Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



752
Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1


nanBEGINNING with the generation first,Of mortal men down to the very last,I'll prophesy each thing: what erst has been,,And what is now, and what shall yet befall,5 The world through the impiety of men.,First now God urges on me to relate,Truly how into being came the world.,And thou, shrewd mortal, prudently make known,,Lest ever thou should'st my commands neglect,,10 The King most high, who brought into existence,The whole world, saying, “Let there be,” and there was.,For he the earth established, placing it,Round about Tartarus, and he himself,Gave the sweet light; he raised the heaven on high,,15 Spread out the gleaming sea, and crowned the sky,With an abundance of bright-shining stars,,And decked the earth with plants, and mingled sea,With rivers, and the air with zephyrs mixed,And watery clouds; and then, another race,20 Appointing, he gave fishes to the seas,And birds unto the winds, and to the woods,The beasts of shaggy neck, and snakes that crawl,,And all things which now on the earth appear.,These by his word he made, and every thing,25 Was speedily and with precision done;,For he was self-caused and from heaven looked down,And finished was the world exceeding well.,And then thereafter fashioned he again,A living product, copying a new man,30 From his own image, beautiful, divine,,And bade him in ambrosial garden dwell,,That labors beautiful might be his care.,But in that fertile field of Paradise,He longed for conversation, being alone,,35 And prayed that he might see another form,Such as he had. And forthwith, from man's side,Taking a bone, God himself made fair Eve,,A wedded spouse, and in that Paradise,Gave her to dwell with him. And, when he gazed,40 Upon her, on a sudden filled with joy,Great admiration held his soul, he saw,A pattern so exact; and with wise words,Spontaneous flowing answered he in turn,For God had care for all things. For the mind,45 They darkened not with passion, nor concealed,Their nakedness, but with hearts far from evil,Even like wild beasts they walked with limbs exposed.,And afterwards delivering them commands,God showed them not to touch a certain tree;,50 But the dread serpent drew them off by guile,To go away unto the fate of death,And to gain knowledge of both good and evil.,But the wife then first traitress proved to God;,She gave, and urged the unknowing man to sin.,55 And he, persuaded by the woman's words,,Forgot the immortal Maker utterly,,And treated plain commandments with neglect.,Therefore, instead of good, received they evil,According to their deed. And then the leaves,60 Of the sweet fig-tree piercing they made clothes,And put them on each other, and concealed,The sexual parts, because they were ashamed.,But on them the Immortal set his wrath,And cast them out of the immortal land.,65 For their abiding now in mortal land,Was brought to pass, since hearing they kept not,The word of the immortal mighty God.,And straightway they, upon the fruitful soil,Forthgoing, with their tears and groans were wet;,70 And to them then the immortal God himself,A word more excellent spoke: “Multiply,,Increase, work constantly upon the earth,,That with the sweat of labor ye may have,Sufficient food.” Thus he spoke; and he made,75 The author of deceit to press the ground,On belly and on side, a crawling snake,,Driving him out severely; and he sent,Dire enmity between them and the one,Is on the look-out to preserve his head,,80 But man his heel; for death is neighbor near,Of evil-plotting vipers and of men.,And then indeed the race was multiplied,As the Almighty himself gave command,,And there grew up one people on another,85 Innumerable. And houses they adorned,Of all kinds and made cities and their walls,Well and expertly; and to them was given,A day of long time for a life much-loved;,For they did not worn out with troubles die,,90 But as subdued by sleep; most happy men,Of great heart, whom the immortal Saviour loved,,The King, God. But they also did transgress,,Smitten with folly. For with impudence,They mocked their fathers and their mothers scorned;,95 Kinsmen they knew not, and they formed intrigues,Against their brothers. And they were impure,,Having defiled themselves with human gore,,And they made wars. And then upon them came,The last calamity sent forth from heaven,100 Which snatched the dreadful men away from life;,And Hades then received them; it was called,Hades since Adam, having tasted death,,Went first and earth encompassed him around.,And therefore all men born upon the earth,105 Are in abodes of Hades called to go.,But even in Hades all these when they came,Had honor, since they were the earliest race.,But when Hades received these, secondly,[Of the surviving and most righteous men],110 God formed another very subtile race,That cared for lovely works, and noble toils,,Distinguished reverence and solid wisdom;,And they were trained in arts of every kind,,Finding inventions by their lack of means.,115 And one devised to till the land with plows,,Another worked in wood, another cared,For sailing, and another watched the stars,And practiced augury with winged fowls;,And use of drugs had interest for one,,120 While for another magic had a charm;,And others were in every other art,Which men care for instructed, wide awake,,Industrious, worthy of that eponym,Because they had a sleepless mind within,125 And a huge body; stout with mighty form,They were; but, notwithstanding, down they went,Into Tartarean chamber terrible,,Kept in firm chains to pay full penalty,In Gehenna of strong, furious, quenchless fire.,130 And after these a third strong-minded race,Appeared, a race of overbearing men,And terrible, who wrought among themselves,Many an evil. And fights, homicides,,And battles did continually destroy,135 Those men possessed of overweening heart,,And from these afterward another race,Proceeded, late-completed, youngest born,,Blood-stained, perverse in counsel; of men these,Were in the fourth race; much the blood they spilled,,140 Nor feared they God nor had regard for men,,For maddening wrath and sore impiety,Were sent upon them. And wars, homicides,,And battles sent some into Erebus,,Since they were overweening impious men.,145 But the rest did the heavenly God himself,In anger afterwards change from his world,,Casting them into mighty Tartarus,Down under the foundation of the earth.,And later yet another race much worse,150 [Of men he made, to whom no good thereafter],The Immortal formed, since they wrought many evils.,For they were much more violent than those,,Giants perverse, foul language pouring out.,Single among all men, most just and true,,155 Was the most faithful Noah, full of care,For noblest works. And to him God himself,From heaven thus spoke: “Noah, be of good cheer,In thyself and to all the people preach,Repentance, so that they may all be saved.,160 But if, with shameless soul, they heed me not,The whole race I will utterly destroy,With mighty floods of waters. Quickly now,An undecaying house I bid thee frame,Of planks strong and impervious to the wet.,165 I will put understanding in thy heart,,And subtile skill, and rule of measurement,And order; and for all things will I care,That thou be saved, and all who dwell with thee,And I am He who is, and in thy heart,170 Do thou discern. I clothe me with the heaven,,And cast the sea around me, and for me,Earth is a footstool, and the air is poured,Around my body; and on every side,Around me runs the chorus of the stars.,175 Nine letters have I; of four syllables,I am; discern me. The first three have each,Two letters, the remaining one the rest,,And five are mates; and of the entire sum,The hundreds are twice eight and thrice three tens,180 Along with seven. Now, knowing who I am,,Be thou not uninitiate in my lore.”,Thus he spoke; and great trembling seized on him,At what he heard. And then, within his mind,Having contrived each matter, he besought,185 The people and began with words like these:,“O men insatiate, smit with madness great,,Whatever things ye practiced they shall not,Escape God's notice; for he knows all things,,Immortal Saviour overseeing all,,190 Who bade me warn you, that ye perish not.,Be sober, cut off badness, do not fight,Perforce each other with blood-guilty heart,,Nor irrigate much land with human gore.,Revere, O mortals, the supremely great,195 And fearless heavenly Creator, God,Imperishable, whose dwelling is the sky;,And do ye all entreat him–he is kind–,For life of cities and of all the world,,And of four-footed beasts and flying fowls;,200 Entreat him to be gracious unto all.,For when the whole unbounded world of men,Shall be destroyed by waters loud ye'll