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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



647
Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 30.2
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

54 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 6.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners?
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.20. But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings; and ye shall go forth, and gambol as calves of the stall."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 16.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.11. תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח׃ 16.11. Thou makest me to know the path of life; In Thy presence is fulness of joy, In Thy right hand bliss for evermore."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.9. מַדּוּעַ בָּזִיתָ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בעינו [בְּעֵינַי] אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי הִכִּיתָ בַחֶרֶב וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ לָקַחְתָּ לְּךָ לְאִשָּׁה וְאֹתוֹ הָרַגְתָּ בְּחֶרֶב בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 12.9. Why hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriyya the Ĥittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of ῾Ammon."
6. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.12-28.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.12. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.12. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty," 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 29.3 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.3. וְעוֹד בִּרְצוֹתִי בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי יֶשׁ־לִי סְגֻלָּה זָהָב וָכָסֶף נָתַתִּי לְבֵית־אֱלֹהַי לְמַעְלָה מִכָּל־הֲכִינוֹתִי לְבֵית הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 29.3. עִם כָּל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וּגְבוּרָתוֹ וְהָעִתִּים אֲשֶׁר עָבְרוּ עָלָיו וְעַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל כָּל־מַמְלְכוֹת הָאֲרָצוֹת׃ 29.3. Moreover also, because I have set my affection on the house of my God, seeing that I have a treasure of mine own of gold and silver, I give it unto the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house,"
9. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.1, 2.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. יֵשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיֹּאמַר רְאֵה־זֶה חָדָשׁ הוּא כְּבָר הָיָה לְעֹלָמִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה מִלְּפָנֵנוּ׃ 1.1. דִּבְרֵי קֹהֶלֶת בֶּן־דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.8. כָּנַסְתִּי לִי גַּם־כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּסְגֻלַּת מְלָכִים וְהַמְּדִינוֹת עָשִׂיתִי לִי שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת׃ 1.1. THE WORDs OF the Koheleth, the son of David, king in Jerusalem." 2.8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and treasure such as kings and the provinces have as their own; I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, women very many."
10. Herodotus, Histories, 8.26 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.26. There had come to them a few deserters, men of Arcadia, lacking a livelihood and desirous to find some service. Bringing these men into the king's presence, the Persians inquired of them what the Greeks were doing, there being one who put this question in the name of all. ,When the Arcadians told them that the Greeks were holding the Olympic festival and viewing sports and horseraces, the Persian asked what was the prize offered, for which they contended. They told him of the crown of olive that was given to the victor. Then Tigranes son of Artabanus uttered a most noble saying (but the king deemed him a coward for it); ,when he heard that the prize was not money but a crown, he could not hold his peace, but cried, “Good heavens, Mardonius, what kind of men are these that you have pitted us against? It is not for money they contend but for glory of achievement!” Such was Tigranes' saying.
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: ' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 16.30-16.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.30. And, as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven sheep, and seven he-goats, and their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings; 16.31. and he burnt all the fat thereof on the altar, a chosen offering unto the Lord for a sweet smelling savour.
13. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 13.37, 13.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.37. We have received the gold crown and the palm branch which you sent, and we are ready to make a general peace with you and to write to our officials to grant you release from tribute. 13.51. On the twenty-third day of the second month, in the one hundred and seventy-first year, the Jews entered it with praise and palm branches, and with harps and cymbals and stringed instruments, and with hymns and songs, because a great enemy had been crushed and removed from Israel.
14. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.7, 10.7, 14.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.7. On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 14.4. and went to King Demetrius in about the one hundred and fifty-first year, presenting to him a crown of gold and a palm, and besides these some of the customary olive branches from the temple. During that day he kept quiet.'
15. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.29, 7.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.29. those who are registered are also to be branded on their bodies by fire with the ivy-leaf symbol of Dionysus, and they shall also be reduced to their former limited status. 7.16. But those who had held fast to God even to death and had received the full enjoyment of deliverance began their departure from the city, crowned with all sorts of very fragrant flowers, joyfully and loudly giving thanks to the one God of their fathers, the eternal Savior of Israel, in words of praise and all kinds of melodious songs.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. But there are three kinds of life. The first life, to God; the second, with respect to the creature; the third, is on the borders of both, being compounded of the two others. Now, the life to God has not descended to us, and has not come to the necessities of the body. Again, life with respect to the creature has not wholly ascended up to heaven, nor has it sought to ascend, but it lurks in unapproachable recesses, and rejoices in a life which is no life.
17. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
18. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.9. And where [in the service] do they wave [the lulav]? At “Give thanks to the Lord” (Psalm, at the beginning and at the end, and at “O Lord, deliver us” (118:25), the words of Bet Hillel. Bet Shammai say: also at “O Lord, let us prosper.” Rabbi Akiva says: I was watching Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua, and while all the people were waving their lulavs [at “O Lord, let us prosper”] they waved them only at “O Lord deliver us.” One who was on a journey and had no lulav to take, when he enters his house he should take it [even if he is] at his table. If he did not take the lulav in the morning, he should take it at any time before dusk, since the whole day is valid for [taking] the lulav."
19. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.8-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. but of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. 1.9. You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows.
20. New Testament, John, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!
21. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.20-7.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 58.1, 77.3, 80.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

58.1. וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה (בראשית כג, א), (תהלים לז, יח): יוֹדֵעַ ה' יְמֵי תְמִימִם וְנַחֲלָתָם לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵן תְּמִימִים כָּךְ שְׁנוֹתָם תְּמִימִים, בַּת עֶשְׂרִים כְּבַת שֶׁבַע לְנוֹי, בַּת מֵאָה כְּבַת עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה לְחֵטְא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, יוֹדֵעַ ה' יְמֵי תְמִימִם, זוֹ שָׂרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה תְּמִימָה בְּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כַּהֲדָא עֶגְלְתָא תְּמִימָה, וְנַחֲלָתָם לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה, מַה צֹּרֶךְ לוֹמַר שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁחָבִיב חַיֵּיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְלָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. 77.3. רַבִּי חָמָא בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר שָׂרוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו הָיָה, הוּא דַּהֲוָה אָמַר לֵיהּ (בראשית לג, י): כִּי עַל כֵּן רָאִיתִי פָנֶיךָ כִּרְאֹת פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים וַתִּרְצֵנִי, מָשָׁל לְאַתְּלֵיטוֹס שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד וּמִתְגּוֹשֵׁשׁ עִם בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, תָּלָה עֵינָיו וְרָאָה אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו וְהִרְפִּישׁ עַצְמוֹ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית לב, כו): וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וַיַּרְא בַּשְּׁכִינָה כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים מִי נָצַח אִם מַלְאָךְ אִם יַעֲקֹב, וּמִן מַה דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לב, כה): וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ, הֱוֵי מִי נִתְמַלֵּא אָבָק הָאִישׁ שֶׁעִמּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא בָּא אֵלֶיךָ וַחֲמִשָּׁה קְמֵיעִין בְּיָדוֹ, זְכוּתוֹ, וּזְכוּת אָבִיו, זְכוּת אִמּוֹ, וּזְכוּת זְקֵנוֹ, וּזְכוּת זְקֶנְתּוֹ. מְדֹד עַצְמְךָ אִם אַתָּה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד אֲפִלּוּ בִּזְכוּתוֹ, מִיָּד, וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ כֶּלֶב אַגְרִיּוֹן וַאֲרִי נֵמִירוֹן, וְהָיָה הַמֶּלֶךְ נוֹטֵל אֶת בְּנוֹ וּמְלַבְּבוֹ בָּאֲרִי, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא הַכֶּלֶב לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לוֹ יֹאמַר לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲרִי לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ וְאַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לוֹ. כָּךְ שֶׁאִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, יֹאמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שַׂרְכֶם לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ וְאַתֶּם מְבַקְּשִׁים לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְבָנָיו. (בראשית לב, כו): וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף יְרֵכוֹ, נָגַע בַּצַּדִּיקִים וּבַצַּדִּיקוֹת בַּנְּבִיאִים וּבַנְּבִיאוֹת שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד מִמֶּנּוּ, וְאֵיזֶה זֶה, זֶה דוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד. (בראשית לב, כו): וַתֵּקַע כַּף יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר שְׁעָיָא, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַסֵּי אָמַר סִידְקָהּ כְּדָג. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יַעֲקֹב אָמַר פֵּרְשָׁהּ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ, כְּדִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כג, יח): וַתֵּקַע נַפְשִׁי וגו' כַּאֲשֶׁר נָקְעָה נַפְשִׁי, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן פּוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה, מָגִינֵיהּ דְּדֵין לָקֳבֵל מָגִינֵיהּ דְּדֵין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר (בראשית לב, כז): וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר. 80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 77.3. Rabbi Chama bar Chanina said, \"He was the ministering angel of Esav. And that is [what he meant] when he said to him, 'For this have I seen your face as I saw the face of God and you have accepted me' (Genesis 33:10). There is a parable about an athlete that got up and wrestled with the son of the king. He lifted his eyes and he saw that the king was standing behind him and [so] he fell to the ground in front of [the son]. This is what [is meant by that which] is written, 'and he saw that he could not overcome him.'\" Rabbi Levi said, \"'And he saw' the Divine Presence 'and he could not overcome him.'\" Said Rabbi Berachia, \"We do not know who won, whether it was the angel or whether it was Yakov. And from that which it is written, 'and a man wrestled ( ivayitabek /i, the root of which contains the letters that spell dust) with him,' prove who was covered in dust - the man that was with him.' Said Rabbi Chaya bar Yitschak, \"The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, 'He is coming against you and he has five charms in his hand: his merit, the merit of his father, the merit of his mother, the merit of his grandfather, and the merit of his grandmother - measure yourself [and see] if you can stand even against his merit.' Immediately, 'And he saw and he could not overcome him.' There is a parable of a king that had a wild dog and a tamed lion. And the king took his son and endeared him to the lion, [such that] if the dog would take him on, the king would say to him, 'The lion was not able to stand in front of him and you want to take him on?' So [too], if the nations of the world will come to take on Israel, the Holy One, blessed be He, will say to them, 'Your ministering angel was not able to stand in front of him and you want to take on his children?'\" \"And he touched the hollow of his thigh\" - he touched the righteous men and women, the prophets and prophetesses, which were to arise from him in the future. And which is this? The generation of persecution ( ishemad /i). \"And he touched the hollow of Yakov's thigh\" - Rabbi Berachia and Rabbi Eliezer [disagreed about this]: Rabbi Eliezer said, \"He pressed it down.\" Rabbi Berachia said in the name of Rabbi Assi, \"He split it like a fish.\" Rabbi Nachman bar Yakov said, \"He separated it from its place, as it is written (Ezekiel 23:18), 'and my soul was separated etc... like my soul was separated' [in which the context shows that the verb for touching also means separating].\" Said Rabbi Chanina bar Yitschak, \"That whole night both of them were striking each other, the shield of this one across from the shield of that one. Once the sun rose, 'And he said, send me away from here as the sun has risen.'"
24. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 3.7, 7.2, 13.3, 22.1, 28.1, 29.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.2. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה וגו' (תהלים נא, יט), זַבְדִּי בֶּן לֵוִי וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן פֶּטְרָס וְרַבָּנָן, חַד אָמַר, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי כָּבַשְׁתִּי אֶת יִצְרִי וְעָשִׂיתִי תְּשׁוּבָה לְפָנֶיךָ, אִם אַתָּה מְקַבְּלֵנִי בִּתְשׁוּבָה הֲרֵי יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁלֹמֹה בְּנִי עוֹמֵד וּבוֹנֶה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבוֹנֶה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְטִיר עָלָיו אֶת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. וָחֳרָנָא אָמַר מִנַיִן לְמִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁמַּעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ עָלָה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבָנָה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבָנָה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְרִיב עָלָיו כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה, וְרַבָּנִין אָמְרֵי מִנַּיִן לְעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר עֲבוֹדָה וְקָרְבָּנוֹת וְלָשֹׁחַ, מִן הֲדָא בִּרְכָתָא, רְצֵה אֱלֹהֵינוּ שְׁכֹן בְּצִיּוֹן מְהֵרָה יַעַבְדוּךָ בָּנֶיךָ. אִית דְּבָעֵי מַשְׁמַעְנָא מִן הֲדָא, זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן כָּל מַה שֶׁפָּסַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּבְהֵמָה הִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם, פָּסַל בִּבְהֵמָה (ויקרא כב, כב): עֲוֶרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת, וְהִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם (תהלים נא, יט): לֵב נִשְׁבָּר וְנִדְכֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי הַהֶדְיוֹט הַזֶּה אִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ הוּא בְּכֵלִים שְׁבוּרִים גְּנַאי הוּא לוֹ, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּלֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ שְׁבוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לד, יט): קָרוֹב ה' לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי לֵב, (תהלים קמז, ג): הָרוֹפֵא לִשְׁבוּרֵי לֵב, (ישעיה נז, טו): וְאֶת דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל רוּחַ. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה לֵב נִשְׁבָּר, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוּדָא בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר, וּבָא אוֹהֲבוֹ וְכִבְּדוֹ בְּכַלְכָּלָה אַחַת שֶׁל תְּאֵנִים וְחָבִית אַחַת שֶׁל יַיִן, אָמַר לוֹ זֶה כִּבּוּד גָּדוֹל, אָמַר לוֹ אֲדוֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ לְפִי שָׁעָה כִּבַּדְתִּיךָ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאַתָּה נִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ פָּלָטִין שֶׁלְךָ, אַתָּה רוֹאֶה כַּמָּה אֲנִי מְכַבְּדֶךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה, אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים לְפִי שָׁעָה הִקְרַבְנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, אֲבָל לִכְשֶׁתֵּיטִיב (תהלים נא, כ כא): בִּרְצוֹנְךָ אֶת צִיּוֹן תִּבְנֶה חוֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, אָז תַּחְפֹּץ זִבְחֵי צֶדֶק עֹלָה וְכָלִיל. 13.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֹאת הַבְּהֵמָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי ל, ה): כָּל אִמְרַת אֱלוֹהַּ צְרוּפָה, רַב אָמַר לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶן אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל, ה): מָגֵן הוּא לְכָל הַחֹסִים בּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן כָּל בְּהֵמוֹת וְלִוְיָתָן הֵן קֶנִיגִין שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה קֶנִיגִין שֶׁל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, זוֹכֶה לִרְאוֹתָהּ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, כֵּיצַד הֵם נִשְׁחָטִים, בְּהֵמוֹת נוֹתֵץ לַלִּוְיָתָן בְּקַרְנָיו וְקוֹרְעוֹ, וְלִוְיָתָן נוֹתֵץ לַבְּהֵמוֹת בִּסְנַפִּירָיו וְנוֹחֲרוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים זוֹ שְׁחִיטָה כְּשֵׁרָה הִיא, וְלֹא כָּךְ תָּנִינַן הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּבַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּלְעוֹלָם שׁוֹחֲטִין חוּץ מִמַּגַּל קָצִיר, וְהַמְגֵרָה, וְהַשִּׁנַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן חוֹנְקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (ישעיה נא, ד): תּוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה מֵאִתִּי תֵצֵא, חִדּוּשׁ תּוֹרָה מֵאִתִּי תֵצֵא. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֲרִיסְטוֹן עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת לַעֲבָדָיו הַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל נְבֵלוֹת בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה זוֹכֶה לִרְאוֹתוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ויקרא ז, כד): וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם (ויקרא יא, ב): זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכֵלוּ. 22.1. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב אוֹ עֵז (ויקרא יז, ג), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת ה, ח): וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ בַּכֹּל הִיא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתֶּם רוֹאִים יִתְרוֹן לָעוֹלָם, אַף הֵן בִּכְלַל הֲנָיָיתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הֵן, סִיבָא לְמֶעֱבַד חַבְלָא, סִיבָא לִמְסוֹךְ גַּנַּיָא, (קהלת ה, ח): מֶלֶךְ לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֶלֶךְ וְהוּא שַׁלִּיט מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד, עֲבָדַת אַרְעָא עָבֵיד, לָא עֲבָדַת אַרְעָא וְלָא כְלוּם, לְפִיכָךְ (קהלת ה, ט): אֹהֵב כֶּסֶף לֹא יִשְׂבַּע כֶּסֶף, אוֹהֵב מָמוֹן לֹא יִשְׂבַּע מָמוֹן, (קהלת ה, ט): וְאֹהֵב בֶּהָמוֹן לֹא תְבוּאָה וגו', שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוֹמֶה וּמְהַמֶּה אַחַר הַמָּמוֹן וְקַרְקַע אֵין לוֹ מָה הֲנָאָה יֵשׁ לוֹ. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה, כְּתִיב (יחזקאל כז, כט): וְיָרְדוּ מֵאֳנִיּוֹתֵיהֶם וגו' [על] [אל] הָאָרֶץ יַעֲמֹדוּ, וְכִי אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁעַל הָאָרֶץ הָיוּ עוֹמְדִין, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה סְפִינָתוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד בַּיָּם וְיֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע עַל הָאָרֶץ יַעֲמֹד אִם אֵין לוֹ קַרְקַע אֵין לְךָ הֶבֶל גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ בַּכֹּל הִיא, אֲפִלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן יִתְרוֹן לְמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, כְּגוֹן הִלְכוֹת צִיצִית תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזָה, אַף הֵן בִּכְלַל מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט, י): וַיִּתֵּן ה' אֵלַי אֶת שְׁנֵי לוּחֹת הָאֲבָנִים כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים וַעֲלֵיהֶם כְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר וַעֲלֵיהֶם כְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים, וּכְתִיב (דברים ח, א): כָּל הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי וגו', כָּל כְּכָל, דְּבָרִים הַדְּבָרִים, מִצְוָה הַמִּצְוָה, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה הֲלָכוֹת תַּלְמוּד תּוֹסֶפְתּוֹת אַגָּדוֹת וַאֲפִלּוּ מַה שֶּׁתַּלְמִיד וָתִיק עָתִיד לוֹמַר לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ, כֻּלָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ לְמשֶׁה בְּסִינַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת א, י): יֵשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיֹּאמַר רְאֵה זֶה חָדָשׁ הוּא, חֲבֵרוֹ מֵשִׁיב עָלָיו (קהלת א, י): כְּבָר הָיָה לְעוֹלָמִים. מֶלֶךְ לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: מֶלֶךְ זֶה בַּעַל תַּלְמוּד, לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד זֶה בַּעַל מִשְׁנָה, שֶׁהוּא סוֹדֵר הֲלָכָה לְפָנָיו. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר מֶלֶךְ זֶה בַּעַל מִשְׁנָה, לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד זֶה בַּעַל תַּלְמוּד, שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל הֲלָכָה לְפָנָיו, לְפִיכָךְ אֹהֵב כֶּסֶף לֹא יִשְׂבַּע כֶּסֶף, אוֹהֵב תּוֹרָה לֹא יִשְׂבַּע תּוֹרָה, וְאֹהֵב בֶּהָמוֹן וגו', שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוֹמֶה וּמְהַמֶּה אַחֲרֵי תוֹרָה וְתַלְמוּד אֵין לוֹ, מָה הֲנָאָה יֵשׁ לוֹ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא אוֹמֵר לָמַד וְלֹא לִמֵּד אֵין לְךָ הֶבֶל גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה. 22.1. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמו, ז): עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט לַעֲשׁוּקִים, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב בְּהוֹן (ירמיה נ, לג): כֹּה אָמַר ה' צְבָאוֹת עֲשׁוּקִים בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְנֵי יְהוּדָה. (תהלים קמו, ז): נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לָרְעֵבִים, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ח, ג): וַיְעַנְךָ וַיַרְעִיבֶךָ. (תהלים קמו, ז): ה' מַתִּיר אֲסוּרִים, מַה שֶּׁאָסַרְתִּי לְךָ הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ, אָסַרְתִּי לְךָ חֵלֶב בְּהֵמָה וְהִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ בְּחַיָּה, אָסַרְתִּי לְךָ גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה בְּחַיָּה וְהִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ בְּעוֹף, אָסַרְתִּי לְךָ שְׁחִיטָה בְּעוֹפוֹת וְהִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ בְּדָגִים. רַבִּי אַבָּא וְרַבִּי יוֹנָתָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁאָסַרְתִּי לְךָ הִתַּרְתִּי לָךְ, דַּם הַנִּדָּה אָסַרְתִּי לְךָ הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ דַּם בְּתוּלִים, אָסַרְתִּי לְךָ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיָה. אֵשֶׁת אָח הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ יְבָמָה, אִשָּׁה וְאֶת אֲחוֹתָהּ בְּחַיֵּיהֶם הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ לְאַחַר מִיתָה, לְבִישַׁת כִּלְאַיִם הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ סָדִין בְּצִיצִית, בְּשַׂר חֲזִיר הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ דָּג שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שִׁבּוּטָא, אֶת הַחֵלֶב הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ אֶת הַשֻּׁמָּן, אֶת הַדָּם הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ טְחוֹל, בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ אֶת הַכְּחָל. רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא וְרַבִּי בֵּבַי וְרַבִּי אַחָא וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אָמְרוּ תַּחַת מַה שֶּׁאָסַרְתִּי לְךָ הִתַּרְתִּי לָךְ, תַּחַת אִסּוּר דָּגִים לִוְיָתָן דָּג טָהוֹר, תַּחַת אִסּוּר עוֹפוֹת זִיז עוֹף טָהוֹר הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים נ, יא): יָדַעְתִּי כָּל עוֹף הָרִים וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא פּוֹרֵשׂ אֶת כְּנָפָיו מַכְּהֶה גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב לט, כו): הֲמִבִּינָתְךָ יַאֲבֶר נֵץ יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָו לְתֵימָן, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ זִיז, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מִינֵי טַעַם מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה. תַּחַת אִסּוּר בְּהֵמוֹת (תהלים נ, י): בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי אָלֶף, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אוֹמֵר בְּהֵמָה אַחַת הִיא וּרְבוּצָה עַל אֶלֶף הָרִים וְאֶלֶף הָרִים מְגַדְּלִין לָהּ כָּל מִינֵי עֲשָׂבִים וְהִיא אוֹכֶלֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב מ, כ): כִּי בוּל הָרִים יִשְׂאוּ לוֹ. וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר בְּהֵמָה אַחַת הִיא רְבוּצָה עַל אֶלֶף הָרִים וְאֶלֶף הָרִים מְגַדְּלִין לָהּ מַאֲכָל לַאֲכִילָתָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, וְהִיא אוֹכֶלֶת, מַאי טַעְמָא (ישעיה סה, י): וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרוֹן לִנְוֵה צֹאן. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בְּהֵמָה אַחַת הִיא וּרְבוּצָה עַל אֶלֶף הָרִים וְאֶלֶף הָרִים מְגַדְּלִין לָהּ מִינֵי בְּהֵמוֹת, וְהִיא אוֹכֶלֶת, מַאי טַעְמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב מ, כ): וְכָל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה יְשַׂחֲקוּ שָׁם, וְאֶפְשָׁר כֵּן אִית בְּעִיר אָכֵיל בְּעִיר, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא גְּדוֹלִים הֵם מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֱלֹהִים מַה מְּשֻׁנִּין הֵם מַעֲשָׂיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וּמֵהֵיכָן הוּא שׁוֹתֶה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַיַּרְדֵּן מַכְנִיס אַחַת לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים הוּא עוֹשֶׂה גְּמִיעָה אֶחָת, מַאי טַעְמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב מ, כג): הֵן יַעֲשֹׁק נָהָר וְלֹא יַחְפּוֹז. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַיַּרְדֵּן מַכְנִיס לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֳדָשִׁים הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ גְּמִיעָה אַחַת, מַאי טַעְמָא (איוב מ, כג): יִבְטַח כִּי יָגִיחַ יַרְדֵּן אֶל פִּיהוּ, וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם לִכְלוּךְ פֶּה, רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמַר אֵין בָּהֶם לִכְלוּךְ פֶּה, וּמֵהֵיכָן הוּא שׁוֹתֶה, תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי נָהָר יוֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן וּשְׁמוֹ יוּבַל וּמִשָּׁם הוּא שׁוֹתֶה, מַאי טַעְמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, ח): וְעַל יוּבַל יְשַׁלַּח שָׁרָשָׁיו. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר (איוב יב, ז): וְאוּלָם שְׁאַל נָא בְהֵמוֹת וְתֹרֶךָּ, זֶה בְּהֵמוֹת, (איוב יב, ז): וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְיַגֶּד לָךְ, זֶה זִיז שָׂדָי, (איוב יב, ח): אוֹ שִׂיחַ לָאָרֶץ וְתֹרֶךָּ, זֶה גַּן עֵדֶן, (איוב יב, ח): וִיסַפְּרוּ לְךָ דְּגֵי הַיָּם, זֶה לִוְיָתָן, (איוב יב, ט): מִי לֹא יָדַע בְּכָל אֵלֶּה כִּי יַד ה' עָשְׂתָה זֹאת. 28.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן (ויקרא כג, י), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת א, ג): מַה יִּתְרוֹן לָאָדָם בְּכָל עֲמָלוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹל תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין בֶּן לֵוִי בִּקְשׁוּ לִגְנֹז סֵפֶר קֹהֶלֶת שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בּוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם נוֹטִין לְצַד מִינוּת, אָמְרוּ כָּךְ הָיָה רָאוּי שְׁלֹמֹה לוֹמַר (קהלת יא, ט): שְׂמַח בָּחוּר בְּיַלְדוּתֶךָ וִיטִיבְךָ לִבְּךָ בִּימֵי בְחוּרוֹתֶיךָ, משֶׁה אָמַר (במדבר טו, לט): וְלֹא תָתוּרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם, וּשְׁלֹמֹה אָמַר (קהלת יא, ט): וְהַלֵּךְ בְּדַרְכֵי לִבְּךָ וּבְמַרְאֵה עֵינֶיךָ, אֶלָּא הֻתְּרָה רְצוּעָה לֵית דִּין וְלֵית דַּיָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר (קהלת יא, ט): וְדָע כִּי עַל כָּל אֵלֶּה יְבִיאֲךָ הָאֱלֹהִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, אָמְרוּ יָפֶה אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי בִּקְּשׁוּ לִגְנֹז סֵפֶר קֹהֶלֶת שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם נוֹטִים לְצַד מִינוּת, אָמְרוּ כָּךְ הָיָה שְׁלֹמֹה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: מַה יִּתְרוֹן לָאָדָם, יָכוֹל אַף בַּעֲמָלָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בַּמַּשְׁמָע, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ אִלּוּ אָמַר בְּכָל עָמָל וְשָׁתַק הָיִינוּ אוֹמְרִים אַף בַּעֲמָלָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בַּמַּשְׁמָע הוּא, הָא אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא בְּכָל עֲמָלוֹ, בַּעֲמָלוֹ הוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֲבָל בַּעֲמָלוֹ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה מוֹעִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֵין לוֹ, לְמַעְלָה מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אוֹמֵר כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַבְּרִיּוֹת מְגַדְּלִין בְּמִצְווֹת וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דַּיָּן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַזְרִיחַ לָהֶם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת א, ה): וְזָרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וּבָא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַצַּדִּיקִים מְגַדְּלִין בְּמִצְווֹת וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, דַּיָּן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵיהֶם כְּגַלְגַּל חַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, לא): וְאֹהֲבָיו כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַאי בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ לִטְרָא אַחַת שֶׁל בָּשָׂר מִן הַשּׁוּק, כַּמָּה יְגִיעוֹת הוּא יָגֵעַ, כַּמָּה צַעַר הוּא מִצְטָעֵר עַד שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ, וְהַבְּרִיּוֹת יְשֵׁנִין עַל מִטּוֹתֵיהֶן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַשִּׁיב רוּחוֹת וּמַעֲלֶה עֲנָנִים וּמְגַדֵּל צְמָחִים וּמְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִים לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׂכַר הָעֹמֶר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן. 29.11. כָּל הַשְּׁבִיעִין חֲבִיבִין לְעוֹלָם, לְמַעְלָן הַשְּׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שָׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְרָקִיעַ וּשְׁחָקִים, זְבוּל וּמָעוֹן וַעֲרָבוֹת, וּכְתִיב (תהלים סח, ה): סֹלוּ לָרֹכֵב בָּעֲרָבוֹת בְּיָהּ שְׁמוֹ. בָּאֲרָצוֹת, שְׁבִיעִית חֲבִיבָה: אֶרֶץ, אֲדָמָה, אַרְקָא, גַּיְא, צִיָה, נְשִׁיָּה, תֵּבֵל. וּכְתִיב (תהלים ט, ט): וְהוּא יִשְׁפֹּט תֵּבֵל בְּצֶדֶק יָדִין לְאֻמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. בַּדּוֹרוֹת שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב: אָדָם, שֵׁת, אֱנוֹשׁ, קֵינָן, מַהַלַּלְאֵל, יֶרֶד, חֲנוֹךְ. וּכְתִיב (בראשית ה, כד): וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים. בָּאָבוֹת שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב: אַבְרָהָם, יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב, לֵוִי, קְהָת, עַמְרָם, משֶׁה. וּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ג): וּמשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים. בְּבָנִים הַשְּׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים א ב, טו): דָּוִיד [הוא] הַשְּׁבִעִי. בַּמְּלָכִים הַשְּׁבִיעִי חָבִיב: שָׁאוּל, אִישׁ בּשֶׁת, דָּוִד, שְׁלֹמֹה, רְחַבְעָם, אֲבִיָה, אָסָא. וּכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יד, י): וַיִּקְרָא אָסָא אֶל ה'. בַּשָּׁנִים שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יא): וְהַשְּׁבִיעִית תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ. בַּשְּׁמִטִּין שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה, י): וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים. בַּיָּמִים שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, ג): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי. בֶּחֳדָשִׁים שְׁבִיעִי חָבִיב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג, כד): בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ. 28.1. And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord. How did he wave it? R. Hama b.Ukba in the name of R.Joshua b. Haia said: He moved it forward and backward, upward and downward; forward and backward to symbolize that the act was in honor of Him to whom the whole world belongs; upward and downward to symbols that the act was in honor of Him to whom belong the regions on high and the regions below. R. Simon son of R. Joshua said: The movements forward and backward were to counteract the effects of injurious winds; and the movements upward and downwards were to counteract the effect of injurious dews."
25. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 26 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

26. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

27. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.13. To Cornelius Tacitus. I am delighted that you have returned to Rome, for though your arrival is always welcome, it is especially so to me at the present moment. I shall be spending a few more days at my Tusculan villa in order to finish a small work which I have in hand, for I am afraid that if I do not carry it right through now that it is nearly completed I shall find it irksome to start on it again. In the meanwhile, that I may lose no time, I am sending this letter as a sort of forerunner to make a request which, when I am in town, I shall ask you to grant. But first of all, let me tell you my reasons for asking it. When I was last in my native district a son of a fellow townsman of mine, a youth under age, came to pay his respects to me. I said to him, "Do you keep up your studies?" "Yes," said he. "Where?" I asked. "At Mediolanum," he replied. "But why not here?" I queried. Then the lad's father, who was with him, and indeed had brought him, replied, "Because we have no teachers here." "How is that?" I asked. "It is a matter of urgent importance to you who are fathers" - and it so happened, luckily, that a number of fathers were listening to me - "that your children should get their schooling here on the spot. For where can they pass the time so pleasantly as in their native place; where can they be brought up so virtuously as under their parents' eyes; where so inexpensively as at home? If you put your money together you could hire teachers at a trifling cost, and you could add to their stipends the sums you now spend upon your sons' lodgings and travelling money, which are no light amounts. I have no children of my own, but still, in the interest of the State, which I may consider as my child or my parent, I am prepared to contribute a third part of the amount which you may decide to club together. I would even promise the whole sum, if I were not afraid that if I did so my generosity would be corrupted to serve private interests, as I see is the case in many places where teachers are employed at the public charge. There is but one way of preventing this evil, and that is by leaving the right of employing the teachers to the parents alone, who will be careful to make a right choice if they are required to find the money. For those who perhaps would be careless in dealing with other people's money will assuredly be careful in spending their own, and they will take care that the teacher who gets my money will be worth his salt when he will also get money from them as well. So put your heads together, make up your minds, and let my example inspire you, for I can assure you that the greater the contribution you lay upon me the better I shall be pleased. You cannot make your children a more handsome present than this, nor can you do your native place a better turn. Let those who are born here be brought up here, and from their earliest days accustom them to love and know every foot of their native soil. I hope you may be able to attract such distinguished teachers that boys will be sent here to study from the towns round about, and that, as now your children flock to other places, so in the future other people's children may flock hither." I thought it best to repeat this conversation in detail and from the very beginning, to convince you how glad I shall be if you will undertake my commission. As the subject is one of such importance, I beg and implore you to look out for some teachers from among the throng of learned people who gather round you in admiration of your genius, whom we can approach about the matter, but in such a way that we do not pledge ourselves to employ any one of them. For I wish to give the parents a perfectly free hand. They must judge and choose for themselves; my responsibilities go no further than a sympathetic interest and the payment of my share of the cost. So if you find anyone who is confident in his own abilities, let him go to Comum, but on the express understanding that he builds upon no certainty beyond his own confidence in himself. Farewell.
29. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 4.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.13. To Cornelius Tacitus. I am delighted that you have returned to Rome, for though your arrival is always welcome, it is especially so to me at the present moment. I shall be spending a few more days at my Tusculan villa in order to finish a small work which I have in hand, for I am afraid that if I do not carry it right through now that it is nearly completed I shall find it irksome to start on it again. In the meanwhile, that I may lose no time, I am sending this letter as a sort of forerunner to make a request which, when I am in town, I shall ask you to grant. But first of all, let me tell you my reasons for asking it. When I was last in my native district a son of a fellow townsman of mine, a youth under age, came to pay his respects to me. I said to him, "Do you keep up your studies?" "Yes," said he. "Where?" I asked. "At Mediolanum," he replied. "But why not here?" I queried. Then the lad's father, who was with him, and indeed had brought him, replied, "Because we have no teachers here." "How is that?" I asked. "It is a matter of urgent importance to you who are fathers" - and it so happened, luckily, that a number of fathers were listening to me - "that your children should get their schooling here on the spot. For where can they pass the time so pleasantly as in their native place; where can they be brought up so virtuously as under their parents' eyes; where so inexpensively as at home? If you put your money together you could hire teachers at a trifling cost, and you could add to their stipends the sums you now spend upon your sons' lodgings and travelling money, which are no light amounts. I have no children of my own, but still, in the interest of the State, which I may consider as my child or my parent, I am prepared to contribute a third part of the amount which you may decide to club together. I would even promise the whole sum, if I were not afraid that if I did so my generosity would be corrupted to serve private interests, as I see is the case in many places where teachers are employed at the public charge. There is but one way of preventing this evil, and that is by leaving the right of employing the teachers to the parents alone, who will be careful to make a right choice if they are required to find the money. For those who perhaps would be careless in dealing with other people's money will assuredly be careful in spending their own, and they will take care that the teacher who gets my money will be worth his salt when he will also get money from them as well. So put your heads together, make up your minds, and let my example inspire you, for I can assure you that the greater the contribution you lay upon me the better I shall be pleased. You cannot make your children a more handsome present than this, nor can you do your native place a better turn. Let those who are born here be brought up here, and from their earliest days accustom them to love and know every foot of their native soil. I hope you may be able to attract such distinguished teachers that boys will be sent here to study from the towns round about, and that, as now your children flock to other places, so in the future other people's children may flock hither." I thought it best to repeat this conversation in detail and from the very beginning, to convince you how glad I shall be if you will undertake my commission. As the subject is one of such importance, I beg and implore you to look out for some teachers from among the throng of learned people who gather round you in admiration of your genius, whom we can approach about the matter, but in such a way that we do not pledge ourselves to employ any one of them. For I wish to give the parents a perfectly free hand. They must judge and choose for themselves; my responsibilities go no further than a sympathetic interest and the payment of my share of the cost. So if you find anyone who is confident in his own abilities, let him go to Comum, but on the express understanding that he builds upon no certainty beyond his own confidence in himself. Farewell.
30. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. דמשכא להו תקופת תמוז עד חגא והוי להו צערא והאמר רבא מצטער פטור מן הסוכה נהי דפטור בעוטי מי מבעטי,מיד הקב"ה יושב ומשחק עליהן שנאמר (תהלים ב, ד) יושב בשמים ישחק וגו' א"ר יצחק אין שחוק לפני הקב"ה אלא אותו היום בלבד,איכא דמתני להא דרבי יצחק אהא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לעתיד לבא באין עובדי כוכבים ומתגיירין ומי מקבלינן מינייהו והתניא אין מקבלין גרים לימות המשיח כיוצא בו לא קבלו גרים לא בימי דוד ולא בימי שלמה,אלא שנעשו גרים גרורים ומניחין תפילין בראשיהן תפילין בזרועותיהם ציצית בבגדיהם מזוזה בפתחיהם,כיון שרואין מלחמת גוג ומגוג אומר להן על מה באתם אומרים לו על ה' ועל משיחו שנאמר (תהלים ב, א) למה רגשו גוים ולאומים יהגו ריק [וגו'],וכל אחד מנתק מצותו והולך שנאמר (תהלים ב, ג) ננתקה את מוסרותימו [וגו] והקב"ה יושב ומשחק שנאמר יושב בשמים ישחק וגו' א"ר יצחק אין לו להקב"ה שחוק אלא אותו היום בלבד,איני והא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שלש הראשונות הקב"ה יושב ועוסק בתורה שניות יושב ודן את כל העולם כולו כיון שרואה שנתחייב עולם כלייה עומד מכסא הדין ויושב על כסא רחמים,שלישיות יושב וזן את כל העולם כולו מקרני ראמים עד ביצי כנים רביעיות יושב ומשחק עם לויתן שנאמר (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עם בריותיו משחק ועל בריותיו אינו משחק אלא אותו היום בלבד,א"ל רב אחא לרב נחמן בר יצחק מיום שחרב בית המקדש אין שחוק להקב"ה ומנלן דליכא שחוק אילימא מדכתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא ה' אלהים צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה וגו' דלמא ההוא יומא ותו לא,אלא דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ה) אם אשכחך ירושלם תשכח ימיני תדבק לשוני לחכי אם לא אזכרכי דלמא שכחה הוא דליכא אבל שחוק מיהא איכא אלא מהא (ישעיהו מב, יד) החשיתי מעולם אחריש אתאפק וגו',ברביעיות מאי עביד יושב ומלמד תינוקות של בית רבן תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ט) את מי יורה דעה ואת מי יבין שמועה גמולי מחלב עתיקי משדים למי יורה דעה ולמי יבין שמועה לגמולי מחלב ולעתיקי משדים,ומעיקרא מאן הוה מיגמר להו איבעית אימא מיטטרון ואיבעית אימא הא והא עביד,ובליליא מאי עביד איבעית אימא מעין יממא ואיבעית אימא רוכב על כרוב קל שלו ושט בשמונה עשר אלף עולמות שנאמר (תהלים סח, יח) רכב אלהים רבותים אלפי שנאן אל תקרי שנאן אלא שאינן ואיבעית אימא יושב ושומע שירה מפי חיות שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירו עמי,אמר רבי לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין לו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושורש רתמים לחמם אמר ריש לקיש כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירו עמי מה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום דבלילה שירו עמי,איכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעולם הזה הדומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד בעולם הבא הדומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מאי דכתיב (חבקוק א, יד) ותעשה אדם כדגי הים כרמש לא מושל בו למה נמשלו בני אדם כדגי הים לומר לך מה דגים שבים כיון שעולין ליבשה מיד מתים אף בני אדם כיון שפורשין מדברי תורה ומן המצות מיד מתים דבר אחר מה דגים שבים כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים כך בני אדם כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים,איבעית אימא בעולם הזה ואיבעית אימא לעולם הבא איבעית אימא בעולם הזה כדר' חנינא דא"ר חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מצנים פחים שנאמר (משלי כב, ה) צנים פחים בדרך עקש שומר נפשו ירחק מהם,ואיבעית אימא לעולם הבא כדרשב"ל דאמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אין גיהנם לעתיד לבא אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא מוציא חמה מנרתיקה ומקדיר רשעים נידונין בה וצדיקים מתרפאין בה רשעים נידונין 3b. bwhen the season of Tammuz extends until the festivalof iSukkot /i, bandin such years sitting in the isukka bcauses them suffering.The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rava saythat bone who suffersin the isukka bis exempt fromperforming bthemitzva of isukka /i,and under these circumstances even a Jew is permitted to leave the isukka /i? If so, why are the gentiles criticized for leaving? The Gemara answers: bGranted that one is exemptfrom performing the mitzva and is permitted to leave his isukka /i, but bshould one kickit?,The Gemara resumes its narration: bImmediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport ofthose gentiles, i.e., He laughs at them, bas it is stated: “He that sits in heaven makes sport,the Lord has them in derision” (Psalms 2:4). With regard to this verse, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone. /b, bThere arethose bwho teach that which Rabbi Yitzḥaksubsequently said bwith regard to thismatter, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: In the future, the nations of the worldwill bcome and convert.The Gemara asks: bAnd do we accept themas converts at that time? bBut isn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i: The court bdoes not accept converts in the days of the Messiah; similarly, they did not accept converts either in the days of David or in the days of Solomon,due to a concern that these people wanted to convert for ulterior motives, because the Jewish people were mighty and respected?, bRather,Rabbi Yosei means bthat they become convertswho have battachedthemselves to the Jewish people, band they don phylacteries on their heads, phylacteries on their arms,place britual fringes on their garments,and ba imezuzain their doorways. /b, bWhenthese converts bsee the war of Gog and Magog,every convert of this sort will bsay toGog and Magog: bFor whatpurpose bdid you come? Theywill bsay to him:We came to fight bagainst the Lord and against His Messiah, as it is stated: “Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain.The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Messiah” (Psalms 2:1–2)., bAndthen bevery oneof these converts will btear loose hissign of performance of ba mitzva and leave, as it is stated: “Let us tear their bands asunder,and cast away their cords from us” (Psalms 2:3). bAnd the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport,i.e., laughs or rejoices, bas it is stated: “He that sits in heaven makes sport,the Lord has them in derision” (Psalms 2:4). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is there is no other making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He? bBut doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: There are twelve hoursin bthe day.During bthe first three, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torahstudy. During the bsecondthree hours, bHe sits and judges the entire world. Once He sees that the world has rendered itself liable to destruction, He arises from the throne of judgment and sits on the throne of mercy,and the world is not destroyed.,During the bthirdset of three hours, the Holy One, Blessed be He, bsits and sustains the entire world, from the horns of wild oxen to the eggs of lice.During the bfourththree hours, bHe sits and makes sport with the leviathan, as it is stated: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26). Evidently, God makes sport every day, not only on that one day. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bHe makes sport with His creations,just as He sports with the leviathan; bHe does not make sport of His creations but on that day alone. /b, bRav Aḥa said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: From the day the Temple was destroyed, there is nolonger any bmaking sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He. And from where do wederive bthat there is no making sport? If we saythat it is bfromthat bwhich is written: “And in that day did the Lord, the God of hosts, call to weeping, and to lamentation, and to baldnessand to girding with sackcloth” (Isaiah 22:12), that is inconclusive: bPerhaps that dayalone was called for weeping and lamentation, band no additionaldays., bRather,you might suggest that the source is bthat it is written: “If I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I do not remember you”(Psalms 137:5–6). This is also inconclusive, as bperhaps there is no forgettingof Jerusalem for God, bbut in any event there isstill bmaking sport. Rather,it is derived bfrom thisverse: b“I have long time held My peace, I have been still, and refrained Myself;now will I cry like a travailing woman, gasping and panting at once” (Isaiah 42:14).,The Gemara asks: If God no longer makes sport, bwhat does Henow bdo during the fourththree-hour period of the day? The Gemara answers: bHe sits and teaches Torah to schoolchildren, as it is stated: “Whom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk, them that are drawn from the breasts”(Isaiah 28:9). The verse is interpreted in the following manner: bTo whomdoes God bteach knowledge, and to whom does He make to understand the message? Tothose bwho arejust bweaned from the milk and tothose bwho are drawn from the breasts,i.e., children only recently weaned from nursing.,The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the destruction of the Temple, bwho would teachthe schoolchildren? The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat the angel bMetatronwould teach them, band if you wish, sayinstead that bHe would doboth bthis,sport with the leviathan, band that,teach the schoolchildren; whereas after the destruction of the Temple in the fourth period of the day He only teaches the schoolchildren.,The Gemara asks: bAnd duringthe twelve hours of bthe night, what doesGod bdo?The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat the night is bsimilar to the day,i.e., God performs the same activities as in the day. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that He brides on his light cherub and flies in eighteen thousand worlds, as it is stated: “The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even [ ishi /i] thousands”(Psalms 68:18). bDo not readit as beven [ ishi /i], ratherread it as: bThat which are not [ ishe’ei /i].Since the minimum of thousands is two thousand, the phrase: That which are not thousands, indicates that two thousand are not present, i.e., the chariots of God are twenty thousand minus two thousand, which means that God rides in eighteen thousand worlds. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that God bsits and listens to the songs from the mouths of theangelic bcreatures, as it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His loving-kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me”(Psalms 42:9).,§ bRabbi Levi says: Anyone who interruptshis study bof words of Torah to occupyhimself bwith mundane matterswill be bfed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck salt-wort from wormwood, and the roots of the broom are their food”(Job 30:4). bReish Lakish says:With regard to bany-one who occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me”(Psalms 42:9). The verse is understood as follows: bWhat is the reasonthat bby day, the Lord will command His kindnessto extend over him? It is bdue tothe fact bthat in the night His song is with me,i.e., he occupies himself at night with Torah, which is referred to as a song., bThere arethose bwho saythat this is what bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who occupieshimself bwith Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,and in the night His song shall be with me.”,The Gemara continues discussing the importance of Torah study. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And makes people as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them”(Habakkuk 1:14)? bWhy are people compared to the fish of the sea?This serves bto say to you: Just aswith regard to bthe fish of the sea, once they arise onto dry land they die immediately; so too,with regard to bpeople, once they separatethemselves bfromstudying bwords of Torah andperforming bthe mitzvot, they die immediately. Alternatively, just aswith regard to the bfish of the sea, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately, so toowith regard to bpeople, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bIf you wish, saythat this applies bin this world, and if you wish, sayinstead that it applies bto the World-to-Come. If you wish, saythat it applies bin this world, in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥanina. As Rabbi Ḥanina says: Alloccurrences that befall man bare in the hands of Heaven except for coldsand bobstacles [ ipaḥim /i],from which one is able to protect himself, basit bis stated: “Colds and snares are on the path of the crooked; he who guards his soul shall keep far from them”(Proverbs 22:5). This indicates that cold and, conversely, heat, are forms of harm from which one must protect himself, which teaches that being exposed to excessive heat can cause death., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this is referring bto the World-to-Come, in accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: There is no Gehenna in the World-to-Come. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He,will bremove the sun from its sheath [ iminnarteikah /i],where it is situated during these times, band heats [ iumakdir /i]that world with it. bThe wicked will be punished by itand consumed by the heat, bbut the righteous will be healed by it. The wicked will be punished /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

