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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



600
Anon., Marytrdom Of Polycarp, 12.2


nan2 When this had been said by the herald, all the multitude of heathen and Jews living in Smyrna cried out with uncontrollable wrath and a loud shout: "This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the destroyer of our Gods, who teaches many neither to offer sacrifice nor to worship." And when they said this, they cried out and asked Philip the Asiarch to let loose a lion on Polycarp. But he said he could not legally do this, since he had closed the Sports.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Aristotle, Rhetoric, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 32.29, 32.31 (1st cent. CE

32.31.  Who, pray, could praise a people with such a disposition? Is not that the reason why even to your own rulers you seem rather contemptible? Someone already, according to report, has expressed his opinion of you in these words: "But of the people of Alexandria what can one say, a folk to whom you need only throw plenty of bread and a ticket to the hippodrome, since they have no interest in anything else?" Why, inasmuch as, in case a leading citizen misbehaves publicly in the sight of all, you will visit him with your contempt and regard him as a worthless fellow, no matter if he has authority a thousand times as great as yours, you yourselves cannot succeed in maintaining a reputation for dignity and seriousness so long as you are guilty of like misconduct.
3. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.3. A Christian hath no authority over himself, but giveth his time to God. This is God's work, and yours also, when ye shall complete it: for I trust in the Divine grace, that ye are ready for an act of well- doing which is meet for God. Knowing the fervour of your sincerity, I have exhorted you in a short letter.
4. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1-6.2, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 6.2. Shun ye therefore the wicked arts and plottings of the prince of this world, lest haply ye be crushed by his devices, and wax weak in your love. But assemble yourselves all together with undivided heart. 11.2. The love of the brethren which are in Troas saluteth you; from whence also I write to you by the hand of Burrhus, who was sent with me by the Ephesians and Smyrnaeans as a mark of honour. The Lord shall honour them, even Jesus Christ, on whom their hope is set in flesh and soul and spirit, by faith, by love, by concord. Fare ye well in Christ Jesus our common hope.
5. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 11.2, 15.1, 21.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.2. Let nothing glitter in your eyes apart from Him, in whom I carry about my bonds, my spiritual pearls in which I would fain rise again through your prayer, whereof may it be my lot to be always a partaker, that I may be found in the company of those Christians of Ephesus who moreover were ever of one mind with the Apostles in the power of Jesus Christ. 15.1. It is better to keep silence and to be, than to talk and not to be. It is a fine thing to teach, if the speaker practise. Now there is one teacher, who spake and it came to pass: yea and even the things which He hath done in silence are worthy of the Father. 21.1. I am devoted to you and to those whom for the honour of God ye sent to Smyrna; whence also I write unto you with thanksgiving to the Lord, having love for Polycarp as I have for you also. Remember me, even as I would that Jesus Christ may also remember you.
6. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 10.1, 10.3, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.1. Therefore let us not be insensible to His goodness. For if He should imitate us according to our deeds, we are lost. For this cause, seeing that we are become His disciples, let us learn to live as beseemeth Christianity. For whoso is called by another name besides this, is not of God. 10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God. 15.1. The Ephesians from Smyrna salute you, from whence also I write to you. They are here with me for the glory of God, as also are ye; and they have comforted me in all things, together with Polycarp bishop of the Smyrnaeans. Yea, and all the other churches salute you in the honour of Jesus Christ. Fare ye well in godly concord, and possess ye a stedfast spirit, which is Jesus Christ.
7. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1-6.2, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. 6.2. Shun ye therefore the wicked arts and plottings of the prince of this world, lest haply ye be crushed by his devices, and wax weak in your love. But assemble yourselves all together with undivided heart. 11.2. The love of the brethren which are in Troas saluteth you; from whence also I write to you by the hand of Burrhus, who was sent with me by the Ephesians and Smyrnaeans as a mark of honour. The Lord shall honour them, even Jesus Christ, on whom their hope is set in flesh and soul and spirit, by faith, by love, by concord. Fare ye well in Christ Jesus our common hope.
