shall spring up from Cronian stock 3.477. A family of bastards and of slaves. 3.478. And she shall tame fenced city Babylon 3.479. And of each land the sun looks down upon 3.480. 480 Call herself mistress, and then come to naught 3.481. By ruinous misfortunes, having fame 3.482. In later generations distant far. 3.483. And sometime into Asia's prosperous land 3.484. Shall come a man unheard of, shoulder-clad 3.485. 485 With purple robe, fierce, unjust, fiery; 3.485. 485 Do not delay and loiter, but do thou 3.486. And this man he who wields the thunderbolt 3.486. Tossed to and fro, turn and propitiate God. 3.487. Roused forwards; and all Asia shall sustain 3.487. offer to God Your hecatombs of bull 3.488. An evil yoke, and her soil wet with rain 3.488. And firstling lambs and goats, as times revolve. 3.489. Shall drink much murder. But even so shall Hade 3.489. But him propitiate, the immortal God 3.490. 490 Destroy the unknown king; and that man's offspring 3.490. 490 If haply he show mercy. For he i 3.491. Shall forthwith perish by the race of those 3.491. The only God, and other there is none. 3.492. Whose offspring he himself would fain destroy; 3.492. And honor justice and oppress no man. 3.493. Producing one root which the bane of men 3.493. For these things the Immortal doth enjoin 3.494. Shall cut from ten horns, and plant by their side 3.494. On miserable men. But do thou heed 3.495. 495 Another plant. A father purple-clad 3.496. Shall cut a warlike father off, and Ares 3.497. Baneful and hostile, by a grandson's hand 3.498. Shall himself perish; and then shall the horn 3.499. Planted beside them forthwith bear the rule. 3.500. 500 And unto life-sustaining Phrygia 3.501. Straightway shall there a certain token be 3.502. When Rhea's blood-stained race, in the great earth 3.503. Blooming perennial in impervious roots 3.504. Shall, root and branch, in one night disappear 3.505. 505 With a city, men and all, of the Earth-shaker 3.506. Poseidon; which place they shall sometime call 3.507. Dorylæum, of dark ancient Phrygia 3.508. Much-bewailed. Therefore shall that time be called 3.509. Earth-shaker; dens of earth shall he break up 3.510. 510 And walls demolish. And not signs of good 3.511. But a beginning of evil shall be made; 3.512. The baneful violence of general war 3.513. Ye'll have, sons of Æneas, Dative blood 3.514. of Ilus from the soil. But afterward 3.515. 515 A spoil shalt thou become for greedy men. 3.516. O Ilium, I pity thee; for there shall bloom 3.517. In Sparta an Erinys very fair 3.518. Ever-famed, noblest scion, and shall leave 3.519. On Asia and Europe a wide-spreading wave; 3.520. 520 But to thee most of all she'll bear and cause 3.521. Wailings and toils and groans; but there shall be 3.522. Undying fame with those who are to come. 3.523. And there shall be an aged mortal then 3.524. False writer and of doubtful native land; 3.525. 525 And in his eyes the light shall fade away; 3.526. Large mind and verses measured with great skill 3.527. Shall he have and be blended with two names 3.528. Shall call himself a Chian and shall write 3.529. of Ilium, not truthfully, indeed 3.530. 530 But skillfully; for of my verse and meter 3.531. He will be master; for he first my book 3.532. Will open with his hands; but he himself 3.533. Will much embellish helmed chiefs of war 3.534. Hector of Priam and Achilles, son 3.535. 535 of Peleus, and the others who have care 3.536. For warlike deeds. And also by their side 3.537. Will he make gods stand, empty-headed men 3.538. False-writing every way. And it shall be 3.539. Glory the rather, widely spread, for them 3.540. 540 To die at Ilium; but he himself 3.541. Shall also works of recompense receive. 3.542. Also to Lycia shall a Locrian race 3.543. Cause many evils. And thee, Chalcedon 3.544. Holding by lot a strait of narrow sea 3.545. 545 Shall an Ætolian youth sometime despoil. 3.546. Cyzicus, also thy vast wealth the sea 3.547. Shall break off. And, Byzantium of Ares 3.548. Thou some time shalt by Asia be laid waste 3.549. And also groans and blood immeasurable 3.550. 550 Shalt thou receive. And Cragus, lofty mount 3.551. of Lycia, from thy peaks by yawning chasm 3.552. of opened rock shall babbling water flow 3.553. Until even Patara's oracles shall cease. 3.554. O Cyzicus, that dwellest by Proponti 3.555. 555 The wine-producing, round thee Rhyndacu 3.556. Shall crash the crested billow. And thou, Rhodes 3.557. Daughter of day, shalt long be unenslaved 3.558. And great shall be thy happiness hereafter 3.559. And on the sea thy power shall be supreme. 3.560. 560 But afterwards a spoil shalt thou become 3.561. For greedy men, and put upon thy neck 3.562. By beauty and by wealth a fearful yoke. 3.563. A Lydian earthquake shall again despoil 3.564. The power of Persia, and most horribly 3.565. 565 Shall the people of Europe and Asia suffer pain. 3.566. And Sidon's hurtful king with battle-din 3.567. Dreadful shall work a mournful overthrow 3.568. To the seafaring Samians. On the soil 3.569. Shall slain men's dark blood babble to the sea; 3.570. 570 And wives together with the noble bride 3.571. Shall their outrageous insolence lament 3.572. Some for their bridegrooms, some for fallen sons. 3.573. O sign of Cyprus, may an earthquake waste 3.574. Thy phalanxes away, and many soul 3.575. 575 With one accord shall Hades bold in charge. 3.576. And Trallis near by Ephesus, and wall 3.577. Well made, and very precious wealth of men 3.578. Shall be dissolved by earthquake; and the land 3.579. Shall burst out with hot water; and the earth 3.580. 580 Shall swallow down those who are by the fire 3.581. And stench of brimstone heavily oppressed. 3.582. And Samos shall in time build royal houses. 3.583. But to thee, Italy, no foreign war 3.584. Shall come, but lamentable tribal blood 3.585. 585 Not easily exhausted, much renowned 3.586. Shall make thee, impudent one, desolate. 3.587. And thou thyself beside hot ashes stretched 3.588. As thou in thine own heart didst not foresee 3.589. Shalt slay thyself. And thou shalt not of men 3.590. 