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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



864
Anon., Odes Of Solomon, 4.8


nanAnd Your hosts possess it, and the elect archangels are clothed with it.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.8, 11.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 95.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

95.10. For forty years was I wearied with that generation, And said: It is a people that do err in their heart, And they have not known My ways;"
4. Anon., Jubilees, 36.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.7. that He might multiply you and increase your seed as the stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on the earth as the plant of righteousness which will not be rooted out unto all the generations for ever.
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 12.3-12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.158 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.158. But let no one who hears that he was firmly planted thus suppose that any thing at all assists God, so as to enable him to stand firmly, but let him rather consider this fact that what is here indicated is equivalent to the assertion that the firmest position, and the bulwark, and the strength, and the steadiness of everything is the immoveable God, who stamps the character of immobility on whatever he pleases; for, in consequence of his supporting and consolidating things, those which he does combine remain firm and indestructible.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.14, 2.124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But the enactments of this lawgiver are firm, not shaken by commotions, not liable to alteration, but stamped as it were with the seal of nature herself, and they remain firm and lasting from the day on which they were first promulgated to the present one, and there may well be a hope that they will remain to all future time, as being immortal, as long as the sun and the moon, and the whole heaven and the whole world shall endure. 2.124. Then the twelve stones on the breast, which are not like one another in colour, and which are divided into four rows of three stones in each, what else can they be emblems of, except of the circle of the zodiac? For that also is divided into four parts, each consisting of three animals, by which divisions it makes up the seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, distinguishing the four changes, the two solstices, and the two equinoxes, each of which has its limit of three signs of this zodiac, by the revolutions of the sun, according to that unchangeable, and most lasting, and really divine ratio which exists in numbers;
8. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 19.2, 22.4, 39.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.405 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.405. where is a top of a mountain that is raised to an immense height, and at its side, beneath, or at its bottom, a dark cave opens itself; within which there is a horrible precipice, that descends abruptly to a vast depth; it contains a mighty quantity of water, which is immovable; and when anybody lets down anything to measure the depth of the earth beneath the water, no length of cord is sufficient to reach it.
10. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.” When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated: “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”"
11. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. I charge you in the sight of God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by partiality.
12. New Testament, Acts, 27.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27.41. But coming to a place where two seas met, they ran the vessel aground. The bow struck and remained immovable, but the stern began to break up by the violence of the waves.
13. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.28. Therefore, receiving a kingdom that can't be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may offer service well pleasing to God, with reverence and awe
14. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, 10.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

15. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. בלשון עזה דכתיב (יהושע כ, א) וידבר ה' אל יהושע לאמר דבר אל בני ישראל לאמר תנו לכם את ערי המקלט אשר דברתי אליכם וגו' מפני שהן של תורה,למימרא דכל דיבור לשון קשה אין כדכתיב (בראשית מב, ל) דבר האיש אדוני הארץ אתנו קשות והתניא (מלאכי ג, טז) נדברו אין נדברו אלא לשון נחת וכן הוא אומר (תהלים מז, ד) ידבר עמים תחתינו דבר לחוד ידבר לחוד:,(סימנ"י רבנ"ן מהמנ"י וספר"י),פליגי בה רבי יהודה ורבנן חד אומר מפני ששיהם וחד אומר מפני שהן של תורה,(יהושע כד, כו) ויכתוב יהושע את הדברים האלה בספר תורת אלהים פליגי בה ר' יהודה ור' נחמיה חד אומר שמנה פסוקים וחד אומר ערי מקלט,בשלמא למ"ד ח' פסוקים היינו דכתיב בספר תורת אלהים אלא למ"ד ערי מקלט מאי בספר תורת אלהים ה"ק ויכתוב יהושע בספרו את הדברים האלה הכתובים בספר תורת אלהים,ספר שתפרו בפשתן פליגי בה ר' יהודה ור"מ חד אומר כשר וחד אומר פסול,למ"ד פסול דכתיב (שמות יג, ט) למען תהיה תורת ה' בפיך ואיתקש כל התורה כולה לתפילין מה תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני לתופרן בגידין אף כל לתופרן בגידין ואידך כי איתקש למותר בפיך להלכותיו לא איתקש,אמר רב חזינן להו לתפילין דבי חביבי דתפירי בכיתנא ולית הלכתא כוותיה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אחד משוח בשמן המשחה ואחד המרובה בבגדים ואחד שעבר ממשיחותו מחזירין את הרוצח רבי יהודה אומר אף משוח מלחמה מחזיר את הרוצח,לפיכך אימותיהן של כהנים מספקות להן מחיה וכסות כדי שלא יתפללו על בניהם שימותו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר רב כהנא דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, כה) וישב בה עד מות הכהן הגדול וכתיב (במדבר לה, כח) כי בעיר מקלטו ישב עד מות הכהן הגדול וכתיב (במדבר לה, כח) ואחרי מות הכהן הגדול,ור' יהודה כתיב קרא אחרינא (במדבר לה, לב) לשוב לשבת בארץ עד מות הכהן (וגו') ואידך מדלא כתיב הגדול חד מהנך הוא:,לפיכך אימותיהן של כהנים וכו': טעמא דלא מצלו הא מצלו מייתי והכתיב (משלי כו, ב) כצפור לנוד כדרור לעוף כן קללת חנם לא תבא (א"ל) ההוא סבא מפירקיה דרבא שמיע לי שהיה להן לבקש רחמים על דורן ולא בקשו,ואיכא דמתני כדי שיתפללו על בניהם שלא ימותו טעמא דמצלו הא לא מצלו מייתי מאי הוה ליה למעבד הכא אמרינן טוביה חטא וזיגוד מנגיד,התם אמרי שכם נסיב ומבגאי גזיר,אמר ליה ההוא סבא מפירקיה דרבא שמיע לי שהיה להן לבקש רחמים על דורן ולא בקשו כי הא דההוא גברא דאכליה אריא ברחוק תלתא פרסי מיניה דר' יהושע בן לוי ולא אישתעי אליהו בהדיה תלתא יומי,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי' בחנם היא באה מנלן מאחיתופל שבשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא בעא למישטפא לעלמא אמר מהו לכתוב שם אחספא ומישדא בתהומא דליקו אדוכתיה ליכא דאמר ליה מידי אמר כל היודע דבר זה ואינו אומרו יחנק בגרונו,נשא אחיתופל ק"ו בעצמו אמר ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה התורה שמי שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים לכל העולם כולו לא כל שכן א"ל שרי כתב שם אחספא שדי אתהומא נחת וקם אדוכתיה,ואפ"ה כתיב (שמואל ב יז, כג) ואחיתופל ראה כי לא נעשתה עצתו ויחבוש את החמור ויקם וילך אל ביתו (ו) אל עירו ויצו אל ביתו ויחנק וגו',א"ר אבהו קללת חכם אפילו על תנאי היא באה מנלן מעלי דקאמר ליה [עלי] לשמואל (שמואל א ג, יז) כה יעשה לך אלהים וכה יוסיף אם תכחד ממני דבר ואף על גב דכתיב (שמואל א ג, יח) ויגד לו שמואל את כל הדברים ולא כחד ממנו [ואפ"ה] כתיב (שמואל א ח, ג) ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו וגו' 11a. bwith harsh language, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke [ ivayedabber /i] to Joshua saying: Speak [ idabber /i] to the children of Israel, saying: Assign you the cities of refuge of which I spoke [ idibbarti /i] to youby means of Moses” (Joshua 20:1–2). Why does the Torah repeatedly employ a term of idibbur /i, connoting harsh speech, as opposed to the term of iamira /i, connoting neutral speech? It is bdue tothe fact bthatthe cities of refuge barea mitzva bof the Torah,and therefore they warrant emphasis.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that allinstances of bspeaking [ idibbur /i]indicate bharsh language?The Gemara answers: bYes, as it is writtenwith regard to Joseph’s brothers: b“The man, the lord of the land, spoke [ idibber /i] harshly to us”(Genesis 42:30). The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Then btheywho feared the Lord bspoke [ inidberu /i]with one another” (Malachi 3:16), that the term b“they spoke” is nothing other than a term of gentleness, and likewise,the same is true of the verse which bstates: “He subdues [ iyadber /i] peoples under us”(Psalms 47:4), meaning that God will calmly and gently conduct the nations under the influence of the Jewish people? The Gemara answers: The meaning of idibberis discreteand the meaning of iyadberis discrete.There is a difference between the two conjugations of the same root.,The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the disputes involving Rabbi Yehuda that follow: bRabbis; imehemni /i,i.e., the dispute with Rabbi Neḥemya; bandthe dispute with regard to Torah bscrollssewn with threads of flax.,The Gemara resumes the discussion of the harsh language employed in the portion discussing murderers in the book of Joshua. bRabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne saysharsh language was employed bbecauseJoshua bdelayedfulfilling the mitzva of designating cities of refuge, band one saysit is bbecausethe cities of refuge barea mitzva bof the Torah,and therefore they warrant emphasis.,The Gemara cites an additional dispute with regard to the portion of the cities of refuge in the book of Joshua. It is written: b“And Joshua wrote these matters in the scroll of the Torah of God”(Joshua 24:26). bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemya disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne says:The reference is to the final beight versesin the Torah that record the death of Moses and were recorded by Joshua in the scroll of the Torah, in addition to the rest of the Torah that was written by Moses (see iBava Batra15a). bAnd one says:The reference is to the portion of the bcities of refugethat appears in the book of Joshua.,The Gemara