raise,A fearful cry. And suddenly for you,The air shall be disordered, and from heaven,205 The fury of the mighty God shall come,Upon you. And it certainly shall be,That the immortal Saviour against men,Will send wrath if ye do not placate God,And from this time repent; and nothing,210 Fretful and evil lawlessly shall ye,One to another do, but let there be,A guarding of one's self by holy life.”,But when they heard him each turned up his nose,,Calling him mad, a frenzy-smitten man.,215 And then again did Noah sound this strain:,“O men exceeding wretched, base in heart,,Unstable, leaving modesty behind,And loving shamelessness, rapacious lords,,Fierce sinners, false, insatiate, mischievous,,220 In nothing true, stealthy adulterers,,Flippant in language, pouring forth foul words,,The wrath of God most high not fearing, kept,To the fifth generation to atone!,In no way do ye wail, harsh men, but laugh;,225 Sardonic smile shall ye laugh, when shall come,That which I speak–God's dire incoming flood,,When Eve's polluted race, in the great earth,Blooming perennial in impervious stem,,Shall, root and branch, in one night disappear,,230 And cities, men and all, shall the Earth-shaker,From the depths scatter and their walls destroy.,And then the whole world of unnumbered men,Shall die. But how shall I weep, how lament,In wooden house, how mingle tears with waves?,235 For, if this water bidden of God shall come,,Earth shall float, hills float, and even sky shall float;,Everything shall be water, and all things,Shall be destroyed by waters. And the winds,Shall stand still, and a second age shall come.,240 O Phrygia, thou shalt from the water's crest,First rise up, and thou first another race,Of men shalt nourish, once again anew,Beginning; and thou shalt be nurse for all.”,But when now to the lawless generation,245 He had thus vainly spoken, the Most High,Appeared, and once more cried aloud and said:,“The time is now come, Noah, to proclaim,Each thing, even all which I that day to thee,Did promise and confirm, and to complete,,250 Because of a people disobedient,,Throughout the boundless world even all the things,Which generations of a former time,Did practice, evil things innumerable.,But do thou quickly enter with thy sons,255 And the wives. Call as many as I bid,,Of tribes of beasts and creeping things and birds,,And in as many as I ordain for life,Will I then put a willingness to go.”,Thus spoke he; forth went (Noah) and aloud,260 Cried out and called. And then wife, sons and brides,,Entered the house of wood; then also went,The other things, as many as God willed,To shut in. But when fitting bolt was put,About the lid, and in its polished place,265 Was fitted sideways, then was brought to pass,Forthwith the purpose of the God of heaven.,And he massed clouds, and bid the sun's bright disk,,And moon, and stars, and circle of the heaven,,Obscuring all things round; he thundered loud,,270 Terror of mortals, sending lightnings forth;,And all the winds together were aroused,,And all the veins of water were unloosed,By opening of great cataracts from heaven,,And from earth's caverns and the tireless deep,275 Appeared the myriad waters, and the whole,Illimitable earth was covered o'er.,But on the water swam that wondrous house;,And torn by many furious waves, and struck,By force of winds, it rushed on fearfully;,280 But with its keel it cut the mass of foam,While the loud-babbling waters dashed around.,But when God deluged all the world with rains,Then also Noah took thought to observe,By counsels of the Immortal; for he now,285 Had had enough of Nereus. And straightway,The house he opened from the polished wall,,That crosswise was bound fast with skillful stays.,And looking out upon the mighty mass,Of boundless waters Noah on all sides–,290 And 'twas his fortune with his eyes to see!–,Fear possessed and shook mightily his heart.,And then the air became a little calm,,Since it was weary wetting all the world,Many days; parting, then, it brought to light,295 How pale and blood-red was the mighty sky,And sun's bright disk awearied; scarcely held,Noah his courage. And then forth afar,Sent he a dove alone, that he might learn,If yet firm land appeared. But with tired wing,,300 Flying round all things, she again returned;,For not yet had the water ebbed away;,For it was deeply filling every place.,But after resting quietly for days,He sent the dove once more, to learn if yet,305 Had ceased the many waters. And she flew,And flew on, and went o'er the earth and, resting,Her body lightly on the humid ground,,Again to Noah back she came and bore,An olive branch–of tidings a great sign.,310 Courage now filled them all, and great delight,,Because they hoped to look upon the land.,But then thereafter yet another bird,,Of black wing, sent he forth as hastily;,Which, trusting to its wings, flow willingly,,315 And coming to the land continued there.,And Noah knew the land was nearer now.,But when on dashing waves the craft divine,Had here and there o'er ocean's billows swum,,It was made fast upon the narrow strand.,320 There is in Phrygia on the dark mainland,A steep, tall mountain; Ararat its name,,Because upon it all were to be saved,From death, and there was great desire of heart;,Thence streams of the great river Marsyas spring.,325 There on a lofty peak the ark abode,When the waters ceased, and then again from heaven,The voice divine of the great God this word,Proclaimed: “O Noah, guarded, faithful, just,,Come boldly forth, with thy sons and thy wife,330 And the three brides, and fill ye all the earth,,Increasing, multiplying, rendering justice,To one another through all generations,,Until to judgment every race of men,Shall come; for judgment shall be unto all.”,335 Thus spoke the voice divine. Then from his couch,Noah, encouraged, hastened on the land,,And with him went his sons and wife and brides,,And creeping things, and birds and quadrupeds,,And all things else went from the wooden house,340 Into one place. And then went Noah forth,As eighth, most just of men, when on the waters,He had made full twice twenty days and one,Because of counsels of the mighty God.,Then a new stock of life again arose,,345 Golden first, which indeed was sixth, and best,,From the time when the first-formed man appeared;,Heavenly its name, because all things to God,Shall be a care. O first race of sixth age!,O mighty joy which I thereafter shared,,350 When I escaped sheer ruin, by the waves,Much tossed, with husband and with brothers-in-law,,Stepfather and stepmother, and with wives,Of husband's brothers suffering terribly.,Fitting things now will I sing: There shall be,355 On the fig-tree a many-colored flower,,And afterward the royal power and sway,Shall Cronos have. For three kings of great soul,,Men most just, shall distribute portions then,,And many a year rule, rendering what is just,360 To men who care for toil and deeds of love.,And earth shall glory in her many fruits,Self-growing, yielding much corn for the race.,And the foster-fathers, ageless all their days,,Shall from diseases chill and dreadful be,365 Far aloof; they shall die as fallen on sleep,,And unto Acheron in the abodes,Of Hades they shall go away, and there,Shall they have honor, since they were a race,Of blessed ones, fortunate heroes, whom,370 The Lord of Sabaoth gave a noble mind,,And with whom always he his counsels shared.,But blessed shall they be even when they go,In Hades. And then afterward again,Oppressive, strong, another second race,375 Of earth-born men, the Titans. All excel,In figure, stature, growth; and there shall be,One language, as of old from the first race,God in their breasts implanted. But even these,,Having a haughty heart and rushing on,380 To ruin, shall at last resolve to fight,Against the starry heaven. And then the stream,Of the great ocean shall upon them pour,Its raging waters. But the mighty Lord,Of Sabaoth though enraged shall check his wrath,,385 Because he promised that again no flood,Should be brought upon men of evil soul.,But when the great high-thundering God shall cause,The boundless swelling of the many waters–,With their waves hither and thither rising high–,390 To cease from wrath, and into other depths,Of sea their measure lessen, setting bounds,By harbors and rough headlands round the land;,Then also shall a child of the great God,Come, clothed in flesh, to men, and fashioned like,395 To mortals in the earth; and he doth hear,Four vowels, and two consonants in him,Are twice announced; the whole sum I will name:,For eight ones, and as many tens on these,,And yet eight hundred will reveal the name,400 To men insatiate; and do thou discern,In thine own understanding that the Christ,Is child of the immortal God most high.,And he shall fulfill God's