Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



590
Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 2.8
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.17. וַתִּזְנַח מִשָּׁלוֹם נַפְשִׁי נָשִׁיתִי טוֹבָה׃ 3.17. And my soul is removed far off from peace, I forgot prosperity."
2. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. כָּנַסְתִּי לִי גַּם־כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּסְגֻלַּת מְלָכִים וְהַמְּדִינוֹת עָשִׂיתִי לִי שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת׃ 2.8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and treasure such as kings and the provinces have as their own; I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, women very many."
3. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
4. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 28, 63, 78, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 3.17 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

3.17. עֵינִי נִגְּרָה וְלֹא תִדְמֶה וגו' עַד יַשְׁקִיף וְיֵרֶא ה' מִשָּׁמָיִם, רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר בִּשְׁלשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת מָצִינוּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ סָמוּךְ לַגְּאֻלָּה, מַאי טַעְמָא (ישעיה לב, יד): מְשׂוֹשׂ פְּרָאִים מִרְעֵה עֲדָרִים, מַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו (ישעיה לב, טו): עַד יֵעָרֶה עָלֵינוּ רוּחַ מִמָּרוֹם וְהָיָה מִדְבָּר לַכַּרְמֶל וְהַכַּרְמֶל לַיַּעַר יֵחָשֵׁב. וְדִכְוָותֵיהּ (ישעיה ס, כב): הַקָּטֹן יִהְיֶה לָאֶלֶף וְהַצָּעִיר וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (ישעיה סא, א): רוּחַ ה' אֱלֹהִים עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח ה' אֹתִי, וְהָדֵין: עֵינִי נִגְּרָה, וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: עַד יַשְׁקִיף וְיֵרֶא ה' מִשָּׁמָיִם. עֵינִי עוֹלְלָה לְנַפְשִׁי, אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בָּתֵּי סוֹפְרִים הָיוּ בְּבֵיתָר, וְהַקָּטָן שֶׁבָּהֶם לֹא הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת תִּינוֹקוֹת, וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים אִם יָבוֹאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים עָלֵינוּ בַּמַּכְתְּבִים הַלָּלוּ אָנוּ יוֹצְאִין וְדוֹקְרִין אוֹתָן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ הָעֲוֹנוֹת וּבָאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים, כָּרְכוּ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בְּסִפְרוֹ וְשָׂרְפוּ אוֹתָם, וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּיר מֵהֶם אֶלָּא אֲנִי, וְקָרָאתִי עַל עַצְמִי עֵינִי עוֹלְלָה לְנַפְשִׁי מִכֹּל בְּנוֹת עִירִי.
8. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. מי כתיב מכל החיה ומכל הבהמה מכל הבהמה ומכל החיה כתיב ארור הוא מבהמה שנתקללה מחיה,ואימא כשם שנתקללה בהמה מחיה אחד לשלש ומאי ניהו עז מחתול כך נתקלל הוא מבהמה אחד לשלש דהוה ליה חמיסר ירחי,איבעית אימא מכל הבהמה כתיב אי בעית אימא קללה הוא קללה שדי עילויה,א"ל קיסר לרבי יהושע בן חנניה נחש לכמה מיעבר ומוליד א"ל לשב שני והא סבי דבי אתונא ארבעינהו ואוליד לתלת הנהו מיעברי הוו מעיקרא ד' [שנין] והא קמשמשי שמושי אינהו נמי משמשי כאדם,והא חכימי אינהו אנן חכימינן מינייהו אי חכימת זיל זכינהו ואיתינהו לי אמר ליה כמה הוו שיתין גברי,אמר ליה עביד לי ספינתא דאית בה שיתין בתי וכל ביתא אית בה שיתין ביסתרקי עבד ליה כי מטא להתם [על] לבי טבחא אשכחיה לההוא גברא דקא פשיט חיותא א"ל רישך לזבוני א"ל אין א"ל בכמה א"ל בפלגא דזוזא יהב ליה,לסוף א"ל אנא רישא דחיותא אמרי לך אמר ליה אי בעית דאישבקך סגי אחוי לי פיתחא דבי אתונא א"ל מסתפינא דכל דמחוי קטלי ליה א"ל דרי כריכא דקניא וכי מטית להתם זקפה כמאן דקא מתפח,אזל אשכח דרבנאי מגואי ודרבנאי מבראי דאי חזו כרעא דעיילא קטלי להו לבראי ודנפקא קטלי להו לגואי,אפכה לסנדליה קטלי להו לגואי אפכה לסנדליה קטלי להו לכולהו,[אזל] אשכח ינוקי מלעיל סבי מלתחת אמר אי יהיבנא שלמא להני קטלי לי הני סברי אנן עדיפינן דאנן קשינן טפי ואינהו דרדקי,אמר שלמא לכו אמרו ליה מאי עבידתיך אמר להו (אנא) חכימא דיהודאי אנא בעינא למיגמר חכמתא מינייכו אי הכי ניבעי לך אמר להו לחיי אי זכיתו [לי] כל דבעיתו עבידו בי ואי זכינא בכו איכלו גבאי בספינתא,א"ל ההוא גברא דאזיל ובעי אתתא ולא יהבו ליה מאי חזי ליה דאזיל היכא דמדלו מיניה שקל סיכתא דצה לתתאי לא עאל לעילאי עאל אמר האי נמי מיתרמי בת מזליה,גברא דאוזיף וטריף מאי חזא דהדר אוזיף אמר להו גברא אזל לאגמא קטל קמא טונא ולא מצי ביה קטיל ומנח עילויה עד דאיתרמי איניש מדלי ליה,אמרו ליה אימא לן מילי דבדיאי אמר להו הוה ההוא כודניתא דילידא והוה תלי ליה פיתקא וכתב ביה דמסיק בבי אבא מאה אלפא זוזי אמרו ליה וכודניתא מי ילדה אמר להו הי ניהו מילי דבדיאי,מילחא כי סריא במאי מלחי לה אמר להו בסילתא דכודניתא ומי איכא סילתא לכודנתא ומילחא מי סרי,בני לן ביתא באוירא דעלמא אמר שם תלא בין רקיעא לארעא אמר להו אסיקו לי ליבני וטינא מציעתיה דעלמא היכא זקפה לאצבעתיה אמר להו הכא א"ל ומי יימר אייתו אשלי ומשחו,אית לן בירא בדברא עיילא למתא א"ל אפשילו לי חבלי מפארי ואעייליה אית לן ריחיא דתבירא חייטיה אמר כרוכו לי מיניה גרדי ואיחייטיה,משרא דסכיני במאי קטלי בקרנא דחמרא ומי איכא קרנא לחמרא ומי איכא משרא דסכיני,אייתו ליה תרי ביעי א"ל הי דזגתא אוכמתי והי דזגתא חיוורתי אייתי להו איהו תרי גביני אמר להו הי דעיזא אוכמתי והי דעיזא חיוורתי,ורצוצא דמית מהיכא נפיק רוחיה מהיכא דעל נפק אחוי לן מנא דלא שוי חביליה אייתו (כל חד וחד) בודיא פשטוה לא הוה עייל בתרעא אמר להו אייתו מרי סיתרוה היינו מנא דלא שוו חביליה,איתינהו כל חד וחד כי חזי שיתין ביסתרקי אמר כולהו חבראי להכא אתו אמר ליה לספונא שרי ספינתך בהדי דקאתו שקל עפרא מעפרייהו 8b. The Gemara responds: bIs it written:Cursed are you bfrom among all beasts, and from among all animals?No, bit is written: “From among all animals, and from among all beasts,”meaning that bit is cursed from among the domesticated animals, which were cursed from among the undomesticated animals. /b,The Gemara challenges: Why must it mean that the snake was cursed more than the donkey in the same proportion that the donkey was cursed more than the cat? bBut sayinstead that bjust as the domesticated animals were cursedmore bthan the undomesticated animalsby a measure of bone to three;the Gemara interjects: bAndin bwhatcase bis that?It is in the case of ba goat,whose gestation period is five months, compared bto a cat,whose gestation period is fifty-two days. The Gemara continues its challenge: bSo too,the snake bwas cursedmore bthan the domesticated animals,i.e., the goat, by a proportion of bone to three, which is fifteen months. /b,The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat bit is written:“Cursed are you bfrom among all animals,”including the most accursed of them, i.e., the donkey. bIf you wish, sayinstead that since bit is a cursethat the snake received here, the verse bimposes upon itthe most extreme bcursethat can be derived from the text.,§ With regard to the gestation time of a snake, the Gemara relates that btheRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya:In the case of ba snake, after how longa period of bgestation does it give birth?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: After seven years.The emperor said to him: bBut the elders,i.e., the sages, bof the school of Athens bredsnakes band they gave birth after threeyears. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya responded: bThosesnakes bwerealready bpregt from beforehandfor bfouryears. The emperor asked: bBut they engaged in intercourse,and animals do so only in order to give birth, not when they are already pregt. Rabbi Yehoshua responded: Snakes balso engage in intercourse like people,i.e., they do not do so solely for reproduction.,The emperor said to him: bButhow can you disagree with the sages of Athens? bAren’t they wise?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya responded: bWe are wiser than they.The emperor said: bIf you are wiserthan they, then bgo defeat themin debate band bring them to me.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: How many are there?The emperor answered: bSixty men. /b,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Construct a ship that has sixty rooms for me, and each roomshould bhave sixty mattresses [ ibistarkei /i] in it.The emperor bconstructedit bfor him.Rabbi Yehoshua then set out on the ship for Athens. bWhenhe barrived there,he entered ba butcher shopand bfound a certain man,the butcher, bflaying an animal.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: Is your head for sale?The butcher bsaid to him: Yesit is. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: For how muchis it being sold? The butcher bsaid to him: For half a dinar.Rabbi Yehoshua bgave himthe money., bAfterRabbi Yehoshua paid the butcher, bhe said to him:Did bI say to youthat I wanted bthe head of the animal?I was referring to your head, and you must now keep your word and give me your head. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: If you wish for me to let you be, goand bshow me the entrance to the school ofthe sages of bAthens.The butcher bsaid to him: I am afraid, as they kill anyone who showsits location to another. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: Carry a bundle of reeds, and when you arrive there, stand it up like one who is resting,to mark the location. The butcher did this, and Rabbi Yehoshua successfully found the entrance.,Rabbi Yehoshua bfound guardsstationed bon the inside and guardsstationed bon the outsideto ensure that no one could enter or exit. They also spread sand on the ground in the entranceway so that they could detect if anyone entered or left. bIf they saw footsteps that were enteringthey would bkill the outerguards for allowing people to enter, bandif they saw footsteps bthat were exitingthey would bkill the innerguards for allowing people to leave.,Rabbi Yehoshua breversed his sandalso it was facing away from the entrance, walked on the sand, and snuck away, thereby creating the appearance of someone who had left the building. When the authorities saw the footsteps, bthey killed the innerguards. Rabbi Yehoshua then returned, breversed his sandal,and made footsteps in the sand indicating that someone had entered the building. They then bkilled allthe guards, including the outer ones, and Rabbi Yehoshua succeeded in entering the building.,Rabbi Yehoshua bfound the youngersages sitting in the bupper,more prominent section, and bthe elderones in the blowersection. bHe saidto himself: I must first greet the younger sages, as they are sitting in the upper section, prior to the elder sages; but bif I greet theseyounger sages first, bthoseelder sages will bkill me,as bthey maintain: We are better, because we are older and they are children. /b,Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid: Greetings to you,but did not directly address either group. bThey said to him: What are you doinghere? Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: I am a Sage of the Jews,and bI desire to learn wisdom from you.They said to him: bIf so, we will ask youquestions and see if you are worthy of this privilege. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Very well. If you win, you may do to me anything you wish, and if I defeat you,then beat with me on my ship. /b,The sages of Athens bsaid to him:In the case of ba certain man who goes and asksto marry ba woman andher family bdoes not giveher bto him, why would he seefit bto go toa family bthat is greater thanthe first? Rabbi Yehoshua btook a pegand bstuck itinto the blowerpart of the wall, but it did bnot go in.He then stuck it binto the upperportion of the wall where there was a hole, and it bwent in. He saidto them: In bthiscase btoo,where he goes to a more distinguished family than the first, perhaps he will bfind the girl destinedfor him.,The sages of Athens asked him another question: In the case of ba man who lendsmoney to an individual and the borrower does not repay the loan, bandthe lender brepossessesthe borrower’s property as payment instead, bwhy wouldhe bseefit bto lendto others bagain?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them:This is what people do: If ba man goes to the pond, initially cuts a bundleof reeds, bbutfinds that he bcannotlift bit,he does not stop cutting wood. Instead, he bcutsmore wood band placesit buponthe first, buntil a person happensto pass by and helps him braise itupon his shoulders, so that he can carry it home. So too, a person continues to lend based on the assumption that he will eventually find an appropriate borrower.,The sages of Athens bsaid to him: Say to us a matter of nonsense.