discusses these two opinions: bGranted, according to the one who says thatthe reference is to the final beight versesin the Torah, bthat isthe reason bthat it is written:“And Joshua wrote these matters bin the scroll of the Torah of God,”as he wrote those verses and they were included in the Torah. bBut according to the one who saysthat the reference is to the portion of the bcities of refugein the book of Joshua, bwhatis the meaning of the phrase b“in the scroll of the Torah of God”?They appear in the book of Joshua, not in the Torah. The Gemara answers: bThisis what the verse bis saying: And Joshua wrote in his book these matters that arealso bwritten in the scroll of the Torah of God. /b,The Gemara proceeds to cite another dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and one of the Sages in which it is not clear which opinion is attributable to which Sage. In the case of a Torah bscroll where one sewed itssheets bwith linenthreads, bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Meir disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne says:The Torah scroll is bfitfor use, band one says:The Torah scroll is bunfitfor use.,The Gemara elaborates: bAccording to the one who saysthat the Torah scroll is bunfitfor use, the reason is bas it is writtenwith regard to phylacteries: “And it shall be for you a sign on your hand and a memorial between your eyes, bin order that the Torah of God shall be in your mouth”(Exodus 13:9). bAndin this verse bthe entire Torah is juxtaposedand likened bto phylacteries: Just aswith regard to bphylacteries,there is ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai to sew them with sinews, so too,with regard to ballsheets of the Torah scroll, there is a requirement bto sew them with sinews. And the otherSage holds: bWhenthe Torah scroll bis juxtaposedand likened to phylacteries, it is only bwith regard tothe principle that the sheets of the Torah scroll may be prepared only from a species of animal bthat is permitted to your mouth,i.e., that it is permitted for a Jew to eat; but with regard bto itsother ihalakhot /i, it is not juxtaposedand likened to phylacteries., bRav said: I saw that the phylacteries of the house of my uncle,Rabbi Ḥiyya, bwere sewn with linen. But the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion; phylacteries may be sewn only with sinews., strongMISHNA: /strong The Torah states that an unintentional murderer is required to remain in the city of refuge to which he fled until the death of the High Priest. The mishna elaborates: With regard to High Priests, who were appointed in several different manners, bone anointed with the anointing oil,which was the method through which High Priests were consecrated until the oil was sequestered toward the end of the First Temple period; band oneconsecrated by donning bmultiple garments,the eight vestments unique to the High Priest, which was the practice during the Second Temple period; band onewho received a temporary appointment due to the unfitness of the serving High Priest, bwho departed from his anointmentwith the restoration of the serving High Priest to active service, their deaths bfacilitatethe breturn of the murdererfrom the city of refuge to his home. bRabbi Yehuda says: Eventhe death of a priest banointed for warto address the soldiers (see Deuteronomy 20:1–7) bfacilitatesthe breturn of the murderer. /b,The mishna continues: bTherefore, the mothers ofHigh bPriestswould bprovidethose exiled to cities of refuge with bsustece and garments so that they would not pray that their sons would die.The more comfortable their lives in the city of refuge, the less urgency they would feel to leave, and the less likely it would be that they would pray for the death of the High Priests., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,that the death of these High Priests facilitates the return of the murderer, derived? bRav Kahana saidthey are derived from a verse, bas the verse states: “And he shall dwell there until the death of the High Priestwho was anointed with the sacred oil” (Numbers 35:25), band it is written: “For in his city of refuge he shall dwell until the death of the High Priest”(Numbers 35:28), band it is written: “And after the death of the High Priestthe murderer shall return to his ancestral land” (Numbers 35:28). The three mentions of the death of the High Priest correspond to the three types of High Priest enumerated by the first itannaof the mishna: One anointed with oil, one consecrated by donning the eight vestments, and one who was relieved of his position., bAnd Rabbi Yehudaholds that banother verse is written:“And you shall take no ransom for him that fled to his city of refuge, bto return and dwell in the land until the death of the priest”(Numbers 35:32), from which it is derived that the death of the priest anointed for war also facilitates the return of the murderer. bAnd the other itannasays: bFromthe fact bthat HighPriest bis not writtenin that verse, it is clear that the reference is not to an additional type of High Priest; rather, the