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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



600
Anon., Marytrdom Of Polycarp, 10.1-10.2


nan1 But when he persisted again, and said: "Swear by the genius of Caesar," he answered him: "If you vainly suppose that I will swear by the genius of Caesar, as you say, and pretend that you are ignorant who I am, listen plainly: I am a Christian. And if you wish to learn the doctrine of Christianity fix a day and listen.


nan2 The Pro-Consul said: "Persuade the people." And Polycarp said: "You I should have held worthy of discussion, for we have been taught to render honour, as is meet, if it hurt us not, to princes and authorities appointed by God. But as for those, I do not count them worthy that a defence should be made to them.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.33. וַיַּעַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה בְּבֵית־אֵל בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בַּחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּדָא מלבד [מִלִּבּוֹ] וַיַּעַשׂ חָג לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהַקְטִיר׃ 12.33. And he went up unto the altar which he had made in Beth-el on the fifteenth day in the eighth month, even in the month which he had devised of his own heart; and he ordained a feast for the children of Israel, and went up unto the altar, to offer."
2. Aristotle, Rhetoric, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 32.29, 32.31 (1st cent. CE

32.31.  Who, pray, could praise a people with such a disposition? Is not that the reason why even to your own rulers you seem rather contemptible? Someone already, according to report, has expressed his opinion of you in these words: "But of the people of Alexandria what can one say, a folk to whom you need only throw plenty of bread and a ticket to the hippodrome, since they have no interest in anything else?" Why, inasmuch as, in case a leading citizen misbehaves publicly in the sight of all, you will visit him with your contempt and regard him as a worthless fellow, no matter if he has authority a thousand times as great as yours, you yourselves cannot succeed in maintaining a reputation for dignity and seriousness so long as you are guilty of like misconduct.
4. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.3. A Christian hath no authority over himself, but giveth his time to God. This is God's work, and yours also, when ye shall complete it: for I trust in the Divine grace, that ye are ready for an act of well- doing which is meet for God. Knowing the fervour of your sincerity, I have exhorted you in a short letter.
5. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
6. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.2. Let nothing glitter in your eyes apart from Him, in whom I carry about my bonds, my spiritual pearls in which I would fain rise again through your prayer, whereof may it be my lot to be always a partaker, that I may be found in the company of those Christians of Ephesus who moreover were ever of one mind with the Apostles in the power of Jesus Christ.
7. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 10.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.1. Therefore let us not be insensible to His goodness. For if He should imitate us according to our deeds, we are lost. For this cause, seeing that we are become His disciples, let us learn to live as beseemeth Christianity. For whoso is called by another name besides this, is not of God. 10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
8. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
9. Ignatius, To The Romans, 3.2-3.3, 5.2-5.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. Only pray that I may have power within and without, so that I may not only say it but also desire it; that I may not only be called a Christian, but also be found one. For if I shall be found so, then can I also be called one, and be faithful then, when I am no more visible to the world. 3.3. Nothing visible is good. For our God Jesus Christ, being in the Father, is the more plainly visible. The Work is not of persuasiveness, but Christianity is a thing of might, whensoever it is hated by the world. 5.2. May I have joy of the beasts that have been prepared for me; and I pray that I may find them prompt; nay I will entice them that they may devour me promptly, not as they have done to some, refusing to touch them through fear. Yea though of themselves they should not be willing while I am ready, I myself will force them to it. 5.3. Bear with me. I know what is expedient for me. Now am I beginning to be a disciple. May nought of things visible and things invisible envy me; that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Come fire and cross and grapplings with wild beasts, [cuttings and manglings,] wrenching of bones, hacking of limbs, crushings of my whole body, come cruel tortures of the devil to assail me. Only be it mine to attain unto Jesus Christ.
10. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. I exhort you therefore -- yet not I, but the love of Jesus Christ -- take ye only Christian food, and abstain from strange herbage, which is heresy:
11. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia 4.16. But if one of you suffers for being a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God in this matter.
12. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.7-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. so that you became an example to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. 1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God
13. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. This you know, that all who are in Asia turned away from me; of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes.
15. New Testament, Acts, 11.26, 13.4, 18.12, 19.10, 23.34, 26.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 13.4. So, being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they went down to Seleucia. From there they sailed to Cyprus. 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat 19.10. This continued for two years, so that all those who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. 23.34. When the governor had read it, he asked what province he was from. When he understood that he was from Cilicia, he said 26.28. Agrippa said to Paul, "With a little persuasion are you trying to make me a Christian?
16. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 17.14, 19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 17.14. These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful. 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns!
17. New Testament, John, 19.12, 19.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.12. At this, Pilate was seeking to release him, but the Jews cried out, saying, "If you release this man, you aren't Caesar's friend! Everyone who makes himself a king speaks against Caesar! 19.36. For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, "A bone of him will not be broken.
18. New Testament, Luke, 2.2, 23.20, 23.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 23.20. Then Pilate spoke to them again, wanting to release Jesus 23.47. When the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous man.
19. New Testament, Mark, 15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
20. New Testament, Matthew, 4.24, 27.14, 27.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.24. The report about him went out into all Syria. They brought to him all who were sick, afflicted with various diseases and torments, possessed with demons, epileptics, and paralytics; and he healed them. 27.14. He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. 27.54. Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God.
21. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 1.1-1.2, 2.3, 3.1-3.2, 5.1-5.2, 6.1-6.2, 7.2-7.3, 8.1-8.2, 9.1-9.3, 10.2, 11.2, 12.1-12.3, 13.2, 14.1-14.3, 16.1-16.2, 17.1-17.2, 18.1-18.3, 19.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. 1 We write to you, brethren, the story of the martyrs and of the blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the persecution by his martyrdom as though adding the seal. For one might almost say that all that had gone before happened in order that the Lord might show to us from above a martyrdom in accordance with the Gospel. 1.2. 2 For he waited to be betrayed as also the Lord had done, that we too might become his imitators, "not thinking of ourselves alone, but also of our neighbours." For it is the mark of true and steadfast love, not to wish that oneself may be saved alone, but all the brethren also. 2.3. 3 And paying heed to the grace of Christ they despised worldly tortures, by a single hour purchasing everlasting life. And the fire of their cruel torturers had no heat for them, for they set before their eyes an escape from the fire which is everlasting and is never quenched, and with the eyes of their heart they looked up to the good things which are preserved for those who have endured, `which neither ear hath heard nor hath eye seen, nor hath it entered into the heart of man,' but it was shown by the Lord to them who were no longer men but already angels. 3.1. 1 But thanks be to God, for he had no power over any. For the most noble Germanicus encouraged their fears by the endurance which was in him, and he fought gloriously with the wild beasts. For when the Pro-Consul wished to persuade him and bade him have pity on his youth, he violently dragged the beast towards himself, wishing to be released more quickly from their unrighteous and lawless life. 3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for. 5.1. 1 But the most wonderful Polycarp, when he first heard it, was not disturbed, but wished to remain in the city; but the majority persuaded him to go away quietly, and he went out quietly to a farm, not far distant from the city, and stayed with a few friends, doing nothing but pray night and day for all, and for the Churches throughout the world, as was his custom. 5.2. 2 And while he was praying he fell into a trance three days before he was arrested, and saw the pillow under his head burning with fire, and he turned and said to those who were with him: "I must be burnt alive. 