75a. קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל' על ל' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי 75a. ba hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?”(Job 40:25). bAnd were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assistingGabriel, bhe would not be able tohunt bit, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him”(Job 40:19)., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whenthe bleviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth andthereby bboils all of the waters in the depthsof the sea. bAs it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot”(Job 41:23). bAnd ifthe leviathan bdid not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand hisfoul bsmell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture [ imerkaḥa /i]”(Job 41:23), and the term imerkaḥais also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25)., bAnd when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him”(Job 41:24). bRav Aḥa bar Yaakov says:After the leviathan drinks from the sea, bthe depthof the sea does bnot return to its normal condition until seventy yearshave passed, bas it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary”(Job 41:24), band hoaryindicates a person who is bno less than seventyyears old., bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The iḥabbarimwill make a feast [ iyikhru /i] of him”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikera /imeans bnothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared [ iva’yikhreh /i] for them a great feast [ ikera /i]; and they ate and drank”(II Kings 6:23). bAnd iḥabbarim /imeans bnothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions [ iḥaverim /i] hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it”(Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice., bAndwith regard to bthe remainderof the leviathan, they will bdivide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the ikena’anim /i”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikena’anim /imeans bnothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress”(Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, saythat the proof is bfrom here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8)., bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a isukkafor the righteous from the skin ofthe bleviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons [ ibesukkot /i]”(Job 40:31). If one bis deservingof being called righteous, an entire isukkais prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan; if one is bnot deservingof this honor, ba covering is prepared for hishead, bas it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears”(Job 40:31).,If one is bdeservingat least of this reward, ba covering is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat bdeserving, a necklace is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deservingeven of this, only ban amu-let is prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan, bas it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens”(Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks., bAndwith regard to bthe remainingpart of the skin of the leviathan, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates fromone bend of the world until theother bend. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising”(Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: b“And I will make your pinnacles of ikadkhod /i”(Isaiah 54:12). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagreewith regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. bAnd some saythat this dispute is between btwo iamora’imin the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael. bAnd who are they?They are bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One saidthey will be made of bonyx, and one saidof bjasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this [ ikedein /i] and like that [ iukhedein /i],i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word ikadkhod /i, a combination of this [ ikedein /i] and that [ iukhedein /i].,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: b“And your gates of precious stones”(Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood binlight of bthatincident bwhere Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirtycubits, band He will hollow out in thema hole of bten by twentycubits band set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certainunnamed bstudent sneered at him,saying: bNow we do not findprecious stones even bofthe size of ban egg of a dove,and yet ball of this we will find? /b, bAftera period of btimethat student’s bship went to sea,where bhe saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirtycubits, band hollowed out in themwere holes of bten by twentycubits. bHe said tothe angels: bFor whom are these? They said to him thatin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem.Later, the student bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him:Continue to binterpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret,as bI sawjust bas you said.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Worthlessman, bif you had not seen, you would not have believed;clearly, byou are mocking the statement of the Sages.Rabbi Yoḥa bset his eyes upon him, andthe student was instantly killed band turned into a pile of bones. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionagainst Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a ibaraita /i. The verse states: b“And I will make you go upright [ ikomemiyyut /i]”(Leviticus 26:13). bRabbi Meir says:In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of btwo hundred cubits, equivalent to twotimes the bheight [ ikomot /i] of Adam the firstman, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word ikomemiyyutas two ikomot /i., bRabbi Yehuda says:They will have the stature of bone hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary”(Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa statedthat idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but btothe bwindows thatallow bwindto enter.,§ bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteousindividual, bas it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy”(Isaiah 4:5). This bteaches thatfor beach and everyrighteous individual, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopyseven times over, bin accordance with his honor,i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: bWhyshould there be bsmoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is bbecause anyone whose eyes are narrow,i.e., is stingy, btoward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And whyshould there be bfire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:This bteaches that each and every one is burned fromembarrassment at the size of bthe canopy of the other,and says: bWoe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that I did not merit a canopy as large as his., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat God said to Moses about Joshua: b“And you shall put of your honor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, bbut not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moseswas as bright bas the face of the sun; the face of Joshuawas blike the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the firstman, bin the Garden of Eden; as it is statedto Hiram, king of Tyre: b“You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stonewas your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. bMar Zutra said:There were belevencanopies, bas it states: “Every precious stone,”which is also part of the tally. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of themwas bgold, as it is counted last,which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“The workmanship of your drums and of your holes [ inekavekha /i]”(Ezekiel 28:13)? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre:Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? bI looked at you,saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, band created many orifices [ inekavim /i] in man,i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bthisis what God bsaidto Hiram: bI looked at you /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84b. ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא,למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן,באורתא אמר להו אחיי ורעיי בואו בצפרא אמר להו זילו מפני ביטול תורה יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך כלית ממון של בית אבא אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא,סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו,יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא אתיא אמר לה זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם קרי אנפשיה (משלי לא, יד) היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא,אייתו לקמיה שתין מיני דמא טהרינהו הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק אמר להו אם כמותי הוא יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו ר' אלעזר על שמיה,תניא אמר רבי כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא בדרבנן דרתיחי עלי ולא מיעסקי בי שפיר אוגנין בעיליתאי ולא תידחלין מינאי א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אישתעיא לי אימיה דרבי יונתן דאישתעיא לה דביתהו דרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון לא פחות מתמני סרי ולא טפי מעשרין ותרין שנין אוגניתיה בעיליתא,כי הוה סליקנא מעיננא ליה במזייה כי הוה משתמטא ביניתא מיניה הוה אתי דמא יומא חד חזאי ריחשא דקא נפיק מאוניה חלש דעתאי איתחזי לי בחלמא אמר לי לא מידי הוא יומא חד שמעי בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ולא מחאי כדבעי לי,כי הוו אתו בי תרי לדינא הוו קיימי אבבא אמר מר מילתיה ומר מילתיה נפיק קלא מעיליתיה ואמר איש פלוני אתה חייב איש פלוני אתה זכאי יומא חד הוה קא מינציא דביתהו בהדי שבבתא אמרה לה תהא כבעלה שלא ניתן לקבורה אמרי רבנן כולי האי ודאי לאו אורח ארעא,איכא דאמרי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי איתחזאי להו בחלמא אמר להו פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואי אתם רוצים להביאה אצלי אזול רבנן לאעסוקי ביה לא שבקו בני עכבריא דכל שני דהוה ניים רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון בעיליתיה לא סליק חיה רעה למתייהו,יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה הוו טרידי שדרו רבנן לבני בירי ואסקוהו לערסיה ואמטיוה למערתא דאבוה אשכחוה לעכנא דהדרא לה למערתא אמרו לה עכנא עכנא פתחי פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו פתח להו,שלח רבי לדבר באשתו שלחה ליה כלי שנשתמש בו קודש ישתמש בו חול תמן אמרין באתר דמרי ביתא תלא זייניה כולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא שלח לה נהי דבתורה גדול ממני אבל במעשים טובים מי גדול ממני שלחה ליה בתורה מיהא גדול ממך לא ידענא במעשים ידענא דהא קביל עליה יסורי,בתורה מאי היא דכי הוו יתבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי יהושע בן קרחה אספסלי יתבי קמייהו רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון ורבי אארעא,מקשו ומפרקו אמרי מימיהן אנו שותים והם יושבים על גבי קרקע עבדו להו ספסלי אסקינהו,אמר להן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואתם מבקשים לאבדה הימני אחתוהו לרבי אמר להן רבי יהושע בן קרחה מי שיש לו אב יחיה ומי שאין לו אב ימות אחתוהו נמי לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון חלש דעתיה אמר קא חשביתו ליה כוותי,עד ההוא יומא כי הוה אמר רבי מילתא הוה מסייע ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מכאן ואילך כי הוה אמר רבי יש לי להשיב אמר ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון כך וכך יש לך להשיב זו היא תשובתך השתא היקפתנו תשובות חבילות שאין בהן ממש,חלש דעתיה דרבי אתא א"ל לאבוה אמר ליה בני אל ירע לך שהוא ארי בן ארי ואתה ארי בן שועל,והיינו דאמר רבי שלשה ענוותנין הן ואלו הן אבא 84b. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAndalthough his flesh did not putrefy, beven so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,still bdid not rely on hisown bopinion,as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. bHe accepted afflictions upon himselfas atonement for his possible sins. bAt nighthis attendants bwould spread out sixty feltbed coverings bfor him. In the morning,despite the bed coverings, bthey would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. /b, bThe following day,i.e., every morning, bhis wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [ ilifda /i]made from figs, band he would eat them and become healthy. His wife,concerned for his health, bwould not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push himbeyond his limits., bIn the evening, hewould bsay tohis pains: bMy brothers and my friends, come! In the morning hewould bsay to them: Goaway, bdue tothe bderelictionof bTorahstudy that you cause me. bOne day his wife heard himinviting his pains. bShe said to him: You are bringingthe pains bupon yourself. You have diminished the money ofmy bfather’s homedue to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. bShe rebelledagainst him and bwentback bto her father’s home,and he was left with no one to care for him.,Meanwhile, there were bthese sixty sailorswho bcame and enteredto visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bThey brought him sixty servants,each bbearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them.When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts., bOne day,the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to her daughter: Goand bcheck on your fatherand see bwhat he is doing now.The daughter bcameto her father, who bsaid to her: Goand btell your motherthat bours is greater than theirs,i.e., my current ficial status is greater than that of your father’s household. bHe readthe verse babout himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar”(Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. /b,The students bbrought sixtyquestionable bsamples of blood before himfor inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. bHe deemed themall britually pure,thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. bThe Rabbisof the academy bwere murmuring aboutRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, band saying:Can it benter your mindthat bthere is not one uncertainsample bamong them?He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha bisin accordance with bmyruling, blet allthe children born from these women bbe males. And if not, let there be one female among them.It turned out that ballof the children bwere males, andthey bwere called Elazar in his name. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi lamented and bsaidconcerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: bHow much procreationhas bthis evil woman prevented from the Jewish people.She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings., bAsRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at mefor arresting several thieves who are their relatives, bandtherefore bthey will not properly tend to myburial. When I die, blay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me,i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the atticfor bno less than eighteenyears bandfor bno more than twenty-two years. /b,His wife continued: bWhen I would go upto the attic bI would check his hair,and bwhen a hair would fall out fromhis head, bblood would comeand appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. bOne day I saw a worm emerging from his ear,and bI becamevery bdistressedthat perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband bappeared to me in a dreamand bsaid to me: It is no matterfor concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as bone day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have.Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure.,During this period, bwhen twopeople bwould come for adjudication ofa dispute, bthey would stand by the doorwayto the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bOnelitigant bwould state hisside of the bmatter, and the otherlitigant would state bhisside of the bmatter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent.The Gemara relates: bOne day, the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas quarreling with a neighbor.The neighbor bsaid to heras a curse: This woman bshould be like her husband, who was not buried.When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, bthe Rabbis said: This much,i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is bcertainly not proper conduct,and they decided to bury him., bThere arethose bwho saythat the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai,his father, bappeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son, band you do not wish to bring it to meby burying him next to me. Consequently, bthe Sages went to tend tohis burial. bThe residents of Akhbaria,the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, bdid not allowthem to do so, basthey realized that ball the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town.The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection., bOne day,which bwas Yom Kippur eve,everyone in the town bwas preoccupiedwith preparations for the Festival. bThe Rabbis senta message bto the residents ofthe adjacent town bof Biriinstructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, band they removed his bier and brought it to his father’sburial bcave. They found a serpent [ ile’akhna /i] thathad placed its tail in its mouth and completely bencircledthe entrance to bthe cave,denying them access. bThey said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It openedits mouth bfor themand uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father.,The Gemara continues: After this incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsenta messenger bto speak with the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. bShe senta message bto himin response: Shall ba vessel used bysomeone bsacred,i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bbe used bysomeone who is, relative to him, bprofane? There,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat she used the colloquial adage: bIn the locationwhere bthe master of the house hangs his sword,shall bthe contemptible shepherd hang his basket [ ikultei /i]?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsenta message back bto her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but washe bgreater than I in pious deeds? She senta message back bto him: Whetherhe was bgreater than you in Torah I do not know;but bI do knowthat he was greater than you binpious bdeeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Torahknowledge, bwhat isthe event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,the leading Sages of the generation, bwere sitting on benches [ iasafselei /i]teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould sit before them on the groundout of respect.,These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would braise difficulties and answerthem brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages bsaid: From their waters we drink,i.e., we are learning from them, band they arethe ones bsitting on the ground? Benches were prepared forRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band they were promotedto sit alongside the other Sages., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said tothe other Sages present: bI have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band you are seeking to take it from me?By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. bThey demoted RabbiYehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said tothe Sages: Should bone who has a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may blive, whilethe other bone, who does not have a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to bdie?Upon hearing his argument, the Sages balso demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. bHe became offendedand bsaidto them: bYou are equatingRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bto me,by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he.,As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up buntil that day, when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould state a matterof Torah, bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support himby citing proofs for his opinion. bFrom thispoint bforward, whenthey were discussing a subject and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: I havean argument bto respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, wouldpreempt him by bsaying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond,and bthis is the refutation of yourclaim. bNowthat you asked these questions, byou have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance,i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bbecame offended. He cameand btold his fatherwhat had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto him: bMy son, do not lethis actions boffendyou, bas he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox.Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah.,The Gemara concludes: bThisincident bisthe background to a statement bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There are threeprototypical bmodestpeople, band they are: Father,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
33. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. משמשת וראתה נדה אינה צריכה טבילה אבל בעל קרי גרידא מחייב לא תימא מברך אלא מהרהר,ומי אית ליה לרבי יהודה הרהור והתניא בעל קרי שאין לו מים לטבול קורא קריאת שמע ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ואוכל פתו ומברך לאחריה ואינו מברך לפניה אבל מהרהר בלבו ואינו מוציא בשפתיו דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בין כך ובין כך מוציא בשפתיו,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עשאן ר' יהודה כהלכות דרך ארץ,דתניא (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וכתיב בתריה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מה להלן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע אף כאן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע,מכאן אמרו הזבים והמצורעים ובאין על נדות מותרים לקרות בתורה ובנביאים ובכתובים לשנות במשנה וגמרא ובהלכות ובאגדות אבל בעלי קריין אסורים,רבי יוסי אומר שונה הוא ברגיליות ובלבד שלא יציע את המשנה רבי יונתן בן יוסף אומר מציע הוא את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא רבי נתן בן אבישלום אומר אף מציע את הגמרא ובלבד שלא יאמר אזכרות שבו רבי יוחנן הסנדלר תלמידו של רבי עקיבא משום ר"ע אומר לא יכנס למדרש כל עיקר ואמרי לה לא יכנס לבית המדרש כל עיקר ר' יהודה אומר שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ,מעשה ברבי יהודה שראה קרי והיה מהלך על גב הנהר אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו שנה לנו פרק אחד בהלכות דרך ארץ ירד וטבל ושנה להם אמרו לו לא כך למדתנו רבינו שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ אמר להם אע"פ שמיקל אני על אחרים מחמיר אני על עצמי:,תניא ר' יהודה בן בתירא היה אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה מעשה בתלמיד אחד שהיה מגמגם למעלה מרבי יהודה בן בתירא אמר ליה בני פתח פיך ויאירו דבריך שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' מה אש אינו מקבל טומאה אף דברי תורה אינן מקבלין טומאה,אמר מר מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא מסייע ליה לרבי אלעאי דאמר רבי אלעאי אמר ר' אחא בר יעקב משום רבינו הלכה מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא כתנאי מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה בן גמליאל אומר משום רבי חנינא בן גמליאל זה וזה אסור ואמרי לה זה וזה מותר,מ"ד זה וזה אסור כרבי יוחנן הסנדלר מ"ד זה וזה מותר כרבי יהודה בן בתירא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק נהוג עלמא כהני תלת סבי כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בד"ת,כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז דתניא רבי אלעאי אומר ראשית הגז אינו נוהג אלא בארץ,כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כדכתיב (דברים כב, ט) (כרמך) לא תזרע [כרמך] כלאים רבי יאשיה אומר לעולם אינו חייב עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד,כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בדברי תורה דתניא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה,כי אתא זעירי אמר בטלוה לטבילותא ואמרי לה בטלוה לנטילותא מאן דאמר בטלוה לטבילותא כרבי יהודה בן בתירא מאן דאמר בטלוה לנטילותא כי הא דרב חסדא לייט אמאן דמהדר אמיא בעידן צלותא:,תנו רבנן בעל קרי שנתנו עליו תשעה קבין מים טהור נחום איש גם זו לחשה לרבי עקיבא ורבי עקיבא לחשה לבן עזאי ובן עזאי יצא ושנאה לתלמידיו בשוק פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי בר אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבידא חד תני שנאה וחד תני לחשה,מאן דתני שנאה משום בטול תורה ומשום בטול פריה ורביה ומאן דתני לחשה שלא יהו תלמידי חכמים מצויים אצל נשותיהם כתרנגולים,אמר רבי ינאי שמעתי שמקילין בה ושמעתי שמחמירין בה וכל המחמיר בה על עצמו מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו,אמר ריב"ל מה טיבן של טובלי שחרין מה טיבן הא איהו דאמר בעל קרי אסור בדברי תורה הכי קאמר מה טיבן בארבעים סאה אפשר בתשעה קבין מה טיבן בטבילה אפשר בנתינה,אמר רבי חנינא גדר גדול גדרו בה דתניא מעשה באחד שתבע אשה לדבר עבירה אמרה לו ריקא יש לך ארבעים סאה שאתה טובל בהן מיד פירש,אמר להו רב הונא לרבנן רבותי מפני מה אתם מזלזלין בטבילה זו אי משום צינה אפשר במרחצאות,אמר ליה רב חסדא וכי יש טבילה בחמין אמר ליה רב אדא בר אהבה קאי כוותך,רבי זירא הוה יתיב באגנא דמיא בי מסותא אמר ליה לשמעיה זיל ואייתי לי תשעה קבין ושדי עלואי אמר ליה רבי חייא בר אבא למה ליה למר כולי האי והא יתיב בגווייהו אמר ליה כארבעים סאה מה ארבעים סאה בטבילה ולא בנתינה אף תשעה קבין בנתינה ולא בטבילה,רב נחמן תקן חצבא בת תשעה קבין כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי עקיבא ורבי יהודה גלוסטרא אמרו לא שנו אלא לחולה לאונסו אבל לחולה המרגיל ארבעים סאה,אמר רב יוסף אתבר חצביה דרב נחמן כי אתא רבין אמר באושא הוה עובדא 22a. that ba woman who engaged in intercourse and saw menstrualblood bis not required to immerse herself, but one who experienced a seminal emission alone,with no concurrent impurity, bis required to do so?If so, we must interpret Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna that one recites a blessing both beforehand and thereafter as follows: bDo not saythat one brecites a blessingorally, but rather he means that bone contemplatesthose blessings in his heart.,The Gemara challenges this explanation: bAnd does Rabbi Yehuda maintain thatthere is validity to bcontemplatingin his heart? bWasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who experienced a seminal emission and who has no water to immerseand purify himself brecites iShemaand neither recites the blessingsof iShema bbeforehand nor thereafter? Andwhen bhe eats his bread, he recites the blessing thereafter,Grace after Meals, bbut does not recite the blessing:Who brings forth bread from the earth, bbeforehand. However,in the instances where he may not recite the blessing, bhe contemplatesit bin his heart rather than utterit bwith his lips,this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir.However bRabbi Yehuda says: In either case, he uttersall of the blessings bwith his lips.Rabbi Yehuda does not consider contemplating the blessings in his heart a solution and permits them to be recited., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna should be interpreted in another way. bRabbi Yehuda renderedthe blessings blike iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i,which according to some Sages were not considered to be in the same category as all other matters of Torah and therefore, one is permitted to engage in their study even after having experienced a seminal emission., bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is written: b“And you shall impart them to your children and your children’s children”(Deuteronomy 4:9), band it is written thereafter: “The day that you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb”(Deuteronomy 4:10). bJust as below,the Revelation at Sinai was bin reverence, fear, quaking, and trembling, so too here,in every generation, Torah must be studied with a sense of breverence, fear, quaking, and trembling. /b, bFrom herethe Sages bstated: iZavim /i, lepers, and those who engaged in intercourse with menstruating women,despite their severe impurity, bare permitted to read the Torah, Prophets, and Writings, and to study Mishna and Gemara and ihalakhotand iaggada /i. However, those who experienced a seminal emission are prohibitedfrom doing so. The reason for this distinction is that the cases of severe impurity are caused by ailment or other circumstances beyond his control and, as a result, they do not necessarily preclude a sense of reverence and awe as he studies Torah. This, however, is not the case with regard to impurity resulting from a seminal emission, which usually comes about due to frivolity and a lack of reverence and awe. Therefore, it is inappropriate for one who experiences a seminal emission to engage in matters of in Torah.,However, there are many opinions concerning the precise parameters of the Torah matters prohibited by this decree. bRabbi Yosei says:One who experiences a seminal emission bstudies imishnayotthat he is baccustomedto study, bas long as he does not expound upon anew bmishnato study it in depth. bRabbi Yonatan ben Yosef says: He expounds upon the mishna but he does not expound upon the Gemara,which is the in-depth analysis of the Torah. bRabbi Natan ben Avishalom says: He may even expound upon the Gemara, as long as he does not utterthe bmentionsof God’s name btherein. Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler, Rabbi Akiva’s student, says in the name of Rabbi Akiva:One who experiences a seminal emission bmay not enter into homiletic interpretation [ imidrash /i]of verses bat all. Some saythat he says: bHe may not enter the study hall [ ibeit hamidrash /i] at all. Rabbi Yehuda says: He may studyonly iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i.In terms of the problem raised above, apparently Rabbi Yehuda considers the legal status of the blessings to be parallel to the legal status of iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i, and therefore one may utter them orally.,The Gemara relates ban incident involving Rabbi Yehudahimself, who bexperienced a seminal emission and was walking along the riverbankwith his disciples. bHis disciples said to him: Rabbi, teach us a chapter from iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i,as he maintained that even in a state of impurity, it is permitted. bHe descended and immersed himselfin the river band taught them iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i. bThey said to him: Did you not teach us, our teacher, that he may study iHilkhot Derekh Eretz /i? He said to them: Although I am lenient with others,and allow them to study it without immersion, bI am stringent with myself. /b,Further elaborating on the issue of Torah study while in a state of impurity, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira would say: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impureand therefore one who is impure is permitted to engage in Torah study. He implemented this ihalakhain practice. The Gemara relates ban incident involving a student who wasreciting imishnayotand ibaraitot bhesitantly beforethe study hall of bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira.The student experienced a seminal emission, and when he was asked to recite he did so in a rushed, uneven manner, as he did not want to utter the words of Torah explicitly. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: My son, open your mouth and let your words illuminate, as matters of Torah do not become ritually impure, as it is stated: “Is not my word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as fire does not become ritually impure, so too matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b,In this ibaraita bthe Master saidthat one who is impure because of a seminal emission bexpounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara.The Gemara notes: This statement bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi El’ai,as bRabbi El’ai saidthat bRabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said in the name of Rabbeinu,Rav b: The ihalakhais that one who experienced a seminal emission bmay expound upon the mishna but may not expound upon the Gemara.This dispute bis parallel a tannaiticdispute, as it was taught: One who experienced a seminal emission bexpounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara;that is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel:Both bthis and that are prohibited. And some saythat he said: Both bthis and that are permitted. /b,Comparing these opinions: bThe one who saidthat both bthis and that are prohibitedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler; the one who saidthat both bthis and that are permittedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b,Summarizing the ihalakha /i, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The universallyaccepted bpractice is in accordance withthe opinions of bthese three elders: In accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi El’ai with regard tothe ihalakhotof bthe first shearing, in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoshiya with regard tothe laws of prohibited bdiverse kinds,and bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard to matters of Torah. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi El’ai with regard to the first shearing, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi El’ai says:The obligation to set aside bthe first shearingfrom the sheep for the priest bis only practiced in EretzYisrael and not in the Diaspora, and that is the accepted practice., bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoshiya with regard to diverse kinds, as it is written: “You shall not sow your vineyard with diverse kinds”(Deuteronomy 22:9). bRabbi Yoshiya says:This means that bonewho sows diverse kinds bis not liableby Torah law buntil he sows wheat and barley and agrape bpit with a single hand motion,meaning that while sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously., bIn accordance with Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard toone who experiences a seminal emission is permitted to engage in bmatters of Torah, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b,And the Gemara relates: bWhen Ze’iri camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhesuccinctly capsulated this ihalakhaand bsaid: They abolished ritual immersion, and some say thathe said: bThey abolished ritual washing of the hands.The Gemara explains: bThe one who saysthat bthey abolished immersionholds in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteirathat one who experienced a seminal emission is not required to immerse. bAnd the one who saysthat bthey abolished washing of the handsholds bin accordance with that which Rav Ḥisda cursed one whogoes out of his way bto seek water at the time of prayer. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who experienced a seminal emission who had nine ikavofdrawn bwater poured over him,that is sufficient to render him britually pureand he need not immerse himself in a ritual bath. The Gemara relates: bNaḥum of Gam Zo whisperedthis ihalakhato bRabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Akiva whispered it tohis student bben Azzai, and ben Azzai went out and taught it to his studentspublicly bin the marketplace. Two iamora’imin Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, disagreedas to the correct version of the conclusion of the incident. bOne taught:Ben Azzai btaught itto his students in the market. bAnd the other taught: Ben Azzaialso bwhispered itto his students.,The Gemara explains the rationale behind the two versions of this incident. bTheSage bwho taughtthat ben Azzai btaughtthe law openly in the market held that the leniency was bdue toconcern that the ihalakhotrequiring ritual immersion would promote bderelictionin the study bof Torah.The ruling of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira eases the way for an individual who experienced a seminal emission to study Torah. This was balso due toconcern that the ihalakhotrequiring ritual immersion would promote bthe suspension of procreation,as one might abstain from marital relations to avoid the immersion required thereafter. bAnd theSage, bwho taughtthat ben Azzai only bwhisperedthis ihalakhato his students, held that he did so bin order that Torah scholars would not be with their wives like roosters.If the purification process was that simple, Torah scholars would engage in sexual activity constantly, which would distract them from their studies.,With regard to this ritual immersion, bRabbi Yannai said: I heard that there are those who are lenient with regard to it and I have heard that there are those who are stringent with regard to it.The ihalakhain this matter was never conclusively established band anyone whoaccepts bupon himself to be stringent with regard to it, they prolong for him his days and years. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the essence of those who immerse themselves in the morning?The Gemara retorts: How can one ask bwhat is their essence? Isn’t hethe one bwho saidthat bone who experiences a seminal emission is prohibited fromengaging in bmatters of Torahand is required to immerse himself in the morning? Rather, bthis iswhat bhemeant to bsay: What is the essence ofimmersion in a ritual bath of bforty ise’a /iof water when bit is possibleto purify oneself bwith nine ikav /i?Furthermore, bwhat is the essence of immersionwhen bit isalso bpossibleto purify oneself by bpouringwater?,Regarding this, bRabbi Ḥanina said: They established a massive fenceprotecting one from sinning with their decree that one must immerse himself in forty ise’aof water. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involving one who solicited a woman tocommit ba sinful act. She said to him: Good-for-nothing. Do you have forty ise’ain which to immerseand purify byourselfafterwards? He bimmediately desisted.The obligation to immerse oneself caused individuals to refrain from transgression., bRav Huna said to the Sages: Gentlemen, why do you disdain this immersion? If it is becauseit is difficult for you to immerse in the bcoldwaters of the ritual bath, bit is possibleto purify oneself by immersing oneself in the heated bbathhouses,which are unfit for immersion for other forms of ritual impurity but are fit for immersion in this case., bRabbi Ḥisda said to him: Is there ritual immersion in hot water?Rav Huna bsaid to him:Indeed, doubts with regard to the fitness of baths have been raised, and bRav Adda bar Ahava holds in accordance with youropinion. Nevertheless, I remain convinced that it is permitted.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Zeira was sitting in a tub of water in the bathhouse. He said to his attendant: Go and get nine ikav /iof water band pourit bover meso that I may purify myself from the impurity caused by a seminal emission. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to him: Why does my masterrequire ball of this? Aren’t you seated inat least nine ikavof water in the tub. bHe said to him:The law of nine ikav bparallelsthe law of bforty ise’a /i,in that their ihalakhotare exclusive. bJust as forty ise’a /ican only purify an individual through bimmersion and not through pouring, so too nine ikav /ican only purify one who experienced a seminal emission bthrough pouring and not through immersion. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Naḥman prepared a jugwith a capacity bof nine ikav /iso that his students could pour water over themselves and become pure. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yehuda Gelostera said:The ihalakhathat one who experienced a seminal emission can be purified by pouring nine ikav bwas only taught for a sick personwho experienced the emission binvoluntarily. However, a sick personwho experienced a bnormalseminal emission in the course of marital relations, is required to immerse himself in bforty ise’a /i. /b, bRav Yosef said:In that case, bRav Naḥman’s jug is broken,meaning it is no longer of any use, as few people fall into the category of sick people who experienced seminal emissions. Nevertheless, bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said: In Usha there was an incident /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. band bridges and monumentsover graves bin which there is a residence, one extends the measureof that side of the city as though there were other structures bopposite themin the adjacent corner of the city. bAndprior to measuring the Shabbat limit, bone rendersthe city blike a square tablet so that it gains the corners,although there are actually no houses in those corners., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. bRav and Shmueldisagreed: bOne taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter iayin /i, band one taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter ialef /i.,The Gemara explains: bThe one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an ialefexplained the term in the sense of blimb[iever/b] by blimb.Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. bAnd the one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an iayinexplained the term in the sense of ba pregt woman[iubbera/b] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to bthe Machpelah Cave,in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:The cave consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other. And one said:It consists of ba room anda second bstory above it. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,this is understandable baccording to the one who saidthe cave consists of boneroom babove the other,as bthat isthe meaning of bMachpelah, double. However, according to the one who saidit consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other,in bwhatsense is it bMachpelah?Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense bthat it is doubled withthe Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there bin pairs.This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b“Mamreof bKiryat Ha’Arba,which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is bthe city of the four couplesburied there: bAdam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,and bJacob and Leah. /b,They disagreed about this verse as well: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1). bRav and Shmuelboth identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, bone said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel?It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: bAs he said [ iamar /i]the command band cast [ ihippil /i] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace,when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. bAnd one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ ihimrid /i]against bGod during his reign. /b,They also disagreed about this verse: b“There arose a new king over Egypt,who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:He was bactuallya bnewking, band one said:He was in fact the old king, but bhis decrees were new. /b,The Gemara explains. bThe one who saidhe was bactuallya bnewking based his opinion on the fact bthat it is writtenin the verse that he was bnew. And the one who said that his decrees were newderived his opinion bfromthe fact bthat it is not written: Andthe king bdied, andhis successor breigned,as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”?If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“Who knew not Joseph”?It means bthat heconducted himself blike one who did not know Joseph at all. /b,The Gemara cites a bmnemonicof key words from a series of traditions cited below: bEighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ iBeribbi /i], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna.In the phrase: bHow does one extend cities,the word ime’abberinis spelled bwith an ialef /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one,i.e., the nature and character of each student, band theextent of the bwisdom of each and every one?How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that bhe learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one,but bhe did not learnsubstantive btradition.And bif you wish, sayinstead: bFromthe students bthemselves he learnedmany things; bfromRabbi Oshaya bhimself he did not learnanything beyond that one matter. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to bsaythat he learned only one matter bin our Mishnafrom Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on ibaraitotand other sources., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidabout that period: bWhen we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya,it was so crowded with students that bwe would sit four in eachsquare bcubit.Similarly, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in eachsquare bcubit. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa saidabout his teacher: bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguishedwas as great bin his generation as Rabbi Meirwas bin his generation: Just aswith regard to bRabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinkingdue to the subtlety of his great mind, bsoit was with bRabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinking. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts,i.e., the wisdom, bofthe bearlySages were blike the doorway to the Entrance Hallof the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, bandthe hearts bofthe blaterSages bwere like the doorway to the Sanctuary,which was ten by twenty cubits. bAnd we,i.e., our hearts, bare likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,He explains: The term bearlySages is referring to bRabbi Akiva,and the term blaterSages is referring to his student, bRabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some saythat the term bearlySages refers to bRabbi Elazar ben Shamuaand that the term the blaterSages refers to bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, bAbaye said: And we,as far as our capabilities are concerned, bare like a peg in the wall with regard toTorah bstudy.Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. bRava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ ikira /i] with regard to logical reasoning.A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. bRav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness.Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which bRav Yehuda said that Rav said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who were particular in their speechand always made certain that it was both precise and refined, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara asks: bIsthis bmatter at all dependent onbeing bparticularwith one’s language? bRather,with regard to bthe people of Judea, who were precise in their language andwho bwould formulate mnemonicsfor their studies, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language andwho bwould not formulate mnemonics, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,Furthermore, with regard to bthe people of Judea,who bstudied from one teacher, their Torahknowledge bendured for them,as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher,but rather from several teachers, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them,as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., bRavina said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who wouldpublicly bdisclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( ige’onim /i), btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara relates that King bDavid would disclose the tractateto be studied in advance, whereas bSaul would not disclose the tractateto be studied. bWith regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad”(Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. bWith regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied, bit is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

77b. התם כי אמרה הוינא בהדיה שבקינן לה הכא אף על גב דאמרה הוינא בהדיה לא שבקינן לה והרי מוכה שחין דאף על גב דאמרה הוינא בהדיה לא שבקינן לה דתנן חוץ ממוכה שחין מפני שממקתו וקתני,התם כי אמרה דיירנא בהדיה בסהדי שבקינן לה הכא אע"ג דאמרה דיירנא בהדיה בסהדי לא שבקינן לה,תניא אמר רבי יוסי שח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים עשרים וארבעה מוכי שחין הן וכולן אמרו חכמים תשמיש קשה להן ובעלי ראתן קשה מכולן ממאי הוי דתניא הקיז דם ושימש הויין לו בנים ויתיקין הקיזו שניהם ושימשו הויין לו בנים בעלי ראתן אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי אבל טעים מידי לית לן בה,מאי סימניה דלפן עיניה ודייבי נחיריה ואיתי ליה רירא מפומיה ורמו דידבי עילויה ומאי אסותיה אמר אביי פילא ולודנא גירדא דאגוזא וגירדא דאשפא וכליל מלכא ומתחלא דדיקלא סומקא ושליק להו בהדי הדדי ומעייל ליה לביתא דשישא ואי לא איכא ביתא דשישא מעייל ליה לביתא דשב לבני ואריחא,ונטיל ליה תלת מאה כסי על רישיה עד דרפיא ארעיתא דמוחיה וקרע למוחיה ומייתי ארבע טרפי דאסא ומדלי כל חד כרעא ומותיב חד ושקיל בצבתא וקלי ליה דאי לא הדר עילויה,מכריז רבי יוחנן הזהרו מזבובי של בעלי ראתן רבי זירא לא הוה יתיב בזיקיה רבי אלעזר לא עייל באהליה רבי אמי ורבי אסי לא הוו אכלי מביעי דההיא מבואה ריב"ל מיכרך בהו ועסיק בתורה אמר (משלי ה, יט) אילת אהבים ויעלת חן אם חן מעלה על לומדיה אגוני לא מגנא,כי הוה שכיב אמרו ליה למלאך המות זיל עביד ליה רעותיה אזל איתחזי ליה א"ל אחוי לי דוכתאי אמר ליה לחיי א"ל הב לי סכינך דלמא מבעתת לי באורחא יהבה ניהליה כי מטא להתם דלייה קא מחוי ליה שוור נפל לההוא גיסא,נקטיה בקרנא דגלימיה א"ל בשבועתא דלא אתינא אמר קודשא בריך הוא אי איתשיל אשבועתא ניהדר אי לא לא ניהדר אמר ליה הב לי סכינאי לא הוה קא יהיב ליה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה הב ניהליה דמיתבעא לברייתא מכריז אליהו קמיה פנו מקום לבר ליואי פנו מקום לבר ליואי,אזל אשכחיה לר' שמעון בן יוחאי דהוה יתיב על תלת עשר תכטקי פיזא אמר ליה את הוא בר ליואי אמר ליה הן נראתה קשת בימיך אמר ליה הן אם כן אי אתה בר ליואי ולא היא דלא הואי מידי אלא סבר לא אחזיק טיבותא לנפשאי,רבי חנינא בר פפא שושביניה הוה כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמרו ליה למלאך המות זיל עביד ליה רעותיה אזל לגביה ואיתחזי ליה אמר ליה שבקי תלתין יום עד דנהדר תלמודאי דאמרי אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו שבקיה לבתר תלתין יומין אזל איתחזי ליה א"ל אחוי לי דוכתאי א"ל לחיי א"ל הב לי סכינך דלמא מבעתת לי באורחא אמר ליה כחברך בעית למיעבד לי,אמר ליה אייתי ספר תורה וחזי מי איכא מידי דכתיב ביה דלא קיימתיה אמר ליה מי איכרכת בבעלי ראתן ואיעסקת בתורה ואפילו הכי כי נח נפשיה אפסיק ליה עמודא דנורא בין דידיה לעלמא וגמירי דלא מפסיק עמודא דנורא אלא לחד בדרא או לתרין בדרא,קרב לגביה רבי אלכסנדרי אמר עשה בשביל כבוד חכמים לא אשגח עשה בשביל כבוד אביך לא אשגח עשה בשביל כבוד עצמך איסתלק אמר אביי לאפוקי ממאן דלא קיים (אפילו אות אחת) אמר ליה רב אדא בר מתנא לאפוקי ממר דלא אית ליה מעקה לאיגריה ולא היא מיהוה הוה וההיא שעתא הוא דשדייה זיקא,אמר ר' חנינא מפני מה אין בעלי ראתן בבבל מפני שאוכלין תרדין ושותין שכר של היזמי אמר רבי יוחנן מפני מה אין מצורעין בבבל מפני שאוכלין תרדין ושותין שכר ורוחצין במי פרת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך המדיר את אשתו /strong /big br br
38. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. משל דאחשורוש והמן למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם לאחד היה לו תל בתוך שדהו ולאחד היה לו חריץ בתוך שדהו בעל חריץ אמר מי יתן לי תל זה בדמים בעל התל אמר מי יתן לי חריץ זה בדמים,לימים נזדווגו זה אצל זה אמר לו בעל חריץ לבעל התל מכור לי תילך אמר לו טול אותה בחנם והלואי,ויסר המלך את טבעתו אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא גדולה הסרת טבעת יותר מארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות שנתנבאו להן לישראל שכולן לא החזירום למוטב ואילו הסרת טבעת החזירתן למוטב,ת"ר ארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות נתנבאו להם לישראל ולא פחתו ולא הותירו על מה שכתוב בתורה חוץ ממקרא מגילה,מאי דרוש אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה ומה מעבדות לחירות אמרי' שירה ממיתה לחיים לא כל שכן,אי הכי הלל נמי נימא לפי שאין אומרים הלל על נס שבחוצה לארץ יציאת מצרים דנס שבחוצה לארץ היכי אמרינן שירה,כדתניא עד שלא נכנסו ישראל לארץ הוכשרו כל ארצות לומר שירה משנכנסו ישראל לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה,רב נחמן אמר קרייתא זו הלילא רבא אמר בשלמא התם (תהלים קיג, א) הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי פרעה אלא הכא הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי אחשורוש אכתי עבדי אחשורוש אנן,בין לרבא בין לר"נ קשיא והא תניא משנכנסו לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה כיון שגלו חזרו להכשירן הראשון,ותו ליכא והכתיב (שמואל א א, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים צופים אחד ממאתים צופים שנתנבאו להם לישראל,מיהוה טובא הוו כדתניא הרבה נביאים עמדו להם לישראל כפלים כיוצאי מצרים אלא נבואה שהוצרכה לדורות נכתבה ושלא הוצרכה לא נכתבה,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אדם הבא משתי רמות שצופות זו את זו רבי חנין אמר אדם הבא מבני אדם שעומדין ברומו של עולם ומאן נינהו בני קרח דכתיב (במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם ועמדו עליו,שבע נביאות מאן נינהו שרה מרים דבורה חנה אביגיל חולדה ואסתר שרה דכתיב (בראשית יא, כט) אבי מלכה ואבי יסכה ואמר ר' יצחק יסכה זו שרה ולמה נקרא שמה יסכה שסכתה ברוח הקדש שנאמר (בראשית כא, יב) כל אשר תאמר אליך שרה שמע בקולה ד"א יסכה שהכל סוכין ביופיה,מרים דכתיב (שמות טו, כ) ותקח מרים הנביאה אחות אהרן ולא אחות משה אמר ר"נ אמר רב שהיתה מתנבאה כשהיא אחות אהרן ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שיושיע את ישראל ובשעה שנולד נתמלא כל הבית כולו אורה עמד אביה ונשקה על ראשה אמר לה בתי נתקיימה נבואתיך,וכיון שהשליכוהו ליאור עמד אביה וטפחה על ראשה ואמר לה בתי היכן נבואתיך היינו דכתיב (שמות ב, ד) ותתצב אחותו מרחוק לדעה לדעת מה יהא בסוף נבואתה,דבורה דכתיב (שופטים ד, ד) ודבורה אשה נביאה אשת לפידות מאי אשת לפידות שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש,(שופטים ד, ה) והיא יושבת תחת תומר מאי שנא תחת תומר אמר ר' שמעון בן אבשלום משום יחוד דבר אחר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל שבאותו הדור לא היה להם אלא לב אחד לאביהן שבשמים,חנה דכתיב (שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני בה' רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן,(שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך אמר רב יהודה בר מנשיא אל תקרי בלתך אלא לבלותך שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא מבלה מעשה ידיו,(שמואל א ב, ב) ואין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו אדם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים אבל הקב"ה צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים,אביגיל דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיה היא רוכבת על החמור ויורדת בסתר ההר בסתר ההר מן ההר מיבעי ליה,אמר רבה בר שמואל על עסקי דם הבא מן הסתרים נטלה דם והראתה לו אמר לה וכי מראין דם בלילה אמרה לו וכי דנין דיני נפשות בלילה אמר לה 14a. The actions of bAhasuerus and Hamancan be understood with ba parable; to what may they be compared? To two individuals, oneof whom bhad a mound in the middle of his field and the otherof whom bhad a ditch in the middle of his field,each one suffering from his own predicament. bThe owner of the ditch,noticing the other’s mound of dirt, bsaidto himself: bWho will give me this moundof dirt suitable for filling in my ditch; I would even be willing to pay bforit with bmoney,and bthe owner of the mound,noticing the other’s ditch, bsaidto himself: bWho will give me this ditch for money,so that I may use it to remove the mound of earth from my property?,At a later point, bone day, theyhappened to have bmet one another. The owner of the ditch said to the owner of the mound: Sell me your moundso I can fill in my ditch. The mound’s owner, anxious to rid himself of the excess dirt on his property, bsaid to him: Take it for free; if onlyyou had done so sooner. Similarly, Ahasuerus himself wanted to destroy the Jews. As he was delighted that Haman had similar aspirations and was willing to do the job for him, he demanded no money from him.,§ The verse states: b“And the king removed his ringfrom his hand” (Esther 3:10). bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The removal ofAhasuerus’s bringfor the sealing of Haman’s decree bwas more effective than the forty-eight prophets and the seven prophetesses who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. As, they were all unable to returnthe Jewish people bto the right way, but the removal ofAhasuerus’s bring returned them to the right way,since it brought them to repentance., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bForty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, and they neither subtracted from nor added onto what is written in the Torah,introducing no changes or additions to the mitzvot bexcept for the reading of the Megilla,which they added as an obligation for all future generations.,The Gemara asks: bWhat expositionled them to determine that this was a proper mode of action? On what basis did they add this mitzva? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saidthat they reasoned as follows: bIf,when recalling the exodus from Egypt, in which the Jews were delivered bfrom slavery to freedom, we recite songsof praise, the Song of the Sea and the hymns of ihallel /i, then, in order to properly recall the miracle of Purim and commemorate God’s delivering us bfrom death to life,is it bnot all the more sothe case that we must sing God’s praise by reading the story in the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: bIf so,our obligation should be at least as great as when we recall the exodus from Egypt, and blet us also recite ihallel /ion Purim. The Gemara answers: iHallelis not said on Purim, bbecause ihallelis not recited on a miraclethat occurred boutside EretzYisrael. The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to bthe exodus from Egyptas well, bwhich was a miraclethat occurred boutside EretzYisrael, bhow are we able to recite songsof praise?,The Gemara answers: bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPrior tothe time when bthe Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, ball lands weredeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But bafter the Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, band all theother blands were no longerdeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within them., bRav Naḥman saidan alternative answer as to why ihallelis not recited on Purim: bThe reading ofthe Megilla itself bisan act of reciting ihallel /i. Rava saida third reason why ihallelis not recited on Purim: bGrantedthat ihallelis said bthere,when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after the salvation there, they could recite the phrase in ihallel /i: b“Give praise, O servants of the Lord”(Psalms 113:1); after their servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord band not servants of Pharaoh. Butcan it be said bhere,after the limited salvation commemorated on Purim: b“Give praise, O servants of the Lord,”which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord band not servants of Ahasuerus?No, even after the miracle of Purim, bwe were still the servants of Ahasuerus,as the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule, and consequently the salvation, which was incomplete, did not merit an obligation to say ihallel /i.,The Gemara asks: bBoth according tothe opinion of bRava and according tothe opinion of bRav Naḥman,this is bdifficult. Isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitacited earlier: bAfter the Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, band all theother blands were no longerdeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within them. Therefore, there should be no ihallelobligation on Purim for the miracle performed outside of the land of Israel, and Rav Naḥman’s and Rava’s alternative explanations are incorrect. The Gemara answers: They understood differently, as it can be argued that bwhenthe people bwere exiledfrom Eretz Yisrael, the other lands breturned to their initial suitability,and were once again deemed fit for reciting ihallelon miracles performed within them.,With regard to the statement that forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, the Gemara asks: bIs there no one else? Isn’t it writtenwith regard to Samuel’s father, Elkanah: b“And there was a certain [ ieḥad /i] man from Ramathaim-zophim”(I Samuel 1:1), which is expounded as follows to indicate that Elkanah was a prophet: He was bone [ ieḥad /i] of two hundred [ imata’im /i] prophets [ itzofim /i] who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people.If so, why was it stated here that there were only forty-eight prophets?,The Gemara answers: In fact, bthere were moreprophets, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bMany prophets arose for the Jewish people,numbering bdouble thenumber of Israelites bwho left Egypt. However,only a portion of the prophecies were recorded, because only bprophecy that was needed forfuture bgenerations was writtendown in the Bible for posterity, bbut that which was not needed,as it was not pertinent to later generations, bwas not written.Therefore, the fifty-five prophets recorded in the Bible, although not the only prophets of the Jewish people, were the only ones recorded, due to their eternal messages., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidanother explanation of the verse “And there was a certain man from Ramathaim-zophim”: bA man who comes from two heights [ iramot /i] that face [ itzofot /i] one another. Rabbi Ḥanin saidan additional interpretation: bA man who descends from people who stood at the height of [ irumo /i] the world.The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesepeople? The Gemara answers: These are the bsons of Korah, as it is written: “But the sons of Korah did not die”(Numbers 26:11), and with regard to them bit is taught in the name of our teacher,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: A high bplace was set aside for them in Gehenna,as the sons of Korah repented in their hearts, and were consequently not propelled very far down in Gehenna when the earth opened to swallow Korah and his followers; band they stood onthis high place and sung to the Lord. They alone stood at the height of the lower world.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the prophetesses recorded in the ibaraita /i: bWho were the seven prophetesses?The Gemara answers: bSarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther.The Gemara offers textual support: bSarah, as it is written:“Haran, bthe father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah”(Genesis 11:29). bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Iscah isin fact bSarah. And why was she called Iscah? For she saw [ isakhta /i] by means of divine inspiration, as it is stated: “In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice”(Genesis 21:12). bAlternatively,Sarah was also called bIscah, for all gazed [ isokhin /i] upon her beauty. /b, bMiriamwas a prophetess, bas it is writtenexplicitly: b“And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, tooka timbrel in her hand” (Exodus 15:20). The Gemara asks: Was she the sister only of Aaron, band not the sister of Moses?Why does the verse mention only one of her brothers? bRav Naḥman saidthat bRav said: For she prophesied when she was the sister of Aaron,i.e., she prophesied since her youth, even before Moses was born, band she would say: My mother is destined to bear a son who will deliver the Jewish peopleto salvation. bAnd at the time whenMoses bwas born the entire house was filled with light,and bher father stood and kissed her on the head,and bsaid to her: My daughter, your prophecy has been fulfilled. /b, bBut onceMoses bwas cast into the river, her father arose and rapped her on the head, saying to her: My daughter, where is your prophecynow, as it looked as though the young Moses would soon meet his end. bThis isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis writtenwith regard to Miriam’s watching Moses in the river: b“And his sister stood at a distance to knowwhat would be done to him” b( /bExodus 2:4), i.e., bto know what would be with the end of her prophecy,as she had prophesied that her brother was destined to be the savior of the Jewish people., bDeborahwas a prophetess, bas it is writtenexplicitly: b“And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth”(Judges 4:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“the wife of Lappidoth”?The Gemara answers: bFor she used to make wicks for the Sanctuary,and due to the flames [ ilappidot /i] on these wicks she was called the wife of Lappidoth, literally, a woman of flames.,With regard to Deborah, it says: b“And she sat under a palm tree”(Judges 4:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentand unique with regard to her sitting b“under a palm tree”that there is a need for it to be written? bRabbi Shimon ben Avshalom said:It is bdue tothe prohibition against bbeing alone togetherwith a man. Since men would come before her for judgment, she established for herself a place out in the open and visible to all, in order to avoid a situation in which she would be secluded with a man behind closed doors. bAlternatively,the verse means: bJust as a palm tree has only one heart,as a palm tree does not send out separate branches, but rather has only one main trunk, bso too, the Jewish people in that generation had only one heart,directed bto their Father in Heaven. /b, bHannahwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “And Hannah prayed and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord”(I Samuel 2:1), and her words were prophecy, in that she said: b“My horn is exalted,” and not: My pitcher is exalted.As, with regard to bDavid and Solomon, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a horn, their kingship continued,whereas with regard to bSaul and Jehu, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a pitcher, their kingship did not continue.This demonstrates that Hannah was a prophetess, as she prophesied that only those anointed with oil from a horn will merit that their kingships continue.,Apropos the song of Hannah, the Gemara further explains her words: b“There is none sacred as the Lord; for there is none beside You [ ibiltekha /i]”(I Samuel 2:2). bRav Yehuda bar Menashya said: Do not readit as ibiltekha /i,“beside You,” bbut ratherread it as ilevalotekha /i,to outlast You. bAs the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is unlike the attribute of flesh and blood.It is an attribute of man that bhis handiwork outlasts himand continues to exist even after he dies, bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His handiwork,as He exists eternally.,Hannah further said: b“Neither is there any rock [ itzur /i] like our God”(I Samuel 2:1). This can be understood as saying that bthere is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God.How is He better than all other artists? bMan fashions a form upon a wall, but is unable to endow it with breath and a soul,or fill it with binnards and intestines, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions a formof a fetus binside the formof its mother, rather than on a flat surface, band endows it with breath and a souland fills it with binnards and intestines. /b, bAbigailwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “And it was so, as she rode on the donkey, and came down by the covert of the mountain”(I Samuel 25:20). The Gemara asks: Why does it say: b“By the covert [ ibeseter /i] of the mountain”? It should have said: From the mountain. /b,The Gemara answers that in fact this must be understood as an allusion to something else. bRabba bar Shmuel said: Abigail,in her attempt to prevent David from killing her husband Nabal, came to David and questioned him bon account ofmenstrual bblood that comes from the hidden parts [ isetarim /i]of a body. How so? bShe tooka blood-stained cloth band showed it to him,asking him to rule on her status, whether or not she was ritually impure as a menstruating woman. bHe said to her: Is blood shown at night?One does not examine blood-stained cloths at night, as it is difficult to distinguish between the different shades by candlelight. bShe said to him:If so, you should also remember another ihalakha /i: bArecases of bcapital law tried at night?Since one does not try capital cases at night, you cannot condemn Nabal to death at night. David bsaid to her: /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אף דברי תורה בסתר,יצא רבי חייא ושנה לשני בני אחיו בשוק לרב ולרבה בר בר חנה שמע ר' איקפד אתא ר' חייא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל עייא מי קורא לך בחוץ ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,ביום תלתין שלח ליה תא הדר שלח ליה דלא ליתי,מעיקרא מאי סבר ולבסוף מאי סבר מעיקרא סבר מקצת היום ככולו ולבסוף סבר לא אמרינן מקצת היום ככולו,לסוף אתא א"ל אמאי אתית א"ל דשלח לי מר דליתי והא שלחי לך דלא תיתי א"ל זה ראיתי וזה לא ראיתי קרי עליה (משלי טז, ז) ברצות ה' דרכי איש גם אויביו ישלים אתו,מ"ט עבד מר הכי א"ל דכתיב (משלי א, כ) חכמות בחוץ תרונה א"ל אם קרית לא שנית ואם שנית לא שילשת ואם שילשת לא פירשו לך,חכמות בחוץ תרונה כדרבא דאמר רבא כל העוסק בתורה מבפנים תורתו מכרזת עליו מבחוץ,והא כתיב (ישעיהו מח, טז) לא מראש בסתר דברתי ההוא ביומי דכלה,ור' חייא האי חמוקי ירכיך מאי עביד לה מוקי לה בצדקה ובגמילות חסדים,אלמא נזיפה דידהו תלתין יומין נזיפת נשיא שאני,ונזיפה דידן כמה הוי חד יומא כי הא דשמואל ומר עוקבא כי הוו יתבי גרס שמעתא הוה יתיב מר עוקבא קמיה דשמואל ברחוק ד' אמות וכי הוו יתבי בדינא הוה יתיב שמואל קמיה דמר עוקבא ברחוק ד' אמות והוו חייקי ליה דוכתא למר עוקבא בציפתא ויתיב עילויה כי היכי דלישתמען מיליה,כל יומא הוה מלוי ליה מר עוקבא לשמואל עד אושפיזיה יומא חד איטריד בדיניה הוה אזיל שמואל בתריה כי מטא לביתיה א"ל לא נגה לך לישרי לי מר בתיגריה ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ההיא איתתא דהוות יתבה בשבילא הוות פשטה כרעה וקא מניפה חושלאי והוה חליף ואזיל צורבא מרבנן ולא איכנעה מקמיה אמר כמה חציפא ההיא איתתא אתאי לקמיה דר"נ אמר לה מי שמעת שמתא מפומיה אמרה ליה לא אמר לה זילי נהוגי נזיפותא חד יומא בנפשיך,זוטרא בר טוביה הוה קפסיק סידרא קמיה דרב יהודה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (שמואל ב כג, א) ואלה דברי דוד האחרונים א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי נינהו,שתיק ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי הדר א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא א"ל מאי דעתך דלא ידע פירושא דהאי קרא לאו גברא רבה הוא ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ודאתן עלה מיהא אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד לה' את דברי השירה הזאת ביום הציל ה' אותו מכף כל אויביו ומכף שאול,אמר לו הקב"ה לדוד דוד שירה אתה אומר על מפלתו של שאול אלמלי אתה שאול והוא דוד איבדתי כמה דוד מפניו,היינו דכתיב (תהלים ז, א) שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי כוש בן ימיני וכי כוש שמו והלא שאול שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף שאול משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר יב, א) על אודות האשה הכושית אשר לקח וכי כושית שמה והלא ציפורה שמה אלא מה כושית משונה בעורה אף ציפורה משונה במעשיה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (ירמיהו לח, ז) וישמע עבד מלך הכושי וכי כושי שמו והלא צדקיה שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף צדקיה משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (עמוס ט, ז) הלא כבני כושיים אתם לי (בית) ישראל וכי כושיים שמן והלא ישראל שמן אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף ישראל משונין במעשיהן מכל האומות,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,(שמואל ב כג, ג) אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל מושל באדם צדיק מושל יראת אלהים מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל אני מושל באדם מי מושל בי צדיק שאני גוזר גזרה ומבטלה,(שמואל ב כג, ח) אלה שמות הגבורים אשר לדוד יושב בשבת וגו' מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק ואלה שמות גבורותיו של דוד,יושב בשבת בשעה שהיה יושב בישיבה לא היה יושב על גבי כרים וכסתות אלא על גבי קרקע דכל כמה דהוה רביה עירא היאירי קיים הוה מתני להו לרבנן על גבי כרים וכסתות כי נח נפשיה הוה מתני דוד לרבנן והוה יתיב על גבי קרקע אמרו ליה ליתיב מר אכרים וכסתות לא קביל עליה,תחכמוני אמר רב אמר לו הקב"ה הואיל והשפלת עצמך תהא כמוני שאני גוזר גזרה ואתה מבטלה,ראש השלישים תהא ראש לשלשת אבות הוא עדינו העצני כשהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה היה מעדן עצמו כתולעת ובשעה שיוצא למלחמה היה מקשה עצמו כעץ,על שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת שהיה זורק חץ ומפיל שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת והיה מתאנח על מאתים דכתיב (דברים לב, ל) איכה ירדף אחד אלף,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אמר רבי תנחום בריה דרבי חייא איש כפר עכו אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר ר' שמלאי ואמרי לה אמר ר' תנחום אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא לחודיה 16b. bso too, the words of Torah,which are “the work of the hands of an artist,” i.e., God, must remain bhiddenin the study hall.,Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s decree, bRabbi Ḥiyya went out and taught his two nephews, Rav and Rabba bar bar Ḥana, in the marketplace. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bheardwhat he had done and bbecame angrywith him. When bRabbi Ḥiyya cameat some later date bto visit him,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi mockingly bsaid to him: Iyya, who is calling you outside?By asking this question Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was intimating that Rabbi Ḥiyya should leave his house. Rabbi Ḥiyya bunderstood thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted, and so bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished,as a self-imposed punishment, bfor thirty days. /b, bOn the thirtieth day,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsent hima message, saying: bComeand visit me. However, bhe laterreversed his opinion and bsent himanother message, telling him bnot to come. /b,The Gemara asks: bAt the outset what did he hold, and ultimately what did he hold? Initially,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheld thatthe legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday, and since the thirtieth day already begun, Rabbi Ḥiyya’s time of admonition had ended. bBut ultimately he heldthat with regard to this issue bwe do not saythat the legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday., bIn the endRabbi Ḥiyya bcameon that same day. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi basked him: Why have you come?Rabbi Ḥiyya bresponded: Becauseyou, bMaster, sentme a message that bI should come.He said to him: bBut I sentyou a second message bthat you should not come. He responded: Thismessenger that you sent, i.e., the first one, bI sawhim and I did as he said, bbut thatmessenger, i.e., the second one, bI did not see.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse baboutRabbi Ḥiyya: b“When a man’s ways please the Lord, He makes even his enemies to be at peace with him”(Proverbs 16:7), as it was clear to him that Rabbi Ḥiyya had merited divine assistance.,§ Concerning the issue with which the entire incident had begun, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Rabbi Ḥiyya: bWhat is the reason thatyou, bthe Master, acted asyou did, ignoring my instructions not to teach Torah in the marketplace? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: As it is written: “Wisdom cries aloud in the streets”(Proverbs 1:20), which implies that Torah should be publicized in the streets. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If you readthis verse once, byoucertainly bdid not readit ba second timein greater depth; band if you readit ba second time, youcertainly bdid not readit ba third time;and bif you readit ba third time,then bit was notadequately bexplained to you,as it is clear that you do not understand it properly.,The words: b“Wisdom cries aloud in the streets,”should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava. As Rava said:With regard to beveryone who occupies himself with Torahstudy binsidethe privacy of his home, bhis Torahknowledge bwill proclaim hisgreatness boutside,as it will be revealed to the masses and they will see his greatness.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “From the beginning I have not spoken in secret”(Isaiah 48:16), implying that the Torah should be taught and proclaimed in public? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring to bthe days of the ikalla /i,the gathering for Torah study held during Elul and Adar, when many people come to listen to Torah discourses. During this time, it is not only permitted but even recommended to teach Torah to the masses. In this way, the verse can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did Rabbi Ḥiyya do with thisverse: b“Your rounded thighs are like jewels”?How did he understand it? This verse implies that the Torah must be kept hidden in the study hall and not publicized in the marketplace. The Gemara explains: bHe interprets itnot as a reference to Torah, but as referring btoacts of bcharity and loving-kindness,which should certainly be performed in private.,This incident demonstrates bthat, apparently, admonition of thosewho live in Eretz Yisrael lasts for bthirty daysand not for seven days. The Gemara answers that this is not a conclusive proof, since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was the iNasi /i. bThe admonition of the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bis differenti.e., more severe, than the admonition of anyone else.,The Gemara asks: bAnd howlong bis our admonitionin Babylonia? The Gemara answers: It is only bone day, as inthe case involving bShmuel andthe Exilarch bMar Ukva. When they would sit and study ihalakha /i, Mar Ukva would sit before Shmuel at a distance of four cubitsas a sign of respect. Mar Ukva would conduct himself as though Shmuel were his teacher because Shmuel was much greater than him in Torah matters. bAnd when they would sittogether bin judgment, Shmuel would sit before Mar Ukva at a distance of four cubitsbecause Mar Ukva was the Exilarch and the chief judge. bBut they would lower a place for Mar Ukva in the mattingupon which he sat, band he would sit on it so that he could hearShmuel’s bwordsof Torah even when they were engaged in judgment., bEvery day, Mar Ukva would accompany Shmuel to his lodgings,in the manner that a student would show honor toward his teacher. bOne day,Mar Ukva bwasso heavily bpreoccupied with a casethat had been brought before him for judgment that he did not realize that bShmuel was walking behind himto show him respect due to his position as the Exilarch. bWhenMar Ukva breached his home,Shmuel bsaid to him: Is it not enough for youthat I accompanied you until here? bRelease me, Master, from my obligation,so that I may return home. Mar Ukva bunderstood thatShmuel bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished, for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,It was related that ba certain woman was sitting alongside a pathwith bher leg extendedwhile bshe was sifting barley. A Torah scholar passedby her on this path, bbut she did not yield to himand move her leg to make room for him. bHe said: How rude is that woman!The woman bcame before Rav Naḥmanto ask if this statement should be deemed as excommunication. bHe said to her: Did you hearthe word bexcommunicationexplicitly issue bfrom his mouth? She said to him: No. He said to her:If this is the case, then bgo and observe an admonition for one day,as it appears that the Torah scholar sought only to admonish you.,§ bZutra bar Toviyya wasonce breading the portionof the Bible bbefore Rav Yehuda. When he reached the verse: “Now these are the last words of David”(II Samuel 23:1), Zutra bar Toviyya bsaid toRav Yehuda: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? Prior to this, it mentions only David’s song, but not his words.,Rav Yehuda bremained silent and said nothing to him.Zutra bar Toviyya thought that Rav Yehuda did not hear what he had said, so he bthen said to hima second time: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? bHe said to him: What do you think?Do you think that anyone bwho does not know the meaning of this verse is not a great man?Why are you stressing the fact that I do not know the answer to your question? Zutra bar Toviyya bunderstood thatRav Yehuda bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if had been badmonished for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,The Gemara asks: bButnow bthat we have cometo discuss this issue, since the verse mentions David’s blastwords, bby inference there arealso bfirstwords. bWhatthen bare these firstwords of David? The Gemara answers: The first words are: b“And David spoke to the Lord the words of this song in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul”(II Samuel 22:1), as that song is also referred to as words.