reference bisto bone of thoseHigh Priests mentioned in the preceding verses.,§ The mishna teaches: bTherefore, the mothers ofHigh bPriestswould provide those exiled to cities of refuge with sustece and garments so that they would not pray that their sons will die. The Gemara asks: bThe reasonthat the High Priest will not die bis that they do not pray; but if they prayedfor the death of the High Priest, would he bdie? But isn’t it written: “As the wandering sparrow, as the flying swallow, so a curse that is baseless shall come home”(Proverbs 26:2)? Why does the mishna express concern over a baseless curse? bA certain elder said to him: I heard in the lecturedelivered bby Ravathat it is not a baseless curse, as the High Priests share the blame for the unintentional murders performed by these people, bas they should have pleaded for mercy for their generation,that no murder should transpire, even unintentionally, band they did not plead.Due to their share in the blame, prayers for their death could be effective., bAnd some teacha variant reading of the mishna: Therefore, the mothers of High Priests would provide those exiled to cities of refuge with sustece and garments, bso thatthose exiled bwould pray that their sons will not die.The Gemara infers: bThe reasonthat the High Priests will not die bis that they pray, but if they did not prayfor the High Priest not to die, would the High Priest bdie? What couldthe High Priest bhave doneto prevent the unintentional murder? bHere,in Babylonia, bwe sayan adage to describe a situation of that sort: bToviyya sinned and Zigud is flogged.Toviyya violated a prohibition and Zigud came as a single witness to testify against him. Since the testimony of a single witness is not valid in court, he is flogged for defaming Toviyya. The sinner is unpunished and the person who sought to testify against him is flogged. This became a colloquialism for a situation where one is punished for the sin of another., bThere,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saya different adage with the same application: bShechem marrieda woman band Mavgai circumcisedhimself. This is based on the episode of the abduction of Dinah in the city of Shechem (see Genesis, chapter 34), where Shechem compelled all the male residents of the city to undergo circumcision so that he could marry Dinah. Shechem married Dinah, while the rest of the males suffered the pain of circumcision and received no benefit., bA certain elder said to him: I heard in the lecturedelivered bby Ravathat the High Priests share the blame, bas they should have pleaded for mercy for their generation and they did not plead.Consequently, they required the exiles to pray on their own behalf. The Gemara illustrates the concept of the responsibility held by the spiritual leadership: This is blikein bthisincident bwhere a certain man was eaten by a lion at a distance of three parasangs fromthe place of residence of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and Elijahthe prophet bdid not speak with himfor bthree daysbecause of his failure to pray that an incident of this kind would not transpire in his place of residence.,Apropos curses that are realized, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:With regard to bthe curse of a Sage, evenif it is bbaseless,i.e., based on a mistaken premise, bitnevertheless bcomesto fruition and affects the object of the curse. bFrom where do wederive this? It is derived bfromthis incident involving bAhithophel. When David dug the drainpipesin preparation for building the Temple, the waters of bthe depths roseand bsought to inundate the world.David bsaid: What isthe ihalakha /i? Is it permitted bto writethe sacred bname on an earthenware shard and throwit binto the depths,so bthatthe water will subside and bstand in its place? There was no one who said anything to him.David bsaid: Anyone who knowsthe answer to bthis matter and does not say it shall be strangled. /b,Then bAhithophel raised an ia fortiori /iinference bon his ownand bsaid: And ifin order bto make peace between a man and his wifein the case of a isota /i, when the husband suspects his wife of having committed adultery, bthe Torah says: My name that was written in sanctity shall be erased on the water,then, in order bto establish peace for the whole world in its entirety, is it not all the more sopermitted? Ahithophel bsaid toDavid: bIt is permitted.David bwrotethe sacred bname on an earthenware shardand bcast it into the depths,and the water in the depths bsubsided and stood in its place. /b, bAnd even so it is writtenthat during the rebellion of Absalom: b“And Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not taken, and he saddled his donkey and he arose and went to his house, to his town, and he commanded his household and strangled himself”(II Samuel 17:23). Although David stipulated that his curse would take effect only if one who knows the answer fails to share it with him, and Ahithophel did not fail to share it with him, the curse was realized.,The Gemara cites a similar statement: bRabbi