6.1. 1 And when the searching for him persisted he went to another farm; and those who were searching for him came up at once, and when they did not find him, they arrested young slaves, and one of them confessed under torture. 6.2. 2 For it was indeed impossible for him to remain hid, since those who betrayed him were of his own house, and the police captain who had been allotted the very name, being called Herod, hastened to bring him to the arena that he might fulfil his appointed lot by becoming a partaker of Christ, while they who betrayed him should undergo the same punishment as Judas. 7.2. 2 So when he heard that they had arrived he went down and talked with them, while those who were present wondered at his age and courage, and whether there was so much haste for the arrest of an old man of such a kind. Therefore he ordered food and drink to be set before them at that hour, whatever they should wish, and he asked them to give him an hour to pray without hindrance. 7.3. 3 To this they assented, and he stood and prayed -- thus filled with the grace of God -- so that for two hours he could not be silent, and those who listened were astounded, and many repented that they had come against such a venerable old man. 8.1. 1 Now when he had at last finished his prayer, after remembering all who had ever even come his way, both small and great, high and low, and the whole Catholic Church throughout the world, the hour came for departure, and they set him on an ass, and led him into the city, on a "great Sabbath day. 8.2. 2 And the police captain Herod and his father Niketas met him and removed him into their carriage, and sat by his side trying to persuade him and saying: "But what harm is it to say, `Lord Caesar,' and to offer sacrifice, and so forth, and to be saved?" But he at first did not answer them, but when they continued he said: "I am not going to do what you counsel me. 9.1. 1 Now when Polycarp entered into the arena there came a voice from heaven: "Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man." And no one saw the speaker, but our friends who were there heard the voice. And next he was brought forward, and there was a great uproar of those who heard that Polycarp had been arrested. 9.2. 2 Therefore when he was brought forward the Pro-Consul asked him if he were Polycarp, and when he admitted it he tried to persuade him to deny, saying: "Respect your age," and so forth, as they are accustomed to say: "Swear by the genius of Caesar, repent, say: `Away with the Atheists'"; but Polycarp, with a stern countece looked on all the crowd of lawless heathen in the arena, and waving his hand at them, he groaned and looked up to heaven and said: "Away with the Atheists. 9.3. 3 But when the Pro-Consul pressed him and said: "Take the oath and I let you go, revile Christ," Polycarp said: "For eighty and six years have I been his servant, and he has done me no wrong, and how can I blaspheme my King who saved me? 10.2. 2 The Pro-Consul said: "Persuade the people." And Polycarp said: "You I should have held worthy of discussion, for we have been taught to render honour, as is meet, if it hurt us not, to princes and authorities appointed by God. But as for those, I do not count them worthy that a defence should be made to them. 11.2. 2 And he said again to him: "I will cause you to be consumed by fire, if you despise the beasts, unless you repent." But Polycarp said: "You threaten with the fire that burns for a time, and is quickly quenched, for you do not know the fire which awaits the wicked in the judgment to come and in everlasting punishment. But why are you waiting? Come, do what you will. 12.1. 1 And with these and many other words he was filled with courage and joy, and his face was full of grace so that it not only did not fall with trouble at the things said to him, but that the Pro-Consul, on the other hand, was astounded and sent his herald into the midst of the arena to announce three times: "Polycarp has confessed that he is a Christian. 12.2. 2 When this had been said by the herald, all the multitude of heathen and Jews living in Smyrna cried out with uncontrollable wrath and a loud shout: "This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the destroyer of our Gods, who teaches many neither to offer sacrifice nor to worship." And when they said this, they cried out and asked Philip the Asiarch to let loose a lion on Polycarp. But he said he could not legally do this, since he had closed the Sports. 12.3. 3 Then they found it good to cry out with one mind that he should burn Polycarp alive, for the vision which had appeared to him on his pillow must be fulfilled, when he saw it burning, while he was praying, and he turned and said prophetically to those of the faithful who were with him, "I must be burnt alive. 13.2. 