law, not destroy,,Bearing his very image, and all things,405 Shall he teach. Unto him shall priests convey,And offer gold, and myrrh, and frankincense;,For all these things he'll also bring to pass.,But when a voice shall through the desert land,Come bearing tidings to men, and to all,410 Shall call to make straight paths, and from the heart,Cast wickedness out and illuminate,With water all the bodies of mankind,,That being born again they may no more,From what is righteous go at all astray–,415 And one of barbarous mind, by dances bound,,Cutting that (voice) off shall bestow reward–,Then on a sudden there shall be a sign,To mortals, when, watched over, there shall come,Out of the land of Egypt a fair stone;,420 And on it shall the Hebrew people stumble;,But by his guiding nations shall be brought,Together; for the God who rules on high,They also shall know through him, and the way,In common light. For unto chosen men,425 Will he show life eternal, but the fire,Will be for ages on the lawless bring.,And then shall he the sickly heal, and all,Who are blameworthy who shall trust in him..,And then the blind shall see, the lame shall walk,,430 The deaf shall hearken, and the dumb shall speak.,Demons shall he drive out, and of the dead,There shall be an uprising; on the waves,Shall he walk; also in a desert place,Shall he five thousand satisfy with food,435 From five loaves and a fish out of the sea,,And with the remnants of them, for the hope,Of peoples, shall he fill twelve baskets full.,And then shall Israel, drunken, not discern,,Nor shall they hear, oppressed with feeble cars.,Shall come upon the Hebrews, and take faith,Away from them, because they slew the Son,Of the heavenly God; then also with foul lips,Shall Israel give him cuffs and spittle drugged.,445 And gall for food and vinegar unmixed,For drink will they, with evil madness smitten,In bosom and in heart, give impiously,,Not seeing with their eyes, more blind than moles,,More terrible than crawling poisonous beasts,,450 Fast bound by heavy sleep. But when his hands,He shall spread forth and measure out all things,,And bear the crown of thorns, and they shall pierce,His side with reeds, for which dark monstrous night,Shall be for three hours in the midst of day,,455 Then also shall the temple of Solomon,Bring to an end a mighty sign for men,,When he shall to the house of Hades go,Proclaiming resurrection to the dead.,But when in three days he shall come again,460 Unto the light, and show his form to men,And teach all things, ascending in the clouds,Unto the house of heaven shall he go,Leaving the world a Gospel convenant.,And in his name shall blossom a new shoot,465 From nations that are guided by the law,Of the Mighty One. But also after this,There shall be wise guides, and then afterward,There shall be a cessation of the prophets.,After that, when the Hebrew people reap,470 Their evil harvest, shall a Roman king,Much gold and silver utterly destroy.,And afterward shall other royal powers,Continuously arise as kingdoms perish,,And they will oppress mortals. But great fall,475 Shall be for those men, when they shall begin,Unrighteous arrogance. But when the temple,Of Solomon in the holy land shall fall,,Cast down by barbarous men in brazen mail,,And from the land the Hebrews shall be driven,480 Wandering and wasted, and among the wheat,They shall much darnel mingle, there shall be,Evil contention among, all mankind;,And the cities suffering outrage shall bewail,Each other, in their breasts receiving wrath


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 25.11-25.12, 29.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.11. וְהָיְתָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְחָרְבָּה לְשַׁמָּה וְעָבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.12. וְהָיָה כִמְלֹאות שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד עַל־מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְעַל־הַגּוֹי הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲוֺנָם וְעַל־אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתִּי אֹתוֹ לְשִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם׃ 29.1. וְאֵלֶּה דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא מִירוּשָׁלִָם אֶל־יֶתֶר זִקְנֵי הַגּוֹלָה וְאֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם בָּבֶלָה׃ 29.1. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי לְפִי מְלֹאת לְבָבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־דְּבָרִי הַטּוֹב לְהָשִׁיב אֶתְכֶם אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 25.11. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and a waste; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." 25.12. And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it perpetual desolations." 29.1. Now these are the words of the letter that Jeremiah the prophet sent from Jerusalem unto the residue of the elders of the captivity, and to the priests, and to the prophets, and to all the people, whom Nebuchadnezzar had carried away captive from Jerusalem to Babylon,"
3. Hesiod, Works And Days, 107-201, 106 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

106. (The lid already stopped her, by the will
4. Homer, Iliad, 1.396-1.406 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.396. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.397. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.398. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.399. /For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.401. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.402. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.403. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.404. /But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory 1.405. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king 1.406. /and the blessed gods were seized with fear of him, and did not bind Zeus. Bring this now to his remembrance, and sit by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he might perhaps wish to succour the Trojans, and for those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are slain, so that they may all have profit of their king
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

244b. and the priestesses at Dodona when they have been mad have conferred many splendid benefits upon Greece both in private and in public affairs, but few or none when they have been in their right minds; and if we should speak of the Sibyl and all the others who by prophetic inspiration have foretold many things to many persons and thereby made them fortunate afterwards, anyone can see that we should speak a long time. And it is worth while to adduce also the fact that those men of old who invented names thought that madness was neither shameful nor disgraceful;
7. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

273b. over itself and all within itself, and remembering and practising the teachings of the Creator and Father to the extent of its power, at first more accurately and at last more carelessly; and the reason for this was the material element in its composition, because this element, which was inherent in the primeval nature, was infected with great disorder before the attainment of the existing orderly universe. For from its Composer the universe has received only good things; but from its previous condition it retains in itself and creates in the animals all the elements of harshness and injustice
8. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22c. And this is the cause thereof: There have been and there will be many and divers destructions of mankind, of which the greatest are by fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means. For in truth the story that is told in your country as well as ours, how once upon a time Phaethon, son of Helios, yoked his father’s chariot, and, because he was unable to drive it along the course taken by his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth and himself perished by a thunderbolt,—that story, as it is told, has the fashion of a legend, but the truth of it lies in
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10.12, 91.17, 93.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.12. with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that i 91.17. And after that there will be many weeks without number for ever, And all shall be in goodness and righteousness, And sin shall no more be mentioned for ever. 93.3. And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: ' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured.
10. Anon., Testament of Levi, 16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.1. And now I have learnt that for seventy weeks ye shall go astray, and profane the priesthood, and pollute the sacrifices.
11. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.36. Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno's view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a 'reason' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod's Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things.
12. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1.65-1.125, 1.127-1.147, 1.157-1.158, 1.165, 1.179, 1.267-1.275, 1.281, 1.283-1.323, 2.15, 2.23, 2.29, 2.34-2.148, 2.154-2.175, 2.200-2.202, 2.206-2.207, 2.212-2.213, 2.231, 2.252-2.310, 2.312, 2.322-2.329, 2.337-2.338, 3.1-3.165, 3.196-3.198, 3.295-3.300, 3.489-3.491, 3.762-3.829, 4.49-4.101, 4.107-4.113, 4.116, 4.127, 4.130-4.134, 4.145-4.148, 4.173-4.192 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

1.65. 65 For their abiding now in mortal land 1.66. Was brought to pass, since hearing they kept not 1.67. The word of the immortal mighty God. 1.68. And straightway they, upon the fruitful soil 1.69. Forthgoing, with their tears and groans were wet; 1.70. 70 And to them then the immortal God himself 1.71. A word more excellent spoke: “Multiply 1.72. Increase, work constantly upon the earth 1.73. That with the sweat of labor ye may have 1.74. Sufficient food.” Thus he spoke; and he made 1.75. 75 The author of deceit to press the ground 1.76. On belly and on side, a crawling snake 1.77. Driving him out severely; and he sent 1.78. Dire enmity between them and the one 1.79. Is on the look-out to preserve his head 1.80. 80 But man his heel; for death is neighbor near 1.81. of evil-plotting vipers and of men. 1.82. And then indeed the race was multiplied 1.83. As the Almighty himself gave command 1.84. And there grew up one people on another 1.85. 85 Innumerable. And houses they adorned 1.86. of all kinds and made cities and their wall 1.87. Well and expertly; and to them was given 1.88. A day of long time for a life much-loved; 1.89. For they did not worn out with troubles die 1.90. 90 But as subdued by sleep; most happy men 1.91. of great heart, whom the immortal Saviour loved 1.92. The King, God. But they also did transgress 1.93. Smitten with folly. For with impudence 1.94. They mocked their fathers and their mothers scorned; 1.95. 95 Kinsmen they knew not, and they formed intrigue 1.96. Against their brothers. And they were impure 1.97. Having defiled themselves with human gore 1.98. And they made wars. And then upon them came 1.99. The last calamity sent forth from heaven 1.100. 100 Which snatched the dreadful men away from life; 1.101. And Hades then received them; it was called 1.102. Hades since Adam, having tasted death 1.103. Went first and earth encompassed him around. 1.104. And therefore all men born upon the earth 1.105. 105 Are in abodes of Hades called to go. 1.106. But even in Hades all these when they came 1.107. Had honor, since they were the earliest race. 1.108. But when Hades received these, secondly 1.109. [of the surviving and most righteous men] 1.110. 110 God formed another very subtile race 1.111. That cared for lovely works, and noble toils 1.112. Distinguished reverence and solid wisdom; 1.113. And they were trained in arts of every kind 1.114. Finding inventions by their lack of means. 1.115. 115 And one devised to till the land with plows 1.116. Another worked in wood, another cared 1.117. For sailing, and another watched the star 1.118. And practiced augury with winged fowls; 1.119. And use of drugs had interest for one 1.120. 120 While for another magic had a charm; 1.121. And others were in every other art 1.122. Which men care for instructed, wide awake 1.123. Industrious, worthy of that eponym 1.124. Because they had a sleepless mind within 1.125. 125 And a huge body; stout with mighty form 1.127. Into Tartarean chamber terrible 1.128. Kept in firm chains to pay full penalty 1.129. In Gehenna of strong, furious, quenchless fire. 1.130. 130 And after these a third strong-minded race 1.131. Appeared, a race of overbearing men 1.132. And terrible, who wrought among themselve 1.133. Many an evil. And fights, homicides 1.134. And battles did continually destroy 1.135. 135 Those men possessed of overweening heart 1.136. And from these afterward another race 1.137. Proceeded, late-completed, youngest born 1.138. Blood-stained, perverse in counsel; of men these 1.139. Were in the fourth race; much the blood they spilled 1.140. 140 Nor feared they God nor had regard for men 1.141. For maddening wrath and sore impiety 1.142. Were sent upon them. And wars, homicides 1.143. And battles sent some into Erebus 1.144. Since they were overweening impious men. 1.145. 145 But the rest did the heavenly God himself 1.146. In anger afterwards change from his world 1.147. Casting them into mighty Tartaru 1.157. From heaven thus spoke: “Noah, be of good cheer 1.158. In thyself and to all the people preach 1.165. 165 I will put understanding in thy heart 1.179. The hundreds are twice eight and thrice three ten 1.267. And he massed clouds, and bid the sun's bright disk 1.268. And moon, and stars, and circle of the heaven 1.269. Obscuring all things round; he thundered loud 1.270. 270 Terror of mortals, sending lightnings forth; 1.271. And all the winds together were aroused 1.272. And all the veins of water were unloosed 1.273. By opening of great cataracts from heaven 1.274. And from earth's caverns and the tireless deep 1.275. 275 Appeared the myriad waters, and the whole 1.281. While the loud-babbling waters dashed around. 1.283. Then also Noah took thought to observe 1.284. By counsels of the Immortal; for he now 1.285. 285 Had had enough of Nereus. And straightway 1.286. The house he opened from the polished wall 1.287. That crosswise was bound fast with skillful stays. 1.288. And looking out upon the mighty ma 1.289. of boundless waters Noah on all sides– 1.290. 290 And 'twas his fortune with his eyes to see!– 1.291. Fear possessed and shook mightily his heart. 1.292. And then the air became a little calm 1.293. Since it was weary wetting all the world 1.294. Many days; parting, then, it brought to light 1.295. 295 How pale and blood-red was the mighty sky 1.296. And sun's bright disk awearied; scarcely held 1.297. Noah his courage. And then forth afar 1.298. Sent he a dove alone, that he might learn 1.299. If yet firm land appeared. But with tired wing 1.300. 300 Flying round all things, she again returned; 1.301. For not yet had the water ebbed away; 1.302. For it was deeply filling every place. 1.303. But after resting quietly for day 1.304. He sent the dove once more, to learn if yet 1.305. 305 Had ceased the many waters. And she flew 1.306. And flew on, and went o'er the earth and, resting 1.307. Her body lightly on the humid ground 1.308. Again to Noah back she came and bore 1.309. An olive branch–of tidings a great sign. 1.310. 310 Courage now filled them all, and great delight 1.311. Because they hoped to look upon the land. 1.312. But then thereafter yet another bird 1.313. of black wing, sent he forth as hastily; 1.314. Which, trusting to its wings, flow willingly 1.315. 315 And coming to the land continued there. 1.316. And Noah knew the land was nearer now. 1.317. But when on dashing waves the craft divine 1.318. Had here and there o'er ocean's billows swum 1.319. It was made fast upon the narrow strand. 1.320. 320 There is in Phrygia on the dark mainland 1.321. A steep, tall mountain; Ararat its name 1.322. Because upon it all were to be saved 1.323. From death, and there was great desire of heart; 2.15. 15 Among most men, and robbery of temples. 2.23. Enraged shall kill each other, and in tumult 2.29. And then shall the great God who dwells in heaven 2.34. Nor yet enslaved. And every harbor then 2.35. 35 And every haven, shall be free to men 2.36. As formerly, and shamelessness shall perish. 2.37. And then will God show mortals a great sign: 2.38. For like a lustrous crown shall shine a star 2.39. Bright, all-resplendent, from the radiant heaven 2.40. 40 Days not a few; and then will he display 2.40. 40 Imperishable honor always first 2.41. From heaven a crown for contest unto men 2.41. And next thy parents. Render all things due 2.42. Who wrestle. And then there shall be again 2.42. And into unjust judgment come thou not. 2.43. A mighty contest of triumphal march 2.43. Do not cast out the poor unrighteously 2.44. Into the heavenly sky, and it shall be 2.44. Nor judge by outward show; if wickedly 2.45. 