Abbahu says:With regard to bthe curse of a Sage, evenif it is stated bconditionally, it comesto realization. bFrom where do wederive this? It is derived bfroman incident involving bElithe High Priest, bas Eli said to Samuel,after the latter had received a prophetic vision with regard to Eli, that his sons do not follow his path: b“Therefore may God do to you, and more also, if you hide any matter from meof all the matters that He spoke unto you” (I Samuel 3:17). bAnd even though it is writtenimmediately thereafter: b“And Samuel told him all the matters, and did not hide from him”(I Samuel 3:18), bit is writtenat the time of Samuel’s death: b“And his sons did not follow in his ways”(I Samuel 8:3), indicating that God did to Samuel as he prophesied with regard to Eli, and his own sons did not follow his path. Despite the fact that Eli stated the curse conditionally, Samuel was affected by the curse.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. קרובים ונתרחקו הוו אתו לקמיה לדינא אמר להו פסילנא לכו לדינא,אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך כר' יהודה אנן מייתינן איגרתא ממערבא דאין הלכה כרבי יהודה,אמר להו אטו בקבא דקירא אידבקנא בכו דלא קאמינא פסילנא לכו לדינא אלא משום דלא צייתיתו דינא:,אוהב זה שושבינו וכו':,וכמה אמר ר' אבא אמר רבי ירמיה אמר רב כל שבעת ימי המשתה ורבנן משמיה דרבא אמרי אפילו מיום ראשון ואילך:,השונא כל שלא דבר כו': ת"ר (במדבר לה, כג) והוא לא אויב לו יעידנו (במדבר לה, כג) ולא מבקש רעתו ידיננו,אשכחן שונא אוהב מנלן,קרי ביה הכי והוא לא אויב לו ולא אוהב לו יעידנו ולא מבקש רעתו ולא טובתו ידיננו,מידי אוהב כתיב אלא סברא הוא אויב מאי טעמא משום דמרחקא דעתיה אוהב נמי מקרבא דעתיה,ורבנן האי לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מאי דרשי ביה,חד לדיין,אידך כדתניא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה והוא לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מכאן לשני תלמידי חכמים ששונאין זה את זה שאין יושבין בדין כאחד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כיצד בודקים את העדים היו מכניסין אותן לחדר ומאיימין עליהן ומוציאין את כל האדם לחוץ ומשיירין את הגדול שבהן,ואומרים לו אמור היאך אתה יודע שזה חייב לזה אם אמר הוא אמר לי שאני חייב לו איש פלוני אמר לי שהוא חייב לו לא אמר כלום עד שיאמר בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז,ואחר כך מכניסין את השני ובודקין אותו אם נמצאו דבריהן מכוונין נושאין ונותנין בדבר,שנים אומרים זכאי ואחד אומר חייב זכאי שנים אומרים חייב ואחד אומר זכאי חייב אחד אומר חייב ואחד אומר זכאי אפילו שנים מזכין או שנים מחייבין ואחד אומר איני יודע יוסיפו הדיינין,גמרו את הדבר היו מכניסין אותן הגדול שבדיינין אומר איש פלוני אתה זכאי איש פלוני אתה חייב,ומניין לכשיצא לא יאמר אני מזכה וחביריי מחייבים אבל מה אעשה שחביריי רבו עלי על זה נאמר ((ויקרא יט, טז) לא תלך רכיל בעמך ואומר) (משלי יא, יג) הולך רכיל מגלה סוד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היכי אמרי' להו אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר,אמר (ליה) רבא יכלי למימר שב שני הוה כפנא ואבבא אומנא לא חליף,אלא אמר רבא אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יח) מפץ וחרב וחץ שנון איש עונה ברעהו עד שקר,אמר (ליה) רב אשי יכלי למימר שב שני הוה מותנא ואיניש בלא שניה לא שכיב,אלא אמר רב אשי אמר לי נתן בר מר זוטרא אמרינן להו סהדי שקרי אאוגרייהו זילי דכתיב (מלכים א כא, י) והושיבו שנים אנשים בני בליעל נגדו ויעידוהו לאמר ברכת אלהים ומלך:,אם אמר הוא אמר לי כו' עד שיאמרו בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז:,מסייע ליה לרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב צריך שיאמר אתם עדיי,איתמר נמי א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר) משטה אני בך פטור,תניא נמי הכי מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ולא עוד אלא אפילו הכמין לו עדים אחורי גדר ואמר לו מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן רצונך שתודה בפני פלוני ופלוני אמר לו מתיירא אני שמא תכפיני לדין למחר אמר לו תניהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ואין טוענין למסית,מסית מאן דכר שמיה חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני אם לא טען אין טוענין לו ובדיני נפשות אע"ג דלא טען טוענין לו ואין טוענין למסית,מאי שנא מסית אמר ר' חמא בר חנינא מפירקיה דרבי חייא בר אבא שמיע לי שאני מסית דרחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין טוענין למסית מנחש הקדמוני דא"ר שמלאי הרבה טענות היה לו לנחש לטעון ולא טען ומפני מה לא טען לו הקב"ה לפי שלא טען הוא,מאי הוה ליה למימר דברי הרב ודברי תלמיד דברי מי שומעין דברי הרב שומעין,אמר חזקיה מניין שכל המוסיף גורע שנאמר (בראשית ג, ג) אמר אלהים לא תאכלו ממנו ולא תגעו בו,רב משרשיא אמר מהכא (שמות כה, י) אמתים וחצי ארכו,רב אשי אמר (שמות כו, ז) עשתי עשרה יריעות,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא דאמר משטה אני בך אבל אמר 29a. bwere relativesof his band became not relatedto him, as Mar Ukva’s wife, who was their sister, died. bThey came before him for judgment.Mar Ukva bsaid to them: I am disqualified from adjudicating for you. /b, bThey said toMar Ukva: bWhat is your opinionaccording to which you disqualify yourself? Do you rule bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that since you have children we are still relatives? bWe shall bring a letter from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthatthe ihalakha /iis bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b,Mar Ukva bsaid to them: Is that to saythat bI am stuck to you with a ikavof wax [ ikira /i]?I agree bthatwe are not considered relatives; bI am saying that I am disqualified from adjudicating for you only because you will not obey the verdict,and I do not wish to participate in such judgment.,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yehuda, one who loves or one who hates one of the litigants is disqualified from bearing witness. One who blovesone of the litigants; bthisis referring to bhis groomsman. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndfor bhow longis the groomsman disqualified? bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRav says:Throughout ball of the seven days of feasting. And the Rabbis say in the name of Rava: Even from the first dayafter the wedding band onwardhe is no longer disqualified; he is disqualified only on the wedding day itself.,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who hatesthe litigant is referring to banyonewho, out of enmity, bdid not speakwith the litigant for three days. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: This ihalakhais derived from the verse: “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm” (Numbers 35:23), that one about whom it can be stated: b“And he was not his enemy,” can testify about him.And one who b“neither sought his harm” can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWe founda source for the disqualification of one who bhates; from where do wederive that one who blovesis disqualified?,The Gemara answers that one should bread intothe verse blike this:One about whom it can be stated: bAnd he who was not his enemy nor one who loves him, can testify about him;and one who bneither sought his harm nor his favor can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs: One who loves, writtenin the verse? How can the verse be read in this manner? bRather,the extension of the disqualification to one who loves him as well bisbased on blogical reasoning: What is the reason an enemyis disqualified from bearing witness? It is bbecause he feels a sense of aversiontoward that individual and might testify falsely against him. A similar logic can be employed with regard to one who bloves, as well: He feels a sense of affinitytoward that individual, and might testify falsely on his behalf.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Rabbis,who do not agree with Rabbi Yehuda, bderive from thisverse: b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm”? /b,The Gemara answers: bOnepart of the verse is necessary bforthe ihalakhathat ba judgewho loves or hates one of the litigants is disqualified. The Rabbis agree with this ihalakha /i, as such a judge is naturally inclined to favor one of the litigants., bThe otherpart of the verse is interpreted bin accordance with that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:With regard to the verse b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm,”it is derived bfrom here that two Torah scholars who hate each other cannot sit in judgmenttogether bas one.Because of their hatred they will come to contradict each other’s rulings unjustly., strongMISHNA: /strong bHow dothe judges bexamine the witnesses? They bring them into a roomin the courthouse band intimidate themso that they will speak only the truth. bAnd they take all the people,other than the judges, boutsideso that they should not tell the other witnesses the questions the judges ask and the answers the first witness gives, band they leaveonly bthe eldest ofthe witnesses to testify first., bAnd they say to him: Say howexactly byou know that thislitigant bowes money to thatlitigant, as the plaintiff claims. bIf he said:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true bthat I owethe plaintiff, or if he says: bSo-and-so said to me thatthe defendant bowesthe plaintiff, the witness bhas said nothingand his testimony is disregarded. It is not valid testimony bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him,e.g., btwo hundred dinars.By admitting to the debt in the presence of witnesses he renders himself liable to pay the amount that he mentioned., bAnd afterward they bring in the secondwitness band examine himin the same manner. bIf their statements are found to be congruentthe judges then bdiscuss the matter. /b,If the opinions of the judges are divided, as btwojudges bsaythat the defendant is bexemptfrom payment band one sayshe is bliableto pay, he is bexempt.If btwo sayhe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,he is bliable.If bone sayshe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,or bevenif btwoof the judges bdeemhim bexempt or twoof them bdeemhim bliable, andthe other bone says: I do not know,the court bmust addmore bjudgesand then rule in accordance with the majority opinion. This is because the one who abstains is considered as though he is not a member of the court.,After the judges bfinish the matterand reach a decision, bthey bring inthe