2 Now when the fire was ready he put off all his clothes, and loosened his girdle and tried also to take off his shoes, though he did not do this before, because each of the faithful was always zealous, which of them might the more quickly touch his flesh. For he had been treated with all respect because of his noble life, even before his martyrdom. 14.1. 1 So they did not nail him, but bound him, and he put his hands behind him and was bound, as a noble ram out of a great flock, for an oblation, a whole burnt offering made ready and acceptable to God; and he looked up to heaven and said: "O Lord God Almighty, Father of thy beloved and blessed Child, Jesus Christ, through Whom we have received full knowledge of thee, the God of Angels and powers, and of all creation, and of the whole family of the righteous, who live before thee! 14.2. 2 I bless thee, that Thou hast granted me this day and hour, that I may share, among the number of the martyrs, in the cup of thy Christ, for the Resurrection to everlasting life, both of soul and body in the immortality of the Holy Spirit. And may I, to-day, be received among them before Thee, as a rich and acceptable sacrifice, as Thou, the God who lies not and is truth, hast prepared beforehand, and shown forth, and fulfilled. 14.3. 3 For this reason I also praise Thee for all things, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee through the everlasting and heavenly high Priest, Jesus Christ, thy beloved Child, through whom be glory to Thee with him and the Holy Spirit, both now and for the ages that are to come, Amen. 16.1. 1 At length the lawless men, seeing that his body could not be consumed by the fire, commanded an executioner to go up and stab him with a dagger, and when he did this, there came out a dove, and much blood, so that the fire was quenched and all the crowd marvelled that there was such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect. 16.2. 2 And of the elect was he indeed one, the wonderful martyr, Polycarp, who in our days was an apostolic and prophetic teacher, bishop of the Catholic Church in Smyrna. For every word which he uttered from his mouth both was fulfilled and will be fulfilled. 17.1. 1 But the jealous and envious evil one who resists the family of the righteous, when he saw the greatness of his martyrdom, and his blameless career from the beginning, and that he was crowned with the crown of immortality, and had carried off the unspeakable prize, took care that not even his poor body should be taken away by us, though many desired to do so, and to have fellowship with his holy flesh. 17.2. 2 Therefore he put forward Niketas, the father of Herod, and the brother of Alce, to ask the Governor not to give his body, "Lest," he said, "they leave the crucified one and begin to worship this man." And they said this owing to the suggestions and pressure of the Jews, who also watched when we were going to take it from the fire, for they do not know that we shall not ever be able either to abandon Christ, who suffered for the salvation of those who are being saved in the whole world, the innocent for sinners, or to worship any other. 18.1. 1 When therefore the centurion saw the contentiousness caused by the Jews, he put the body in the midst, as was their custom, and burnt it. 18.2. 2 Thus we, at last, took up his bones, more precious than precious stones, and finer than gold, and put them where it was meet. 18.3. 3 There the Lord will permit us to come together according to our power in gladness and joy, and celebrate the birthday of his martyrdom, both in memory of those who have already contested, and for the practice and training of those whose fate it shall be. 19.1. 1 Such was the lot of the blessed Polycarp, who though he was, together with those from Philadelphia, the twelfth martyr in Smyrna, is alone especially remembered by all, so that he is spoken of in every place, even by the heathen. He was not only a famous teacher, but also a notable martyr, whose martyrdom all desire to imitate, for it followed the Gospel of Christ.
23. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.21.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24. Justin, First Apology, 4.5, 12.9, 16.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. And when you hear that we look for a kingdom, you suppose, without making any inquiry, that we speak of a human kingdom; whereas we speak of that which is with God, as appears also from the confession of their faith made by those who are charged with being Christians, though they know that death is the punishment awarded to him who so confesses. For if we looked for a human kingdom, we should also deny our Christ, that we might not be slain; and we should strive to escape detection, that we might obtain what we expect. But since our thoughts are not fixed on the present, we are not concerned when men cut us off; since also death is a debt which must at all events be paid.
25. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 35.3-35.6, 63.5, 80.2-80.5, 110.5, 117.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 13-14, 12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 537, 539-540, 543-544, 583, 626, 529 (2nd cent. CE

28. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.3.2, 1.8.9-1.8.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Tertullian, To Scapula, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 1.1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Tertullian, Apology, 2.6, 21.24, 32.1, 50.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 13.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 7.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1.8-5.1.10, 5.1.14, 5.1.17, 5.1.19, 5.1.23-5.1.24, 5.1.29, 5.1.35-5.1.37, 5.1.41-5.1.42, 5.1.45-5.1.49, 5.1.53, 5.1.55-5.1.56, 5.1.59-5.1.63 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.1.8. Then, being taken to the forum by the chiliarch and the authorities of the city, they were examined in the presence of the whole multitude, and having confessed, they were imprisoned until the arrival of the governor. 5.1.9. When, afterwards, they were brought before him, and he treated us with the utmost cruelty, Vettius Epagathus, one of the brethren, and a man filled with love for God and his neighbor, interfered. His life was so consistent that, although young, he had attained a reputation equal to that of the elder Zacharias: for he 'walked in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord blameless,' and was untiring in every good work for his neighbor, zealous for God and fervent in spirit. Such being his character, he could not endure the unreasonable judgment against us, but was filled with indignation, and asked to be permitted to testify in behalf of his brethren, that there is among us nothing ungodly or impious. 5.1.10. But those about the judgment seat cried out against him, for he was a man of distinction; and the governor refused to grant his just request, and merely asked if he also were a Christian. And he, confessing this with a loud voice, was himself taken into the order of the witnesses, being called the Advocate of the Christians, but having the Advocate in himself, the Spirit more abundantly than Zacharias. He showed this by the fullness of his love, being well pleased even to lay down his life in defense of the brethren. For he was and is a true disciple of Christ, 'following the Lamb wherever he goes.' 5.1.14. And some of our heathen servants also were seized, as the governor had commanded that all of us should be examined publicly. These, being ensnared by Satan, and fearing for themselves the tortures which they beheld the saints endure, and being also urged on by the soldiers, accused us falsely of Thyestean banquets and Oedipodean intercourse, and of deeds which are not only unlawful for us to speak of or to think, but which we cannot believe were ever done by men. 5.1.17. But the whole wrath of the populace, and governor, and soldiers was aroused exceedingly against Sanctus, the deacon from Vienne, and Maturus, a late convert, yet a noble combatant, and against Attalus, a native of Pergamos where he had always been a pillar and foundation, and Blandina, through whom Christ showed that things which appear mean and obscure and despicable to men are with God of great glory, through love toward him manifested in power, and not boasting in appearance. 5.1.19. But the blessed woman, like a noble athlete, renewed her strength in her confession; and her comfort and recreation and relief from the pain of her sufferings was in exclaiming, 'I am a Christian, and there is nothing vile done by us.' 5.1.23. And his body was a witness of his sufferings, being one complete wound and bruise, drawn out of shape, and altogether unlike a human form. Christ, suffering in him, manifested his glory, delivering him from his adversary, and making him an ensample for the others, showing that nothing is fearful where the love of the Father is, and nothing painful where there is the glory of Christ. 5.1.24. For when the wicked men tortured him a second time after some days, supposing that with his body swollen and inflamed to such a degree that he could not bear the touch of a hand, if they should again apply the same instruments, they would overcome him, or at least by his death under his sufferings others would be made afraid, not only did not this occur, but, contrary to all human expectation, his body arose and stood erect in the midst of the subsequent torments, and resumed its original appearance and the use of its limbs, so that, through the grace of Christ, these second sufferings became to him, not torture, but healing. 5.1.29. The blessed Pothinus, who had been entrusted with the bishopric of Lyons, was dragged to the judgment seat. He was more than ninety years of age, and very infirm, scarcely indeed able to breathe because of physical weakness; but he was strengthened by spiritual zeal through his earnest desire for martyrdom. Though his body was worn out by old age and disease, his life was preserved that Christ might triumph in it. 5.1.35. For the first went out rejoicing, glory and grace being blended in their faces, so that even their bonds seemed like beautiful ornaments, as those of a bride adorned with variegated golden fringes; and they were perfumed with the sweet savor of Christ, so that some supposed they had been anointed with earthly ointment. But the others were downcast and humble and dejected and filled with every kind of disgrace, and they were reproached by the heathen as ignoble and weak, bearing the accusation of murderers, and having lost the one honorable and glorious and life-giving Name. The rest, beholding this, were strengthened, and when apprehended, they confessed without hesitation, paying no attention to the persuasions of the devil. 5.1.36. After certain other words they continue:After these things, finally, their martyrdoms were divided into every form. For plaiting a crown of various colors and of all kinds of flowers, they presented it to the Father. It was proper therefore that the noble athletes, having endured a manifold strife, and conquered grandly, should receive the crown, great and incorruptible. 5.1.37. Maturus, therefore, and Sanctus and Blandina and Attalus were led to the amphitheater to be exposed to the wild beasts, and to give to the heathen public a spectacle of cruelty, a day for fighting with wild beasts being specially appointed on account of our people. 