590 Be mother, but a nurse of beasts of prey. 3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian 3.594. By Lycus's wondrous water, falling prone 3.595. 595 Shalt weep in silence for thy boastful sire. 3.596. Thracian Crobyzi shall rise up on Hæmus. 3.597. Chatter of teeth to the Campanians come 3.598. Because of wasting famine; Corsica 3.599. Weeps her old father, and Sardinia 3.600. 600 Shall by great storms of winter and the stroke 3.601. of a holy God sink down in ocean depths 3.602. Great wonder to the of the sea. 3.603. Alas, alas, how many virgin maid 3.604. Will Hades wed, and of as many youth 3.605. 605 Will the deep take without funeral rites! 3.606. Alas, alas, the helpless little one 3.607. And the vast riches swimming in the sea! 3.608. O happy land of Mysians, suddenly 3.609. A royal race shall be formed. Truly now 3.610. 610 Not for a long time shall Chalcedon be. 3.610. 610 Woe, woe to thee, O Thrace! So shalt thou come 3.611. And there shall be a very bitter grief 3.611. Beneath a servile yoke, when the Galatian 3.612. To the Galatians. And to Tenedo 3.612. United with the sons of Dardanu 3.613. Shall there a last but greatest evil come. 3.613. Rush on to ravage Hellas, thine shall be 3.614. And Sicyon, with strong yells, and Corinth, thou 3.614. The evil; and unto a foreign land 3.615. 615 Shalt boast o'er all, but flute shall sound like strain. 3.616. . . . . . . . Now, when my soul had. rest from inspired song. 3.617. Even again within my heart was set 3.618. A message of the mighty God, and he 3.619. Commanded me to prophesy on earth. 3.620. 620 Woe, woe to the race of Phœnician men 3.621. And women, and all cities by the sea; 3.622. Not one of you shall in the common light 3.623. Abide before the shining of the sun 3.624. Nor of life shall there any longer be 3.625. 625 Number and tribe, because of unjust speech 3.626. And lawless life impure which they lived 3.627. Opening a mouth impure, and fearful word 3.628. Deceitful and unrighteous forth 3.629. And stood against the God, the King 3.630. 630 And opened loathsome month deceitfully 3.631. Therefore may he subdue them terribly 3.632. By strokes o'er all the earth, and bitter fate 3.633. Shall God send on them burning from the ground. 3.634. Cities and of the cities the foundations. 3.635. 635 Woe, woe to thee, O Crete! To thee shall come 3.636. A very painful stroke, and terribly 3.637. Shall the Eternal sack thee; and again 3.638. Shall every land behold thee black with smoke 3.639. Fire ne'er shall leave thee, but thou shalt be burned. 3.645. 645 Much shalt thou give, not anything receive. 3.646. Woe to thee, Gog and Magog, and to all 3.647. One after another, Mardians and Daians; 3.648. How many evils fate, shall bring on thee! 3.649. Woe also to the soil of Lycia 3.650. 650 And those of Mysia and Phrygia. 3.651. And many nations of Pamphylians 3.652. And Lydians, Carians, Cappadocians 3.653. And Ethiopian and Arabian men 3.654. of a strange tongue shall fall. How now may I 3.655. 655 of each speak fitly? For on all the nation 3.656. Which dwell on earth the Highest shall send dire plague. 3.657. When now again a barbarous nation come 3.658. Against the Greeks it shall slay many head 3.659. of chosen men; and they shall tear in piece 3.660. 660 Many fat flocks of sheep of men, and herd 3.661. of horses and of mules and lowing kine; 3.662. And well-made houses shall they burn with fire 3.663. Lawlessly; and unto a foreign land 3.664. Shall they by force lead many slaves away 3.665. 665 And children, and deep-girded women soft 3.666. From bridal chambers creeping on before 3.667. With delicate feet; and they shall be bound fast 3.668. With fetters by their foes of foreign tongue 3.669. Suffering all fearful outrage; and to them 3.670. 670 There shall not be one to supply the toil 3.671. of battle and come to their help in life. 3.672. And they shall see their goods and all their wealth 3.673. Enrich the enemy; and there shall be 3.674. A trembling of the knees. And there shall fly 3.675. 675 A hundred, and one shall destroy them all; 3.676. And five shall rout a mighty company; 3.677. But they, among themselves mixed shamefully 3.678. Shall by war and dire tumult bring delight 3.679. To enemies, but sorrow to the Greeks. 3.680. 680 And then upon all Hellas there shall be 3.681. A servile yoke; and war and pestilence 3.682. Together shall upon all mortals come. 3.683. And God will make the mighty heaven on high 3.684. Like brass and over all the earth a drought 3.685. 685 And earth itself like iron. And thereupon 3.686. Shall mortals all lament the barrenne 3.687. And lack of cultivation; and on earth 3.688. Shall he set, who created heaven and earth 3.689. A much-distressing fire; and of all men 3.690. 690 The third part only shall thereafter be. 3.691. O Greece, why hast thou trusted mortal men 3.692. As leaders, who cannot escape from death? 3.693. And wherefore bringest thou thy foolish gift 3.694. Unto the dead and sacrifice to idols? 3.695. 695 Who put the error in thy heart to do 3.696. These things and leave the face of God the mighty? 3.697. Honor the All-Father's name, and let it not 3.698. Escape thee. It is now a thousand years 3.699. Yea, and five hundred more, since haughty king 3.700. 700 Ruled o'er the Greeks, who first to mortal men 3.701. Introduced evils, setting up for worship 3.702. Images many of gods that are dead 3.703. Because of which ye were taught foolish thoughts. 3.704. But when the anger of the mighty God 3.705. 705 Shall come upon you, then ye'll recognize 3.707. of men, with mighty groaning lifting up 3.708. Their hands to the broad heaven, shall begin 3.709. To call the great King helper, and to seek 3.710. 710 The rescuer from great wrath who is to be. 3.711. But come and learn this and store in your hearts 3.712. What troubles in the rolling years shall come. 3.713. And what as whole burnt-offering Hellas brought 3.714. of cows and bellowing bulls unto the temple 3.715. 715 of the great God, she from ill-sounding war 3.716. And fear and pestilence shall flee away 3.717. And from the servile yoke escape again. 