litigants. bThe greatest of the judges says: So-and-so, you are exemptfrom paying; or: bSo-and-so, you are liableto pay., bAnd from whereis it derived that bwhenthe judge bleavesthe courtroom bhe may not say: I deemedyou bexempt and my colleagues deemedyou bliable, but what can I do, as my colleagues outnumbered meand consequently you were deemed liable? bAbout this it is stated: “You shall not go as a talebearer among your people”(Leviticus 19:16), band it says: “One who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets,but one who is of a faithful spirit conceals a matter” (Proverbs 11:13)., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the judges intimidate the witnesses. The Gemara asks: bWhat do we say to them? Rav Yehuda saysthat bthisis what bwe say to them:It is stated: b“As clouds and wind without rain, so is he who boasts himself of a false gift”(Proverbs 25:14). In other words, there will be no rain and no blessing from your deeds if you lie., bRava said to him:If so, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves that they do not have to worry about this punishment, according to the folk saying: bSeven years there was a famine, but over the craftsman’s door it did not pass.If the witnesses are not farmers, they do not need to worry over lack of rain. Consequently, they will disregard this concern., bRather, Rava saidthat bwe saythis verse bto them: “As a hammer, and a sword, and a sharp arrow, so is a man who bears false witness against his neighbor”(Proverbs 25:18), meaning that a false witness will die prematurely., bRav Ashi said to him:Here too, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves a folk saying: bSeven years there was a pestilence, but a manwho has bnotreached bhis years did not die;everyone dies at his predestined time. Therefore, they will disregard this concern as well.,The Gemara presents another suggestion: bRather, Rav Ashi said: Natan bar Mar Zutra said to methat bwe say to themthat bfalse witnesses are belittledeven bby those who hire them,and all the more so by others; bas it is writtenthat Jezebel said when she ordered witnesses to be hired to testify against Naboth: b“And set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: You cursed God and the king”(I Kings 21:10). Even Jezebel, who gave the orders to hire them, called them “base fellows.”,§ The mishna teaches that bifthe witness bsaid:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true that I owe him, his testimony is disregarded bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him two hundred dinars. /b,The Gemara comments: bThis supportsthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The debtor bneeds to sayto the witnesses to the loan or in his admission that he owes the creditor: bYou are my witnesses.Otherwise, their testimony is not valid., bIt was also statedthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,i.e., you owe me one hundred dinars, and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaidto him: bI was teasing you,i.e., I did not mean it seriously when I said that I owed it to you, the respondent is bexempt. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaid to him: I was teasing you,the respondent is bexempt. /b, bAnd moreover,the respondent is exempt bevenin a case where the claimant bhid witnesses forthe respondent bbehind a fenceso that the respondent would not see them, band said to him: Ihave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the respondent bsaid to him: Yes,and the claimant then said to him: bDo you wish to admitthe debt bin the presence of so-and-so and so-and-so?And the respondent bsaid to him: I am afraidto do so, blest you compel me togo to bjudgment,where, based on their testimony, you will be given the right to forcibly take the money from me whenever you want. But between you and me, I admit that I owe you. And bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give methe one hundred dinars that you admitted to owing me, and the respondent bsaid to him: I was teasing you.The respondent is bexemptbecause he can claim that he stated his admission only to appease the claimant temporarily, and did not mean to actually admit to owing the money, as he did not know that there were witnesses present., bButthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter,i.e., one who is accused of inciting others to idol worship.,The Gemara asks: bAn inciter? Who mentioned anything about it?This matter was not discussed in the ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: Ifthe defendant bdid not advance a claimthat he was teasing the plaintiff, the judges bdo not advancethis bclaim for him.Apparently, he stated his admission seriously. bBut incases of bcapital law, even ifthe defendant bdid not advanceany bclaimon his own behalf, the judges badvance a claim on his behalf. Butthe judges bdo not advance claims on behalf of an inciter. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout ban inciter,that the court does not seek to deem him innocent? bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: I heard at the lecture of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbathat ban inciter is different, as the Merciful One statesconcerning him: b“Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him”(Deuteronomy 13:9). In this unique case, the court is not required to try to deem him innocent., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthatthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter?It is derived bfromthe incident of bthe primordial snakewho tempted Eve; he was the first inciter. bAs Rabbi Simlai says: The snake could have advanced many claimson its own behalf, bbut it did not claimthem. bAnd for whatreason bdid the Holy One, Blessed be He, not advancethese bclaims for it,deeming the snake exempt from punishment? bBecausethe snake bdid not advancethese bclaims itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat could he have said?The Gemara answers: The snake could have said that it is not to blame, as when there is a contradiction between bthe statement of the teacher and the statement of the student, whose statement should one listen to? One should listen to the statement of the teacher.Since God instructed Adam and Eve not to eat from the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Adam and Eve should have heeded God’s words and not those of the snake., bḤizkiyya says: From whereis it derived bthat anyone who adds, subtracts?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedthat Eve said: b“God has said: You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it”(Genesis 3:3), whereas God had actually rendered prohibited only eating from the tree but not touching it, as it is stated: “But of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it” (Genesis 2:17). Because Eve added that there was a prohibition against touching the tree, the snake showed her that touching it does not cause her to die, and she consequently sinned by eating from it as well., bRav Mesharshiyya saysthat the idea that one who adds, subtracts can also be proven bfrom here: “Two cubits [ iamatayim /i] and a half shall be its length”(Exodus 25:10). Without the letter ialefat the beginning of the word iamatayim /i, it would be read imatayim /i, which would mean two hundred cubits. The addition of the ialeftherefore reduces this term to only two cubits., bRav Ashi saysanother example: In the verse: b“Eleven [ iashtei esrei /i] curtains”(Exodus 26:7), without the letter iayinat the beginning of the phrase it would read ishtei esrei /i, twelve. Therefore, the additional letter iayinreduces the amount from twelve to eleven., bAbaye says:With regard to the case of one who denies a debt to which he admitted in the presence of hidden witnesses, the Sages btaughtthat he is exempt bonlyin a case bwhere he says: I was teasing you. Butif bhe says: /b
17. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 21



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
blasphemy Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
clothing, metaphors Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
creation, abyss of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
creation, act of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
creation Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
divine name, tetragrammaton Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
divine name Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
divine names, as icon Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
divine names, creative power of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
divine names, rabbinic interpretation of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
gatekeepers, heavenly Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
god, authoritative one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
grace Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
hands, signs, and Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
kingdom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
letters, as powerful as name Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
mysticism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
names, divine, barbara Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
oath, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
oath Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
oaths Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
odes of solomon Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
pseudo-democritus Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
seals Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
semiotics Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
targums Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
tetragrammaton Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237
throne, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
wisdom' Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 795
words, power of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 27
yored merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 237