8. Ignatius, To The Romans, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. Only pray that I may have power within and without, so that I may not only say it but also desire it; that I may not only be called a Christian, but also be found one. For if I shall be found so, then can I also be called one, and be faithful then, when I am no more visible to the world. 3.3. Nothing visible is good. For our God Jesus Christ, being in the Father, is the more plainly visible. The Work is not of persuasiveness, but Christianity is a thing of might, whensoever it is hated by the world.
9. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 6.1, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. I exhort you therefore -- yet not I, but the love of Jesus Christ -- take ye only Christian food, and abstain from strange herbage, which is heresy: 13.1. The love of the Smyrnaeans and Ephesians saluteth you. Remember in your prayers the church which is in Syria; whereof [also] I am not worthy to be called a member, being the very last of them.
11. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.79-2.80, 2.91-2.102 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.79. 7. However, I cannot but admire those other authors who furnished this man with such his materials; I mean Posidonius and Apollonius [the son of] Molo, who while they accuse us for not worshipping the same gods whom others worship, they think themselves not guilty of impiety when they tell lies of us, and frame absurd and reproachful stories about our temple; whereas it is a most shameful thing for freemen to forge lies on any occasion, and much more so to forge them about our temple, which was so famous over all the world, and was preserved so sacred by us; 2.91. Apion becomes other men’s prophet upon this occasion, and says, that “Antiochus found in our temple a bed and a man lying upon it, with a small table before him, full of dainties, from the [fishes of the] sea, and the fowls of the dry land; that this man was amazed at these dainties thus set before him; 2.92. that he immediately adored the king, upon his coming in, as hoping that he would afford him all possible assistance; that he fell down upon his knees, and stretched out to him his right hand, and begged to be released: and that when the king bade him sit down, and tell him who he was, and why he dwelt there, and what was the meaning of those various sorts of food that were set before him, the man made a lamentable complaint, and with sighs, and tears in his eyes, gave him this account of the distress he was in: 2.93. and said that he was a Greek, and that as he went over this province, in order to get his living, he was seized upon by foreigners, on a sudden, and brought to this temple, and shut up therein, and was seen by nobody, but was fattened by these curious provisions thus set before him: 2.94. and that truly at the first such unexpected advantages seemed to him matter of great joy; that, after a while they brought a suspicion upon him, and at length astonishment, what their meaning should be; that at last he inquired of the servants that came to him, and was by them informed that it was in order to the fulfilling a law of the Jews, which they must not tell him, that he was thus fed; and that they did the same at a set time every year: 2.95. that they used to catch a Greek foreigner, and fat him thus up every year, and then lead him to a certain wood, and kill him, and sacrifice with their accustomed solemnities, and taste of his entrails, and take an oath upon this sacrificing a Greek, that they would ever be at enmity with the Greeks; and that then they threw the remaining parts of the miserable wretch into a certain pit.” 2.96. Apion adds farther, that “the man said there were but a few days to come ere he was to be slain, and implored Antiochus that, out of the reverence he bore to the Grecian gods, he would disappoint the snares the Jews laid for his blood, and would deliver him from the miseries with which he was encompassed.” 2.97. Now this is such a most tragical fable, as is full of nothing but cruelty and impudence; yet does it not excuse Antiochus of his sacrilegious attempts, as those who wrote it in his vindication are willing to suppose; 2.98. for he could not presume beforehand that he should meet with any such thing in coming to the temple, but must have found it unexpectedly. He was therefore still an impious person, that was given to unlawful pleasures, and had no regard to God in his actions. But [as for Apion] he hath done whatever his extravagant love of lying hath dictated to him, as it is most easy to discover by a consideration of his writings; 2.99. for the difference of our laws is known not to regard the Grecians only, but they are principally opposite to the Egyptians, and to some other nations also: for while it so falls out, that men of all countries come sometimes and sojourn among us, how comes it about that we take an oath, and conspire only against the Grecians, and that by the effusion of their blood also? 2.101. with great pomp back into his own country; when he might thereby have been esteemed a religious person himself, and a mighty lover of the Greeks, and might thereby have procured himself great assistance from all men against that hatred the Jews bore to him. 2.102. But I leave this matter; for the proper way of confuting fools is not to use bare words, but to appeal to the things themselves that make against them. Now then, all such as ever saw the construction of our temple, of what nature it was, know well enough how the purity of it was never to be profaned;
12. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia 4.16. But if one of you suffers for being a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God in this matter.
13. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.7-1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything.
14. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. This you know, that all who are in Asia turned away from me; of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes.
16. New Testament, Acts, 5.14, 11.24, 11.26, 13.4, 16.11, 18.12, 19.10, 23.34, 26.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.14. More believers were added to the Lord, multitudes of both men and women. 11.24. For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith, and many people were added to the Lord. 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 13.4. So, being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they went down to Seleucia. From there they sailed to Cyprus. 16.11. Setting sail therefore from Troas, we made a straight course to Samothrace, and the day following to Neapolis; 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat 19.10. This continued for two years, so that all those who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. 23.34. When the governor had read it, he asked what province he was from. When he understood that he was from Cilicia, he said 26.28. Agrippa said to Paul, "With a little persuasion are you trying to make me a Christian?
17. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.9-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life.
18. New Testament, John, 19.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.36. For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, "A bone of him will not be broken.
19. New Testament, Luke, 2.2, 23.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 23.47. When the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous man.
20. New Testament, Mark, 15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
21. New Testament, Matthew, 4.24, 27.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.24. The report about him went out into all Syria. They brought to him all who were sick, afflicted with various diseases and torments, possessed with demons, epileptics, and paralytics; and he healed them. 27.54. Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God.
22. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 3.1, 13.1-13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 1.1, 3.1-3.2, 4.1, 5.1-5.2, 8.1, 9.2, 10.1-10.2, 12.1, 12.3, 13.1, 16.1-16.2, 17.2-17.3, 18.1, 19.1, 22.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. 1 We write to you, brethren, the story of the martyrs and of the blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the persecution by his martyrdom as though adding the seal. For one might almost say that all that had gone before happened in order that the Lord might show to us from above a martyrdom in accordance with the Gospel. 3.1. 1 But thanks be to God, for he had no power over any. For the most noble Germanicus encouraged their fears by the endurance which was in him, and he fought gloriously with the wild beasts. For when the Pro-Consul wished to persuade him and bade him have pity on his youth, he violently dragged the beast towards himself, wishing to be released more quickly from their unrighteous and lawless life. 3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for. 4.1. 1 But one, named Quintus, a Phrygian lately come from Phrygia, when he saw the wild beasts played the coward. Now it was he who had forced himself and some others to come forward of their own accord. Him the Pro-Consul persuaded with many entreaties to take the oath and offer sacrifice. For this reason, therefore, brethren, we do not commend those who give themselves up, since the Gospel does not give this teaching. 5.1. 1 But the most wonderful Polycarp, when he first heard it, was not disturbed, but wished to remain in the city; but the majority persuaded him to go away quietly, and he went out quietly to a farm, not far distant from the city, and stayed with a few friends, doing nothing but pray night and day for all, and for the Churches throughout the world, as was his custom. 5.2. 2 And while he was praying he fell into a trance three days before he was arrested, and saw the pillow under his head burning with fire, and he turned and said to those who were with him: "I must be burnt alive. 8.1. 1 Now when he had at last finished his prayer, after remembering all who had ever even come his way, both small and great, high and low, and the whole Catholic Church throughout the world, the hour came for departure, and they set him on an ass, and led him into the city, on a "great Sabbath day. 9.2. 2 Therefore when he was brought forward the Pro-Consul asked him if he were Polycarp, and when he admitted it he tried to persuade him to deny, saying: "Respect your age," and so forth, as they are accustomed to say: "Swear by the genius of Caesar, repent, say: `Away with the Atheists'"; but Polycarp, with a stern countece looked on all the crowd of lawless heathen in the arena, and waving his hand at them, he groaned and looked up to heaven and said: "Away with the Atheists. 