45 For all men in the world, and have the fame 2.46. of immortality. And every people 2.47. Shall then in the immortal contests strive 2.48. For splendid victory. For no one there 2.49. Can shamelessly with silver buy a crown. 2.50. 50 For unto them will the pure Christ adjudge 2.51. That which is due, and crown the ones approved 2.52. And give his martyrs an immortal prize 2.53. Who carry on the contest unto death. 2.54. And unto chaste men who run their race well 2.55. 55 Will he the incorruptible reward 2.56. of the prize give, and to all men allot 2.57. That which is due, and also to strange nation 2.58. That live a holy life and know one God. 2.59. And those who have regard for marriage 2.60. 60 And keep themselves far from adulteries 2.61. To them rich gifts, eternal hope, he'll give. 2.62. For every human soul is God's free gift 2.63. And 'tis not right men stain it with vile deeds. 2.64. [Do not be rich unrighteously, but lead 2.65. 65 A life of probity. Be satisfied 2.66. With what thou hast and keep thyself from that 2.67. Which is another's. Speak not what is false 2.68. But have a care for all things that are true. 2.69. Revere not idols vainly; but the God 2.75. 75 Thou judgest, God hereafter will judge thee. 2.76. Avoid false testimony; tell the truth. 2.77. Maintain thy virgin purity, and guard 2.78. Love among all. Deal measures that are just; 2.79. For beautiful is measure full to all. 2.80. 80 Strike not the scales oneside, but draw them equal. 2.81. Forswear not ignorantly nor willingly; 2.82. God hates the perjured man in that he swore. 2.83. A gift proceeding out of unjust deed 2.84. Never receive in hand. Do not steal seed; 2.85. 85 Accursed through many generations he 2.86. Who took it unto scattering of life. 2.87. Indulge not vile lusts, slander not, nor kill. 2.88. Give the toilworn his hire; do not afflict 2.89. The poor man. Unto orphans help afford 2.90. 90 And to widows and the needy. Talk with sense; 2.91. Hold fast in heart a secret. Be unwilling 2.92. To act unjustly nor yet tolerate 2.93. Unrighteous men. Give to the poor at once 2.94. And say not, “Come to-morrow.” of thy grain 2.95. 95 Give to the needy with perspiring hand. 2.96. He who gives alms knows how to lend to God. 2.97. Mercy redeems from death when judgment comes. 2.98. Not sacrifice, but mercy God desire 2.99. Rather than sacrifice. The naked clothe 2.100. 100 Share thy bread with the hungry, in thy house 2.101. Receive the shelterless and lead the blind. 2.102. Pity the shipwrecked; for the voyage i 2.103. Uncertain. To the fallen give a hand; 2.104. And save the man that stands without defense. 2.105. 105 Common to all is suffering, life's a wheel 2.106. Riches unstable. Having wealth, reach out 2.107. To the poor thy hand. of what God gave to thee 2.108. Bestow thou also on the needy one. 2.109. Common is the whole life of mortal men; 2.110. 110 But it comes out unequal. When thou seest 2.111. A poor man never banter him with words 2.112. Nor harshly accost a man who may be blamed. 2.113. One's life in death is proven; if one did 2.114. The unlawful or just, it shall be decided 2.115. 115 When he to judgment comes. Disable not 2.116. Thy mind with wine nor drink excessively. 2.117. Eat not blood, and abstain from thing 2.118. offered to idols. Gird not on the sword 2.119. For slaughter, but defense; and would thou might 2.120. 120 It neither lawlessly nor justly use: 2.121. For if thou kill an enemy thy hand 2.122. Thou dost defile. Keep from thy neighbor's field 2.123. Nor trespass on it; just is every landmark 2.124. And trespass painful. Useful is possession 2.125. 125 of lawful wealth, but of unrighteous gain 2.126. 'Tis worthless. Harm not any growing fruit 2.127. of the field. And let strangers be esteemed 2.128. In equal honor with the citizens; 2.129. For much-enduring hospitality 2.130. 130 Shall all experience as each other's guests; 2.131. But let there not be anyone a stranger 2.132. Among you, since, ye mortals, all of you 2.133. Are of one 'blood, and no land has for men 2.134. Any sure place. Wish not nor pray for wealth; 2.135. 135 But pray to live from few things and posse 2.136. Nothing at all unjust. The love of gain 2.137. Is mother of all evil. Do not long 2.138. For gold or silver; in them there will be 2.139. A double-edged and soul-destroying iron. 2.140. 140 A snare to men continually are gold 2.141. And silver. Gold, of evils source, of life 2.142. Destructive, troubling all things, would that thou 2.143. Wert, not to mortals such a longed-for bane! 2.144. For wars, because of thee, and pillaging 2.145. 145 And murders come, and children hate their sires 2.146. And brothers and sisters those of their own blood. 2.147. Plot no deceit, and do not arm thy heart 2.148. Against a friend. Keep not concealed within 2.154. But he that does it under force, the end 2.155. 155 I tell not; but let each man's will be right. 2.156. Pride not thyself in wisdom, power, or wealth; 2.157. God only is the wise and mighty one 2.158. And full of riches. Do not vex thy heart 2.159. With evils that are past; for what is done 2.160. 160 Can never be undone. Let not thy hand 2.161. Be hasty, but ferocious passion curb; 2.162. For many times has one in striking done 2.163. Murder without design. Let suffering 2.164. Be common, neither great nor overmuch. 2.165. 165 Excessive good has not brought forth to men 2.166. That which is helpful. And much luxury 2.167. Leads to immoderate lusts. Much wealth is prowl 2.168. And makes one grow to wanton violence. 2.169. Passionate feeling, creeping in, effect 2.170. 170 Destructive madness. Anger is a lust 2.171. And when it is excessive it is wrath. 2.172. The zeal of good men is a noble thing 2.173. But of the base is base. of wicked men 2.174. The boldness is destructive, but renown 2.175. 175 Follows that of the good. To be revered 2.200. 200 Ah! of how many parents in the land 2.201. Will children mourn and piteously weep 2.202. And with shrouds bury flesh and limbs in earth 2.206. Terrible, childish, not perceiving this 2.207. That when the tribes of women do not bear 2.212. Perform for men. And then of holy men 2.213. Elect and faithful, there shall be confusion 2.231. To them that sleep, that from the starry heaven 2.252. And all the souls of men shall gnash their teeth 2.253. Burned both by sulphur stream and force of fire 2.254. In ravenous soil, and ashes hide all things. 2.255. 255 And then of the world all the element 2.256. Shall be bereft, air, earth, sea, light, sky, days 2.257. Nights; and no longer in the air shall fly 2.258. Birds without number, nor shall living thing 2.259. That swim the sea swim any more at all 2.260. 260 Nor freighted vessel o'er the billows pass 2.261. Nor kine straight-guiding plow the field, nor sound 2.262. of furious winds; but he shall fuse all thing 2.263. Together, and shall pick out what is pure. 2.264. But when the immortal God's eternal angel 2.265. 265 Arakiel, Ramiel, Uriel, Samiel 2.266. And Azael, they that know how many evil 2.267. Anyone did before, shall from dark gloom 2.268. Then lead to judgment all the souls of men 2.269. Before the judgment-seat of the great God 2.270. 270 Immortal; for imperishable i 2.271. One only, himself the almighty, One 2.272. Who shall be judge of mortals; and to them 2.273. That dwell beneath will then the heavenly One 2.274. Give souls and spirit and voice, and also bone 2.275. 275 Fitted with joints unto all kinds of flesh 2.276. And both the flesh and sinews, veins and skin 2.277. About the body, and hair as before; 2.278. Divinely fashioned and with breathing moved 2.279. Shall bodies of those on earth one day be raised. 2.280. 280 And then shall Uriel, mighty angel, break 2.281. The bolts of stern and lasting adamant 2.282. Which, monstrous, bold the brazen gates of Hades 2.283. Straight cast them down, and unto judgment lead 2.284. All forms that have endured much suffering 2.285. 285 Chiefly the shapes of Titans born of old 2.286. And giants, and all whom the deluge whelmed 2.287. And all that perished in the billowy seas 2.288. And all that furnished banquet for the beast 2.289. And creeping things and fowls, these in a ma 2.290. 290 Shall (Uriel) summon to the judgment-seat; 2.291. And also those whom flesh-devouring fire 2.292. Destroyed in flame, even these shall he collect 2.293. And place before the judgment-seat of God. 2.294. And when the high-thundering Lord of Sabaoth 2.295. 