3.718. But until that time there shall be a race 3.719. of godless men, even when that fated day 3.720. 720 Shall reach its end. For offering to God 3.721. Ye should not make till all things come to pass 3.722. Which God alone shall purpose not in vain 3.723. To be all fulfilled; and strong force shall urge. 3.724. And there shall be again a holy race 3.725. 725 of godly men who, keeping to the counsel 3.726. And mind of the Most High, shall honor much 3.727. The great God's temple with drink-offerings 3.728. Burnt-offerings, and holy hecatombs 3.729. With sacrifices of fat bulls, choice rams 3.730. 730 Firstlings of sheep and the fat thighs of lambs 3.731. Sacredly offering whole burnt-offering 3.732. On the great altar. And in righteousness 3.733. Having obtained the law of the Most High 3.734. Blest shall they dwell in cities and rich fields. 3.735. 735 And prophets shall be set on high for them 3.736. By the Immortal, bringing great delight 3.737. Unto all mortals. For to them alone 3.738. The mighty God his gracious counsel gave 3.739. And faith and noblest thought within their hearts; 3.740. 740 They have not by vain things been led astray 3.741. Nor pay they honor to the works of men 3.742. Made of gold, brass, silver, and ivory 3.743. Nor statues of dead gods of wood and stone 3.744. [Besmeared clay, figures of the painter's art] 3.745. 745 And all that empty-minded mortals will; 3.746. But they lift up their pure arms unto heaven 3.747. Rise from the couch at daybreak, always hand 3.748. With water cleanse, and honor only Him 3.749. Who is immortal and who ever rules 3.750. 750 And then their parents; and above all men 3.751. Do they respect the lawful marriage-bed; 3.752. And they have not base intercourse with boys 3.753. As do Phœnicians, Latins, and Egyptian 3.754. And spacious Greece, and nations many more 3.755. 755 of Persians and Galatians and all Asia 3.756. Transgressing the immortal God's pure law 3.757. Which they were under. Therefore on all men 3.758. Will the Immortal put bane, famine, pains 3.759. Groans, war, and pestilence and mournful woes; 3.760. 760 Because they would not honor piously 3.761. The immortal Sire of all men, but revered 3.762. And worshiped idols made with hands, which thing 3.763. Mortals themselves will cast down and for shame 3.764. Conceal in clefts of rocks, when a young king 3.765. 765 The seventh of Egypt, shall rule his own land 3.766. Reckoned from the dominion of the Greeks 3.767. Which countless Macedonian men shall rule; 3.768. And there shall come from Asia a great king 3.769. fiery eagle, who with foot and horse 3.770. 770 Shall cover all the land, cut up all things 3.771. And fill all things with evils; he will cast 3.772. The Egyptian kingdom down; and taking off 3.773. All its possessions carry them away 3.774. Over the spacious surface of the sea. 3.775. 775 And then shall they before, the mighty God 3.776. The King immortal, bend the fair white knee 3.777. On the much-nourishing earth; and all the work 3.778. Made with hands shall fall by a flame of fire. 3.779. And then will God bestow great joy on men; 3.780. 780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep 3.781. Their genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine 3.782. And the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat 3.783. Which is for mortals of all things the best. 3.784. But thou, O mortal full of various wiles 3.795. 795 The cause of the wrath of the mighty God 3.796. When on all mortals there shall come the height 3.797. of pestilence and conquered they shall meet 3.798. A fearful judgment, and king shall seize king 3.799. And wrest his land away, and nations bring 3.800. 800 Ruin on nations and lords plunder tribes 3.801. And chiefs all flee into another land 3.802. And the land change its men, and foreign rule 3.803. Ravage all Hellas and drain the rich land. 3.804. of its wealth, and to strife among themselve 3.805. 805 Because of gold and silver they shall come– 3.806. The love of gain an evil shepherde 3.807. Will be for cities–in a foreign land. 3.808. And they shall all be without burial 3.809. And vultures and wild beasts of earth shall spoil 3.810. 810 Their flesh; and when these things are brought to pass 3.811. Vast earth shall waste the relics of the dead. 3.812. And all unsown shall it be and unplowed 3.813. Proclaiming sad the filth of men defiled 3.814. Many lengths of time in the revolving years 3.815. 815 And shields and javelins and all sorts of arms; 3.816. Nor shall the forest wood be cut for fire. 3.817. And then shall God send from the East a king 3.818. Who shall make all earth cease from evil war 3.819. Killing some, others binding with strong oaths. 3.820. 820 And he will not by his own counsels do 3.821. All these things, but obey the good decree 3.822. of God the mighty. And with goodly wealth 3.823. With gold and silver and purple ornament 3.824. The temple of the mighty God again 3.825. 825 Shall be weighed down; and the full-bearing earth 3.826. And the sea shall be filled full of good things. 3.827. And kings against each other shall begin 3.828. To hold ill will, in heart abetting evils. 3.829. Envy is not a good to wretched men.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. for as for the customs of the Egyptians, it is not creditable even to mention them, for they have introduced irrational beasts, and those not merely such as are domestic and tame, but even the most ferocious of wild beasts to share the honours of the gods, taking some out of each of the elements beneath the moon, as the lion from among the animals which live on the earth, the crocodile from among those which live in the water, the kite from such as traverse the air, and the Egyptian iris.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.181-4.184 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.181. How then can we avoid shedding of tears, when we see the Roman donations in our temple, while we withal see those of our own nation taking our spoils, and plundering our glorious metropolis, and slaughtering our men, from which enormities those Romans themselves would have abstained? 4.182. to see those Romans never going beyond the bounds allotted to profane persons, nor venturing to break in upon any of our sacred customs; nay, having a horror on their minds when they view at a distance those sacred walls; 4.183. while some that have been born in this very country, and brought up in our customs, and called Jews, do walk about in the midst of the holy places, at the very time when their hands are still warm with the slaughter of their own countrymen. 4.184. Besides, can anyone be afraid of a war abroad, and that with such as will have comparatively much greater moderation than our own people have? For truly, if we may suit our words to the things they represent, it is probable one may hereafter find the Romans to be the supporters of our laws, and those within ourselves the subverters of them.