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: There was a certain mule that gave birth, and a note was hanging onthe newborn mule’s neck band on it was written that it is owed 100,000 dinars by its father’s household. They said to him: But can a mule give birth?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: This iswhy it is ba matter of nonsense,as it is impossible for a mule to give birth.,The sages of Athens then asked another question: bWhen salt is spoiling, with what does one salt itto preserve it? Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: With the placenta of a mule.They said to him: bBut is there a placenta of a mule?Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: bAnd does salt spoil? /b,They said to him: bBuild us a house in the air of the world.Rabbi Yehoshua buttered a Nameof God and bhovered between the sky and the earth. He said to them: Bring up to me bricks and mortarand I will build you a house here. They asked him: bWhere is the center of the world?Rabbi Yehoshua braised his fingerand bsaid to them: Here. They said to him: And who saysthat you are correct? He said to them: bBring ropes and measure. /b,They said to him: bWe have a pit in the field; bring it to the city.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Braid ropesmade bof bran for me and I will bring itto the city with them. They then said to him: bWe have a mill that broke; sew itback together. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaidto them: bPull out threads fromthe mill bfor me and I will sew themtogether.,They asked him another question: bWith what does one harvest a field of knives?Rabbi Yehoshua answered: bWith the horn of a donkey.They said to him: bBut is theresuch an item as ba horn of a donkey?He said to them: bBut is theresuch a thing as ba field of knives? /b, bThey brought him two eggsand bsaid to him: Which isthe egg bof a black hen and which isthe egg bof a white hen?Rabbi Yehoshua bbrought them two cheeses,and bsaid to them: Whichis the cheese bfrom the black goat and whichis bfrom the white goat? /b,They asked him: bAndin the case of ba chick that diesinside the egg, bfrom where does its spirit exit?Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: bFrom where it enters, it departs.They said to him: bShow us a utensil that is not worth the damagethat it causes. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: bEach one of you bring a matand bspread it out.When they did so, each mat bdid not enter the gatedue to its size. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Bring axesand bbreakthe gate so that you can bring it inside. bThis is a utensil that is not worth its damage. /b,§ After Rabbi Yehoshua defeated the sages of Athens in debate, bhe brought themto his ship as they had agreed. He then brought each one to a different room. bWhen each one saw the sixty mattressesin his room, bhe saidto himself: bAll of my colleagues are coming here,and waited for them without attempting to leave. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to the sailor: Release your ship,i.e., begin sailing. bWhile they were comingto the emperor in Rome, bhe tookout some bdirtthat he had taken bfrom the dirt ofAthens.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע בר' (חנינא) אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דמשחרי לך פרסאי וגרבי בך ורעיי בך שקצי בחוטרא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא אמר ליה שבור מלכא לשמואל אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דאתו רומאי ושבו לך וטחני בך קשייתא ברחייא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא,בר הדיא מפשר חלמי הוה מאן דיהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה למעליותא ומאן דלא יהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה לגריעותא אביי ורבא חזו חלמא אביי יהיב ליה זוזא ורבא לא יהיב ליה אמרי ליה אקרינן בחלמין (דברים כח, לא) שורך טבוח לעיניך וגו' לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מעוצבא דלבך לאביי א"ל מרווח עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מחדוא דלבך,אמרי ליה אקרינן (דברים כח, מא) בנים ובנות תוליד וגו' לרבא אמר ליה כבישותיה לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישי ומינסבן בנתך לעלמא ומדמיין באפך כדקא אזלן בשביה,אקריין (דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישין את אמרת לקריבך והיא אמרה לקריבה ואכפה לך ויהבת להון לקריבה דהוי כעם אחר לרבא א"ל דביתהו שכיבא ואתו בניה ובנתיה לידי איתתא אחריתי דאמר רבא אמר ר' ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב מאי דכתיב בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר זו אשת האב,אקרינן בחלמין (קהלת ט, ז) לך אכול בשמחה לחמך לאביי אמר ליה מרווח עסקך ואכלת ושתית וקרית פסוקא מחדוא דלבך לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך טבחת ולא אכלת ושתית וקרית לפכוחי פחדך,אקרינן (דברים כח, לח) זרע רב תוציא השדה לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, מ) זיתים יהיו לך בכל גבולך וגו' לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ וגו' לאביי א"ל נפק לך שמא דריש מתיבתא הוית אימתך נפלת בעלמא לרבא אמר ליה בדיינא דמלכא אתבר ומתפסת בגנבי ודייני כולי עלמא קל וחומר מינך למחר אתבר בדיינא דמלכא ואתו ותפשי ליה לרבא.,אמרי ליה חזן חסא על פום דני לאביי א"ל עיף עסקך כחסא לרבא א"ל מריר עסקך כי חסא,אמרי ליה חזן בשרא על פום דני לאביי אמר ליה בסים חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא וחמרא מינך לרבא אמר ליה תקיף חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא למיכל ביה,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דתלי בדיקלא לאביי אמר ליה מדלי עסקך כדיקלא לרבא אמר ליה חלי עסקך כתמרי,אמרי ליה חזן רומנא דקדחי אפום דני לאביי אמר ליה עשיק עסקך כרומנא לרבא אמר ליה קאוי עסקך כרומנא,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דנפל לבירא לאביי א"ל מתבעי עסקך כדאמר נפל פתא בבירא ולא אשתכח לרבא א"ל פסיד עסקך ושדי' ליה לבירא,אמרי ליה חזינן בר חמרא דקאי אאיסדן ונוער לאביי אמר ליה מלכא הוית וקאי אמורא עלך לרבא א"ל פטר חמור גהיט מתפילך א"ל לדידי חזי לי ואיתיה אמר ליה וא"ו דפטר חמור ודאי גהיט מתפילך,לסוף אזל רבא לחודיה לגביה אמר ליה חזאי דשא ברייתא דנפל אמר ליה אשתך שכבא אמר ליה חזיא ככי ושני דנתור א"ל בנך ובנתך שכבן אמר ליה חזאי תרתי יוני דפרחן א"ל תרי נשי מגרשת אמר ליה חזאי תרי גרגלידי דלפתא אמר ליה תרין קולפי בלעת אזל רבא ההוא יומא ויתיב בי מדרשא כוליה יומא אשכח הנהו תרי סגי נהורי דהוו קמנצו בהדי הדדי אזל רבא לפרוקינהו ומחוהו לרבא תרי דלו למחוייה אחריתי אמר מסתיי תרין חזאי,לסוף אתא רבא ויהיב ליה אגרא א"ל חזאי אשיתא דנפל א"ל נכסים בלא מצרים קנית א"ל חזאי אפדנא דאביי דנפל וכסיין אבקיה א"ל אביי שכיב ומתיבתיה אתיא לגבך א"ל חזאי אפדנא דידי דנפיל ואתו כולי עלמא שקיל לבינתא לבינתא א"ל שמעתתך מבדרן בעלמא א"ל חזאי דאבקע רישי ונתר מוקרי א"ל אודרא מבי סדיא נפיק א"ל אקריון הללא מצראה בחלמא א"ל ניסא מתרחשי לך,הוה קא אזיל בהדיה בארבא אמר בהדי גברא דמתרחיש ליה ניסא למה לי בהדי דקא סליק נפל סיפרא מיניה אשכחיה רבא וחזא דהוה כתיב ביה כל החלומות הולכין אחר הפה רשע בדידך קיימא וצערתן כולי האי כולהו מחילנא לך בר מברתיה דרב חסדא יהא רעוא דלמסר ההוא גברא לידי דמלכותא דלא מרחמו עליה,אמר מאי אעביד גמירי דקללת חכם אפילו בחנם היא באה וכ"ש רבא דבדינא קא לייט אמר איקום ואגלי דאמר מר גלות מכפרת עון,קם גלי לבי רומאי אזל יתיב אפתחא דריש טורזינא דמלכא ריש טורזינא חזא חלמא א"ל חזאי חלמא דעייל מחטא באצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה לא א"ל ולא מידי א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בתרתין אצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה ולא א"ל א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בכולה ידא א"ל נפל תכלא בכולהו שיראי שמעי בי מלכא ואתיוה לריש טורזינא קא קטלי ליה א"ל אנא אמאי אייתו להאי דהוה ידע ולא אמר אייתוהו לבר הדיא אמרי ליה אמטו זוזא דידך חרבו 56a. On a similar note, the Gemara relates that the Roman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rabbi Ḥaya: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: You will see the Persians capture you, and enslave you, and force you to herd unclean animals with a golden staff. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Rabbi Yehoshua band that night he sawit in his dream. bKing Shapurof Persia bsaid to Shmuel: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream. Shmuel said to him: You will see the Romans come and take you into captivityand force you bto grind date pits in mills of gold. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Shmuel, band that night he sawit in his dream.,The Gemara relates: bBar Haddaya was an interpreter of dreams.For bone who gave him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bfavorably, andfor bone who did not give him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bunfavorably.The Gemara relates: There was an incident in which both bAbaye and Rava saw anidentical bdreamand they asked bar Haddaya to interpret it. bAbaye gave him moneyand paid his fee, bwhile Rava did not give himmoney. bThey said to him:The verse: b“Your ox shall be slain before your eyesand you shall not eat thereof” (Deuteronomy 28:31) bwas read to us in our dream. Heinterpreted their dream and bto Rava he said: Your business will be lost and you will derive no pleasure from eating because of theextreme bsadness of your heart. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will be unable to eat due to the joy in your heart. /b, bThey said to him:The verse, b“You shall beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be yours; for they shall go into captivity”(Deuteronomy 28:41), bwas read to usin our dream. He interpreted their dreams, and bto Rava he said itsliteral, badversesense. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous, and your daughters will be married to outsiders and it will seem to you as if they were taken in captivity. /b,They said to him: bThe verse: “Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous. You say,that they should marry byour relatives andyour wife bsaysthat they should marry bher relatives and she will imposeher will bupon you and they will be givenin marriage bto her relatives, which is like another nationas far as you are concerned. bTo Rava he said: Your wife will die and your sons and daughters will come into the hands of another woman. As Rava saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba saidthat bRav said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenin the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”? Thisrefers to bthe father’s wife,the stepmother.,They said to him: The verse: b“Go your way, eat your bread with joy,and drink your wine with a merry heart” (Ecclesiastes 9:7) bwas read to us in our dream. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will eat and drink and read the verse out of the joy of your heart. To Rava he said: Your business will be lost, you will slaughter but not eat, you will drinkwine and breadpassages from the Bible in order bto allay your fears. /b,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall carry much seed out into the field,and shall gather little in; for the locust shall consume it” (Deuteronomy 28:38), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse, that he will enjoy an abundant harvest. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse, that his harvest will be destroyed.,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall have olive-trees throughout all your borders,but you shall not anoint yourself with the oil; for your olives shall drop off” (Deuteronomy 28:40), bwas read to usin our dream. And again, bto Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse.,They said to him: The verse: b“All the peoples of the earth shall seethat the name of the Lord is called upon you; and they shall be afraid of you” (Deuteronomy 28:10), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your name will become well-known as head of the yeshiva, and you will be feared by all. To Rava he said: The king’s treasury was brokeninto band you will be apprehended as a thief, and everyone will draw an ia fortioriinference from you:If Rava who is wealthy and of distinguished lineage can be arrested on charges of theft, what will become of the rest of us? Indeed, bthe next day, the king’s treasury was burglarized, and they came and apprehended Rava. /b,Abaye and Rava bsaid to him: We saw lettuce on the mouth of the barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will double like lettucewhose leaves are wide and wrinkled. bTo Rava he said: Your work will be bitter likea blettucestalk., bThey said to him: We saw meat on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your wine will be sweet and everyone will come to buy meat and wine from you. To Rava he said: Your wine will spoil, and everyone will go to buy meat in order to eat with it,to dip the meat in your vinegar., bThey said to him: We saw a barrel hanging from a palm tree. To Abaye he said: Your business will rise like a palm tree. To Rava he said: Your work will be sweet like dateswhich are very cheap in Babylonia, indicating that you will be compelled to sell your merchandise at a cheap price., bThey said to him: We saw a pomegranate taking root on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will increase in value like a pomegranate. To Rava he said: Your work will go sour like a pomegranate. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a barrel fall into a pit. To Abaye he said: Your merchandise will be in demand asthe adage bsays: Bread falls in a pit and is not found.In other words, everyone will seek your wares and they will not find them due to increased demand. bTo Rava he said: Your merchandise will be ruined and you will throw itaway binto a pit. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a donkey-foal standing near our heads, braying. To Abaye he said: You will be a king,that is to say, bhead of the yeshiva, and an interpreter will stand near youto repeat your teachings to the masses out loud. bTo Rava he said:I see the words ipeter ḥamor /i, first-born donkey, erased from your phylacteries.Rava bsaid to him: I myself saw it and it is there.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him:The letter ivavofthe word ipeter ḥamoris certainly erased from your phylacteries. /b, bUltimately, Rava went tobar Haddaya balone.Rava bsaid to him: I saw the outer door of my house fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Your wife will die,as she is the one who protects the house. Rava bsaid to him: I saw my front and back teeth fall out. He said to him: Your sons and daughters will die.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two doves that were flying. He said to him: You will divorce two women.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two turnip-heads [ igargelidei /i]. He said to him: You will receive two blows with a clubshaped like a turnip. bThat same day Rava went and sat in the study hall the entire day. He discovered these two blind people who were fighting with each other. Rava went to separate them and they struck Rava twoblows. When bthey raisedtheir staffs bto strike him an additional blow, he said:That is benough for me, Ionly bsaw two. /b, bUltimately, Rava came and gave him,bar Haddaya, ba fee. Andthen Rava, bsaid to him: I saw my wall fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: You will acquire property without limits.Rava bsaid to him: I saw Abaye’s house [ iappadna /i] fall and its dust covered me.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Abaye will die and his yeshiva will come to you.Rava bsaid to him: I saw my house fall, and everyone came and took the bricks. He said to him: Your teachings will be disseminated throughout the world.Rava bsaid to him: I saw that my head split and my brain fell out. He said to him: A feather will fall out of the pillownear your head. Rava bsaid to him: The Egyptian ihallel /i,the ihallelthat celebrates the Exodus, bwas read to me in a dream. He said to him: Miracles will be performed for you. /b,Bar Haddaya bwas going withRava bon a ship;bar Haddaya bsaid: Why am Igoing bwith a person for whom miracles will be performed,lest the miracle will be that the ship will sink and he alone will be saved. bAsbar Haddaya bwas climbingonto the ship ba book fell from him. Rava foundit band saw: All dreams follow the mouth, written therein. He saidto bar Haddaya: bScoundrel. It wasdependent bon you, and you caused me so much suffering. I forgive you for everything except for the daughterof bRav Ḥisda,Rava’s wife, whom bar Haddaya predicted would die. bMay it beYour bwill that this man be delivered into the hands of a kingdom that has no compassion on him. /b,Bar Haddaya bsaidto himself: bWhat will I do? We learnedthrough tradition bthat the curse of a Sage,even if bbaseless, comestrue? bAnd all the more soin the case of bRava, as he cursedme bjustifiably. He saidto himself: bI will get up and go into exile,as bthe Master said: Exile atones for transgression. /b, bHe arose and exiled himself to the seat of the Romangovernment. bHe went and sat by the entrance,where bthe keeper of the king’s wardrobestood. bThe wardrobe guard dreamed a dream.He bsaid tobar Haddaya: bI saw in the dream that a needle pierced my finger.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw a worm that fellbetween bmy two fingers,eating them. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin, bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw that a worm fellupon bmy entire hand,eating it. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: A worm fellupon and ate ball the silkgarments. bThey heardof this bin the king’s palace and they brought the wardrobe keeper and werein the process of bexecuting him. He said to them: Why me? Bring the one who knew and did not saythe information that he knew. bThey broughtbar Haddaya band said to him: Because of your izuz /i, ruincame upon
11. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe door to a rear court,i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; bandlikewise bbundles of thornsthat seal ba breach; andreed bmats, onemay bnot closean opening bwith themon Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, bunless theyremain babove the groundeven when they are open., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice [ ikankan /i] that dragalong the ground and are used for closing up openings, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to saythis is permitted bon a Festival.According to the ibaraita /i, the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring btoones bthat have a hinge.As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. bRava said:The ibaraitais referring even btodoors bthatonce bhad a hinge,even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice that dragalong the ground, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bandthey are held babove the ground even byas little as ba hairbreadth, onemay bclosean opening bwith them. However, ifthey are bnotraised in this manner, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith them.Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning.The Gemara elaborates: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoningby adding to the ibaraita /i: They must beither have a hinge orbe held babove the ground. Ravalikewise breconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning,as he reads: They must bhave had a hinge orelse be held babove the ground. /b, bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to bbranches of thorn bushes or bundlesof wood bthat were arrangedso that they sealed off ba breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspendedin place, bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to say,this is permitted bon a Festival. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to ba widowed door that dragsalong the ground, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith it.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof ba widowed door? Some sayit refers to a door built bfrom a single plank,which does not look like a door, band others sayit is ba door that does not have a lower doorsill( ige’onim /i) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that bRav Yehuda said:When arranging a pile of wood for ba fireon a Festival, if the logs are arranged bfrom the top down,i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, bit is permitted.However, if the wood is placed from bthe bottom up, it is prohibited,as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., bAnd the sameapplies to beggsthat are to be arranged in a pile, band the sameapplies to ba cauldronthat is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, band the sameapplies to a bbedthat will be placed on its frame, band the sameapplies to bbarrelsarranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: bA certain hereticonce bsaid to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier”(Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. bHe said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,”a derogatory expression meant as praise. bRather, what isthe meaning of bthe best of them is as a brier?It means that bjust as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ iḥedek /i]means bthat they grind [ imehaddekin /i] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ ivahadikot /i] many peoples;and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA personmay bnot stand in the private domain and opena door located bin the public domainwith a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand bin the public domain and opena door bin the private domainwith a key, bunlessin the latter case bhe erected a partition ten handbreadths higharound the door and stands inside it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Rabbis bsaid to him:There was ban incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem,where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), band they would lockthe doors to their shops band place the key in the window that was over the door,which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. bRabbi Yosei says:That place bwas a market of wool dealers. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAndthose bRabbis,who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, bRabbi Meir spoketo them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing bin the public domain, and they respondedwith an incident involving ba ikarmelit /i. As Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bJerusalem, were it notfor the fact that bits doors are locked at night, one would be liable forcarrying in biton Shabbat, bbecauseits thoroughfares have the status of bthe public domain.However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large ikarmelit /i, which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, bRav Pappa said: Here,in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a ikarmelitduring the period bbefore breaches were made in itswalls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas bthere,the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time bafter breaches had been made inthe walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., bRava said: In the latter clauseof the mishna bwe came toa different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers btothe bgates of a gardenwith an area greater than two ibeit se’ain size, whose legal status is that of a ikarmelit /i. Consequently, the mishna bis saying as follows: And likewise,one may bnot stand in the private domain and opena door bin a ikarmelit /i;neither may one stand bin a ikarmelitand opena door bin the private domain, /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69b. ותמני לזיבה אתאי קמן בלילותא יהבינן לה תמני לנדה ושב לזיבה,זיבה תמני בעיא אלא אידי ואידי שב לנדה ותמני לזיבה,בלילותא תמני לנדה בעי,זיבה דפסיקא ליה דלא שנא כי אתיא קמן ביממא לא שנא כי אתיא קמן בליליא חשיב לה נדה דלא פסיקא ליה דכי אתיא קמן בלילותא בעי תמני ביממא לא קבעי תמני לא קחשיב לה,ואי ס"ד ספורין לפנינו בעינן כל הני טבילות למה לי תספור ז' והדר תטבול אלא לאו שמע מינה רבנן היא דאמרי לא בעינן ספורין לפנינו,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף לרב אשי לאו תרוצי קמתרצינן לה תריץ ואימא