5.1.41. But Blandina was suspended on a stake, and exposed to be devoured by the wild beasts who should attack her. And because she appeared as if hanging on a cross, and because of her earnest prayers, she inspired the combatants with great zeal. For they looked on her in her conflict, and beheld with their outward eyes, in the form of their sister, him who was crucified for them, that he might persuade those who believe in him, that every one who suffers for the glory of Christ has fellowship always with the living God. 5.1.42. As none of the wild beasts at that time touched her, she was taken down from the stake, and cast again into prison. She was preserved thus for another contest, that, being victorious in more conflicts, she might make the punishment of the crooked serpent irrevocable; and, though small and weak and despised, yet clothed with Christ the mighty and conquering Athlete, she might arouse the zeal of the brethren, and, having overcome the adversary many times might receive, through her conflict, the crown incorruptible. 5.1.45. But the intervening time was not wasted nor fruitless to them; for by their patience the measureless compassion of Christ was manifested. For through their continued life the dead were made alive, and the witnesses showed favor to those who had failed to witness. And the virgin mother had much joy in receiving alive those whom she had brought forth as dead. 5.1.46. For through their influence many who had denied were restored, and re-begotten, and rekindled with life, and learned to confess. And being made alive and strengthened, they went to the judgment seat to be again interrogated by the governor; God, who desires not the death of the sinner, but mercifully invites to repentance, treating them with kindness. 5.1.47. For Caesar commanded that they should be put to death, but that any who might deny should be set free. Therefore, at the beginning of the public festival which took place there, and which was attended by crowds of men from all nations, the governor brought the blessed ones to the judgment seat, to make of them a show and spectacle for the multitude. Wherefore also he examined them again, and beheaded those who appeared to possess Roman citizenship, but he sent the others to the wild beasts. 5.1.48. And Christ was glorified greatly in those who had formerly denied him, for, contrary to the expectation of the heathen, they confessed. For they were examined by themselves, as about to be set free; but confessing, they were added to the order of the witnesses. But some continued without, who had never possessed a trace of faith, nor any apprehension of the wedding garment, nor an understanding of the fear of God; but, as sons of perdition, they blasphemed the Way through their apostasy. 5.1.49. But all the others were added to the Church. While these were being examined, a certain Alexander, a Phrygian by birth, and physician by profession, who had resided in Gaul for many years, and was well known to all on account of his love to God and boldness of speech (for he was not without a share of apostolic grace), standing before the judgment seat, and by signs encouraging them to confess, appeared to those standing by as if in travail. 5.1.53. After all these, on the last day of the contests, Blandina was again brought in, with Ponticus, a boy about fifteen years old. They had been brought every day to witness the sufferings of the others, and had been pressed to swear by the idols. But because they remained steadfast and despised them, the multitude became furious, so that they had no compassion for the youth of the boy nor respect for the sex of the woman. 5.1.55. But the blessed Blandina, last of all, having, as a noble mother, encouraged her children and sent them before her victorious to the King, endured herself all their conflicts and hastened after them, glad and rejoicing in her departure as if called to a marriage supper, rather than cast to wild beasts. 5.1.56. And, after the scourging, after the wild beasts, after the roasting seat, she was finally enclosed in a net, and thrown before a bull. And having been tossed about by the animal, but feeling none of the things which were happening to her, on account of her hope and firm hold upon what had been entrusted to her, and her communion with Christ, she also was sacrificed. And the heathen themselves confessed that never among them had a woman endured so many and such terrible tortures. 5.1.59. For they cast to the dogs those who had died of suffocation in the prison, carefully guarding them by night and day, lest any one should be buried by us. And they exposed the remains left by the wild beasts and by fire, mangled and charred, and placed the heads of the others by their bodies, and guarded them in like manner from burial by a watch of soldiers for many days. 5.1.60. And some raged and gnashed their teeth against them, desiring to execute more severe vengeance upon them; but others laughed and mocked at them, magnifying their own idols, and imputed to them the punishment of the Christians. Even the more reasonable, and those who had seemed to sympathize somewhat, reproached them often, saying, 'Where is their God, and what has their religion, which they have chosen rather than life, profited them?' 5.1.61. So various was their conduct toward us; but we were in deep affliction because we could not bury the bodies. For neither did night avail us for this purpose, nor did money persuade, nor entreaty move to compassion; but they kept watch in every way, as if the prevention of the burial would be of some great advantage to them.In addition, they say after other things: 5.1.62. The bodies of the martyrs, having thus in every manner been exhibited and exposed for six days, were afterward burned and reduced to ashes, and swept into the Rhone by the wicked men, so that no trace of them might appear on the earth. 5.1.63. And this they did, as if able to conquer God, and prevent their new birth; 'that,' as they said, 'they may have no hope of a resurrection, through trust in which they bring to us this foreign and new religion, and despise terrible things, and are ready even to go to death with joy. Now let us see if they will rise again, and if their God is able to help them, and to deliver them out of our hands.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acta martyrum, acts of the martyrs Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229, 230
alexandria (egypt) Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
animal Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
antitheses, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 410
art, sculpture Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
biography (lives) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
body, blood Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
body Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
christian (cristianî) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 253, 256
christian citizenship Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
christianity, relationship to rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
christianity = cristianismî, christians, graeco-roman views of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
christianity = cristianismî Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 256