12. New Testament, Luke, 6.20-6.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake.
13. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. לעולם יכנס אדם בכי טוב ויצא בכי טוב שנאמר (שמות יב, כב) ואתם לא תצאו איש מפתח ביתו עד בקר,ת"ר דבר בעיר כנס רגליך שנאמר ואתם לא תצאו איש מפתח ביתו עד בקר ואומר (ישעיהו כו, כ) לך עמי בא בחדריך וסגור דלתיך בעדך ואומר (דברים לב, כה) מחוץ תשכל חרב ומחדרים אימה,מאי ואומר וכי תימא ה"מ בליליא אבל ביממא לא תא שמע לך עמי בא בחדריך וסגור דלתיך,וכי תימא ה"מ [היכא] דליכא אימה מגואי אבל היכא דאיכא אימה מגואי כי נפיק יתיב ביני אינשי בצוותא בעלמא טפי מעלי ת"ש מחוץ תשכל חרב ומחדרים אימה אע"ג דמחדרים אימה מחוץ תשכל חרב,רבא בעידן רתחא הוי סכר כוי דכתי' (ירמיהו ט, כ) כי עלה מות בחלונינו,ת"ר רעב בעיר פזר רגליך שנא' (בראשית יב, י) ויהי רעב בארץ וירד אברם מצרימה [לגור] (ויגר) שם ואומר (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם,מאי ואומר וכי תימא ה"מ היכא דליכא ספק נפשות אבל היכא דאיכא ספק נפשות לא ת"ש (מלכים ב ז, ד) לכו ונפלה אל מחנה ארם אם יחיונו נחיה,ת"ר דבר בעיר אל יהלך אדם באמצע הדרך מפני שמלאך המות מהלך באמצע הדרכים דכיון דיהיבא ליה רשותא מסגי להדיא שלום בעיר אל יהלך בצדי דרכים דכיון דלית ליה רשותא מחבי חבויי ומסגי,ת"ר דבר בעיר אל יכנס אדם יחיד לבית הכנסת שמלאך המות מפקיד שם כליו וה"מ היכא דלא קרו ביה דרדקי ולא מצלו ביה עשרה,ת"ר כלבים בוכים מלאך המות בא לעיר כלבים משחקים אליהו הנביא בא לעיר וה"מ דלית בהו נקבה:,יתיב רב אמי ורב אסי קמיה דר' יצחק נפחא מר א"ל לימא מר שמעתתא ומר א"ל לימא מר אגדתא פתח למימר אגדתא ולא שביק מר פתח למימר שמעתתא ולא שביק מר,אמר להם אמשול לכם משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שיש לו שתי נשים אחת ילדה ואחת זקינה ילדה מלקטת לו לבנות זקינה מלקטת לו שחורות נמצא קרח מכאן ומכאן,אמר להן אי הכי אימא לכו מלתא דשויא לתרוייכו (שמות כב, ה) כי תצא אש ומצאה קוצים תצא מעצמה שלם ישלם המבעיר את הבערה אמר הקב"ה עלי לשלם את הבערה שהבערתי,אני הציתי אש בציון שנאמר (איכה ד, יא) ויצת אש בציון ותאכל יסודותיה ואני עתיד לבנותה באש שנאמר (זכריה ב, ט) ואני אהיה לה חומת אש סביב ולכבוד אהיה בתוכה,שמעתתא פתח הכתוב בנזקי ממונו וסיים בנזקי גופו לומר לך אשו משום חציו:,(שמואל ב כג, טו) ויתאוה דוד ויאמר מי ישקני מים מבור בית לחם אשר בשער ויבקעו שלשת הגבורים במחנה פלשתים וישאבו מים מבור בית לחם אשר בשער [וגו'],מאי קא מיבעיא ליה אמר רבא אמר ר"נ טמון באש קמיבעיא ליה אי כר' יהודה אי כרבנן ופשטו ליה מאי דפשטו ליה,רב הונא אמר גדישים דשעורים דישראל הוו דהוו מטמרי פלשתים בהו וקא מיבעיא ליה מהו להציל עצמו בממון חבירו,שלחו ליה אסור להציל עצמו בממון חבירו אבל אתה מלך אתה [ומלך] פורץ לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,ורבנן ואיתימא רבה בר מרי אמרו גדישים דשעורין דישראל הוו וגדישין דעדשים דפלשתים וקא מיבעיא להו מהו ליטול גדישין של שעורין דישראל ליתן לפני בהמתו על מנת לשלם גדישין של עדשים דפלשתים,שלחו ליה (יחזקאל לג, טו) חבול ישיב רשע גזילה ישלם אע"פ שגזילה משלם רשע הוא אבל אתה מלך אתה ומלך פורץ לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,בשלמא למאן דאמר לאחלופי היינו דכתיב חד קרא (שמואל ב כג, יא) ותהי שם חלקת השדה מלאה עדשים וכתיב חד קרא (דברי הימים א יא, יג) ותהי חלקת השדה מלאה שעורים,אלא למאן דאמר למקלי מאי איבעיא להו להני תרי קראי אמר לך דהוו נמי גדישים דעדשים דישראל דהוו מיטמרו בהו פלשתים,בשלמא למאן דאמר למקלי היינו דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, יב) ויתיצב בתוך החלקה ויצילה אלא למ"ד לאחלופי מאי ויצילה,דלא שבק להו לאחלופי,בשלמא הני תרתי היינו דכתיב תרי קראי 60b. bA personshould balways enteran unfamiliar city bata time of bgood,i.e., while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression “It is good” with regard to the creation of light (see Genesis 1:4). This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. bAndlikewise, when one leaves a city bheshould bleave ata time of bgood,meaning after sunrise the next morning, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And none of you shall go out of the opening of his house until the morning”(Exodus 12:22).,§ bThe Sages taught:If there is bplague in the city, gather your feet,i.e., limit the time you spend out of the house, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And none of you shall go out of the opening of his house until the morning.” And it saysin another verse: b“Come, my people, enter into your chambers, and shut your doors behind you;hide yourself for a little moment, until the anger has passed by” (Isaiah 26:20). bAnd it says: “Outside the sword will bereave, and in the chambers terror”(Deuteronomy 32:25).