הכי ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי אם בימי נדה ספרתי ואם בימי זיבה ספרתי מטבילין אותה ט"ו טבילות,ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי חד יומא מיהא אי אפשר דלא ספרה חסרה לה טבילה,אלא אימא איני יודעת אם ספרתי אם לא ספרתי, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו מטמאין במשא עד שימוק הבשר עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא,בית שמאי אומרים כל הנשים מתות נדות וב"ה אומרים אין נדה אלא שמתה נדה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי במשא אילימא במשא ממש אטו כל מת מי לא מטמא במשא,אלא מאי במשא באבן מסמא,דכתיב (דניאל ו, יח) והיתית אבן חדא ושומת על פום גובא,מאי טעמא אמר רב גזרה שמא יתעלפה,תנא משום ר' אליעזר אמרו עד שיבקע כריסו,עובד כוכבים שמת [כו'] תניא אמר רבי מפני מה אמרו עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא במשא לפי שאין טומאתו מחיים מדברי תורה אלא מדברי סופרים,ת"ר שנים עשר דברים שאלו אנשי אלכסנדריא את רבי יהושע בן חיננא ג' דברי חכמה ג' דברי הגדה ג' דברי בורות ג' דברי דרך ארץ,ג' דברי חכמה הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו עד מתי מטמאין במשא אמר להן עד שימוק הבשר,בת משולחת מה היא לכהן,מי אמרינן קל וחומר ומה אלמנה לכ"ג שאין איסורה שוה בכל בנה פגום זו שאיסורה שוה בכל אינו דין שבנה פגום או דילמא מה לאלמנה לכהן גדול שהיא עצמה מתחללת,אמר להן 69b. bAndshe requires beightimmersions during the day to purify her bfromher iziva /i,as it is possible that she experienced bleeding for three consecutive days, rendering her a greater izava /i, and one of those was on this day that she came before the court, and it is also possible that the day she arrived she did not experience bleeding, and she was a izavaduring her last clean day and had to immerse that day. If bshe comes before us at night, we give her eightimmersions to purify herself bfrom her menstruation,including one on the night that she comes before the court, band sevenimmersions during the day to purify herself bfromher iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: With regard to her iziva /i,she still brequires eightimmersions. Since it is possible that she experienced bleeding for the third day on the day before coming to the court, she might be a greater izava /i, who starts her clean days only the day after she arrived. In addition, any of the first seven days may be the last clean day, on which she has to immerse herself. The Gemara answers: bRather,in both bthiscase band thatcase she requires bsevenimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of bmenstruation, and eightimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: If the woman comes bat nightto the court, she brequires eightimmersions to purify herself bfromher impurity of bmenstruation.Why does the ibaraitarequire her to immerse a total of only fifteen times when there are cases where she must immerse sixteen times?,The Gemara answers: With regard to purifying herself from the impurity of iziva /i, whichcan be taught in ba distinctmanner, bas there is no difference whether she comes before us during the dayand bthere is no difference whether she comes before us at night,the ibaraita bcountsthe fixed amount of eight immersions. By contrast, with regard to purifying herself from bmenstruation, whichthe itanna bcannotteach in ba distinctmanner, bas when she comes before us at night she requires eightimmersions but if she comes before us bduring the dayshe does bnot require eightimmersions, the itanna bdid not countboth options, but mentioned only seven immersions, which is the minimum number required.,The Gemara returns to the initial purpose of this discussion, which was to indicate that the Rabbis do not require all seven days of counting before the court. bAnd if it enters your mindthat bwe requireseven days of bcounting before us, why do Ineed ball of these immersions? Sheshould bcount sevenclean days bandonly bafterward immerse. Rather,must one bnot conclude from thisthat the ibaraita bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Akiva and bwho saythat bwe do not requireseven days of bcounting before us? /b, bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, said to Rav Ashi,in rejection of this proof: But bdidn’t you resolvea difficulty in the ibaraita /i? Since you admit that the ibaraitain any event requires revision, bresolvethis difficulty too, band say this:If a woman comes and says: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted,and I do not know bwhether I counted during the days of menstruation or whether I counted during the days of iziva /i,the court instructs bher to immerse fifteen immersions.If so, there is no proof that the Rabbis hold that the counting does not need to be before the court.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to this interpretation of the ibaraita /i: If it is referring to a case where the woman said: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted, it is impossible that she did not count at least oneclean bday.If so, she should not be required to immerse on the eighth day, in which case bshe is lackingone bimmersion,as the ibaraitarules that she must immerse fifteen times.,The Gemara answers: bRather, saythat she claims: bI do not know if I countedany clean days bor I did not countany clean days. Likewise, she does not know whether she saw the blood during her days of menstruation or during her days of iziva /i. Therefore, she must immerse fifteen times, as it is possible that she has not yet counted at all., strongMISHNA: /strong The corpses of ba izav /i, and a izava /i, and a menstruating woman, and a woman after childbirth, and a leper, who died, transmit ritual impurity by carryingtheir corpses, buntil the flesh decays.With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is britually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity. /b, bBeit Shammai say:The status of ball womenwhen they bdieis as though they were bmenstruating womenat the time of death. Therefore, the garments that they were wearing before they died are impure and require immersion. bAnd Beit Hillel say: Onlya woman bwho diedwith the impurity of ba menstruating womanhas the status of ba menstruating womanafter death., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the corpse of one of these impure people transmits ritual impurity by carrying. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes the mishna mean by the term: bBy carrying? If we saythat it bliterallymeans bby carrying,that is difficult: bIs that to saythat beveryother bcorpse does not impart ritual impurity by carrying?Since every corpse imparts impurity through carrying, why does the mishna need to specify this ihalakhain these specific cases?, bRather, whatdoes the mishna mean when it states: bBy carrying [ ibemassa /i]?It means imparting impurity bthrough a very heavy stone [ ieven mesama /i].There is a unique ihalakhawith regard to the ritual impurity of a izavand a menstruating woman. If they sit on an item, even one that cannot become ritually impure, and beneath that item there is a vessel, although the weight of the izavor the menstruating woman has no physical effect on the vessel, it becomes ritually impure.,The Gemara notes that the word imesamais based on a verse, bas it is written: “And a stone was brought and placed [ ivesumat /i] upon the mouth of the den;and the king sealed it with his own signet and with the signet of his lords, that nothing might be changed concerning Daniel” (Daniel 6:18). Accordingly, the mishna is teaching that although a corpse does not normally impart ritual impurity to vessels under a heavy stone, these specific types of corpses do transmit impurity in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the Sages decreed that these specific types of corpses impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone? bRav said:It is ba decreedue to the possibility that bperhapsone of these people might bfaintwhile sitting on the heavy stone, and it might be mistakenly thought they are dead and do not impart impurity to the vessels beneath.,A itanna btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Eliezer:All of these types of corpses listed in the mishna impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone buntil the bellyof the corpse bbursts.The Sages imposed their decree only in cases where the corpse resembles a person who has fainted. Once the corpse is clearly no longer alive, it no longer imparts ritual impurity through a heavy stone.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is ritually pure and is prevented from transmitting impurity. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: For whatreason bdidthe Sages bsaythat the corpse of ba gentile who died is ritually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity by carrying? Because his impuritythat he transmits even bwhen alive is not by Torah law, but by rabbinic law.The Sages decreed that every living gentile imparts ritual impurity in the manner of a izav /i; they did not extend their decree to include the corpse of a gentile in the manner of the corpse of a izav /i.,§ bThe Sages taught: Thewise bpeople of Alexandria asked twelve matters of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥina. Threeof them were bmatters of wisdom, threewere bmatters of iaggada /i, threewere bmatters of ignorance,and bthreewere bmatters of behavior. /b,The Gemara lists the questions. bThreewere bmatters of wisdom:The first question was with regard to ba izavand a izavaand a menstruating woman and a woman after childbirth and the leper, who died: Until when do they transmit ritual impurity by carrying?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Until the flesh decays.This is the ihalakhataught in the mishna.,The second question referred to the bdaughterof a wife who had been bsent awayby her husband, i.e., divorced, who then married another, but after her divorce from her second husband or his death she returned and remarried her first husband, to whom she is forbidden (see Deuteronomy 24:1–4), and a daughter was born from this marriage. bWhatis bher,i.e., the daughter’s, status bwith regard tomarrying ba priest? /b, bDo we say an ia fortiori /iinference: bAnd ifin the case of ba widowmarried bto a High Priest, whose prohibition does not apply to all,i.e., it is prohibited for her only to marry a High Priest (see Leviticus 21:13–15), and yet the lineage of bher son is flawed,as he is disqualified from the priesthood, then in the case of bthisdaughter of a remarried divorcée, bwhose prohibition applies equally to allmen, bis it not right that her sonshould be of bflawedlineage? bOr perhapsthis comparison can be refuted: bWhatis notable babout a widow married to a High Priest?It is notable in bthat she herself is disqualifiedfrom the priesthood, i.e., if a High Priest engages in intercourse with her she is disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i, whereas a remarried divorcée is not disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i.,Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90b. וכתיב (מלכים ב ז, כ) ויהי לו כן וירמסו אותו העם בשער וימות ודילמא קללת אלישע גרמה ליה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי' על חנם היא באה אם כן לכתוב קרא וירמסוהו וימות מאי בשער על עסקי שער,(אמר ר' יוחנן) מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (במדבר יח, כח) ונתתם ממנו [את] תרומת ה' לאהרן הכהן וכי אהרן לעולם קיים והלא לא נכנס לארץ ישראל שנותנין לו תרומה אלא מלמד שעתיד לחיות וישראל נותנין לו תרומה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא לאהרן כאהרן מה אהרן חבר אף בניו חברים,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין נותנין תרומה לכהן עם הארץ שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לא, ד) ויאמר לעם ליושבי ירושלים לתת מנת (לכהנים ולוים) למען יחזקו בתורת ה' כל המחזיק בתורת ה' יש לו מנת ושאינו מחזיק בתורת ה' אין לו מנת,אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב יהודה כל הנותן תרומה לכהן עם הארץ כאילו נותנה לפני ארי מה ארי ספק דורס ואוכל ספק אינו דורס ואוכל אף כהן עם הארץ ספק אוכלה בטהרה ספק אוכלה בטומאה,ר' יוחנן אמר אף גורם לו מיתה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, ט) ומתו