10.1. 1 But when he persisted again, and said: "Swear by the genius of Caesar," he answered him: "If you vainly suppose that I will swear by the genius of Caesar, as you say, and pretend that you are ignorant who I am, listen plainly: I am a Christian. And if you wish to learn the doctrine of Christianity fix a day and listen. 10.2. 2 The Pro-Consul said: "Persuade the people." And Polycarp said: "You I should have held worthy of discussion, for we have been taught to render honour, as is meet, if it hurt us not, to princes and authorities appointed by God. But as for those, I do not count them worthy that a defence should be made to them. 12.1. 1 And with these and many other words he was filled with courage and joy, and his face was full of grace so that it not only did not fall with trouble at the things said to him, but that the Pro-Consul, on the other hand, was astounded and sent his herald into the midst of the arena to announce three times: "Polycarp has confessed that he is a Christian. 12.3. 3 Then they found it good to cry out with one mind that he should burn Polycarp alive, for the vision which had appeared to him on his pillow must be fulfilled, when he saw it burning, while he was praying, and he turned and said prophetically to those of the faithful who were with him, "I must be burnt alive. 13.1. 1 These things then happened with so great speed, quicker than it takes to tell, and the crowd came together immediately, and prepared wood and faggots from the work-shops and baths and the Jews were extremely zealous, as is their custom, in assisting at this. 16.1. 1 At length the lawless men, seeing that his body could not be consumed by the fire, commanded an executioner to go up and stab him with a dagger, and when he did this, there came out a dove, and much blood, so that the fire was quenched and all the crowd marvelled that there was such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect. 16.2. 2 And of the elect was he indeed one, the wonderful martyr, Polycarp, who in our days was an apostolic and prophetic teacher, bishop of the Catholic Church in Smyrna. For every word which he uttered from his mouth both was fulfilled and will be fulfilled. 17.2. 2 Therefore he put forward Niketas, the father of Herod, and the brother of Alce, to ask the Governor not to give his body, "Lest," he said, "they leave the crucified one and begin to worship this man." And they said this owing to the suggestions and pressure of the Jews, who also watched when we were going to take it from the fire, for they do not know that we shall not ever be able either to abandon Christ, who suffered for the salvation of those who are being saved in the whole world, the innocent for sinners, or to worship any other. 17.3. 3 For him we worship as the Son of God, but the martyrs we love as disciples and imitators of the Lord; and rightly, because of their unsurpassable affection toward their own King and Teacher. God grant that we too may be their companions and fellow-disciples. 18.1. 1 When therefore the centurion saw the contentiousness caused by the Jews, he put the body in the midst, as was their custom, and burnt it. 19.1. 1 Such was the lot of the blessed Polycarp, who though he was, together with those from Philadelphia, the twelfth martyr in Smyrna, is alone especially remembered by all, so that he is spoken of in every place, even by the heathen. He was not only a famous teacher, but also a notable martyr, whose martyrdom all desire to imitate, for it followed the Gospel of Christ. 22.3. 3 And I, again, Pionius, wrote it out from the former writings, after searching for it, because the blessed Polycarp showed it me in a vision, as I will explain in what follows, and I gathered it together when it was almost worn out by age, that the Lord Jesus Christ may also gather me together with his elect into his heavenly kingdom, to whom be glory with the Father and the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever, Amen.
25. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 9.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.21.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

27. Justin, First Apology, 4.5, 12.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16.2, 63.5, 108.2, 110.5, 117.3, 120.6, 141.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. It was with his eye on this Italian propaganda, too, that he took a further step. This was the institution of mysteries, with hierophants and torch bearers complete. The ceremonies occupied three successive days. On the first, proclamation was made on the Athenian model to this effect: ‘If there be any atheist or Christian or Epicurean here spying upon our rites, let him depart in haste; and let all such as have faith in the God be initiated and all blessing attend them.’ He led the litany with, ‘Christians, avaunt!’ and the crowd responded, ‘Epicureans, avaunt!’ Then was presented the child bed of Leto and birth of Apollo, the bridal of Coronis, Asclepius born. The second day, the epiphany and nativity of the God Glycon.
30. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 8.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 533, 537, 544, 583, 611-612, 626, 529 (2nd cent. CE

32. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.3.2, 1.8.9-1.8.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Tertullian, To Scapula, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 1.1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Tertullian, Apology, 2.3, 2.6, 10.1, 21.24, 32.1, 40.2, 50.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 13.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 7.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 15, 20, 8-9, 13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.15-4.18, 4.22-4.26, 4.26.10, 4.29, 4.36, 5.1.8, 5.1.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.26.10. But your pious fathers corrected their ignorance, having frequently rebuked in writing many who dared to attempt new measures against them. Among them your grandfather Hadrian appears to have written to many others, and also to Fundanus, the proconsul and governor of Asia. And your father, when you also were ruling with him, wrote to the cities, forbidding them to take any new measures against us; among the rest to the Larissaeans, to the Thessalonians, to the Athenians, and to all the Greeks. 5.1.8. Then, being taken to the forum by the chiliarch and the authorities of the city, they were examined in the presence of the whole multitude, and having confessed, they were imprisoned until the arrival of the governor. 5.1.14. And some of our heathen servants also were seized, as the governor had commanded that all of us should be examined publicly. These, being ensnared by Satan, and fearing for themselves the tortures which they beheld the saints endure, and being also urged on by the soldiers, accused us falsely of Thyestean banquets and Oedipodean intercourse, and of deeds which are not only unlawful for us to speak of or to think, but which we cannot believe were ever done by men.
42. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 3

43. Anon., Martyrdom of Pionius, 2.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram, jewish patriarch Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
alexandria (egypt) Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
alienation, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 233, 294
animal Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
antioch, conflict in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 520
bar kochba, jewish leader Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
bar kokhba revolt, relationship with judaism Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 39
biography (lives) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 236, 237
bishop Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
body, blood Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
celsus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 294
christian (cristianî) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 255
christian citizenship Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
christianity = cristianismî Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 56
church (ejkklhsiva), local and universal Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 233
church (ejkklhsiva) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 233, 255
clothing Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
corinth, community of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 237
definition Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
disciple Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
docetists Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
economics, money Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
egypt Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
evaristus Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 205, 207
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
faith in jesus, confession of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1
family Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
fayum Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
gender, masculinity Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
gentile Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
geography Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 233
gladiator Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
gospels Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 56
honor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 237
idols Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 261
ignatios of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
ignatius, opponents Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
ignatius Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
impiety Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
isis, egyptian goddess Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
jerusalem (zion), temple Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
jerusalem (zion) Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
jesus, as teacher Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 205, 207
jews, jewish communities, customs Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
justin, christian apologist Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
justin martyr Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
king, emperor, caracalla Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
king, emperor, hadrian Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
martyr, martyrdom Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198, 205
martyr acts Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 255
martyrdom Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 236, 237
martyrdom of polycarp, historicity Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 240
martyrs Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 255
misanthropy Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 294
name Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 236
neapolis Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
oath, vow Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236, 237
other, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 294
pantainos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
passion narrative Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 56
pastoral epistles, the, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 207
paul, communities of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
paul (apostle) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
philippi, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
polycarp, as a teacher Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
polycarp, christian martyr Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
polycarp, martyrdom Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 520
polycarp, martyrdom of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 205, 207
polycarp Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 233; Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 95
pompeus marcus, roman citizen Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
popular responses (to christianity), charges of cannibalism, ass-worship, magic etc Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 878
popular responses (to christianity) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 876, 878
race, christians as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 255
religion passim, impiety Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
religion passim, priest(hood) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
religion passim, sacrifice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219
rhetoric, declamation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236, 237
rhetoric, hypothesis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236, 237
rhetoric, irony Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236, 237
rhetoric, second sophistic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 236, 237
roman empire, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
roman empire as a unit Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
rome Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
serapis, egyptian god Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
smyrna' Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 198
smyrna Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 219, 236, 237
sojourning Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 233
temptation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
tertullian Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
textual variation, in mart. pol. Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
theology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 237
tibur, hadrians villa, canopus Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
tibur, hadrians villa, piazza doro Rizzi, Hadrian and the Christians (2010) 146
warfare, military, battle Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
world, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 294