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason for citing the additional verses introduced with the term: bAnd it says?The first verse seems sufficient to teach the principle that one should not emerge from one’s house when there is a plague. The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat bthis matter,the first verse that states that none of you shall go out until morning, applies only bat night, but in the dayone may think that the principle does bnotapply, for this reason the Gemara teaches: bComeand bhear: “Come, my people, enter into your chambers, and shut your doors behind you.” /b, bAnd if you would saythat bthis matterapplies only bwhere there is no fear inside,which explains why it is preferable to remain indoors, bbut where there is fear inside,one might think that bwhen he goes outand bsits among people in general companyit is bbetter,therefore, the Gemara introduces the third verse and says: bComeand bhear: “Outside the sword will bereave, and in the chambers terror.”This means that balthough there is terror in the chambers, outside the sword will bereave,so it is safer to remain indoors., bAt a timewhen there was a bplague, Rava would close the windowsof his house, bas it is written: “For death is come up into our windows”(Jeremiah 9:20)., bThe Sages taught:If there is bfamine in the city, spread your feet,i.e., leave the city, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there”(Genesis 12:10). bAnd it says: “If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there;and if we sit here, we die also, now come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4)., bWhatis the reason for citing the second verse, introduced with the term: bAnd it says? And if you would saythat bthis matter,the principle of leaving the city, applies only bwhere there is no uncertaintyconcerning ba life-threateningsituation, bbut where there is uncertaintyconcerning ba life-threateningsituation this principle does bnotapply, bcomeand bhear: “Come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live;and if they kill us, we shall but die.”, bThe Sages taught:If there is ba plague in the city, a person should not walk in the middle of the road, due tothe fact bthat the Angel of Death walks in the middle of the road, as, sincein Heaven bthey have given him permissionto kill within the city, bhe goes openlyin the middle of the road. By contrast, if there is bpeaceand quiet bin the city, do not walk on the sides of the road, as, sincethe Angel of Death bdoes not have permissionto kill within the city, bhe hideshimself band walkson the side of the road., bThe Sages taught:If there is ba plague in the city, a person should not enter the synagogue alone, as the Angel of Death leaves his utensils there,and for this reason it is a dangerous place. bAnd this matter,the danger in the synagogue, applies only bwhen there are no children learning inthe synagogue, bandthere are bnot tenmen bpraying in it.But if there are children learning or ten men praying there, it is not a dangerous place., bThe Sages taught:If the bdogsin a certain place bare cryingfor no reason, it is a sign that they feel the bAngel of Death has come to the city.If the bdogs are playing,it is a sign that they feel that bElijah the prophet has come to the city. These mattersapply only bif there is no femaledog among them. If there is a female dog nearby, their crying or playing is likely due to her presence.,§ bRav Ami and Rav Asi sat before Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa.One bSage said toRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa: bLet the Master saywords of ihalakha /i, andthe other bSage said toRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa: bLet the Master saywords of iaggada /i.Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bbegan to saywords of iaggadabutone bSage did not let him,so he bbegan to saywords of ihalakhabutthe other bSage did not let him. /b,Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bsaid to them: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It can be compared bto a man who has two wives, one young and one old. The youngwife bpulls out his whitehairs, so that her husband will appear younger. bThe oldwife bpulls out his blackhairs so that he will appear older. And it bturns outthat he is bbald from here and from there,i.e., completely bald, due to the actions of both of his wives.,Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa continued and bsaid to them: If so, I will say to you a matter that is appropriate to both of you,which contains both ihalakhaand iaggada /i. In the verse that states: b“If a fire breaks out, and catches in thorns”(Exodus 22:5), the term b“breaks out”indicates that it breaks out bby itself.Yet, the continuation of the verse states: b“The one who kindled the fire shall pay compensation,”which indicates that he must pay only if the fire spread due to his negligence. The verse can be explained allegorically: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidthat although the fire broke out in the Temple due to the sins of the Jewish people, bit is incumbent upon Me to payrestitution bfor the fire that I kindled. /b, bI,God, bkindled a fire in Zion, as it is stated:“The Lord has accomplished His fury, He has poured out His fierce anger; band He has kindled a fire in Zion, which has devoured its foundations”(Lamentations 4:11). bAnd I will build it with firein the bfuture, as it is stated: “For I,says the Lord, bwill be for her a wall of fire round about; and I will be the glory in her midst”(Zechariah 2:9).,There is ba ihalakha /ithat can be learned from the verse in Exodus, as bthe verse begins with damagecaused through one’s bproperty:“If a fire breaks out,” band concludes with damagecaused by bone’s body:“The one who kindled the fire.” This indicates that when damage is caused by fire, it is considered as though the person who kindled the fire caused the damage directly with his body. That serves bto say to youthat the liability for bhis firedamage is bdue toits similarity to bhis arrows.Just as one who shoots an arrow and causes damage is liable because the damage was caused directly through his action, so too, one who kindles a fire that causes damage is liable because it is considered as though the damage were caused directly by his actions.,§ The Gemara continues with another statement of iaggadaon a related topic: The verse states: b“And David longed, and said: Oh, that one would give me water to drink of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate! And the three mighty men broke through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate,and took it, and brought it to David; but he would not drink it, but poured it out to the Lord” (II Samuel 23:15–16). The Sages understood that David was not simply asking for water, but was using the term as a metaphor referring to Torah, and he was raising a halakhic dilemma., bWhat is the dilemmathat David bis raising? Rava