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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



590
Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.7
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1. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build."
2. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 67.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

67.3. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בָּא לְקַלְּלוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִזָּהֵר שֶׁאִם אַתְּ מְקַלְּלוֹ לְנַפְשְׁךָ אַתְּ מְקַלֵּל, דַּאֲמַרְתְּ (בראשית כז, כט): אֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים מְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָאָדָם, שְׁלשָׁה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הָעַיִן וְהָאֹזֶן וְחֹטֶם, שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, חָמֵי מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, שְׁמַע מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, מְרִיחַ מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי. הַפֶּה וְהַיָּד וְהָרֶגֶל, בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא, אִין בָּעֵי לִשָּׁנָא בִישָׁא, אִין בָּעֵי מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף. הַיָּד אִין בָּעֵי הוּא עָבֵיד מִצְוָתָא, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא גָנֵב, וְאִי בָּעֵי הוּא קָטֵיל. הָרֶגֶל אִי בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְסִיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קִרְקַסְיָאוֹת, וְאִין בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא זוֹכֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הַיָּד (מלכים א יג, ד): וַתִּיבַשׁ יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח עָלָיו. הַפֶּה, (בראשית כז, לג): גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה. הָרֶגֶל (משלי א, טו טז): בְּנִי אַל תֵּלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אִתָּם, כִּי רַגְלֵיהֶם לָרַע יָרוּצוּ: 67.3. Rabbi Isaac said: He [Isaac] was going to curse him [Jacob], but the Holy One, blessed be He, cautioned: \"Beware, for if you curse him, you curse your own soul, for you said: 'Cursed be they who curse you' (Genesis 27:29).\" Rabbi Levi said: six things serve a human - three are under one's control, and three are not under one's control. The eye, the ear and the nose are not under one's control, as one sees what is not wished for, one hears what is not desired, and one smells what is not wanted. The mouth, the hand, and the foot are under one's control. If one wishes to, one studies Torah, while if one wants to one speaks badly, and if one wants to one blasphemes and reviles. Regarding the hand, if one wishes one can offer charity, while if one wants one can rob, and if one desires one can murder. Regarding the feet, if one wishes one can go to the houses of theatre and the houses of circus, while if one wants one can go to the houses of assembly [synagogues] and the houses of study. And in the moment that one merits, the Holy One, blessed be He, makes those which one usually controls, no longer in one's control. The hand: \"but the hand that [Jeroboam] stretched out against him withered\" (Kings 13:4); The mouth: \"now he [Jacob] must remain blessed\" (Genesis 27:33); The foot: \"My son, do not set out with them...for their feet run to evil\" (Proverbs 1:15-6). "
3. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. מר סבר אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש ומר סבר למקום שפסק,אמר רב אשי האי אם שהה אם לא שהה מיבעי ליה אלא דכולי עלמא אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש והתם בדלא שהה קמיפלגי דמר סבר גברא דחויא הוא ואין ראוי ואין תפלתו תפלה ומר סבר גברא חזיא הוא ותפלתו תפלה,תנו רבנן הנצרך לנקביו אל יתפלל ואם התפלל תפלתו תועבה אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאינו יכול לשהות בעצמו אבל אם יכול לשהות בעצמו תפלתו תפלה,ועד כמה אמר רב ששת עד פרסה איכא דמתני לה אמתניתא במה דברים אמורים כשאין יכול לעמוד על עצמו אבל אם יכול לעמוד על עצמו תפלתו תפלה ועד כמה אמר רב זביד עד פרסה,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הנצרך לנקביו הרי זה לא יתפלל משום שנאמר (עמוס ד, יב) הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל,ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מ"ד (קהלת ד, יז) שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים שמור עצמך שלא תחטא ואם תחטא הבא קרבן לפני וקרוב לשמוע (דברי חכמים) אמר רבא הוי קרוב לשמוע דברי חכמים שאם חוטאים מביאים קרבן ועושים תשובה מתת הכסילים [זבח] אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואין עושים תשובה,כי אינם יודעים לעשות רע אי הכי צדיקים נינהו אלא אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואינם יודעים אם על הטובה הם מביאים אם על הרעה הם מביאים אמר הקב"ה בין טוב לרע אינן מבחינים והם מביאים קרבן לפני,רב אשי ואיתימא רב חנינא בר פפא אמר שמור נקביך בשעה שאתה עומד בתפלה לפני.,תנו רבנן הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ד' אמות ונכנס אמר רב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא בית הכסא קבוע אבל בית הכסא עראי חולץ ונפנה לאלתר וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ד' אמות ומניחן מפני שעשאו בית הכסא קבוע,איבעיא להו מהו שיכנס אדם בתפילין לבית הכסא קבוע להשתין מים רבינא שרי רב אדא בר מתנא אסר אתו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו אסור חיישינן שמא יפנה בהן ואמרי לה שמא יפיח בהן,תניא אידך הנכנס לבית הכסא קבוע חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ד' אמות ומניחן בחלון הסמוך לרשות הרבים ונכנס וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ד' אמות ומניחן דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים אוחזן בידו ונכנס ר"ע אומר אוחזן בבגדו ונכנס,בבגדו ס"ד זימנין מישתלי להו ונפלי אלא אימא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס,ומניחם בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ולא יניחם בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים שמא יטלו אותם עוברי דרכים ויבא לידי חשד,ומעשה בתלמיד אחד שהניח תפילין בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים ובאת זונה אחת ונטלתן ובאת לבית המדרש ואמרה ראו מה נתן לי פלוני בשכרי כיון ששמע אותו תלמיד כך עלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת באותה שעה התקינו שיהא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו מניחין תפילין בחורין הסמוכין לבית הכסא ובאין עכברים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהו מניחין אותן בחלונות הסמוכות לרשות הרבים ובאין עוברי דרכים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהא אוחזן בידו ונכנס,אמר רבי מיאשא בריה דריב"ל הלכה גוללן כמין ספר ואוחזן בימינו כנגד לבו אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן ובלבד שלא תהא רצועה יוצאת מתחת ידו טפח,אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר רבי זירא לא שנו אלא שיש שהות ביום ללבשן אבל אין שהות ביום ללבשן עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ביום גוללן כמין ספר ומניחן בידו כנגד לבו ובלילה עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בכלי שהוא כליין אבל בכלי שאינו כליין אפילו פחות מטפח,אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי תדע שהרי פכין קטנים מצילין באהל המת,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן כי הוה בעי למיעל לבית הכסא כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא הוה יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא הוה יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן 23a. One bSage heldthat, as a rule, bifone interrupted his prayer and bdelayedcontinuing his prayer for an interval bsufficient to complete the entireprayer, bhe returns to the beginningof the prayer. bAndone bSage held:He returns bto the placein the prayer bwhere he stopped. /b,Rejecting this possibility, bRav Ashi said:If bthatwas the crux of their dispute, they bshould havediscussed the element of: bIf he delayed /b, and: bIf he did not delay /b. Nowhere in their dispute do they mention the matter of how long the delay was for. bRather, everyone /b, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, bagrees that if one delayedcontinuing his prayer for an interval bsufficient to complete the entireprayer, bhe returns to the beginningof the prayer. bAnd there /b, in the dispute under discussion, bthey disagree with regard to one who did not delaythat long. The dispute centers on the status of the one praying in this particular case. bAsone bSage holdsthat since he evidently needed to urinate before starting his prayer, bhe is a man who was disqualified, and unfitfor prayer, band his prayer is nota valid bprayer /b; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. bAndone bSage holds he is a man who was fitfor prayer band his prayer isa valid bprayer /b., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda saidin qualifying this statement: bThey only taughtthis ihalakhain a case where bone cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is avalid bprayeras he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.,The Gemara asks: bAndfor bhow longmust he be able to restrain himself? bRav Sheshet said:For bas long asit takes to walk bone parasang. Some teach this ihalakhadirectly bonwhat was taught in bthe ibaraita /i: In whatcase bis this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is avalid bprayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said:For bas long asit takes to walk bone parasang. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel”(Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.,In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God,and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, bguard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Mein atonement. The verse continues: b“And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent.He interprets the next part of the verse: b“It is better than when fools give sacrifices,”that bone should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent. /b,Regarding the end of the verse: b“As they know not to do evil,”the Gemara asks: bIf so, they are righteous. Ratherit must be understood: bDo not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing itas a thanks-offering bfor the good,or as an offering of atonement bfor the evil.This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil andyet bthey bring a sacrifice before me? /b, bRav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna saidthat bRav Sheshet said: This was only taughtwith regard to one entering ba regular bathroom, butone who enters ba makeshift bathroom may removehis phylacteries and bdefecate immediately. But when one exitsfrom a makeshift bathroom, bhe must distance himself four cubitsbefore bdonninghis phylacteries because bhe hasnow brenderedthat place ba regular bathroom. /b, bA dilemma was raisedbefore the Sages in the yeshiva: bWhat isthe ihalakha /i; may bone enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate?The Sages disagreed: bRavina permittedto do so while bRav Adda bar Mattana prohibitedit. bThey cameand basked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbiddenbecause bwe are concerned lest he willcome to bdefecate with themstill on. bOthers saythat this ihalakhais because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he bmightforget that his phylacteries are on his head and bwill break wind with themstill on him., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the windowin the wall of the bathroom badjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distancehimself bfour cubits before donning them.This is bthe statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say:He must remove his phylacteries but bhe holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters. /b,The Gemara wonders: bDoes it enter your mindto