295 Making an end of fate shall raise the dead 2.296. Sit on his heavenly throne, and firmly fix 2.297. The mighty pillar, then amid the cloud 2.298. Christ, who himself is incorruptible 2.299. Shall come unto the Incorruptible 2.300. 300 In glory with pure angels, and shall sit 2.301. At the right hand on the great judgment-seat 2.302. To judge the life of pious and the way 2.303. of impious men. And Moses, the great friend 2.304. of the Most High, shall come enrobed in flesh 2.305. 305 Also great Abraham himself shall come 2.306. Isaac and Jacob, Joshua, Daniel 2.307. Elijah, Habakkuk and Jonah, and 2.308. Those whom the Hebrews slew. But he'll destroy 2.309. The Hebrews after Jeremiah, all 2.310. 310 Who are to be judged at the judgment-seat 2.312. And pay for all each did in mortal life. 2.322. Dread, wanton, lawless, and idolaters; 2.323. And all who left the great immortal God 2.324. Became blasphemers did the pious harm 2.325. 325 Destroying faith and killing righteous men 2.326. And all that with a shamelessness deceitful 2.327. And double-faced rush in as presbyter 2.328. And reverend ministers, who knowingly 2.329. Give unjust judgments, yielding to false word 2.337. And all that left their parents in old age 2.338. Not paying them at all, nor offering 3.1. O THOU high-thundering blessed heavenly One 3.2. Who hast set in their place the cherubim 3.3. I, who have uttered what is all too true 3.4. Entreat thee, let me have a little rest; 3.5. 5 For my heart has grown weary from within. 3.6. But why again leaps my heart, and my soul 3.7. With a whip smitten from within constrained 3.8. To utter forth its message unto all? 3.9. But yet again will I proclaim all thing 3.10. 10 Which God commands me to proclaim to men. 3.11. O men, that in your image have a form 3.12. Fashioned of God, why do ye vainly stray 3.13. And walk not in the straight way, always mindful 3.14. of the immortal Maker? God is one 3.15. 15 Sovereign, ineffable, dwelling in heaven 3.16. The self-existent and invisible 3.17. Himself alone beholding everything; 3.18. Him sculptor's hand made not, nor is his form 3.19. Shown by man's art from gold or ivory; 3.20. 20 But he, eternal Lord, proclaims himself 3.21. As one who is and was erst and shall be 3.22. Again hereafter. For who being mortal 3.23. Can see God with his eyes? Or who shall bear 3.24. To hear the only name of heaven's great God 3.25. 25 The ruler of the world? He by his word 3.26. Created all things, even heaven and sea 3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars 3.28. And mighty mother Tethys, springs and rivers 3.28. 28 of the Chaldeans, nor astronomize; 3.29. Imperishable fire, and days and nights. 3.29. O For these are all deceptive, in so far 3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 3.31. The first one formed, and filling with his name 3.31. Training their souls unto no useful work; 3.32. East, west, and south, and north. The same is he 3.32. And then did they teach miserable men 3.33. Who fixed the pattern of the human form 3.33. Deceptions, whence to mortals on the earth 3.34. And made wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls. 3.35. 35 Ye do not worship neither fear ye God 3.36. But vainly go astray and bow the knee 3.37. To serpents, and make offering to cats 3.38. And idols, and stone images of men 3.39. And sit before the doors of godless temples; 3.40. 40 Ye guard him who is God, who keeps all things 3.41. And merry with the wickedness of stone 3.42. Forget the judgment of the immortal Saviour 3.43. Who made the heaven and earth. Alas! a race 3.44. That has delight in blood, deceitful, vile 3.45. 45 Ungodly, of false, double-tongued, immoral men 3.46. Adulterous, idolous, designing fraud 3.47. An evil madness raving in their hearts 3.48. For themselves plundering, having shameless soul; 3.49. For no one who has riches will impart 3.50. 50 To another, but dire wickedness shall be 3.51. Among all mortals, and for sake of gain 3.52. Will many widows not at all keep faith 3.53. But secretly love others, and the bond 3.54. of life those who have husbands do not keep. 3.55. 55 But when Rome shall o'er Egypt also rule 3.56. Governing always, then shall there appear 3.57. The greatest kingdom of the immortal King 3.58. Over men. And a holy Lord shall come 3.59. To hold the scepter over every land 3.60. 60 Unto all ages of fast-hastening time. 3.61. And then shall come inexorable wrath 3.62. On Latin men; three shall by piteous fate 3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men 3.64. With their own houses, when from heaven shall flow 3.65. 65 A fiery cataract. Ah, wretched me! 3.66. When shall that day and when shall judgment come 3.67. of the immortal God, the mighty King? 3.68. But just now, O ye cities, ye are built 3.69. And all adorned with temples and race-grounds 3.70. 70 Markets, and images of wood, of gold 3.71. of silver and of stone, that ye may come 3.72. Unto the bitter day. For it shall come 3.73. When there shall pass among all men a stench 3.74. of brimstone. Yet each thing will I declare 3.75. 75 In all the cities where men suffer ills. 3.76. From the Sebastenes Beliar shall come 3.77. Hereafter, and the height of hills shall he 3.78. Establish, and shall make the sea stand still 3.79. And the great fiery sun and the bright moon 3.80. 80 And he shall raise the dead, and many sign 3.81. Work before men: but nothing shall be brought 3.82. By him unto completion but deceit 3.83. And many mortals shall be lead astray 3.84. Hebrews both true and choice, and lawless men 3.85. 85 Besides who never gave ear to God's word. 3.86. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.87. Shall draw near, and a flaming power shall come 3.88. By billow to the earth, it shall consume 3.89. Both Beliar and all the haughty men 3.90. 90 Who put their trust in him. And thereupon 3.91. Shall the whole world be governed by the hand 3.92. of a woman and obedient everywhere. 3.93. Then when a widow shall o'er all the world 3.94. Gain the rule, and cast in the mighty sea 3.95. 95 Both gold and silver, also brass and iron 3.96. of short lived men into the deep shall cast 3.97. Then all the elements shall be bereft 3.98. of order, when the God who dwells on high 3.99. Shall roll the heaven, even as a scroll is rolled; 3.100. 100 And to the mighty earth and sea shall fall 3.101. The entire multiform sky; and there shall flow 3.102. A tireless cataract of raging fire 3.103. And it shall burn the land, and burn the sea 3.104. And heavenly sky, and night, and day, and melt 3.105. 105 Creation itself together and pick out 3.106. What is pure. No more laughing spheres of light 3.107. Nor night, nor dawn, nor many days of care 3.108. Nor spring, nor winter, nor the summer-time 3.109. Nor autumn. And then of the mighty God 3.110. 110 The judgment midway in a mighty age 3.111. Shall come, when all these things shall come to pass. 3.112. O navigable waters and each land 3.113. of the Orient and of the Occident 3.114. Subject shall all things be to him who come 3.115. 115 Into the world again, and therefore he 3.116. Himself became first conscious of his power. 3.117. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.118. Are fulfilled, which he threatened mortals once 3.119. When in Assyrian land they built a tower;– 3.120. 120 (And they all spoke one language, and resolved 3.121. To mount aloft into the starry heaven; 3.122. But on the air the Immortal straightway put 3.123. A mighty force; and then winds from above 3.124. Cast down the great tower and stirred mortals up 3.125. 125 To wrangling with each other; therefore men 3.126. Gave to that city the name of Babylon);– 3.127. Now when the tower fell and the tongues of men 3.128. Turned to all sorts of sounds, straightway all earth 3.129. Was filled with men and kingdoms were divided; 3.130. 130 And then the generation tenth appeared 3.131. of mortal men, from the time when the flood 3.132. Came upon earlier men. And Cronos reigned 3.133. And Titan and Iapetus; and men called them 3.134. Best offspring of Gaia and of Uranus 3.135. 135 Giving to them names both of earth and heaven 3.136. Since they were very first of mortal men. 3.137. So there were three divisions of the earth 3.138. According to the allotment of each man 3.139. And each one having his own portion reigned 3.140. 140 And fought not; for a father's oaths were there 3.141. And equal were their portions. But the time 3.142. Complete of old age on the father came 3.143. And he died; and the sons infringing oath 3.144. Stirred up against each other bitter strife 3.145. 