saysthat bRav Naḥman says: He was askingabout the ihalakhawith regard to ba concealedarticle damaged by ba fire.He wanted to know whether the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that one is liable to pay for such damage, or bwhetherthe ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who hold that one is exempt from liability for damage by fire to concealed articles. bAndthe Sages in Bethlehem banswered him what they answered him. /b, bRav Huna stateda different explanation of the verse: bThere were stacks of barley belonging to Jews in which the Philistines were hiding, andDavid wanted to burn down the stacks to kill the Philistines and save his own life. bHe raised the dilemma: What isthe ihalakha /i? Is it permitted bto save oneselfby destroying bthe property of another? /b, bThey sentthe following answer bto him: It is prohibited to save oneselfby destroying bthe property of another. But you are king, and a king may breach the fenceof an individual bin order to form a path for himself, and none may protest hisaction, i.e., the normal ihalakhotof damage do not apply to you since you are king., bThe Rabbis, and some saythat it was bRabba bar Mari,give an alternative explanation of the dilemma and bsaid: The stacks of barley belonged to Jews, andthere were bstacks of lentils belonging to the Philistines.David needed barley to feed his animals. bAndDavid braised thefollowing bdilemma: What isthe ihalakha /i? I know that I may take the lentils belonging to a gentile to feed my animals, but is it permitted bto take a stack of barleybelonging to ba Jew, to place before one’s animalfor it to consume, bwith the intent to paythe owner of the barley with the bstacks of lentils belonging to the Philistines? /b,The Sages of Bethlehem bsentthe following reply bto him: “If the wicked restore the pledge, give back that which he had taken by robbery,walk in the statutes of life, committing no iniquity; he shall surely live, he shall not die” (Ezekiel 33:15). This verse teaches that beven thoughthe robber brepaysthe value of the bstolen item, heis nevertheless considered to be bwicked,and is described as such in the verse, and a commoner would not be allowed to act as you asked. bBut you are king, and a king may breach the fenceof an individual bin order to form a path for himself, and none may protest hisaction.,The Gemara discusses the different explanations: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat David was asking whether he could take the stacks of barley and bexchangethem, i.e., repay the owners of the barley, with stacks of lentils, bthis is as it is writtenin bone verse:“And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, bwhere was a plot of ground full of lentils;and the people fled from the Philistines” (II Samuel 23:11), band it is writtenin boneother bverse:“He was with David at Pas Dammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, bwhere was a plot of ground full of barley;and the people fled from before the Philistines” (I Chronicles 11:13). This apparent contradiction can be reconciled by saying that there were two fields, one of barley and one of lentils., bBut according toRav Huna, bthe one who saysthat David’s question was asked because he wanted bto burnthe stacks of barley, for bwhatpurpose bdoes he require these two verses?How does he explain this contradiction? Rav Huna could have bsaid to you that there were also stacks of lentils belonging to Jews, inside which the Philistines were hiding. /b, bGranted, according to the one who saysthat David asked his question because he wanted bto burnthe stacks, bthis is as it is writ-tenin the following verse with regard to David: b“But he stood in the midst of the plot, and saved it,and slew the Philistines; and the Lord performed a great victory” (II Samuel 23:12). bBut according to the one who saysthat David’s question was asked bwith regard to exchangingthe lentils for the barley, bwhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“And saved it”? /b,The Rabbis answer that David saved it in bthat he did not permit them to exchangethe value of the barley with the lentils., bGranted,according to both of bthese twoopinions, bthis is as it is writtenin btwodistinct bverses,one describing the field of lentils and one describing the field of barley.
15. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.6. Now let us pass to divine testimonies; but I will previously bring forward one which resembles a divine testimony, both on account of its very great antiquity, and because he whom I shall name was taken from men and placed among the gods. According to Cicero, Caius Cotta the pontiff, while disputing against the Stoics concerning superstitions, and the variety of opinions which prevail respecting the gods, in order that he might, after the custom of the Academics, make everything uncertain, says that there were five Mercuries; and having enumerated four in order, says that the fifth was he by whom Argus was slain, and that on this account he fled into Egypt, and gave laws and letters to the Egyptians. The Egyptians call him Thoth; and from him the first month of their year, that is, September, received its name among them. He also built a town, which is even now called in Greek Hermopolis (the town of Mercury), and the inhabitants of Phen honour him with religious worship. And although he was a man, yet he was of great antiquity, and most fully imbued with every kind of learning, so that the knowledge of many subjects and arts acquired for him the name of Trismegistus. He wrote books, and those in great numbers, relating to the knowledge of divine things, in which be asserts the majesty of the supreme and only God, and makes mention of Him by the same names which we use - God and Father. And that no one might inquire His name, he said that He was without name, and that on account of His very unity He does not require the peculiarity of a name. These are his own words: God is one, but He who is one only does not need a name; for He who is self-existent is without a name. God, therefore, has no name, because