circumcision, citizenship, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
conflict Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
decius, decree/persecution of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
definition Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
dove Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
egypt, egyptian Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 230
emperor, emperor cult Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
emperor Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
emperor cult, emperor worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
empire, imperial, imperial cult Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
ethnicity, and christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
evaristus Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 207
faith Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
faith in jesus, confession of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1, 253, 256
friendship, friend Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
genius (of the emperor) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
gladiator Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229, 230
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
heresy, heretics Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
ignatios of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
ignatius of antioch, martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
jesus, and polycarp Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
jesus, as teacher Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 207
jesus/christ Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
jesus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
judaism, as opposed to christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
judaism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
justin martyr Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
king, emperor, antoninus pius Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
king, emperor, caracalla Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
king Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
kurios, kyrios Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
labelling Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 410
law, biblical and creation Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 410
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
lyons, site of persecution of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
manuscripts, polycarps character Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 236
marcion Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
marcus aurelius Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
martyr acts Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 253, 256
martyrdom, martyr, roman empire, imperial power Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
martyrdom Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
martyrs, acts of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
martyrs, martyrdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229, 230
martyrs Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 253, 256
montanism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
name Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
nature, natural phenomena, sun Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
oath, vow Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
oath Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
old testament Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 410
pantainos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
pastoral epistles, the, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 207
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
persecution, history of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
persecution, lyons in Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
persecution Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
phileas Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
philistines, philosophy, christianity as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
philomelium Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
philosophy Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 230
pilate Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
plato Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
pliny the younger Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
polycarp, as christlike Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
polycarp, martyrdom Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
polycarp, martyrdom of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183; Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 207
polycarp, trial Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 181
polycarp Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 1
polycarpe (martyr, martyrdom of) Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
prophecy Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 410
race, christians as Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 256
religion passim, imperial or royal cult Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
religion passim, temple, shrine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
rhetoric, declamation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
rhetoric, encomium Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
rhetoric, hypothesis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
rhetoric, irony Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236
rhetoric, second sophistic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
rhetoric Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222
roman empire, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
roman empire as a unit Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
rome, persecution of christianity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229, 230
rusticus, q. junius Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
sacrifice, sacrificial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
sacrifice Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
savior Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229
scilli, site of persecution Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
smyrna Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 222, 236
syria Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 97
tertullian Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 178
translation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 229, 230
trials' Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 183
valentinus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 267
vienne, site of persecution Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 244
warfare, military, battle Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 236