145 Which one should have the royal rank and rule 3.146. Over all mortals; and against each other 3.147. Cronos and Titan fought. But Rhea and Gaia 3.148. And Aphrodite fond of crowns, Demeter 3.149. And Hestia and Dione of fair lock 3.150. 150 Brought them to friendship, and together called 3.151. All who were kings, both brothers and near kin 3.152. And others of the same ancestral blood 3.153. And they judged Cronos should reign king of all 3.154. For he was oldest and of noblest form. 3.155. 155 But Titan laid on Cronos mighty oath 3.156. To rear no male posterity, that he 3.157. Himself might reign when age and fate should come 3.158. To Cronos. And whenever Rhea bore 3.159. Beside her sat the Titans, and all male 3.160. 160 In pieces tore, but let the females live 3.161. To be reared by the mother. But When now 3.162. At the third birth the august Rhea bore 3.163. She brought forth Hera first; and when they saw 3.164. A female offspring, the fierce Titan men 3.165. 165 Betook them to their homes. And thereupon 3.196. And then a message of the mighty God 3.197. Was set within my breast, and it bade me 3.198. Proclaim through all earth and in royal heart 3.295. 295 Less favored, nor to widows cause distress 3.296. But rather aids them, ever helping them 3.297. With wheat and wine and oil; and always doe 3.298. The rich man in the country send a share 3.299. At the time of the harvests unto them 3.300. 300 That have not, but are needy, thus fulfilling 3.489. Shall drink much murder. But even so shall Hade 3.489. But him propitiate, the immortal God 3.490. 490 Destroy the unknown king; and that man's offspring 3.490. 490 If haply he show mercy. For he i 3.491. Shall forthwith perish by the race of those 3.491. The only God, and other there is none. 3.762. And worshiped idols made with hands, which thing 3.763. Mortals themselves will cast down and for shame 3.764. Conceal in clefts of rocks, when a young king 3.765. 765 The seventh of Egypt, shall rule his own land 3.766. Reckoned from the dominion of the Greeks 3.767. Which countless Macedonian men shall rule; 3.768. And there shall come from Asia a great king 3.769. fiery eagle, who with foot and horse 3.770. 770 Shall cover all the land, cut up all things 3.771. And fill all things with evils; he will cast 3.772. The Egyptian kingdom down; and taking off 3.773. All its possessions carry them away 3.774. Over the spacious surface of the sea. 3.775. 775 And then shall they before, the mighty God 3.776. The King immortal, bend the fair white knee 3.777. On the much-nourishing earth; and all the work 3.778. Made with hands shall fall by a flame of fire. 3.779. And then will God bestow great joy on men; 3.780. 780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep 3.781. Their genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine 3.782. And the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat 3.783. Which is for mortals of all things the best. 3.784. But thou, O mortal full of various wiles 3.795. 795 The cause of the wrath of the mighty God 3.796. When on all mortals there shall come the height 3.797. of pestilence and conquered they shall meet 3.798. A fearful judgment, and king shall seize king 3.799. And wrest his land away, and nations bring 3.800. 800 Ruin on nations and lords plunder tribes 3.801. And chiefs all flee into another land 3.802. And the land change its men, and foreign rule 3.803. Ravage all Hellas and drain the rich land. 3.804. of its wealth, and to strife among themselve 3.805. 805 Because of gold and silver they shall come– 3.806. The love of gain an evil shepherde 3.807. Will be for cities–in a foreign land. 3.808. And they shall all be without burial 3.809. And vultures and wild beasts of earth shall spoil 3.810. 810 Their flesh; and when these things are brought to pass 3.811. Vast earth shall waste the relics of the dead. 3.812. And all unsown shall it be and unplowed 3.813. Proclaiming sad the filth of men defiled 3.814. Many lengths of time in the revolving years 3.815. 815 And shields and javelins and all sorts of arms; 3.816. Nor shall the forest wood be cut for fire. 3.817. And then shall God send from the East a king 3.818. Who shall make all earth cease from evil war 3.819. Killing some, others binding with strong oaths. 3.820. 820 And he will not by his own counsels do 3.821. All these things, but obey the good decree 3.822. of God the mighty. And with goodly wealth 3.823. With gold and silver and purple ornament 3.824. The temple of the mighty God again 3.825. 825 Shall be weighed down; and the full-bearing earth 3.826. And the sea shall be filled full of good things. 3.827. And kings against each other shall begin 3.828. To hold ill will, in heart abetting evils. 3.829. Envy is not a good to wretched men. 4.49. For slow is the whole race of human kind 4.50. 50 To believe. But when judgment of the world 4.51. And mortals comes which God himself shall bring 4.52. Judging at once the impious and the pious 4.53. Then indeed shall he send the ungodly back 4.54. To lower darkness [and then they shall know 4.55. 55 How much impiety they wrought]; but the piou 4.56. Shall still remain upon the fruitful land 4.57. God giving to them breath and life and grace. 4.58. But these things all in the tenth generation 4.59. Shall come to pass; and now what things shall be 4.60. 60 From the first generation, those I'll tell. 4.61. First over all mortal shall Assyrians rule 4.62. And for six generations hold the power 4.63. of the world, from the time the God of heaven 4.64. Being wroth against the cities and all men 4.65. 65 Sea with a bursting deluge covered earth. 4.66. Them shall the Medes o'erpower, but on the throne 4.67. For two generations only shall exult; 4.68. In which times those events shall come to pass: 4.69. Dark night shall come at the mid hour of day 4.75. 75 But when the great Euphrates shall with blood 4.76. Be surging, then shall there be also set 4.77. Between the Medes and Persians dreadful strife 4.78. In battle; and the, Medes shall fall and fly 4.79. 'Neath Persian spears beyond the mighty water 4.80. 80 of Tigris. And the Persian power shall be 4.81. Greatest in all the world, and they shall have 4.82. One generation of most prosperous rule. 4.83. And there shall be as many evil deed 4.84. As men shall wish away–the din of war 4.85. 85 And murders, and disputes, and banishments 4.86. And overthrow of towers and waste of cities 4.87. When Hellas very glorious shall sail 4.88. Over broad Hellespont, and shall convey 4.89. To Phrygia sorrow and to Asia doom. 4.90. 90 And unto Egypt, land of many furrows 4.91. Shall sorry famine come, and barrenne 4.92. Shall during twenty circling years prevail 4.93. What time the Nile, corn-nourisher, shall hide 4.94. His dark wave somewhere underneath the earth. 4.95. 95 And there shall come from Asia a great king 4.96. Bearing a spear, with ships innumerable 4.97. And he shall walk the wet paths of the deep 4.98. And shall sail after he has cut the mount 4.99. of lofty summit; him a fugitive 4.100. 100 From battle fearful Asia shall receive. 4.101. And Sicily the wretched shall a stream 4.107. And fighting make an end of many men; 4.108. But equally balanced is the strife with both. 4.109. But, when the race of mortal men shall come 4.110. 110 To the tenth generation, also then 4.111. Upon thc Persians shall a servile yoke 4.112. And terror be. But when the Macedonian 4.113. Shall boast the scepter there shall be for Thebe 4.116. And Babylon, great to see but small to fight 4.127. And Delos visible no more, but thing 4.130. 130 The Macedonian power shall not abide; 4.131. But from the west a great Italian war 4.132. Shall flourish, under which the world shall bear 4.133. A servile yoke and the Italians serve. 4.134. And thou, O wretched Corinth, thou shalt look 4.145. 145 When sometime the dark water of the sea 4.146. With thunders and earthquakes shall stop the din 4.147. of Patara for its impieties. 4.148. Also for thee, Armenia, there remain 4.173. And small drops like red earth shall fall from heaven 4.174. Then know the anger of the God of heaven 4.175. 175 For that they without reason shall destroy 4.176. The nation of the pious. And then strife 4.177. Awakened of war shall come to the West 4.178. Shall also come the fugitive of Rome 4.179. Bearing a great spear, having marched acro 4.180. 180 Euphrates with his many myriads. 4.181. O wretched Antioch, they shall call thee 4.182. No more a city when around their spear 4.183. Because of thine own follies thou shalt fall. 4.184. And then on Scyros shall a pestilence 4.185. 185 And dreadful battle-din destruction bring. 4.186. Alas, alas! O wretched Cyprus, thee 4.187. Shall a broad wave of the sea cover, thee 4.188. Tossed on high by the whirling stormy winds. 4.189. And into Asia there shall come great wealth 4.190. 190 Which Rome herself once, plundering, put away 4.191. In her luxurious homes; and twice as much 4.192. And more shall she to Asia render back