He is alone; nor is there any need of a proper name, except in cases where a multitude of persons requires a distinguishing mark, so that you may designate each person by his own mark and appellation. But God, because He is always one, has no peculiar name. It remains for me to bring forward testimonies respecting the sacred responses and predictions, which are much more to be relied upon. For perhaps they against whom we are arguing may think that no credence is to be given to poets, as though they invented fictions, nor to philosophers, inasmuch as they were liable to err, being themselves but men. Marcus Varro, than whom no man of greater learning ever lived, even among the Greeks, much less among the Latins, in those books respecting divine subjects which he addressed to Caius C sar the chief pontiff, when he was speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that the Sibylline books were not the production of one Sibyl only, but that they were called by one name Sibylline, because all prophetesses were called by the ancients Sibyls, either from the name of one, the Delphian priestess, or from their proclaiming the counsels of the gods. For in the Æolic dialect they used to call the gods by the word Sioi, not Theoi; and for counsel they used the word bule, not boule;- and so the Sibyl received her name as though Siobule. But he says that the Sibyls were ten in number, and he enumerated them all under the writers, who wrote an account of each: that the first was from the Persians, and of her Nicanor made mention, who wrote the exploits of Alexander of Macedon;- the second of Libya, and of her Euripides makes mention in the prologue of the Lamia;- the third of Delphi, concerning whom Chrysippus speaks in that book which he composed concerning divination - the fourth a Cimmerian in Italy, whom N vius mentions in his books of the Punic war, and Piso in his annals - the fifth of Erythr a, whom Apollodorus of Erythr a affirms to have been his own countrywoman, and that she foretold to the Greeks when they were setting out for Ilium, both that Troy was doomed to destruction, and that Homer would write falsehoods;- the sixth of Samos, respecting whom Eratosthenes writes that he had found a written notice in the ancient annals of the Samians. The seventh was of Cum, by name Amalth a, who is termed by some Herophile, or Demophile, and they say that she brought nine books to the king Tarquinius Priscus, and asked for them three hundred philippics, and that the king refused so great a price, and derided the madness of the woman; that she, in the sight of the king, burnt three of the books, and demanded the same price for those which were left; that Tarquinias much more considered the woman to be mad; and that when she again, having burnt three other books, persisted in asking the same price, the king was moved, and bought the remaining books for the three hundred pieces of gold: and the number of these books was afterwards increased, after the rebuilding of the Capitol; because they were collected from all cities of Italy and Greece, and especially from those of Erythr a, and were brought to Rome, under the name of whatever Sibyl they were. Further, that the eighth was from the Hellespont, born in the Trojan territory, in the village of Marpessus, about the town of Gergithus; and Heraclides of Pontus writes that she lived in the times of Solon and Cyrus - the ninth of Phrygia, who gave oracles at Ancyra;- the tenth of Tibur, by name Albunea, who is worshipped at Tibur as a goddess, near the banks of the river Anio, in the depths of which her statue is said to have been found, holding in her hand a book. The senate transferred her oracles into the Capitol. The predictions of all these Sibyls are both brought forward and esteemed as such, except those of the Cum an Sibyl, whose books are concealed by the Romans; nor do they consider it lawful for them to be inspected by any one but the Quindecemviri. And there are separate books the production of each, but because these are inscribed with the name of the Sibyl they are believed to be the work of one; and they are confused, nor can the productions of each be distinguished and assigned to their own authors, except in the case of the Erythr an Sibyl, for she both inserted her own true name in her verse, and predicted that she would be called Erythr an, though she was born at Babylon. But we also shall speak of the Sibyl without any distinction, wherever we shall have occasion to use their testimonies. All these Sibyls, then, proclaim one God, and especially the Erythr an, who is regarded among the others as more celebrated and noble; since Fenestella, a most diligent writer, speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that, after the rebuilding of the Capitol, Caius Curio the consul proposed to the senate that ambassadors should be sent to Erythr to search out and bring to Rome the writings of the Sibyl; and that, accordingly, Publius Gabinius, Marcus Otacilius, and Lucius Valerius were sent, who conveyed to Rome about a thousand verses written out by private persons. We have shown before that Varro made the same statement. Now in these verses which the ambassadors brought to Rome, are these testimonies respecting the one God:- 1. One God, who is alone, most mighty, uncreated. This is the only supreme God, who made the heaven, and decked it with lights. 2. But there is one only God of pre-eminent power, who made the heaven, and sun, and stars, and moon, and fruitful earth, and waves of the water of the sea. And since He alone is the framer of the universe, and the artificer of all things of which it consists or which are contained in it, it testifies that He alone ought to be worshipped: - 3. Worship Him who is alone the ruler of the world, who alone was and is from age to age. Also another Sibyl, whoever she is, when she said that she conveyed the voice of God to men, thus spoke:- 4. I am the one only God, and there is no other God. I would now follow up the testimonies of the others, were it not that these are sufficient, and that I reserve others for more befitting opportunities. But since we are defending the cause of truth before those who err from the truth and serve false religions, what kind of proof ought we to bring forward against them, rather than to refute them by the testimonies of their own gods?
16. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 16.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(artapanus), founder of hermopolis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
(artapanus) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
acts Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
ammi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
anthropomorphism, sorrow Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
antiochus iv epiphanes Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 14
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
babylon Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
beth-el, imagery in Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
chronology/chronological Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
conversion/convert Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
cult/cultic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
customs Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
divine/god, connection to human realm Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
divine/god, covenant Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
divine/god, justice Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
douglas, m. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
egypt, moses as hermes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
egypt, moses portrayal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
egypt, positive portrayal of egyptian religion Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168; Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
fire Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
geography Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
hellenism Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
hermes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
hermopolis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
idols/idolatry/idolatrous Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
isaac nappaha (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
israel, rebellion of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
jerusalem, exclusion of jews from Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
jerusalem Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
jerusalem temple, defiled / desecration Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
jerusalem temple, destruction Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
jerusalem temple Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
jesus Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
judaism, polemic against pagan religion Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
judaism in egypt, jewish responses to hellenistic culture Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
kingship/kingdom Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
land, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
leontopolis, temple at Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
luke Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
messianism/messianic expectations, cyrus as Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 153
moses, jewish identity disputed Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
old testament polemic against idols Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
oracles, sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 147, 148, 153
oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 147, 148, 153
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
plato Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 46
ptolemy vi philometor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
ritual/law, and mythmaking Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
ritual/law, impurity Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
seventh king of egypt Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 147, 148
sibylline oracle, third, date Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracle, third, leontopolis provece Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracle, third, polemic against pagan worship Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracle, third Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracles, and idolatry Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 148, 153
sibylline oracles, collins, j.j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracles, critique of paganism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracles, date Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracles, fifth book Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220
sibylline oracles, polemic against idols Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
sibylline oracles, second book Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 218, 220
sibylline oracles, sib. or. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 147, 148, 153
sibylline oracles, the judaism of Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 153
sibylline oracles, the seventh king of egypt Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 148
sibylline oracles, third book Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 218, 220
sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 147, 148, 153; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 44
temple, destruction of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 168
temple, jerusalem, idolatry in Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 153
temple, jerusalem Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 153
temple Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 219
templeand the sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 153
titan/titanomachy Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 101
woman/women' Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 220