בו כי יחללוהו דבי ר"א בן יעקב תנא אף משיאו עון אשמה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה באכלם את קדשיהם,תניא ר' סימאי אומר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות ו, ד) וגם הקימותי את בריתי אתם לתת להם את ארץ כנען לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה:,(צד"ק ג"ם גש"ם ק"ם סימן): שאלו מינין את רבן גמליאל מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים אמר להם מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים ולא קיבלו ממנו,מן התורה דכתיב (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם אמרו לו ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה,מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון הקיצו ורננו שוכני עפר כי טל אורות טלך וארץ רפאים תפיל ודילמא מתים שהחיה יחזקאל,מן הכתובים דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, י) וחכך כיין הטוב הולך לדודי למישרים דובב שפתי ישנים ודילמא רחושי מרחשן שפוותיה בעלמא כר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק כל מי שנאמרה הלכה בשמו בעולם הזה שפתותיו דובבות בקבר שנאמר דובב שפתי ישנים,עד שאמר להם מקרא זה (דברים יא, כא) אשר נשבע ה' לאבותיכם לתת להם לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מיכן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,וי"א מן המקרא הזה אמר להם (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כלכם היום (פשיטא דחיים כולכם היום אלא אפילו ביום שכל העולם כולם מתים אתם חיים) מה היום כולכם קיימין אף לעוה"ב כולכם קיימין,שאלו רומיים את רבי יהושע בן חנניה מניין שהקב"ה מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות אמר להו תרווייהו מן המקרא הזה שנאמר (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם העם הזה וזנה,ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה אמר להו נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו דיודע מה שעתיד להיות איתמר נמי א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות שנאמר הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם וגו',תניא א"ר אליעזר בר' יוסי בדבר זה זייפתי ספרי מינים שהיו אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה אמרתי להן זייפתם תורתכם ולא העליתם בידכם כלום שאתם אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה הרי הוא אומר (במדבר טו, לא) הכרת תכרת הנפש ההיא עונה בה הכרת תכרת בעולם הזה עונה בה לאימת לאו לעולם הבא,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ולימא להו תרוייהו מהכרת תכרת אינהו הוו אמרי ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,כתנאי הכרת תכרת הכרת בעולם הזה תכרת לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע אמר לו ר' ישמעאל והלא כבר נאמר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה' הוא מגדף ונכרתה וכי שלשה עולמים יש אלא ונכרתה בעולם הזה הכרת לעולם הבא הכרת תכרת דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בין ר' ישמעאל ובין ר"ע עונה בה מאי עבדי ביה לכדתניא יכול אפילו עשה תשובה ת"ל עונה בה לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שעונה בה,שאלה קליאופטרא מלכתא את ר"מ אמרה ידענא דחיי שכבי דכתיב (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ אלא כשהן עומדין עומדין ערומין או בלבושיהן עומדין אמר לה ק"ו מחיטה ומה חיטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברים בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל קיסר לרבן גמליאל אמריתו דשכבי חיי הא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי 90b. bAnd it is written: “And it was for him so, and the people trampled him in the gate, and he died”(II Kings 7:20). The Gemara challenges: bPerhapsit was bthe curse of Elishathat bcausedthe officer to die in that manner, not the principle of punishment measure for measure for his lack of belief, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The curse of a Sage, evenif bbaseless, comesto be fulfilled? This is all the more so true concerning the curse of Elisha, which was warranted. The Gemara answers: bIf so, let the verse write: And they trampled him and he died. Whatdoes the term b“in the gate”serve to teach? It teaches that he died bover mattersrelating bto the gate [ isha’ar /i].It was for the cynical dismissal of the prophecy of Elisha that the officer voiced at the city gate that he was punished measure for measure and was trampled at the city gate.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis the bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from this verse, bas it is statedwith regard to iterumaof the tithe: b“And you shall give the iterumaof the Lord to Aaron the priest”(Numbers 18:28). bAnd does Aaron exist foreverso that one can fulfill the mitzva by giving him the iterumaof the tithe? bBut is it notso that Aaron bdid not enter Eretz Yisrael,the only place bwherethe people would bgive him iteruma /i? Rather,the verse bteaches thatAaron is destined bto live in the future and the Jewish peoplewill bgive him iteruma /i. From hereit is derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah. /b, bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughta different derivation from this verse. From the term b“to Aaron”one derives that iterumamust be given to a priest blike Aaron; just as Aaron is one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, particularly those relating to ritual purity, iteruma /i, and tithes [ iḥaver /i], so tooone gives iterumato bhis descendantswho are iḥaverim /i. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthat one does not give iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he commanded the people who dwelled in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and of the Levites, so that they may firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord”(II Chronicles 31:4). bEveryone who firmly adheres to the Torah of the Lord has a portion, and anyone who does not firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord does not have a portion. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Adda saysthat bRav Yehuda says:With regard to banyone who gives iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i, it is as though he placedthe iteruma bbefore a lion. Just aswith regard to ba lion,there is buncertaintywhether it will bmaulits prey band eatit, and buncertaintywhether it will bnot maulits prey bandinstead beatit alive, bso too,with regard to ba priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /ito whom one gives iteruma /i, there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in purity,and there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in impurity,thereby violating a prohibition by Torah law., bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who gives iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz beven causesthe priest’s bdeath, as it is statedwith regard to iteruma /i: b“And die therefore if they profane it”(Leviticus 22:9). Priests who partake of iterumain a state of ritual impurity profane it and are liable to be punished with death at the hand of Heaven. bThe school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taught:By giving iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz /i, bone also brings upon him a sin of guilt,i.e., a sin that will lead to additional sins, bas it is stated: “And so bring upon them a sin of guilt when they eat their sacred items”(Leviticus 22:16).,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Simai says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedwith regard to the Patriarchs: b“I have also established My covet with them to give to them the land of Canaan”(Exodus 6:4). The phrase: To give bto youthe land of Canaan, bis not stated,as the meaning of the verse is not that God fulfilled the covet with the Patriarchs when he gave the land of Canaan to the children of Israel; brather,it is stated: “To give bto themthe land of Canaan,” meaning to the Patriarchs themselves. bFrom hereis it derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah,as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land.,The Gemara records a mnemonic for those cited in the upcoming discussion: iTzadi /i, idalet /i, ikuf /i; igimmel /i, imem /i; igimmel /i, ishin /i, imem /i; ikuf /i, imem /i.Heretics asked Rabban Gamliel: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to themthat this matter can be proven bfrom the Torah, from the Prophets, and from Writings, but they did not acceptthe proofs bfrom him. /b,The proof bfrom the Torahis bas it is written: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise”(Deuteronomy 31:16). The heretics bsaid to him: But perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers, band this people will arise and strayafter the foreign gods of the land.”,The proof bfrom the Prophetsis bas it is written: “Your dead shall live, my corpse shall arise. Awake and sing, you that dwell in the dust, for your dew is as the dew of vegetation, and the land shall cast out the dead”(Isaiah 26:19). The heretics said to him: bBut perhapsthe prophecy was fulfilled with bthe dead that Ezekiel revived.No proof may be cited from that verse with regard to any future resurrection.,The proof bfrom Writingsis bas it is written: “And your palate is like the best wine that glides down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that sleep”(Song of Songs 7:10), indicating that the dead will ultimately rise and speak. The heretics said to him: bBut perhaps merely their lips will move, in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Anyone in whose name a ihalakhais stated in this world, his lips move in the graveas if repeating the statement cited in his name, bas it is stated: “Moving gently the lips of those that sleep.”No proof may be cited from that verse, as it is unrelated to resurrection.,This exchange continued buntilRabban Gamliel bstated to them this verse:“That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land bthat the Lord took an oath to your forefathers to give them”(Deuteronomy 11:21). The phrase: bTogive byou, is not stated; rather,it is stated: b“Togive bthem,”to the Patriarchs themselves, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b, bAnd there are those who saythat it is bfrom thisfollowing bversethat bhe said to themhis ultimate proof: b“But you who cleave to the Lord your God every one of you is alive this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). Wasn’t it bobviouswith regard to the children of Israel whom God was addressing, that b“every one of you is alive this day”? Rather,the meaning of the verse is: bEven on the day when everyone is dead you will live; just as today every one of you is alive, so too, in the World-to-Come every one of youwill be balive. /b, bThe Romans asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Both of thosematters are derived bfrom this verse, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses, Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise; this people will go astray”(Deuteronomy 31:16). This indicates that Moses will die and then arise from the dead and that the Holy One, Blessed be He, knows what the children of Israel are destined to do.,The Romans asked: bBut perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers band this people will arise and go astrayafter the foreign gods of the land.” Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Take at leasta response to bhalfof your question bin your handsfrom that verse, bthatGod bknows what is destined to be.The Gemara comments: bIt was also statedon a similar note by an iamoraciting a itanna /i, as bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise.” /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: With thisfollowing bmatter, I refuted the books of the Samaritans, as they would saythat bthere is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah. I said to them: You falsified your torah and you accomplished nothing, as you say there is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah,and the Torah bstates: “That soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him”(Numbers 15:31). You interpret the phrase “that soul bshall be excised”to mean that a sinner will be punished with death bin this world.If so, with regard to the phrase b“his iniquity shall be upon him,” for whenis that destined to be? Is it bnot for the World-to-Come,i.e., the world as it will exist after the resurrection of the dead? Apparently, there is a World-to-Come and there is an allusion to it in the Torah., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: And letRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsay tothe Samaritans that bboth of thosematters can be derived bfromthe phrase b“shall be excised [ ihikkaret tikkaret /i].”“ iHikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from this world, and “ itikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from the World-to-Come. Abaye answered: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, preferred not to cite proof from the compound verb, because the Samaritans bwould say: The Torah spoke in the language of people,and the compound verb is merely a stylistic flourish.,The Gemara notes: These derivations of Rabbi Eliezer and Rav Pappa are bparallelto a dispute between itanna’im /iwith regard to b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i,”as follows: b“ iHikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin this world,and b“ itikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: Isn’t it already statedin the previous verse: b“That person that blasphemes the Lord, that soul shall be excised [ ivenikhreta /i]”(Numbers 15:30), band are there three worldsfrom which the sinner is excised? bRather,from the term b“ ivenikhreta /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin this world,from b“ ihikkaret /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come,and from the compound verb b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i”nothing is derived, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,The Gemara asks: According to bboth Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, what do they do with,i.e., what do they derive from, the phrase b“His iniquity shall be upon him”?The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary bfor thatderivation bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: One bmighthave thought that the sinner is excised bevenafter bhe repented.Therefore, bthe verse states: “His iniquity shall be upon him.”God states: bI saidthat the sinner will be excised bonly when his iniquityremains bupon him. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bQueen Cleopatra asked Rabbi Meira question. bShe said: I know that the dead will live, as it is written: “And may they blossom out of the city like grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16). Just as grass grows, so too, the dead will come to life. bBut when they arise,will they barise naked orwill bthey arise with their garments?Rabbi Meir bsaid to her:It is derived ia fortiorifrom wheat. If wheat, which is buried naked,meaning that the kernel is sown without the chaff, bemerges with several garmentsof chaff, ball the more sowill bthe righteous, who are buried with their garments,arise with their garments.,The Roman bemperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life? /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119a. עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן אמר רבא תיתי לי דכי אתא צורבא מרבנן לקמאי לדינא לא מזיגנא רישי אבי סדיא כמה דלא מהפיכנא בזכותי' אמר מר בר רב אשי פסילנא ליה לצורבא מרבנן לדינא מ"ט דחביב עלי כגופאי ואין אדם רואה חובה לעצמו,רבי חנינא מיעטף וקאי אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמר בואו ונצא לקראת שבת המלכה רבי ינאי לביש מאניה מעלי שבת ואמר בואי כלה בואי כלה רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי רבה בר רב נחמן קריבו ליה תלת סאוי טחיי א"ל מי הוה ידעיתון דאתינא אמרו ליה מי עדיפת לן מינה,רבי אבא זבן בתליסר אסתירי פשיטי בישרא מתליסר טבחי ומשלים להו אצינורא דדשא ואמר להו אשור הייא אשור הייא ר' אבהו הוה יתיב אתכתקא דשינא ומושיף נורא רב ענן לביש גונדא דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בגדים שבישל בהן קדירה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו,רב ספרא מחריך רישא רבא מלח שיבוטא רב הונא מדליק שרגי רב פפא גדיל פתילתא רב חסדא פרים סילקא רבה ורב יוסף מצלחי ציבי ר' זירא מצתת צתותי רב נחמן בר יצחק מכתף ועייל מכתף ונפיק אמר אילו מקלעין לי ר' אמי ור' אסי מי לא מכתיפנא קמייהו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אמי ורבי אסי מכתפי ועיילי מכתפי ונפקי אמרי אילו איקלע לן רבי יוחנן מי לא מכתפינן קמיה,יוסף מוקיר שבי הוה ההוא נכרי בשבבותיה דהוה נפישי נכסיה טובא אמרי ליה כלדאי כולהו נכסי יוסף מוקר שבי אכיל להו אזל זבנינהו לכולהו ניכסי זבן בהו מרגניתא אותבה בסייניה בהדי דקא עבר מברא אפרחיה זיקא שדייה במיא בלעיה כוורא אסקוה אייתוה אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמרי מאן זבין כי השתא אמרי להו זילו אמטיוהו לגבי יוסף מוקר שבי דרגיל דזבין אמטיוה ניהליה זבניה קרעיה אשכח ביה מרגניתא זבניה בתליסר עיליתא דדינרי דדהבא פגע ביה ההוא סבא אמר מאן דיזיף שבתא פרעיה שבתא,בעא מיניה רבי מר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי עשירים שבא"י במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמעשרין שנאמר (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר שבבבל במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את התורה,ושבשאר ארצות במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את השבת דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא פעם אחת נתארחתי אצל בעל הבית בלודקיא והביאו לפניו שלחן של זהב משוי ששה עשר בני אדם ושש עשרה שלשלאות של כסף קבועות בו וקערות וכוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות קבועות בו ועליו כל מיני מאכל וכל מיני מגדים ובשמים וכשמניחים אותו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה וגו' וכשמסלקין אותו אומרים (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם אמרתי לו בני במה זכית לכך אמר לי קצב הייתי ומכל בהמה שהיתה נאה אמרתי זו תהא לשבת אמרתי לו [אשריך שזכית] וברוך המקום שזיכך לכך,א"ל קיסר לרבי יהושע בן חנניא מפני מה תבשיל של שבת ריחו נודף אמר לו תבלין אחד יש לנו ושבת שמו שאנו מטילין לתוכו וריחו נודף אמר לו תן לנו הימנו אמר לו כל המשמר את השבת מועיל לו ושאינו משמר את השבת אינו מועיל לו,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב המנונא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יג) ולקדוש ה' מכובד א"ל זה יוה"כ שאין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה אמרה תורה כבדהו בכסות נקיה וכבדתו רב אמר להקדים ושמואל אמר לאחר אמרו ליה בני רב פפא בר אבא לרב פפא כגון אנן דשכיח לן בישרא וחמרא כל יומא במאי נישנייה אמר להו אי רגיליתו לאקדומי אחרוה אי רגיליתו לאחרוה אקדמוה רב ששת בקיטא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא שימשא בסיתוא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא טולא כי היכי דליקומו הייא ר' זירא 119a. bI make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receivemy reward bbecause when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seekas many of bhis meritsas possible, based on conditions and his claims. bMar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified tosit in bjudgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reasonthat I am disqualified? It is bbecausethe Torah scholar bis as beloved to me as myown bself, and a person does not find fault in himself. /b,The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥanina would wrap himselfin his garment band stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve,and bsay: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride.The Gemara relates: bRabba bar Rav Huna happenedto come bto the house of Rabba bar Rav Naḥman. They broughtbefore bhim three se’a of oiled biscuits.He bsaid to them: Did you know I was comingand prepared all of this in my honor? bThey said to him: Are youmore bimportant to us thanShabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat., bRabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [ iastirei peshitei /i]worth half a izuz bof meat from thirteen butchersin deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. bAnd he would placethe meats bat the door hingeat the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. bAndhe bsaid tothe cooks, in order to rush them: bHurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it.The Gemara also relates: bRabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [ itakhteka /i] and fan the firecooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. bRav A would don asimple bblack garmentfor the Shabbat preparations, bas the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:While wearing the bgarments in which he cooked a potof food bfor his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master.One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand., bRav Safrawould broast the headof an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. bRava salteda ishibuta /ifish in deference to Shabbat. bRav Huna kindled lampsin deference to Shabbat. bRav Pappa spun the wicksfor the Shabbat lamp. bRav Ḥisda cut the beetsin preparation for Shabbat. bRabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticksfor kindling. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwould bloadobjects bon his shoulder and enter, loadobjects bon his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened tovisit bme, would I not loadobjects bon my shoulder before them?So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. bAnd some saythat bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiwould bloadobjects bon their shoulders and enter, loadobjects bon their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yoḥa happenedto come btovisit bus, would we not loadobjects bon our shoulders before him? /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bYosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said tothe gentile with regard to ball his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it.The gentile bwent and sold all of his property,and with the money he received bhe bought a pearl,and he bplaced it in his hat. When he was crossing a riverin ba ferry, the wind blewhis hat band cast it into the water,and ba fish swallowed it.The fish bwascaught and bremovedfrom the water and bit was broughtto shore adjacent to bnightfall on Shabbat eve.The fishermen bsaid: Who buysfish at a time blike this?The townspeople bsaid tothe fishermen: bGo bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchasesdelicacies in deference to Shabbat. bThey brought it to himand bhe purchased it. He rippedthe fish open and bfound a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars( iTosafot /i). bThis elderly manwho bencountered him and said: One who lendsto bShabbat, Shabbat repays him. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:With regard to bthe wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: “A tithe you shall tithe [ iasser te’asser /i]from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year” (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: bTake a tithe [ iasser /i] so that you will become wealthy [ ititasher /i].He asked: With regard to bthe wealthy of Babylonia,who are not obligated to tithe, bby whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they honor the Torahand the Sages in Babylonia.,With regard to bthe wealthy of other countries,where there are no Sages, bby whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted atthe home of ba homeowner in Laodicea andthey bbrought before him a table of goldthat was so heavy it required bsixteen people to carry it, andthere were bsixteen chains of silver attached to it, andthere were bbowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, andthere were ball sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed itthere btheywould bsay: “The earth and all that fills it is God’s,the world and all that inhabit it” (Psalms 24:1). bAnd when they removed it theywould bsay: “The heavens are God’s heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind”(Psalms 115:16). bI said to him: My son, what did youdo to bmerit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, andwhen I would come across parts bfrom every animalthat I slaughtered that was bfine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you meritedthis, band blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit. /b,The Roman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse?He bsaid to him: We have a certain spice called dill [ ishevet /i], which we place inthe cooked dishes band its fragrance diffuses.The emperor bsaid to him: Give ussome bof it.He bsaid to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat,the spice bis effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective. /b, bThe Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written, “The holy one of God is honored”(Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking,and so the bTorah said: Honor it with a clean garment.And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, b“And you shall honor it,” Rav said: Tohonor Shabbat, bmakethe Shabbat feast bearlierthan on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. bAnd Shmuel said: Tohonor Shabbat, bmakethe Shabbat feast blater,so that one’s appetite will be greater. bThe sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa:People blike us, for whom meat and wine is foundon our table bevery day, in whatmanner bcan we change iton Shabbat? He bsaid to them: If you are accustomed toeating your meal bearly, make it lateron Shabbat; bif you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlieron Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: bIn the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sageswho attended his lecture in a place bwhere the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sagesin a place bwhere the shade would reach.He did this bsothat bthey would stand quicklyafter the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. bRabbi Zeira /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. bwe will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. bRabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead.The reason is that bwhile the resurrection of the deadbenefits only bthe righteous, rainbenefits bboth the righteous and the wicked.The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Sincerainfall bis equivalent to the resurrection of the dead,the Sages bestablishedits recitation binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead.According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the dayon which bthe Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ ilikḥi /i] shall drop as the rain”(Deuteronomy 32:2), band ilekaḥmeans nothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ ilekaḥ /i]; do not forsake My Torah”(Proverbs 4:2). bRava said:Rainfall is even bgreater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,”and when one makes a comparison, bwhichobject bismade bdependent upon which? You must saythat bthe lesserobject bis dependent upon the greaterone. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. bRava raised a contradiction:At the beginning of the verse bit is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof /i] as the rain,”in a harsh manner, bandyet later in the verse, bit is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,”in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: bIf he is a worthy Torah scholar,the Torah flows through him blike the dew, but ifhe is bnotworthy, bit snaps his neck [ iorfehu /i] like thepowerful brain. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torahstudy bwill be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18), band it says: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8), band it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life”(Proverbs 8:35). bAnd anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake,e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah bwill be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof] as the rain,” and iarifa /imeans bnothing otherthan bkilling, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ iarefu /i] there in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4)., bRabbi Yirmeyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teacha halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: My heart is weak and I cannotstrain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, blet the Master tell us a matter of iaggada /i,which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to himthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For man is a tree of the field”(Deuteronomy 20:19)? bAnd is manactually ba tree of the field? /b, bRather,it is bbecause it is writtenearlier in the same verse: b“You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is writtenin the next verse: b“Them you may destroy and cut down”(Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. bHow so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but ifhe is bnotworthy: b“He you may destroy and cut down.” /b,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Iron sharpens iron,so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust aswith bthese iron implements, one sharpens the otherwhen they are rubbed against each other, bso too,when bTorah scholarsstudy together, they bsharpen one another in ihalakha /i. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29)? bTo tell you: Just as fire does not ignitein ba lonestick of wood but in a pile of kindling, bso too, matters of Torah are not retainedand understood properly by ba lonescholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., bAnd this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a bsword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And not only that, butthose who study by themselves bgrow foolishfrom their solitary Torah study, bas it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b, bAnd not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i] and for that we have sinned”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ inoalu /i]…they have caused Egypt to go astray”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a smallpiece of bwood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen greatTorah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my studentsI have learned bmore thanfrom ball of them. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction.In one verse bit is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water”(Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, band it is writtenelsewhere: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that bif he is a worthy studentthe teacher must seek him out, as in b“to him who is thirsty bring water,” but ifthe student is bnotworthy, then b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,”i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raisedanother bcontradiction.In one verse bit is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad”(Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse bit is written: “Let them be your own”(Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: bIf the studentsitting before you bis worthy,then b“Let your springs be dispersed abroad,”as you should teach him, but bifhe is bnotworthy, then b“Let them be your own.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes bto tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly,i.e., a humble person., bAnd Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is writtenwith regard to water: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is writtenin the same verse: b“Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.”This verse comes bto tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels,e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, bso too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b,The Gemara cites a related incident: This bis as the daughter of theRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya,who was an ugly man: bWoe to glorious wisdomsuch as yours, which is contained bin an ugly vessel.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her,in a seemingly unrelated response: Does byour father keep his wine insimple bclay vessels?The emperor’s daughter bsaid to him: Rather, in what,then, bshould he keep it?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her: You, who are so important,should bput it in vessels of gold and silver. /b,The emperor’s daughter bwent and saidthis bto her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour.When his advisors bcame and told the emperorthat the wine had turned sour, bhe said tohis daughter: bWho told youto do bthis?His daughter bresponded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya.The emperor bsummoned himand bsaid to him: Why did you say this to her?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her,to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: bBut there are handsome people who are learned. /b
16. Augustine, Contra Academicos, 2.2.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

17. Augustine, The City of God, 21.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21.10. Here arises the question: If the fire is not to be immaterial, analogous to the pain of the soul, but material, burning by contact, so that bodies may be tormented in it, how can evil spirits be punished in it? For it is undoubtedly the same fire which is to serve for the punishment of men and of devils, according to the words of Christ: Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels; Matthew 25:41 unless, perhaps, as learned men have thought, the devils have a kind of body made of that dense and humid air which we feel strikes us when the wind is blowing. And if this kind of substance could not be affected by fire, it could not burn when heated in the baths. For in order to burn, it is first burned, and affects other things as itself is affected. But if any one maintains that the devils have no bodies, this is not a matter either to be laboriously investigated, or to be debated with keenness. For why may we not assert that even immaterial spirits may, in some extraordinary way, yet really be pained by the punishment of material fire, if the spirits of men, which also are certainly immaterial, are both now contained in material members of the body, and in the world to come shall be indissolubly united to their own bodies? Therefore, though the devils have no bodies, yet their spirits, that is, the devils themselves, shall be brought into thorough contact with the material fires, to be tormented by them; not that the fires themselves with which they are brought into contact shall be animated by their connection with these spirits, and become animals composed of body and spirit, but, as I said, this junction will be effected in a wonderful and ineffable way, so that they shall receive pain from the fires, but give no life to them. And, in truth, this other mode of union, by which bodies and spirits are bound together and become animals, is thoroughly marvellous, and beyond the comprehension of man, though this it is which is man. I would indeed say that these spirits will burn without any body of their own, as that rich man was burning in hell when he exclaimed, I am tormented in this flame, Luke 16:24 were I not aware that it is aptly said in reply, that that flame was of the same nature as the eyes he raised and fixed on Lazarus, as the tongue on which he entreated that a little cooling water might be dropped, or as the finger of Lazarus, with which he asked that this might be done - all of which took place where souls exist without bodies. Thus, therefore, both that flame in which he burned and that drop he begged were immaterial, and resembled the visions of sleepers or persons in an ecstasy, to whom immaterial objects appear in a bodily form. For the man himself who is in such a state, though it be in spirit only, not in body, yet sees himself so like to his own body that he cannot discern any difference whatever. But that hell, which also is called a lake of fire and brimstone, Revelation 20:10 will be material fire, and will torment the bodies of the damned, whether men or devils - the solid bodies of the one, aerial bodies of the others; or if only men have bodies as well as souls, yet the evil spirits, though without bodies, shall be so connected with the bodily fires as to receive pain without imparting life. One fire certainly shall be the lot of both, for thus the truth has declared.