say bin his garment?There is room for concern because bsometimes he forgets them andthey bfall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and entersthe bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.,It was established in the ibaraita /i: bAndif there is room to place them, bhe places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lestthe phylacteries bwill be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect. /b, bAnd an incidentoccurred binvolving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and tookthe phylacteries. bShe came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enterto avoid situations of that kind., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitaon this topic: bAt first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take themor gnaw upon them. Therefore, bthey instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain,where there were no mice. However, bpassersby would come and take thephylacteries. Ultimately, bthey instituted that one should holdthe phylacteries bin his hand and enter. /b,On this topic, bRabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The ihalakha /iin this case bis that one rolls upthe phylacteries in their straps blike a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi saidthat bRav Naḥman said:This is bprovided that the strapof the phylacteries bdoes not emergemore than ba handbreadth below his hand. /b, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Zeira said: It was only taughtthat one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still btimeleft bin the day to don them. If there is not timeleft bin the day to don thembefore nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, bhe makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places themin it.,Similarly, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: During the day one rolls upthe phylacteries blike a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places themin it., bAbaye said: They only taughtthat it must be a one-handbreadth pouch bwith regard to a vessel that isthe phylacteries’ regular bvessel, but in a vessel that is not theirregular bvessel,he may place the phylacteries in it, bevenif it is bless than a handbreadth. /b, bMar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, saidas proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, bsmallsealed bvesselsless than a handbreadth in size bprotecttheir contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside ba tent over a corpse.This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity., bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥa,we would see bthat when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of iaggada /i, he would giveit bto us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not givethem bto us,as bhe said: Since the Sages permittedto hold bthem, /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 21



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission fees, concerns and reservations about Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
antioch Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
bath, bathhouse, bathing Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
bathhouse activities in Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
eleazar b. jacob, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
families Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
gamaliel, rabban Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
health Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
hellenistic drama Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
homer Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
interior and structure, licentious atmosphere Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
israel (ancient) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
joseph Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
latrines Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
libanius Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
mediterranean, roman Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
mixed (and separate) bathing for men and women Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
nehemiah Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
nudity Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
operating hours, scholars studying there and exhibiting erudition Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
palestine Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
philosophy and philosophers Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
phylactery Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
pliny the elder Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
pliny the younger Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
potiphar Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
potiphars wife Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
psalms, biblical book Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
rabbi, rabbinic Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
rabbis, attending the baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
rabbis, condemning theater Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
rome, roman Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
statue Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
synagogue Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
theater' Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 77
theater, jewish Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
torah (pentateuch) and its study Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
tosefta Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147
ḥiya, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 147