14. Vergil, Eclogues, 6.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.31. and crying, “Why tie the fetters? loose me, boys;
15. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. and didn't spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah with seven others, a preacher of righteousness, when he brought a flood on the world of the ungodly;
16. Seneca The Younger, Natural Questions, 3.27-3.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Suetonius, Augustus, 31.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Heraclitus, Allegoriae, 53



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
acheron, acherousian lake Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
adamand enoch Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81
alexander the great Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145
alexandria Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 296
apocalypse of peter Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
apocalypse of weeks, schematization of history Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81
apocalypse of weeks Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81
apocalyptic / apocalypticism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
apocalypticism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
asia minor Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
assyrian rule Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
augustus Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145
babylon, and the four kingdoms Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 298
book of enoch Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
christianity/christians, early writings/literature Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
christianity/christians, emergence of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
chrysippus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
circumcision Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
cleanthes Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
common cultural currency Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
cornutus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
cosmology Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
destruction Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
dialogues of plato Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
didymus Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
epic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
epicureans, ideas Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
eschatology, myths Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
ethics, ethical exhortations Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
ethics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
ezra, sixth book of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
flood Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
gentiles Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
gospel according to the hebrews Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
graeco-roman, culture Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119, 121
graeco-roman, literature Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
hell Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
heraclitus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
hesiod, iron age Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
hesiod Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
homer Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
isaac Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
kingship, four-kingdom scheme Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
kosher laws Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
lucretius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
macedonians Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
nature / nature Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
noachide laws Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
noah Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81, 298
oracles, sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145, 146, 290, 296, 297, 298
oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145, 146
origen Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
pagan / pagans / pagan religion, philosophical traditions Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
pagan / pagans / pagan religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
paradise Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
pausanias Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 274
periodization of history, apocalypse of weeks Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81
periodization of history, defined Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 81
periodization of history, persian Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 297
periodization of history, sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145, 290, 296, 297, 298
periodization of history Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145
persian apocalypticism, in sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 290, 296, 297, 298
persian apocalypticism, periodization of history Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 297
persians Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
phocylides Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
physics, stoic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
plato, myths Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
plato Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
plutarch Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 274
potters oracle Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145
punishment Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
redaction criticism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 272, 273, 274
revelation, book of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
righteous / righteousness Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
sabbath Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437
seventy, weeks Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
sibyl Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115, 119, 121
sibylline, tradition Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
sibylline oracles, periodization of history Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145, 290, 296, 297, 298
sibylline oracles, sib. or. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 146, 296, 298
sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 145, 146, 290, 296, 297, 298; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 437; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115, 119; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 380
sin Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
sinners Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119, 121
soothsayer Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119
stoic / stoicism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115, 121
stoics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119, 121
ten eras' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 53
theology Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
thetis Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
titans Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
trojan war, troy, fall of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
underworld Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 119, 121
universal conflagration, stoic doctrine of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 115
valerius probus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
virgil Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 297
zeno Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121
zeus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 121