18. Eunapius, Lives of The Philosophers, 457 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Anon., Leges Publicae, 3.17

20. Anon., Ruthrabbah, 3.2

3.2. כְּתִיב (קהלת ט, ד): כִּי מִי אֲשֶׁר יְחֻבַּר וגו', תַּמָן תְּנֵינַן הָרוֹאֶה עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר, בָּרוּךְ נוֹתֵן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם לְעוֹבְרֵי רְצוֹנוֹ. מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרָה עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים מִמֶּנּוּ, בָּרוּךְ שֶׁעָקַר עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים מֵאַרְצֵנוּ. וְכֵן יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁתַּעֲקֹר אוֹתָהּ מִכָּל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת וְתָשׁוּב לֵב עוֹבְדֶיהָ לְעָבְדְּךָ בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם, וְלֹא נִמְצָא מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הָרְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן יְבֻחַר כְּתִיב, אֲפִלּוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בַּזְּבוּל יֵשׁ בִּטָּחוֹן, לְהַחֲיוֹת אוֹתָם אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁכְּבָר פָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בַּזְּבוּל, לְכַלּוֹתָם אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁכְּבָר עָשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה, עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר (ירמיה נא, לט): וְיָשְׁנוּ שְׁנַת עוֹלָם וְלֹא יָקִיצוּ. תַּנְיָא קְטַנֵי גוֹיִם וְחֵילוֹתָיו שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לֹא חַיִּים וְלֹא נִדּוֹנִים, וַעֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר: וְיָשְׁנוּ שְׁנַת עוֹלָם וְלֹא יָקִיצוּ. (קהלת ט, ד): כִּי לְכֶלֶב חַי הוּא טוֹב מִן הָאַרְיֵה הַמֵּת, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מִי שֶׁהוּא כֶּלֶב, לְהֵעָשׂוֹת אֲרִי הוּא יָכוֹל. וּמִי שֶׁהוּא אֲרִי, יָכוֹל לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֶּלֶב. אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, מִי שֶׁהוּא אֲרִי אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֶּלֶב, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהוּא כֶּלֶב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהֵעָשׂוֹת אֲרִי. אַדְרִיָּאנוֹס שְׁחִיק טַמְיָא שָׁאַל לְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חֲנַנְיָה, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא טָב מִמּשֶׁה רַבָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ, לָמָּה, דַּאֲנָא חַי וְהוּא מֵת, וּכְתִיב: כִּי לְכֶלֶב חַי טוֹב מִן הָאַרְיֵה הַמֵּת. אֲמַר לֵיהּ יָכוֹל אַתְּ לִגְזֹר דְּלָא יַדְלֵק בַּר נָשׁ נוּר תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ, אִין. לְעִידָּן עַמְיָא סָלְקוּן תַּרְוֵיהוֹן עַל אִיגַר פָּלָטִין חֲמֵי תְּנָנָא סָלֵיק מִן רְחִיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה כֵּן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִיפַרְכִּיָא בִּישׁ, עָאל אַסְיָא וּבַקַּר יָתֵיהּ, וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ עַד דְּשָׁתֵי חֲמִימֵי לָא מִיתַּסֵּי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תִּפַּח רוּחֵיהּ, עַד דְאַתְּ קַיָּם בָּטְלָה גְּזֵרָתְךָ, וּמשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁגָּזַר עָלֵינוּ (שמות לה, ג): לֹא תְבַעֲרוּ אֵשׁ בְּכֹל משְׁבֹתֵיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לָא מַדְלֵיק יְהוּדָאי נוּר בְּשַׁבְּתָא מִיּוֹמוֹהִי, וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּטְּלָה גְּזֵרָתוֹ עַד הַשְׁתָּא, אֲמַרְתְּ אַתְּ כֵּן דַּאֲנָא טָב מִינֵיהּ. (תהלים לט, ה): הוֹדִיעֵנִי ה' קִצִּי וּמִדַּת יָמַי מַה הִיא, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָם אוֹדַע לִי אֵימָתַי אֲנָא מָיֵית, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָזָא הִיא דְּלָא מִתְגַּלֵּי לְבַר נָשׁ וְלֵית אֶפְשָׁר דְּיִתְגַּלֵּי לָךְ. וּמִדַּת יָמַי מַה הִיא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שַׁבְעִין שְׁנִין. וְאֵדְעָה מֶה חָדֵל אָנִי, אוֹדַע לִי בְּהָדֵין יוֹמָא אֲנָא מָיֵית, אָמַר לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲמַר לֵיהּ פַּחֵית לִי חַד יוֹמָא, אָמַר לוֹ לֹא. אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה, אָמַר לוֹ חֲבִיבָה עָלַי תְּפִלָּה אַחַת שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹמֵד וּמִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנַי מֵאֶלֶף עוֹלוֹת שֶׁעָתִיד שְׁלֹמֹה בִּנְךָ לְהַעֲלוֹת לְפָנַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ג, ד): אֶלֶף עֹלוֹת יַעֲלֶה שְׁלֹמֹה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַהוּא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אוֹסֵיף לִי חַד יוֹמָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה, אָמַר לֵיהּ אַרְכִי שֶׁל בִּנְךָ דּוֹחֶקֶת, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, אַרְכִיּוֹת אַרְכִיּוֹת הֵן וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ אַרְכִי שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כִּמְלֹא נִימָא. וּמֵת בַּעֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְסָלְקָה סַנְהֶדְּרִין מֶחְמְיָיא אַפִּין לִשְׁלֹמֹה, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מַעֲבַר יָתֵיהּ מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ וְלָאו מַתְנִיתָּא הִיא סָכִין וּמְדִיחִין וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹא יָזִיז אֵבָר. אָמַר כְּלָבִים שֶׁל בֵּית אַבָּא רְעֵבִין, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ וְלָא מַתְנִיתָּא הִיא מְחַתְּכִין אֶת הַדְּלוּעִים לִפְנֵי הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶת הַנְּבֵלָה לִפְנֵי הַכְּלָבִים. מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל פִּיפְקִין וּפָרַשׂ עָלָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא תֵּרֵד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים לַנְּשָׁרִים קְרָא וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו אֲגַפֵּיהוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא תֵּרֵד עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission fees, anxieties Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
admission fees, concerns and reservations about Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
admission fees, dangers in Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
admission fees, fire hazards Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
asia minor Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
augustine Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135, 243
baiae, baths of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
byzantine, interaction Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
christianity Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
christians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135, 243
culture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
demons Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
domes Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
epiphanius Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
fire Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
galilee Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
greek language Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
halacha Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
history and memory, in rabbinical writing Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
interior and structure, licentious atmosphere Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
interior and structure, love, adoration, and praise for Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
jerome Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
jerusalem temple, destruction of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
jesus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
jewish culture, halacha Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
jewish culture, historical time in rabbinical writing Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
jewish culture, jerusalem temple, destruction of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
jewish culture, telling time, in rabbinical writing Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
jewish society, views of roman institutions and buildings Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
jews, neighbors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
judaism, and graeco-roman culture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
latin Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
literature, rabbinic, historicity of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 163
magic, miracles, and magicians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
matrons Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
maziqim Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
miletus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, historicity of' Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 163
monasticism Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
naples Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
nymphs Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
palestine (syria palaestina) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
porphyry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
qohelet rabbah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
r. joshua b. r. Ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 163
r. joshua b. r. ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 163
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
rabbinic midrash Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
rabbis, attending the baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
roman emperor Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 163
salamis Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
seder olam Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
simeon b. gamaliel, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
spirits Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
telling time, in rabbinical writing Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
telling time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
thermal baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
waiting, jerusalem temple, destruction of Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 67
water Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243
ḥammat gader Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 135
ḥanina, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 243