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: David, do you recite a song over the fall of Saul? Had you been Saul and he were David,then bI would have destroyed many Davids before him.Although I decreed that Saul’s kingdom would not continue, as an individual he was far greater and more important than you.,The response to this admonishment bisfound in the verse, bas it is written: “Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the Lord, concerning the words of Cush the Benjaminite”(Psalms 7:1). bIs Cush his name? Saul is his name. Rather,this is a designation that indicates: bJust as a Cushite,a native of the ancient kingdom of Cush in eastern Africa, bis distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Saul was distinguished by his actions,as he was absolutely righteous and performed many good deeds. Therefore, David uses the word ishiggaionas an allusion to the error [ ishegia /i] that he had made when he sang a song of praise over Saul’s downfall.,The Gemara notes: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: “And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses bdue to the Cushite woman whom he had married,for he had taken a Cushite woman” (Numbers 12:1). bBut is her name Cushite? Zipporah is her name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zipporah was distinguished by her actions.The Gemara continues: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Now when Ebed-Melech the Cushite heard”(Jeremiah 38:7). bIs his name Cushite? Zedekiah is his name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zedekiah was distinguished by hisrighteous bactions. /b, bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Are you not as much Mine as the children of the Cushites, O children of Israel?”(Amos 9:7). bIs their name Cushite? Israel is their name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, the Jewish people are distinguished by their actions,and they are different bfrom all theother bnations. /b,§ Having mentioned the last words of David, the Gemara continues to explain other expressions in that passage. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man who was raised up on high [ ial]”(II Samuel 23:1)? It means as follows: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised the yoke of [ iulla /i] repentance,as through his actions he taught the power of repentance. The word ial /i, on high, and the word iullaare comprised of the same consots in Hebrew.,The passage continues: b“The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God”(II Samuel 23:3). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying?What does it mean? bRabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me:Although bI rule over man, who rules over Me?It is ba righteous person.How is it possible to say that a righteous person rules over God, as it were? bAs I,God, bissue a decreeand the righteous person bnullifies it. /b,Similarly, the verse states there: b“These are the names of David’s warriors; Josheb-Basshebetha Tahchemonite, chief of the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite; he raised his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time” (II Samuel 23:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying? Rabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: These are the names of the mighty actions of David.These expressions should not be read as names of people but instead as descriptions of David’s good deeds., bJosheb-Basshebeth [ iyoshev bashevet /i]indicates that bwhenDavid bwould sit [ iyoshev /i] in the study hall, he would not sit upon pillows and cushions,as an important person ordinarily would. bRather,he would sit bon the groundlike one of the students. bFor as long asDavid’s bteacher, Ira the Jairite, was alive,Ira bwould teach the Sageswhile sitting bon pillows and cushions. WhenIra bpassed away, David would teach the Sages, and hedid this while bsitting on the ground. They said to him: Master,you bshould sit upon pillows and blankets. He did not accepttheir suggestions, since in his humility he did not wish to appear as the teacher of the Jewish people.,In this verse, David is described as b“a Tahchemonite [ itaḥkemoni /i].” Rav said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Since you have humbled yourself, be younow blike Me [ itehe kamoni /i].How so? bAs I issue a decree, and you,owing to your righteousness, bmay nullify it. /b,David is also described here as b“chief of the captains [ irosh hashalishim /i]”because God said to him: bYou will be the head [ irosh /i] of the three [ isheloshet /i] Patriarchs. “The same was Adino the Eznite”;this alludes to the fact that bwhenDavid bwould sit and occupy himself with Torah, he would make himself soft [ ime’aden /i] as a worm, and when he would go out to war, he would make himself hardand strong bas a tree [ ietz /i]. /b,The expression: b“Against eight hundred people, which he slew at one time,”means bthat he would throw an arrowin the air bandwith it bkill eight hundred people at one time. AndDavid bwould sigh over the two hundredwho were missing from fulfillment of the Torah’s promise, bas it is written: “How should one man chase a thousand”(Deuteronomy 32:30)., bA Divine Voice issued forth and saidby way of explanation as to why the promise was not entirely fulfilled: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5). Had David not committed this sin, then all of the promises mentioned in the Torah would have been fulfilled in their entirety through him.,The Gemara returns to the ihalakhotof ostracism and mentions that bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, of the village of Akko, saidthat bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Simlai said, andsome bsaythat this tradition was transmitted in the following manner: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRav Huna said, andothers bsaythat bRav Huna himselfmade this statement without the chain of transmission:
40. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69b. ותמני לזיבה אתאי קמן בלילותא יהבינן לה תמני לנדה ושב לזיבה,זיבה תמני בעיא אלא אידי ואידי שב לנדה ותמני לזיבה,בלילותא תמני לנדה בעי,זיבה דפסיקא ליה דלא שנא כי אתיא קמן ביממא לא שנא כי אתיא קמן בליליא חשיב לה נדה דלא פסיקא ליה דכי אתיא קמן בלילותא בעי תמני ביממא לא קבעי תמני לא קחשיב לה,ואי ס"ד ספורין לפנינו בעינן כל הני טבילות למה לי תספור ז' והדר תטבול אלא לאו שמע מינה רבנן היא דאמרי לא בעינן ספורין לפנינו,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף לרב אשי לאו תרוצי קמתרצינן לה תריץ ואימא הכי ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי אם בימי נדה ספרתי ואם בימי זיבה ספרתי מטבילין אותה ט"ו טבילות,ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי חד יומא מיהא אי אפשר דלא ספרה חסרה לה טבילה,אלא אימא איני יודעת אם ספרתי אם לא ספרתי, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו מטמאין במשא עד שימוק הבשר עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא,בית שמאי אומרים כל הנשים מתות נדות וב"ה אומרים אין נדה אלא שמתה נדה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי במשא אילימא במשא ממש אטו כל מת מי לא מטמא במשא,אלא מאי במשא באבן מסמא,דכתיב (דניאל ו, יח) והיתית אבן חדא ושומת על פום גובא,מאי טעמא אמר רב גזרה שמא יתעלפה,תנא משום ר' אליעזר אמרו עד שיבקע כריסו,עובד כוכבים שמת [כו'] תניא אמר רבי מפני מה אמרו עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא במשא לפי שאין טומאתו מחיים מדברי תורה אלא מדברי סופרים,ת"ר שנים עשר דברים שאלו אנשי אלכסנדריא את רבי יהושע בן חיננא ג' דברי חכמה ג' דברי הגדה ג' דברי בורות ג' דברי דרך ארץ,ג' דברי חכמה הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו עד מתי מטמאין במשא אמר להן עד שימוק הבשר,בת משולחת מה היא לכהן,מי אמרינן קל וחומר ומה אלמנה לכ"ג שאין איסורה שוה בכל בנה פגום זו שאיסורה שוה בכל אינו דין שבנה פגום או דילמא מה לאלמנה לכהן גדול שהיא עצמה מתחללת,אמר להן 69b. bAndshe requires beightimmersions during the day to purify her bfromher iziva /i,as it is possible that she experienced bleeding for three consecutive days, rendering her a greater izava /i, and one of those was on this day that she came before the court, and it is also possible that the day she arrived she did not experience bleeding, and she was a izavaduring her last clean day and had to immerse that day. If bshe comes before us at night, we give her eightimmersions to purify herself bfrom her menstruation,including one on the night that she comes before the court, band sevenimmersions during the day to purify herself bfromher iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: With regard to her iziva /i,she still brequires eightimmersions. Since it is possible that she experienced bleeding for the third day on the day before coming to the court, she might be a greater izava /i, who starts her clean days only the day after she arrived. In addition, any of the first seven days may be the last clean day, on which she has to immerse herself. The Gemara answers: bRather,in both bthiscase band thatcase she requires bsevenimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of bmenstruation, and eightimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: If the woman comes bat nightto the court, she brequires eightimmersions to purify herself bfromher impurity of bmenstruation.Why does the ibaraitarequire her to immerse a total of only fifteen times when there are cases where she must immerse sixteen times?,The Gemara answers: With regard to purifying herself from the impurity of iziva /i, whichcan be taught in ba distinctmanner, bas there is no difference whether she comes before us during the dayand bthere is no difference whether she comes before us at night,the ibaraita bcountsthe fixed amount of eight immersions. By contrast, with regard to purifying herself from bmenstruation, whichthe itanna bcannotteach in ba distinctmanner, bas when she comes before us at night she requires eightimmersions but if she comes before us bduring the dayshe does bnot require eightimmersions, the itanna bdid not countboth options, but mentioned only seven immersions, which is the minimum number required.,The Gemara returns to the initial purpose of this discussion, which was to indicate that the Rabbis do not require all seven days of counting before the court. bAnd if it enters your mindthat bwe requireseven days of bcounting before us, why do Ineed ball of these immersions? Sheshould bcount sevenclean days bandonly bafterward immerse. Rather,must one bnot conclude from thisthat the ibaraita bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Akiva and bwho saythat bwe do not requireseven days of bcounting before us? /b, bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, said to Rav Ashi,in rejection of this proof: But bdidn’t you resolvea difficulty in the ibaraita /i? Since you admit that the ibaraitain any event requires revision, bresolvethis difficulty too, band say this:If a woman comes and says: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted,and I do not know bwhether I counted during the days of menstruation or whether I counted during the days of iziva /i,the court instructs bher to immerse fifteen immersions.If so, there is no proof that the Rabbis hold that the counting does not need to be before the court.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to this interpretation of the ibaraita /i: If it is referring to a case where the woman said: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted, it is impossible that she did not count at least oneclean bday.If so, she should not be required to immerse on the eighth day, in which case bshe is lackingone bimmersion,as the ibaraitarules that she must immerse fifteen times.,The Gemara answers: bRather, saythat she claims: bI do not know if I countedany clean days bor I did not countany clean days. Likewise, she does not know whether she saw the blood during her days of menstruation or during her days of iziva /i. Therefore, she must immerse fifteen times, as it is possible that she has not yet counted at all., strongMISHNA: /strong The corpses of ba izav /i, and a izava /i, and a menstruating woman, and a woman after childbirth, and a leper, who died, transmit ritual impurity by carryingtheir corpses, buntil the flesh decays.With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is britually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity. /b, bBeit Shammai say:The status of ball womenwhen they bdieis as though they were bmenstruating womenat the time of death. Therefore, the garments that they were wearing before they died are impure and require immersion. bAnd Beit Hillel say: Onlya woman bwho diedwith the impurity of ba menstruating womanhas the status of ba menstruating womanafter death., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the corpse of one of these impure people transmits ritual impurity by carrying. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes the mishna mean by the term: bBy carrying? If we saythat it bliterallymeans bby carrying,that is difficult: bIs that to saythat beveryother bcorpse does not impart ritual impurity by carrying?Since every corpse imparts impurity through carrying, why does the mishna need to specify this ihalakhain these specific cases?, bRather, whatdoes the mishna mean when it states: bBy carrying [ ibemassa /i]?It means imparting impurity bthrough a very heavy stone [ ieven mesama /i].There is a unique ihalakhawith regard to the ritual impurity of a izavand a menstruating woman. If they sit on an item, even one that cannot become ritually impure, and beneath that item there is a vessel, although the weight of the izavor the menstruating woman has no physical effect on the vessel, it becomes ritually impure.,The Gemara notes that the word imesamais based on a verse, bas it is written: “And a stone was brought and placed [ ivesumat /i] upon the mouth of the den;and the king sealed it with his own signet and with the signet of his lords, that nothing might be changed concerning Daniel” (Daniel 6:18). Accordingly, the mishna is teaching that although a corpse does not normally impart ritual impurity to vessels under a heavy stone, these specific types of corpses do transmit impurity in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the Sages decreed that these specific types of corpses impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone? bRav said:It is ba decreedue to the possibility that bperhapsone of these people might bfaintwhile sitting on the heavy stone, and it might be mistakenly thought they are dead and do not impart impurity to the vessels beneath.,A itanna btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Eliezer:All of these types of corpses listed in the mishna impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone buntil the bellyof the corpse bbursts.The Sages imposed their decree only in cases where the corpse resembles a person who has fainted. Once the corpse is clearly no longer alive, it no longer imparts ritual impurity through a heavy stone.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is ritually pure and is prevented from transmitting impurity. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: For whatreason bdidthe Sages bsaythat the corpse of ba gentile who died is ritually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity by carrying? Because his impuritythat he transmits even bwhen alive is not by Torah law, but by rabbinic law.The Sages decreed that every living gentile imparts ritual impurity in the manner of a izav /i; they did not extend their decree to include the corpse of a gentile in the manner of the corpse of a izav /i.,§ bThe Sages taught: Thewise bpeople of Alexandria asked twelve matters of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥina. Threeof them were bmatters of wisdom, threewere bmatters of iaggada /i, threewere bmatters of ignorance,and bthreewere bmatters of behavior. /b,The Gemara lists the questions. bThreewere bmatters of wisdom:The first question was with regard to ba izavand a izavaand a menstruating woman and a woman after childbirth and the leper, who died: Until when do they transmit ritual impurity by carrying?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Until the flesh decays.This is the ihalakhataught in the mishna.,The second question referred to the bdaughterof a wife who had been bsent awayby her husband, i.e., divorced, who then married another, but after her divorce from her second husband or his death she returned and remarried her first husband, to whom she is forbidden (see Deuteronomy 24:1–4), and a daughter was born from this marriage. bWhatis bher,i.e., the daughter’s, status bwith regard tomarrying ba priest? /b, bDo we say an ia fortiori /iinference: bAnd ifin the case of ba widowmarried bto a High Priest, whose prohibition does not apply to all,i.e., it is prohibited for her only to marry a High Priest (see Leviticus 21:13–15), and yet the lineage of bher son is flawed,as he is disqualified from the priesthood, then in the case of bthisdaughter of a remarried divorcée, bwhose prohibition applies equally to allmen, bis it not right that her sonshould be of bflawedlineage? bOr perhapsthis comparison can be refuted: bWhatis notable babout a widow married to a High Priest?It is notable in bthat she herself is disqualifiedfrom the priesthood, i.e., if a High Priest engages in intercourse with her she is disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i, whereas a remarried divorcée is not disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i.,Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119b. לכפול יכפול לפשוט יפשוט לברך אחריו יברך הכל כמנהג המדינה אמר אביי לא שנו אלא לאחריו אבל לפניו [מצוה] לברך דא"ר יהודה אמר שמואל כל המצות מברך עליהן עובר לעשייתן,מאי משמע דהאי עובר לישנא דאקדומי הוא א"ר נחמן בר יצחק דכתיב (שמואל ב יח, כג) וירץ אחימעץ דרך הככר ויעבור את הכושי אביי אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, ג) והוא עבר לפניהם איכא דאמרי מהכא (מיכה ב, יג) ויעבור מלכם לפניהם וה' בראשם,תניא רבי כופל בה דברים רבי אלעזר בן פרטא מוסיף בה דברים מאי מוסיף אמר אביי מוסיף לכפול מאודך למטה,דרש רב עוירא זימנין א"ל משמיה דרב וזימנין א"ל משמיה דרב (אשי) מאי דכתיב (בראשית כא, ח) ויגדל הילד ויגמל עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים ביום שיגמל חסדו לזרעו של יצחק לאחר שאוכלין ושותין נותנין לו לאברהם אבינו כוס של ברכה לברך,ואומר להן איני מברך שיצא ממני ישמעאל אומר לו ליצחק טול וברך אומר להן איני מברך שיצא ממני עשו אומר לו ליעקב טול וברך אומר להם איני מברך שנאשתי שתי אחיות בחייהן שעתידה תורה לאוסרן עלי,אומר לו למשה טול וברך אומר להם איני מברך שלא זכיתי ליכנס לארץ ישראל לא בחיי ולא במותי אומר לו ליהושע טול וברך אומר להן איני מברך שלא זכיתי לבן דכתיב יהושע בן נון (דברי הימים א ז, כז) נון בנו יהושע בנו,אומר לו לדוד טול וברך אומר להן אני אברך ולי נאה לברך שנאמר (תהלים קטז, יג) כוס ישועות אשא ובשם ה' אקרא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין מפטירין אחר הפסח אפיקומן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי אפיקומן אמר רב שלא יעקרו מחבורה לחבורה,ושמואל אמר כגון אורדילאי לי וגוזלייא לאבא ורב חנינא בר שילא ורבי יוחנן (אמר) כגון תמרים קליות ואגוזים תניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן אין מפטירין אחר הפסח כגון תמרים קליות ואגוזים,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אין מפטירין אחר מצה אפיקומן תנן אין מפטירין אחר הפסח אפיקומן אחר הפסח הוא דלא אבל לאחר מצה מפטירין,לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא אחר מצה דלא נפיש טעמייהו אבל לאחר הפסח דנפיש טעמיה ולא מצי עבוריה לית לן בה קמשמע לן,נימא מסייע ליה הסופגנין והדובשנין והאיסקריטין אדם ממלא כריסו מהן ובלבד שיאכל כזית מצה באחרונה באחרונה אין 119b. bto doublecertain verses in ihallel /i, bone doubles themand reads them twice. In a place where the custom is to recite them bsimply,i.e., only once, one recites them bsimply.In a place where it is customary bto recite a blessing after ihallel /i, one should brecite a blessing. Everything is in accordance with theregional bcustom. Abaye said: They taughtthat it depends on the local custom bonlywith regard to the blessing bafter ihallel /i; bhowever,in all places it is ba mitzva to recite a blessing before ihallel /i. bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:With regard to ball the mitzvot, one recites a blessing over them prior to their performance. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where may it be inferred thatthe word ioveris a formulationthat means bbeforean action is performed? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said thatthis is bas it is written: “And Ahimaaz ran by way of the square and he passed [ ivaya’avor /i] the Kushite”(II Samuel 18:23), i.e., Ahimaaz overtook the Kushite. bAbaye saidthat it is derived bfrom here: “And he passed [ iavar /i] before them”(Genesis 33:3). bSome saythat the proof is bfrom here: “And their king shall pass on [ ivaya’avor /i] before them, and God at their head”(Micah 2:13)., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bdoublescertain bmatters in ihallel /i. bRabbi Elazar ben Perata added matters to ihallel /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatdid he badd?Certainly this cannot mean that Rabbi Elazar ben Perata added statements of his own to ihallel /i. bAbaye said:He badded repetitions,i.e., he repeated other verses, bfrom “I will give thanks to You” and onward.From that point on, he repeated each verse.,In connection to its discussion of ihallel /i, the Gemara cites a statement that bRav Avira taught. Sometimes he saidthis exposition bciting Rav Ami, and sometimes he saidit bciting Rav Asi: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And the child grew and was weaned [ ivayiggamal /i],and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned” (Genesis 21:8)? bIn the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a feast for the righteous on the day that He extends [ isheyigmol /i] His mercy to the descendants of Isaac. After they eat and drink,the celebrants will bgive Abraham our father a cup of blessing to recite the blessing,as he is the first of our forefathers., bAndAbraham will bsay to them: I will not recite the blessing, asI am blemished, for the wicked bIshmael came from me.Abraham will bsay to Isaac: Takethe cup band recite the blessing.Isaac will bsay to them: I will not recite the blessing, asthe wicked bEsau came from me.Isaac will bsay to Jacob: Takethe cup band recite the blessing.Jacob will bsay to them: I will not recite the blessing, as I married two sisters,Rachel and Leah, bin their lifetimes,and bin the future the Torah forbade them to me.Although at the time it was not prohibited to wed two sisters, this practice would eventually be considered a serious transgression.,Jacob will bsay to Moses: Takethe cup band recite the blessing.Moses will bsay to them: I will not recite the blessing, as I did not merit to enter Eretz Yisrael, neither in my life nor in my death.Moses will bsay to Joshua: Takethe cup band recite the blessing.Joshua will bsay to them: I will not recite the blessing, as I did not merit tohave ba son.The proof for this is bthat it is written: “Joshua the son of Nun”(Numbers 14:6), and in the genealogical list of Ephraim it states: b“Nun his son, Joshua his son”(I Chronicles 7:27). Since the verse does not mention any children of Joshua, evidently he had no sons.,Joshua will bsay to David: Takethe cup band recite the blessing.David will bsay to them: I will recite the blessing, and it is fitting for me to recite the blessing, as it is stated: “I will lift up the cup of salvation, and I will call upon the name of the Lord”(Psalms 116:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne does not conclude after the Paschal lamb with an iafikoman /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of iafikoman /i? Rav said:It means bthata member of a group that ate the Paschal lamb together should bnot leavethat bgroup tojoin another bgroup.One who joined one group for the Paschal lamb may not leave and take food with him. According to this interpretation, iafikomanis derived from the phrase iafiku mani /i, take out the vessels. The reason for this prohibition is that people might remove the Paschal lamb to another location after they had begun to eat it elsewhere. This is prohibited, as the Paschal lamb must be eaten in a single location by one group., bAnd Shmuel said:It means that one may not eat dessert after the meal, blike mushrooms[ iurdila’ei /i] bfor me, and chicks for Abba,Rav. It was customary for them to eat delicacies after the meal. bAnd Rav Ḥanina bar Sheila and Rabbi Yoḥasay: iAfikomanrefers to foods bsuch as dates, roasted grains, and nuts,which are eaten during the meal. It bwas taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa: One does not concludeby eating bafter the Paschal lambfoods bsuch as dates, roasted grains, and nuts. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel saidan additional halakha: Nowadays, when we have no Paschal lamb, bone does not conclude after imatzawith an iafikoman /i.The Gemara asks: bWe learnedin the mishna that bone does not conclude after the Paschal lamb with an iafikoman /i.The Gemara infers from the mishna: It is bafter the Paschal lamb thatone may bnotconclude with an iafikoman /i; bhowever, after imatzaonemay bconcludewith an iafikoman /i. This statement of the mishna apparently contradicts Shmuel’s ruling.,The Gemara rejects this contention: That is an incorrect inference, as the mishna is stated in the style of: Needless to say. The mishna should be understood as follows: Needless to say that one may not conclude with an iafikoman baftereating imatza /i, as the tasteof imatza bis slight.If one eats anything else afterward, the taste of the imatzawill dissipate. bHowever, after the Paschal lamb, which has a strong taste that is not easily removed,one might think that bwe have noproblem bwith it.Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat it is prohibited to conclude with an iafikomanafter the Paschal lamb as well.,The Gemara proposes: bLet us saythat the iTosefta bsupportsShmuel’s ruling: With regard to unleavened bsponge cakes, cakes fried in oil and honey, and honey cakes, a personmay bfill his stomach with themon Passover night, bprovided that he eats an olive-bulkof imatzaafterall that food. The Gemara infers from here that if he eats the imatza bafterthose cakes, byes,this is acceptable, as the imatzais eaten last.
42. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30a. הוה אמינא לשטן גירא בעיניך א"ל רבא לר' נתן בר אמי אדידך על צוארי דבריך משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתי ואמרי לה מתמני סרי עד עשרים וארבעה,כתנאי (משלי כב, ו) "חנ(ו)ך לנער על פי דרכו" ר' יהודה ורבי נחמיה חד אמר משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתין וחד אמר מתמני סרי ועד עשרים וארבעה,עד היכן חייב אדם ללמד את בנו תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כגון זבולון בן דן שלימדו אבי אביו מקרא ומשנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות מיתיבי למדו מקרא אין מלמדו משנה ואמר רבא מקרא זו תורה,כזבולון בן דן ולא כזבולון בן דן כזבולון בן דן שלמדו אבי אביו ולא כזבולון בן דן דאילו התם מקרא משנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות ואילו הכא מקרא לבד,ואבי אביו מי מיחייב והתניא (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בני בניכם ומה אני מקיים (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך לומר לך שכל המלמד את בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו למדו לו ולבנו ולבן בנו עד סוף כל הדורות, הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם אין לי אלא בניכם, בני בניכם מנין ת"ל והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך א"כ מה ת"ל בניכם בניכם ולא בנותיכם,אמר ריב"ל כל המלמד את בן בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו קבלה מהר סיני שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב (דברים ד, י),רבי חייא בר אבא אשכחיה לריב"ל דשדי דיסנא ארישיה וקא ממטי ליה לינוקא לבי כנישתא א"ל מאי כולי האי א"ל מי זוטר מאי דכתיב והודעתם לבניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מכאן ואילך רבי חייא בר אבא לא טעים אומצא עד דמקרי לינוקא ומוספיה רבה בר רב הונא לא טעים אומצא עד דמייתי לינוקא לבית מדרשא,אמר רב ספרא משום ר' יהושע בן חנניא מאי דכתיב (דברים ו, ז) ושננתם לבניך אל תקרי ושננתם אלא ושלשתם,לעולם ישלש אדם שנותיו שליש במקרא שליש במשנה שליש בתלמוד מי יודע כמה חיי לא צריכא ליומי,לפיכך נקראו ראשונים סופרים שהיו סופרים כל האותיות שבתורה שהיו אומרים וא"ו (ויקרא יא, מב) דגחון חציין של אותיות של ס"ת (ויקרא י, טז) דרש דרש חציין של תיבות (ויקרא יג, לג) "והתגלח" של פסוקים (תהלים פ, יד) יכרסמנה חזיר מיער עי"ן דיער חציין של תהלים (תהלים עח, לח) והוא רחום יכפר עון חציו דפסוקים,בעי רב יוסף וא"ו דגחון מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל ניתי ס"ת ואימנינהו מי לא אמר רבה בר בר חנה לא זזו משם עד שהביאו ספר תורה ומנאום א"ל אינהו בקיאי בחסירות ויתרות אנן לא בקיאינן,בעי רב יוסף והתגלח מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל אביי פסוקי מיהא ליתו לימנוי' בפסוקי נמי לא בקיאינן דכי אתא רב אחא בר אדא אמר במערבא פסקי ליה להאי קרא לתלתא פסוקי (שמות יט, ט) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנה אנכי בא אליך בעב הענן,תנו רבנן חמשת אלפים ושמונה מאות ושמונים ושמונה פסוקים הוו פסוקי ס"ת יתר עליו תהלים שמונה חסר ממנו דברי הימים שמונה,תנו רבנן ושננתם שיהו דברי תורה מחודדים בפיך שאם ישאל לך אדם דבר אל תגמגם ותאמר לו אלא אמור לו מיד שנאמר 30a. bI would say to the Satan: An arrow in your eye,i.e., I would not be afraid of the evil inclination at all. bRava said to Rabbi Natan bar Ami: While your hand is still on your son’s neck,i.e., while you still have authority and control over him, find him a wife. What is the appropriate age? bFrom sixteen until twenty-two, and some say from eighteen until twenty-four. /b,The Gemara notes that this is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i,based on the verse: b“Train a child in the way that he should go”(Proverbs 22:6). bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemyadisagreed about the age in which the verse instructs the parent to educate his child: bOne saidthat the verse is referring to the ages bfrom sixteen until twenty-two, and one saidit is referring to the ages bfrom eighteen until twenty-four.The dispute concerning the correct age for marriage and the dispute about educating a child are the same, as while a father still has a large measure of influence over his son, he must both teach him and find him a wife.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of a father’s obligation to teach his son Torah. bTo whatextent bis a person obligated to teach his son Torah? Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:One should emulate the education of, bfor example, Zevulun ben Dan,a contemporary of Shmuel, bwhose father’s father taught him Bible, Mishna, Talmud, ihalakhot /i, and iaggadot /i. The Gemara raises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: If a father btaughthis son bBible,he is bnotrequired to bteach him Mishna. And Rava saidin explanation of this ibaraita /i: bBible isthe bTorah,not the Prophets or Writings, i.e., he is not required to teach him anything else, including Mishna.,The Gemara answers that Shmuel’s statement should be understood as follows: One should teach his son blike Zevulun ben Dan was taughtin certain aspects, bbut not like Zevulun ben Danin other respects. One should teach his son blike Zevulun ben Danin bthat his father’s father taught him; but not like Zevulun ben Dan, as therehe was taught bBible, Mishna, Talmud, ihalakhot /i, and iaggadot /i, while here,in this ibaraita /i, one is required to teach his son bBible alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is one’s father’s father obligatedto teach him Torah? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i, that the verse: b“And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), indicates: bBut not your sons’ sons? And how do I realize,i.e., understand, the meaning of the verse: b“But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? This serves bto say to youthat bwhoever teaches his son Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he taught him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the end of all generations. /b,The Gemara answers that the itannaof this ibaraita bstatedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bthat itanna /i, as it is taughtin another ibaraita /i: From the verse b“And you shall teach them to your sons” I havederived bonlythat you must teach byour sons. From where doI derive that there is an obligation to teach byour sons’ sons? The verse states: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons.” If so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which implies only sons? This limitation teaches: bYour sons, but not your daughters. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who teaches his son’s son Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he received it from Mount Sinai, as it is stated: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons,” and juxtaposed to itis the phrase in the verse: b“The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb”(Deuteronomy 4:10), as Horeb is Mount Sinai.,The Gemara relates: Once bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba encountered Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,and saw bthat he had placedan inexpensive bcovering on his head and broughthis bchild to the synagogueto study. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba bsaid to him: Whatis the reason for ball thisfuss, as you are in such a hurry that you do not have time to dress yourself properly? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Is it insignificant, that which is written: “But make them known to your sons,” and juxtaposed to itis the phrase in the verse that states: b“The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb”?The Gemara comments: bFrom thismoment bonward, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would not taste meat [ iumtza /i],meaning he would not eat breakfast, bbefore he had read tohis bchild and added tothe child’s studies from the day before. Similarly, bRabba bar Rav Huna would not taste meat before he had broughthis bchild to the study hall. /b,§ bRav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And you shall teach them diligently [ iveshintam /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 6:7)? bDo not readthis as b“ iveshintam /i,”with the root ishin /i, inun /i, inun /i, which indicates a repetition. bRather,read it as iveshillashtam /i,with the root ishin /i, ilamed /i, ishin /i, related to the word three, ishalosh /i. This means that one must study, review, and study again, thereby dividing one’s studies into three parts.,In light of this statement, the Sages said that ba person should always divide his years into threeparts, as follows: bA third for Bible, a third for Mishna, and a third for Talmud.The Gemara asks: How can a person divide his life this way? bWho knows the length of his life,so that he can calculate how long a third will be? The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessary forone’s bdays,i.e., one should divide each day of his life in this manner., bTherefore,because they devoted so much time to the Bible, the bfirstSages bwere called: Those who count [ isoferim /i],because bthey would count all the letters in the Torah, as they would saythat the letter ivav /iin the word b“belly [ igaḥon /i]”(Leviticus 11:42) bis the midpoint of the letters in a Torah scroll.The words: b“Diligently inquired [ idarosh darash /i]”(Leviticus 10:16), bare the midpoint of the wordsin a Torah scroll. And the verse that begins with: b“Then he shall be shaven”(Leviticus 13:33), is the midpoint bofthe bverses.Similarly, in the expression: b“The boar out of the wood [ imiya’ar /i] ravages it”(Psalms 80:14), bthe iayininthe word wood b[ iya’ar /i]is the bmidpoint of Psalms,with regard to its number of letters. The verse: b“But He, being full of compassion, forgives iniquity”(Psalms 78:38), bis the midpointof bversesin the book of Psalms., bRav Yosef raises a dilemma:Does the ivavofthe word b“belly [ igaḥon /i]”belong bto this side or to this side?Is it part of the first or second half of the Torah? The Sages bsaid to him: Let us bring a Torah scroll and countthe letters. bDidn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana saywith regard to a different issue: bThey did not move from there until they brought a Torah scroll and countedthe letters? Therefore we can do the same. Rav Yosef bsaid to them: Theywere bexpertsin the bdeficient and pleneforms of words and therefore could count the letters precisely. bWe are not expertsin this regard, and therefore we would be unable to resolve the question even if we were to count the letters.,Similarly, bRav Yosef raises a dilemma:Does the midpoint of the verses in the Torah, which is b“then he shall be shaven,”belong bto this side or to this side? Abaye said to him:Even if we cannot count the letters, bwe can at least bringa Torah scroll bto count the verses.Rav Yosef explained: bWe are not experts about verses either, as when Rav Aḥa bar Adda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said: In the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bthey divide thisfollowing bverse into threeseparate bverses: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold I come to you in a thick cloud,that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever; And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:9). Perhaps there are other verses that we do not know how to divide properly., bThe Sages taught: Five thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight verses are the verses in a Torah scroll. Psalms has eight moreverses bthan that,and bChronicleshas beight fewerverses bthan that. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“And you shall teach them diligently [ iveshintam /i]”(Deuteronomy 6:7). The root ishin /i, inun /i, inun /i, of iveshintamshould be understood as meaning sharp, i.e., bthat matters of Torah should be sharpand clear bin your mouth,so bthat if a person asks you something, do not stutterin uncertainty band sayan uncertain response bto him. Rather, answer him immediately, as it is stated: /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100b. הוי אומר מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות במדה טובה כתיב (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול ובמידת פורענות הוא אומר (בראשית ז, יא) וארובות השמים נפתחו,במידת פורענות כתיב (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה והיו דראון לכל בשר והלא אדם מושיט אצבעו באור בעולם הזה מיד נכוה אלא כשם שנותן הקב"ה כח ברשעים לקבל פורענותם כך נותן הקב"ה כח בצדיקים לקבל טובתן:,רבי עקיבא אומר אף הקורא בספרים החיצונים וכו': תנא בספרי מינים רב יוסף אמר בספר בן סירא נמי אסור למיקרי א"ל אביי מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתב [ביה] לא תינטוש גילדנא מאודניה דלא ליזיל משכיה לחבלא אלא צלי יתיה בנורא ואיכול ביה תרתין גריצים,אי מפשטיה באורייתא נמי כתב (דברים כ, יט) לא תשחית את עצה אי מדרשא אורח ארעא קמ"ל דלא ליבעול שלא כדרכה,ואלא משום דכתיב בת לאביה מטמונת שוא מפחדה לא יישן בלילה בקטנותה שמא תתפתה בנערותה שמא תזנה בגרה שמא לא תינשא נישאת שמא לא יהיו לה בנים הזקינה שמא תעשה כשפים הא רבנן נמי אמרוה אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אשרי מי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות,אלא משום דכתיב לא תעיל דויא בלבך דגברי גיברין קטל דויא הא שלמה אמרה (משלי יב, כה) דאגה בלב איש ישחנה ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר ישיחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים,ואלא משום דכתיב מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא אל ביתך והא רבי נמי אמרה דתניא רבי אומר לעולם לא ירבה אדם רעים בתוך ביתו שנאמר (משלי יח, כד) איש רעים להתרועע,אלא משום דכתיב זלדקן קורטמן עבדקן סכסן דנפח בכסיה לא צחי אמר במאי איכול לחמא לחמא סב מיניה מאן דאית ליה מעברתא בדיקני' כולי עלמא לא יכלי ליה,אמר רב יוסף מילי מעלייתא דאית ביה דרשינן להו אשה טובה מתנה טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה מביתו ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפיה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת (ירמיהו ה, כז) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סודך לאחד מאלף משוכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אל תצר צרת מחר (משלי כז, א) כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא למחר איננו ונמצא מצטער על עולם שאינו שלו,(משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים בן סירא אומר אף לילות בשפל גגים גגו ובמרום הרים כרמו ממטר גגים לגגו ומעפר כרמו לכרמים,[סימן זיר"א רב"א משרשי"א חנינ"א טובי"ה ינא"י יפ"ה יוחנ"ן מרח"ם יהוש"ע מקצ"ר],אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים אלו בעלי תלמוד וטוב לב משתה תמיד אלו בעלי משנה,רבא אמר איפכא והיינו דאמר רב משרשיא משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, ט) מסיע אבנים יעצב בהם אלו בעלי משנה (קהלת י, ט) ובוקע עצים יסכן בם אלו בעלי תלמוד,רבי חנינא אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה מי שיש לו אשה רעה וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שיש לו אשה טובה רבי ינאי אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה אסטניס וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שדעתו יפה רבי יוחנן אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה רחמני וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה אכזרי רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה 100b. bYou must say that the attribute of reward is greater than the attribute of punishment,as bwith regard to the attribute of reward it is written: “He commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat”(Psalms 78:23–24). bAnd with regard to the attribute of punishmentat the time of the flood the verse bsays: “And the windows of the heavens were opened”(Genesis 7:11). To mete out punishment, God opened only windows, which are considerably smaller openings than doors, indicating that the attribute of reward is greater., bWith regard to the attribute of punishment it is written: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh”(Isaiah 66:24). The Gemara asks: bIs it not sothat when ba person extends his finger into the fire in this world, he is immediately burned?How, then, can one withstand the fire of Gehenna, which is never extinguished? bRather, just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the wicked to receive their punishment, so too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the righteous to receive their reward,His handful.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Akiva says: Also one who reads external literaturehas no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: This is a reference to reading bbooks of heretics. Rav Yosef says: It is also prohibited to read the book of ben Sira,due to its problematic content. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited to read the book of ben Sira? bIf we saythat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact bthatben Sira bwrote in it: Do not flay the skin of the fish from its ear, so that its skin does not go to ruin, but roast it on the fire and eat with it two loaves of bread,and you believe it to be nonsense, that is not a sufficient reason., bIfyour difficulty is bfrom its literalmeaning, that does not pose a difficulty, as bin the Torah,God balso wrote: “You shall not destroy its trees”(Deuteronomy 20:19). It is prohibited to destroy both trees and fish skin arbitrarily. bIfyour difficulty is bfromits bhomiletic interpretationas a euphemism, ben Sira bis teaching us proper conduct:A man bshould not engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, with his wife, as it causes her discomfort., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA daughter is for her father false treasure; due to fear for her he will not sleep at night: During her minority, lest she be seduced; during her young womanhood lest she engage in licentiousness; once she has reached her majority, lest she not marry; once she marries, lest she have no children; once she grows old, lest she engage in witchcraft(Ben Sira 42:11–14). Perhaps you believe that one should not say this to the father of daughters. bDidn’t the Sages also say itwith regard to women? They said: It is bimpossible for the worldto exist bwithout males and without females;nevertheless, bhappy is one whose children are males and woe unto him whose children are females. /b, bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bDo not introduce anxiety into your heart, as anxiety has killed mighty men(Ben Sira 14:1; 30:29). bDidn’t Solomonalready bsay itin the verse: b“Anxiety in a man’s heart dejects him [ iyashḥena /i]”(Proverbs 12:25)? bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiinterpret the term homiletically and read it as iyesiḥenna /i. bOne saysthat it means: bHe shall remove it [ iyesiḥenna /i] from his mind,and that will ease his anxiety. bAnd one says: He shall tell it [ iyesiḥenna /i] to others,and that will ease his anxiety. Both agree with the statement of ben Sira., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bBut didn’t RabbiYehuda HaNasi balso say it, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A person should never have many friends inside his house, as it is stated: “There are friends that one has to his own detriment”(Proverbs 18:24), as through his association with them he will become weak and be ruined., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA sparse-bearded man is clever; a thick-bearded man is a fool. One who blows on his cup is not thirsty. One who said: With what will I eat bread, take the bread from him. One who has a passage in his beard, the entire world is unable to overcome him.Abaye suggests: Due to all this nonsense, it is not appropriate to read this book., bRav Yosef says:Even though there are passages in the book that are inappropriate, bwe teach the superior matters that are in iteven in public. bA good wife is a good gift; she will be given into the bosom of a God-fearing man(Ben Sira 26:3). bA bad wife is leprosy for her husband. What is his remedy? He shall chase her from his house and will be healed from his leprosy(Ben Sira 25:30). bA beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days is doubled(Ben Sira 26:1). Due to his happiness, it is as though his life is twice as long.,We also teach what it states there: bAvert your eyes from a woman of grace, lest you be trapped in her snare. Turn not to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, as many have been corrupted by the beauty of the beautiful woman, and mighty are all her fatalities(Ben Sira 9:9–11). bMany are the wounds of a peddler(Ben Sira 11:36), which in this context is referring to those bwho accustomothers bto matters of forbidden sexual relations. Like a spark ignites a coal(Ben Sira 11:43), blike a cage full of birds, so too, their houses are filled with deceit(Ben Sira 11:36–37). bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bLet many be those who greet you; reveal your secrets to one in a thousand. From she who lies in your bosom guard the openings of your mouth,i.e., do not tell her everything. bGrieve not about tomorrow’s trouble, because you know not what a day may bring; perhaps tomorrow you will no longer be, and one will have worried about a world that is not his. /b,The verse states: b“All the days of the poor are terrible”(Proverbs 15:15). The book of bben Sira says: Also the nightsare terrible, as then the poor person worries. The poor person’s broof is among the lowest roofsin the city, band in the elevation of the hills is his vineyard,at the highest point, as those are of the lowest quality and consequently the least expensive places for each. bFrom the rain on the roofsof the entire city, water will flow down bto his roofand dampen it, band the soil of his vineyardis eroded by the rain and swept down btoother bvineyards. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow, based primarily on those who authored those statements. bZeira; Rava; Mesharshiyya; Ḥanina itoviyya /i,referring to Rabbi Ḥanina, who spoke of a good [ itova /i] wife; bYannai iyafe /i,referring to Rabbi Yannai, who spoke of one who is broad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i]; bYoḥa imeraḥem /i,referring to Rabbi Yoḥa, who spoke of one who is compassionate [ imeraḥem /i]; bYehoshua imekatzer /i,referring to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who spoke of one who is intolerant [ ida’ato ketzara /i]., bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“All the days of the poor are terrible, and for the good-hearted it is always a feast” (Proverbs 15:15)? b“All the days of the poor are terrible”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest constant effort in their study and encounter endless difficulties and questions. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; these are masters of the Mishna,who study only halakhic conclusions and encounter no difficulties., bRava saysthat bthe oppositeis true; band this isthat bwhich Rav Mesharshiyya said in the name of Rava: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by themand he who chops wood shall be warmed by it” (Ecclesiastes 10:9)? “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by them”; bthese are masters of the Mishna,as they invest effort, but are unable to benefit from that effort, as they do not reach halakhic conclusions. b“And he who chops wood shall be warmed by it”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest considerable effort and benefit from it, as they reach halakhic conclusions., bRabbi Ḥanina says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to bone who has a bad wife. “And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to bone who has a good wife. Rabbi Yannai says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bdelicate [ iistenis /i],i.e., one who is sensitive to repulsive items. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bbroad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i],i.e., he is not particular and will eat anything. bRabbi Yoḥa says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bcompassionate [ imeraḥem /i],as he always senses the suffering in the world and is constantly anxious. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bcrueland indifferent to suffering in the world. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to
44. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

105a. ועלו בידו שתים חייב והתנן פטור לא קשיא הא דבעי זיוני הא דלא בעי זיוני:,כתב אות אחת נוטריקון רבי יהושע בן בתירה מחייב וחכמים פוטרין: א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זימרא מנין ללשון נוטריקון מן התורה שנא' (בראשית יז, ה) כי א"ב המו"ן גוים נתתיך אב נתתיך לאומות בחור נתתיך באומות המון חביב נתתיך באומות מלך נתתיך לאומות ותיק נתתיך באומות נאמן נתתיך לאומות,ר' יוחנן דידיה אמר (שמות כ, ב) אנכי נוטריקון אנא נפשי כתיבת יהבית רבנן אמרי אמירה נעימה כתיבה יהיבה איכא דאמרי אנכי למפרע יהיבה כתיבה נאמנין אמריה,דבי רבי נתן אמרי (במדבר כב, לב) כי יר"ט הדרך לנגדי יראה ראתה נטתה דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (ויקרא כג, יד) כרמ"ל כר מלא רב אחא בר יעקב אמר (מלכים א ב, ח) והוא קללני קללה נמרצ"ת נוטריקון נואף הוא מואבי הוא רוצח הוא צורר הוא תועבה הוא,ר"נ בר יצחק אמר (בראשית מד, טז) מה נדבר ומה נצטד"ק נכונים אנחנו צדיקים אנחנו טהורים אנחנו דכים אנחנו קדושים אנחנו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הכותב ב' אותיות בשתי העלמות אחת שחרית ואחת בין הערבים ר"ג מחייב וחכמים פוטרין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big במאי קמיפלגי ר"ג סבר אין ידיעה לחצי שיעור ורבנן סברי יש ידיעה לחצי שיעור:, br br big strongהדרן עלך הבונה /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongרבי /strong /big אליעזר אומר האורג שלשה חוטין בתחילה ואחת על האריג חייב וחכ"א בין בתחילה בין בסוף שיעורו ב' חוטין העושה שתי בתי נירין בנירין בקירוס בנפה בכברה ובסל חייב והתופר ב' תפירות והקורע ע"מ לתפור ב' תפירות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big כי אתא רבי יצחק תני שתים והאנן תנן ג' לא קשיא הא באלימי הא בקטיני אמרי לה להאי גיסא ואמרי לה להאי גיסא אמרי לה להאי גיסא אלימי תלתא לא סתרי תרי סתרי קטיני תרי נמי לא סתרי ואמרי לה להאי גיסא קטיני תלתא ידיעי תרי לא ידיעי אלימי תרי נמי ידיעי,תניא האורג ג' חוטין בתחילה ואחד על האריג חייב וחכמים אומרים בין בתחילה בין בסוף שיעורן ב' חוטין ובשפה ב' חוטין ברוחב ג' בתי נירין הא למה זה דומה לאורג צלצול קטן ב' חוטין ברוחב ג' בתי נירין והאורג ג' חוטין בתחילה ואחד על האריג חייב סתמא כר"א,תניא אידך האורג ב' חוטין על הגס ועל האימרא חייב ר"א אומר אפילו אחד ובשפה שני חוטין ברוחב שלשה בתי נירין חייב הא למה זה דומה לאורג צלצול קטן שני חוטין על רוחב ג' בתי נירין והאורג ב' חוטין על הגס ועל האימרא חייב סתמא כרבנן:,העושה ב' בתי נירין כו': מאי [בנירין] אמר אביי תרתי בבתי נירא וחדא בנירא: בקירוס: מאי בקירוס אמר רב מצוביתא:,והתופר ב' תפירות: הא תנינא באבות מלאכות והתופר ב' תפירות משום דקבעי למיתנא סיפא והקורע ע"מ לתפור ב' תפירות קתני נמי התופר והקורע הא נמי תנינא באבות מלאכות אלא משום דקבעי למיתני סיפא הקורע בחמתו ועל מתו משום הכי קתני [התופר שתי תפירות]:,והקורע ע"מ לתפור שתי תפירות: היכי משכחת לה 105a. band managedto write btwoletters, bhe is liable.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t we learnin the mishna that one is bexemptin that case? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: Thatcase where we learned that he is exempt is referring to a case bwherethe letters brequire crowns. Thisis referring to a case bwhere they do not require crowns,and he is liable. If the letters already had their requisite ornamentation and an individual separated them, it is as if he wrote two letters.,We learned in the mishna If bone wrote one letteras ban abbreviation [ inotarikon /i]representing an entire word, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira deemshim bliableto bring a sin-offering, band the Rabbis deemhim bexempt. Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: From whereis it derived that the blanguage of abbreviationis employed bin the Torah? As it is stated:“Neither shall your name any more be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; bfor the father of a multitude of nations [ iav hamon goyim /i] have I made you”(Genesis 17:5). The verse itself contracts iav hamoninto Abraham [ iAvraham /i]. The words iav hamonthemselves are interpreted as an abbreviation: bI have made you a father [ iav /i] for the nations, I have made you chosen [ ibaḥur /i] among the nations, I have made you beloved [ iḥaviv /i] among the nations, I have made you king [ imelekh /i] for the nations, I have made you distinguished [ ivatik /i] for the nations, I have made you trusted [ ine’eman /i] for the nations. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa himself saidthat the word ianokhi /ithat begins the Ten Commandments is an babbreviationfor: bI myself wroteand bgave [ iana nafshi ketivat yehavit /i]. The Rabbis saidit is an abbreviation for: bA pleasant statement was writtenand bgiven [ iamira ne’ima ketiva yehiva /i]. Some saythe word ianokhi /ican be interpreted bbackwards: It was written, it was given, its statements are faithful [ iyehiva ketiva ne’emanim amareha /i]. /b, bThe school of Rabbi Natan saidthat there is another abbreviation in the Torah. In the verse: “And the angel of the Lord said to him: Why did you hit your donkey these three times? Behold I have come out as an adversary bbecause your way is contrary [ iyarat /i] against me”(Numbers 22:32). iYaratis an abbreviation for: The donkey bfeared [ iyare’a /i], it saw [ ira’ata /i],and bit turned aside [ inateta /i]. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word ikarmel /iin the verse: “And bread, and toasted grain flour, and toasted grain [ ikarmel /i]” (Leviticus 23:14) means: bA full kernel [ ikar maleh /i],i.e., the seed fills the stalk. bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov saidin King David’s words: “And behold, with you is Shimi ben Gera from Benjamin, of Bahurim, bwho cursed me with a grievous [ inimretzet /i] curseon the day that I went to Mahanaim” (I Kings 2:8). The word inimretzetis an babbreviationfor: bHe is an adulterer [ inoef /i], he is a Moabite [ iMoavi /i], he is a murderer [ irotze’aḥ /i], he is an oppressor [ itzorer /i], he is an abomination [ ito’eva /i]. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat there is another abbreviation in the Bible: “And Judah said: What can we say to my master, bwhat can we speak, and how can we justify [ initztadak /i]”(Genesis 44:16), which stands for: bWe are honest [ inekhonim /i], we are righteous [ itzaddikim /i], we are pure [ itehorim /i], we are innocent [ idakkim /i], we are holy [ ikedoshim /i]. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bone who writes two letterson Shabbat bin twoseparate blapses of awarenessseparated by a period of awareness that the day was Shabbat, writing boneletter in bthe morning and oneletter bin the afternoon, Rabban Gamliel deemshim bliableto bring a sin-offering like someone who has unintentionally performed a full-fledged prohibited labor, band the Rabbis deemhim bexempt. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: With regard to bwhat do they disagree? Rabban Gamliel holds: There is no awareness for half a measure.One is not liable to bring a sacrifice for half a measure; therefore, the fact that he became aware between performance of the two halves of the prohibited labor is of no significance. His awareness does not demarcate between one act of writing a letter and the second act of writing a letter with regard to liability to bring a sin-offering. bAnd the Rabbis hold: There is awareness for half a measure.If an individual became aware of his transgression between the two parts of the prohibited labor, each individual part is independent of the other, and the two halves of the prohibited labor do not join together to create liability.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Eliezer says: One who weaveson Shabbat is bliableto bring a sin-offering if he wove bthree threads at the beginningof something new, borif he adds bonethread bto apreexisting bwoven fabric. And the Rabbis say: Both at the beginning and at the end, its measurefor liability is btwo threads. One who makes two meshes,i.e., ties the threads of the warp, attaching them btoeither bthe inirin /ior bthe ikeiros /i,which will be explained in the Gemara, bin a winnow, sieve, or basket, is liablefor making meshes. bAnd one who sewsis liable if he sews btwo stitches. And one who tearsis liable if he tears enough fabric bin order to sew two stitchesto repair it., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhen Rabbi Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughtthat Rabbi Eliezer said: bTwothreads is the measure that determines liability for beginning a weave. The Gemara asks: bDidn’t we learn threein the mishna? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,because bthissource is referring bto thickthreads and bthat sourceis referring bto thinthreads. bSome say it this way,that one is liable when weaving two thick threads, band some say it that way,that one is liable when weaving two thin threads. The Gemara elaborates: bSome say it this way:One who weaves bthickthreads, bthreethreads bwill not unravel,but btwo will unravel.With regard to bthinthreads, btwo will also not unravel. And some say it this way:One who weaves bthinthreads, bthreethreads bare conspicuous, two are not conspicuous.With regard to bthickthreads, btwo are also conspicuous. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who weaves three threads at the beginning or onethread bonto apreexisting bwoven fabric is liable. And the Rabbis say: Both at the beginning and at the end, its measurefor liability is btwo threads. Andif one weaves ba hemwith a thread or color different from the original garment, he is liable for weaving btwo threads across a width of three meshes,i.e., three threads of the warp. Why is one liable in that case? bTo what is this similar?It is similar bto weaving a small beltin which one weaves btwo threads across a width of three meshes,the width of the belt. bAndwhen it is taught in the ibaraita /i: bOne who weaves three threads at the beginning or onethread bonto apreexisting bwoven fabric is liable,that bunattributed ibaraitais in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. /b, bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who weaves two threads onto a largefabric bor onto the borderof a fabric alongside the woof on Shabbat bis liable. Rabbi Eliezer says:One is liable bevenif he weaves bonethread. bAnd along the edgeof the warp, one who weaves btwo threads across a width of three meshes is liable. To what is this similar?It is similar bto weaving a small beltin which one weaves btwo threads across a width of three meshes.The Gemara comments: When it was taught in the ibaraita /i: bOne who weaves two threads onto a largefabric bor onto the border is liable,that bunattributed ibaraitais in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b,We learned in the mishna that bone who makes two meshes,attaching them btoeither bthe inirin /ior the keiros, is liable. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of bto the inirin /i? Abaye said:One ties btwo to the meshes,the thread of the warp, bandties bone to the crosspiece,the thread that extends from the weaving rod. We learned in the mishna that one is liable for attaching the meshes bto the ikeiros /i,and the Gemara asks: bWhat isa ikeiros /i? Rav said:It refers to bthe slips,the parts that go up and down on a stationary loom and are parallel to the pole., bAndwe also learned in the mishna that bone who sewson Shabbat is liable if he sews btwo stitches.The Gemara asks: bWealready blearned that onthe list of bprimary categories of prohibited labor: And one who sews two stitchesis liable. The Gemara answers: bSincethe mishna bwanted to teach in the latter clause: And one who tears in order to sew two stitches,it balso taughtthe ihalakhaof bone who sews. And one who tears,did bwenot balso learnthis in the mishna enumerating the list of bprimary categories of prohibited labor? Sincethe mishna bwanted to teacha new ihalakha bin the latter clause,namely: bOne who tears in his anger or for his dead relative, therefore,it also btaughtthe ihalakhaof bone who sews two stitches. /b,With regard to what we learned in the mishna: bAnd one who tears in order to sew two stitches,the Gemara asks: bWhere do you find thatcase where it is necessary to tear a garment in order to sew it?
45. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. הן תהוי ארכא לשלותיך וכתיב (דניאל ד, כה) כלא מטא על נבוכדנצר מלכא וכתיב (דניאל ד, כו) לקצת ירחין תרי עשר,לעולם רבי ישמעאל ואשכח קרא דאמר ותני דכתיב (עמוס א, יא) כה אמר ה' על שלשה פשעי אדום,ומאי אע"פ שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר דלמא שאני עובדי כוכבים דלא מפקיד דינא עלייהו,ויש זכות תולה ג' שנים כו' זכות דמאי אילימא זכות דתורה הא אינה מצווה ועושה היא אלא זכות דמצוה,זכות דמצוה מי מגנא כולי האי והתניא את זו דרש רבי מנחם בר יוסי (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור תלה הכתוב את המצוה בנר ואת התורה באור את המצוה בנר לומר לך מה נר אינה מגינה אלא לפי שעה אף מצוה אינה מגינה אלא לפי שעה,ואת התורה באור לומר לך מה אור מגין לעולם אף תורה מגינה לעולם ואומר (משלי ו, כב) בהתהלכך תנחה אותך וגו' בהתהלכך תנחה אותך זה העוה"ז בשכבך תשמור עליך זו מיתה והקיצות היא תשיחך לעתיד לבא,משל לאדם שהיה מהלך באישון לילה ואפילה ומתיירא מן הקוצים ומן הפחתים ומן הברקנים ומחיה רעה ומן הליסטין ואינו יודע באיזה דרך מהלך,נזדמנה לו אבוקה של אור ניצל מן הקוצים ומן הפחתים ומן הברקנים ועדיין מתיירא מחיה רעה ומן הליסטין ואינו יודע באיזה דרך מהלך כיון שעלה עמוד השחר ניצל מחיה רעה ומן הליסטין ועדיין אינו יודע באיזה דרך מהלך הגיע לפרשת דרכים ניצל מכולם,ד"א עבירה מכבה מצוה ואין עבירה מכבה תורה שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, ז) מים רבים לא יוכלו לכבות את האהבה,א"ר יוסף מצוה בעידנא דעסיק בה מגנא ומצלא בעידנא דלא עסיק בה אגוני מגנא אצולי לא מצלא תורה בין בעידנא דעסיק בה ובין בעידנא דלא עסיק בה מגנא ומצלא,מתקיף לה רבה אלא מעתה דואג ואחיתופל מי לא עסקי בתורה אמאי לא הגינה עלייהו אלא אמר רבא תורה בעידנא דעסיק בה מגנא ומצלא בעידנא דלא עסיק בה אגוני מגנא אצולי לא מצלא מצוה בין בעידנא דעסיק בה בין בעידנא דלא עסיק בה אגוני מגנא אצולי לא מצלא,רבינא אמר לעולם זכות תורה ודקאמרת אינה מצווה ועושה נהי דפקודי לא מפקדא באגרא דמקרין ומתניין בנייהו ונטרן להו לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי מדרשא מי לא פלגאן בהדייהו,מאי פרשת דרכים א"ר חסדא זה ת"ח ויום מיתה רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר זה ת"ח ויראת חטא מר זוטרא אמר זה ת"ח דסלקא ליה שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא,ד"א עבירה מכבה מצוה ואין עבירה מכבה תורה א"ר יוסף דרשיה רבי מנחם בר יוסי להאי קרא כי סיני ואילמלא דרשוה דואג ואחיתופל הכי לא רדפו בתר דוד דכתיב (תהלים עא, יא) לאמר אלהים עזבו וגו',מאי דרוש (דברים כג, טו) ולא יראה בך ערות דבר וגו' והן אינן יודעין שעבירה מכבה מצוה ואין עבירה מכבה תורה,מאי (שיר השירים ח, ז) בוז יבוזו לו אמר עולא לא כשמעון אחי עזריה ולא כר' יוחנן דבי נשיאה,אלא כהלל ושבנא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר הלל ושבנא אחי הוו הלל עסק בתורה שבנא עבד עיסקא לסוף א"ל תא נערוב וליפלוג יצתה בת קול ואמרה (שיר השירים ח, ז) אם יתן איש את כל הון ביתו וגו' 21a. band then there shall be an extension to your tranquility”(Daniel 4:24). bAnd it is written: “All this came upon King Nebuchadnezzar”(Daniel 4:25), band it is writtenin the following verse that this occurred: b“At the end of twelve months”(Daniel 4:26). None of the opinions in the ibaraitaare in accordance with the mishna’s statement that merit can delay punishment for up to three years.,The Gemara answers: bActually,the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yishmael,who states that merit delays punishment for one year, band he found a verse which states and repeatsthe possibility that punishment can be delayed, indicating that merit can delay punishment up to three times, bas it is written: “Thus says the Lord: For three transgressions of Edom,yes, but for four, I will not reverse it” (Amos 1:11). Punishment can therefore be delayed for three consecutive periods of one year.,The Gemara asks: bAnd whatdoes Rabbi Yishmael mean by stating: bAlthough there is noexplicit bproof for the conceptof merit delaying punishment for twelve months, there is ban allusion to the concept?The verses he cites state explicitly that punishment can be delayed for twelve months. The Gemara answers: The proof is not explicit, as bperhaps gentiles are different, asswift bjudgment is not administered upon themas readily as it is upon the Jewish people, with whom God is more precise in executing judgment.,§ The mishna states: bAnd there is a meritthat bdelayspunishment for bthree years.The Gemara asks: bWhich meritcan delay the punishment of a isota /i? bIf we sayit is the bmerit ofthe bTorahthat she has studied; bbuta woman who studies Torah bisone who is bnot commandedto do so band performsa mitzva, whose reward is less than that of one who is obligated? Therefore, it would be insufficient to suspend her punishment. bRather,perhaps it is the bmerit of a mitzvathat she performed.,The Gemara asks: bDoesthe bmerit of a mitzva protectone bso muchas to delay her punishment? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei interpreted thisverse bhomiletically: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). bThe verse associates the mitzva with a lamp and the Torah withthe blightof the sun. bThe mitzvais associated bwith a lampin order bto say to you: Just as a lamp does not protectone by its light extensively but bonly temporarily,while the lamp is in one’s hand, bso too, a mitzva protectsone bonly temporarily,i.e., while one is performing the mitzva., bAnd the Torahis associated bwith lightin order bto say to you: Just asthe blightof the sun bprotectsone bforever, so too,the bTorahone studies bprotectsone bforever; and it statesin the previous verse with regard to the Torah: b“When you walk, it shall lead you;when you lie down, it shall watch over you; and when you awake, it shall talk with you” (Proverbs 6:22). The Gemara explains: b“When you walk, it shall lead you”; this isreferring to when one is in bthis world. “When you lie down, it shall watch over you”; this isreferring to the time of bdeath,when one lies in his grave. b“And when you awake, it shall talk with you”;this is referring bto the time to comeafter the resurrection of the dead. The Torah that one studies protects and guides him both in this world and in the next world.,This can be illustrated by ba parable,as it is comparable bto a man who is walking inthe bblackness of night and the darkness, and he is afraid of the thorns, and of the pits, and of the thistles,which he cannot see due to the darkness. bAndhe is also afraid bofthe bwild animals and of the banditsthat lurk at night, band he does not know which way he is walking. /b,If ba torch of fire comes his way,which is analogous to a mitzva, bhe is safe from the thorns and from the pits and from the thistles, but he is still afraid ofthe bwild animals and of the bandits, andstill bdoes not know which way he is walking. Once the light of dawn rises,which is analogous to Torah study, bhe is safe fromthe bwild animals and from the bandits,which no longer roam the roads, bbut he still does not know which way he is walking.If bhe arrives at a crossroadsand recognizes the way, bhe is saved from all of them. /b, bAlternatively,the verse associates the mitzva with a lamp and the Torah with the light of the sun in order to teach that ba transgression extinguishesthe merit of ba mitzvaone performed, bbut a transgression does not extinguishthe merit of the bTorahone studied, bas it is stated: “Many waters cannot extinguish the love,neither can the floods drown it” (Song of Songs 8:7). The Torah is compared to love several times in the Song of Songs. One can conclude from the ibaraitathat the merit of performing a mitzva is insufficient to suspend punishment., bRav Yosef saidthat with regard to ba mitzva, at the time when one is engaged in itsperformance it bprotectsone from misfortune band savesone from the evil inclination; bat the time when one is not engaged in itsperformance, it bprotectsone from misfortune but it bdoes not saveone from the evil inclination. With regard to bTorahstudy, bboth at the time when one is engaged in it and at the time when one is not engaged in it,it bprotectsone from misfortune band savesone from the evil inclination. Therefore, the merit of the woman’s mitzvot does protect her from misfortune and delay her punishment., bRabba objects to thisexplanation: bIf that is so,then with regard to bDoeg(see I Samuel, chapters 21–22) band Ahithophel(see II Samuel, chapter 16), who were both wise scholars despite their wickedness, bdid they not engage in thestudy of bTorah? Why didit bnot protect themfrom sinning? bRather, Rava said:With regard to bTorahstudy, bat the time when one is engaged in it, it protects and saves; at the time when one is not engaged in it, it protectsone from misfortune but bit does not saveone from the evil inclination. With regard to ba mitzva, both at the time when one is engaged in itsperformance band at the time when one is not engaged in itsperformance, bit protectsone from misfortune but it bdoes not saveone from the evil inclination., bRavina said: Actually,the merit that delays the punishment of the isotais the bmerit of Torahstudy, bandwith regard to that bwhich you say,i.e., that bshe is not commandedto do so band performsa mitzva, the mishna is not referring to the merit of her own Torah study. bGranted, she is not commandedto study Torah herself; however, bin reward for causing their sons to readthe Written Torah band to learnthe Mishna, bandfor bwaiting for their husbands until they comehome bfrom the study hall, don’t they sharethe reward bwith theirsons and husbands? Therefore, if the isotaenabled her sons and husband to study Torah, the merit of their Torah study can protect her and delay her punishment.,With regard to the aforementioned parable, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the bcrossroads,which provide clarity? bRav Ḥisda says: Thisis referring to ba Torah scholar andhis bday of death.Due to his continued commitment to the Torah, when the time comes for him to die, it is clear to him that he will go to the place of his eternal reward. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: This is a Torah scholarwho has also acquired bfear of sin,as his fear of sin guides him to the correct understanding of the Torah. bMar Zutra says: This is a Torah scholar who reachesconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i,as that is an indication that he is following the right path.,The ibaraitastates: bAlternatively: A transgression extinguishesthe merit of ba mitzva, but a transgression does not extinguishthe merit of the bTorah. Rav Yosef says: Rabbi Menaḥem bar Yosei interpreted this verse asit was given on Mount bSinai, and had Doeg and Ahithophel only interpreted it in this way they would not have pursued David, as it is written:“For my enemies speak concerning bme…saying, God has forsaken him;pursue and take him, for there is none to deliver” (Psalms 71:10–11). Doeg and Ahithophel incorrectly thought that since David had sinned, his sins had extinguished his merits and God had forsaken him.,The Gemara asks: bWhatverse bdidDoeg and Ahithophel binterpretincorrectly, causing them to err? They interpreted this verse: “For the Lord your God walks in the midst of your camp…to give up your enemies before you… bthat He see no licentious matter in you,and turn away from you” (Deuteronomy 23:15), to indicate that God turns away from one who engaged in forbidden relations, and since David had sinned with Bathsheba God must have turned away from him. bBut they did not know that a transgression extinguishesthe merit of ba mitzva, but a transgression does not extinguishthe merit of the bTorah. /b,The Gemara interprets the continuation of the verse cited by the ibaraitawith regard to Torah study: bWhatis the meaning of: “Many waters cannot extinguish the love…if a man would give all the fortune of his house for love, bhe would utterly be condemned”(Song of Songs 8:7)? The Torah is compared to love several times in the Song of Songs. Therefore, the verse indicates that one cannot acquire a share in the reward for Torah study with money. bUlla says:The verse is bnotspeaking of individuals blike Shimon, brother of Azarya,whose brother Azarya supported him and enabled him to study Torah. bAndit is bnotspeaking of individuals blike Rabbi Yoḥa of the house of the iNasi /i,whom the iNasisupported so that he could study Torah., bRather,it is speaking of individuals blike Hillel and Shevna, as when Rav Dimi cameto Babylonia bhe said: Hillel and Shevna were brothers; Hillel engaged in Torahstudy and remained impoverished, whereas bShevna entered into abusiness bventureand became wealthy. bIn the end,Shevna bsaid toHillel: bCome, let us joinour wealth btogether and divideit between us; I will give you half of my money and you will give me half of the reward for your Torah study. In response to this request ba Divine Voice issued forth and said: “If a man would give all the fortune of his housefor love, he would utterly be condemned” (Song of Songs 8:7).
46. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. התם הוא דמבטל אבל הכא דלא מבטל לא,ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר ששבת בגליל העליון ושאלוהו שלשים הלכות בהלכות סוכה שתים עשרה אמר להם שמעתי שמונה עשר אמר להם לא שמעתי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר חילוף הדברים שמונה עשר אמר להם שמעתי שתים עשרה אמר להם לא שמעתי,אמרו לו כל דבריך אינן אלא מפי השמועה אמר להם הזקקתוני לומר דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבותי מימי לא קדמני אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הנחתי אדם בבית המדרש ויצאתי ולא שחתי שיחת חולין ולא אמרתי דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבי מעולם,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מימיו לא שח שיחת חולין ולא הלך ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא קדמו אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישן בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הרהר במבואות המטונפות ולא הניח אדם בבית המדרש ויצא ולא מצאו אדם יושב ודומם אלא יושב ושונה ולא פתח אדם דלת לתלמידיו אלא הוא בעצמו ולא אמר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו מעולם ולא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד מבית המדרש חוץ מערבי פסחים וערבי יום הכפורים וכן היה ר' אליעזר תלמידו נוהג אחריו,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו ושלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להם חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינונים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים קלים וחמורים וגזרות שוות תקופות וגימטריאות שיחת מלאכי השרת ושיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים משלות כובסין משלות שועלים דבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה דבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא וכי מאחר שקטן שבכולן כך גדול שבכולן על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו מיד נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ב"ש פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את רבי יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו שהיה יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ולא אמרו לו דבר אמרו להם ב"ש משם ראיה אף הם אמרו לו אם כן היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין מן הסוכה קטן שאינו צריך לאמו חייב בסוכה מעשה וילדה כלתו של שמאי הזקן ופיחת את המעזיבה וסיכך על גבי המטה בשביל קטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דת"ר אזרח זה אזרח (ויקרא כג, מב) האזרח להוציא את הנשים כל לרבות את הקטנים,אמר מר האזרח להוציא את הנשים למימרא דאזרח בין נשים בין גברי משמע והתניא האזרח לרבות את הנשים האזרחיות שחייבות בעינוי אלמא אזרח גברי משמע אמר רבה הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי,הי קרא והי הלכתא ותו קרא למה לי הלכתא למה לי הא סוכה מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,יום הכפורים מדרב יהודה אמר רב נפקא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אמר קרא (במדבר ה, ו) איש או אשה 28a. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the case of the shutter and the case of the sheet. bThere,in the case of the shutter, bwhere he negatesit by shuttering the window, it is considered part of the building and it is therefore prohibited. bHowever, here,in the case of the sheet, bwhere he does not negateit, as he plans on removing it, bno,it is not necessarily prohibited.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who stayed in the Upper Galilee, andthe people there basked him thirty ihalakhotin the ihalakhotof isukka /i.In response to btwelve, he said to them: I heardan answer from my teachers, and he related what he heard. In response to the other beighteen, he said to them: I did not hearan answer. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:It was bthe reverse of these matters.In response to beighteen he said to them: I heardan answer; in response to the other btwelve he said to them: I did not hearan answer., bThey said to him: Are all the mattersthat byouknow bonly from whatyou bheard?Don’t you say any matters on your own? bHe said to them:Now byou forced me to say a matter that I did not hear from my teachers,as I must describe my character traits and the manner in which I conduct myself. bInall bmy days, no person ever preceded me into the study hall,as I am always first to arrive; band I never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and I never left anyone in the study hall and exited,as I was always last to leave; band I never engaged in idle conversation;rather, I discussed only necessary matters or matters of Torah; band I never said anything that I did not hear from my teacher.That is why he did not answer those questions that his teacher did not address.,Apropos the character traits of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites character traits of his teacher. The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer: bInall bhis days he never engaged in idle conversation; and he never walked four cubits withoutengaging in bTorahstudy band withoutdonning bphylacteries; and no person ever preceded him into the study hall; and he never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and he never contemplatedmatters of Torah bin alleyways filthywith human excrement, as doing so is a display of contempt for the Torah; band he never left anyone in the study hall and exited; and no person ever found him sitting and silent,i.e., inactive; brather, hewas always bsitting and studying; and only he opened the door for his students,disregarding his own eminent standing; band he never said anything that he did not hear from his teacher; and he never saidto his students that bthe time has arrived to ariseand leave bthe study hall except on Passover eves,when they were obligated to sacrifice the Paschal lamb, and bYom Kippur eves,when there is a mitzva to eat and drink abundantly. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer, his student, accustomedhimself to model his conduct bafter hisexample.,The Gemara continues to praise the Sages. bThe Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the Divine Presenceshould brest upon them asit did upon bMoses our teacher, and thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the sunshould bstand still for them asit did for bJoshua bin Nun, and twentywere on an bintermediatelevel between the other two. bThe greatest of allthe students was bYonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of themwas bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b,The Gemara relates: The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkaithat bhe did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; ihalakhotand iaggadot /i; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes;the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to ia fortioriinferences and verbal analogies;the calculation of the calendrical bseasons;and bnumerology [ igimmatreyaot /i].In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including bthe conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers,which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; bparables of foxes;and more generally, ba great matter and a small matter. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bA great matteris referring to the secrets of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,the conduct of the transcendent universe. bA small matteris, for example, ihalakhotthat were ultimately formulated in the framework of bthe disputes of Abaye and Rava.He did not neglect any of these disciplines so as bto fulfill that which is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries”(Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom. bAnd if the youngest of them was soprolific, bthe greatest of themwas ball the more soprolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages bsaid of Yonatan ben Uzziel,the greatest of Hillel’s students, bthat when he sat and was engaged in Torahstudy, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that bany bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone whose head and most of hisbody bwere in the isukkaand his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem it unfit, and Beit Hillel deem it fit. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai:And bwasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit and they found himsuch bthat he was sitting with his head and most of hisbody bin the isukkaand his table in the house, and they said nothing to him?Even Beit Shammai did not object. bBeit Shammai said to them:Is there bproof from there?That is not what happened; rather, bthey said to him: If you were accustomedto act in bthismanner, byou have never fulfilled the mitzva of isukkain your life. /b,The mishna continues: bWomen, slaves, and minors are exempt from themitzva of isukka /i. A minor who does not need his motherany longer bis obligatedin the mitzva. There was ban incident where the daughter-in-law of Shammai the Elder gave birthjust before iSukkot /i, and Shammai bremoved thecoat of bplasterfrom the roof, leaving the beams, band roofedwith the beams bover the bed for thenewborn bminor. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the ihalakhathat women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the mitzva of isukka /i, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? The Gemara answers that it is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: “All the homeborn in Israel shall reside in isukkot /i” (Leviticus 23:42). Had the verse stated only: bHomeborn,it would have been derived bthatany bhomebornmember of the Jewish people is obligated to observe this mitzva. However, the term with the addition of the definite article: b“The homeborn,”indicates that only certain homeborn members are obligated, i.e., men, bto the exclusion of the women.The word “all” in the phrase: b“Allthe homeborn,” comes bto include the minorscapable of performing this mitzva.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: “The homeborn”is bto the exclusion of women. Is that to say thatthe term bhomebornwithout the definite article bindicates both men and women? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to Yom Kippur that it is stated: “And it shall be a statute forever unto you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls and shall do no manner of work, the homeborn, or the stranger that sojourns among you” (Leviticus 16:29). And the term b“the homeborn”in that verse comes bto include homeborn women, who are obligated inthe mitzva of bafflictionon Yom Kippur. In that case, the definite article comes to include women. Therefore, bapparently,the term homeborn, without the definite article, bindicatesonly bmen. Rabba said: They areeach a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, band the Sagesmerely bsupported them with versesas a mnemonic device. Therefore, it is not surprising that the derivations are contradictory.,The Gemara asks: bWhichof them bisderived from bthe verse and which is a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai and merely supported by a verse? bAnd furthermore, why do Ineed bthe verse and why do Ineed bthe ihalakha /i? Isn’t isukkaa positive, time-bound mitzva, andthe principle is that bwomen are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot?There is no need for a special derivation to exempt women from the mitzva of isukka /i.,And there is no need for a derivation with regard to their obligation to fast on bYom Kippur,as that can be bderived fromthat bwhich Rav Yehudasaid that bRav said, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said, and it was likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: The verse says:“When ba man or womanshall commit any sin that a person commits, to commit a trespass against the Lord, and that soul be guilty” (Numbers 5:6).
47. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

78b. והא אמר רב כהנא לא שנו אלא רובו אבל כולו חוצץ שאני עובר דהיינו רביתיה,כי אתא רבינא א"ר יוחנן באומות הלך אחר הזכר נתגיירו הלך אחר פגום שבשניהם באומות הלך אחר הזכר כדתניא מנין לאחד מן האומות שבא על הכנענית והוליד בן שאתה רשאי לקנותו בעבד שנאמר (ויקרא כה, מה) וגם מבני התושבים הגרים עמכם מהם תקנו,יכול אפי' אחד מן הכנענים שבא על אחת מן האומות והוליד בן שאתה רשאי לקנותו בעבד ת"ל אשר הולידו בארצכם מן הנולדים בארצכם ולא מן הגרים בארצכם:,נתגיירו הלך אחר פגום שבשניהם: במאי אילימא במצרי שנשא עמונית מאי פגום שבשניהם אית בה עמוני ולא עמונית אלא בעמוני שנשא מצרית אי זכר הוי שדייה בתר עמוני אי נקבה הוי שדייה בתר מצרית:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ממזרין ונתינין אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם אחד זכרים ואחד נקבות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר ריש לקיש ממזרת לאחר עשרה דורות מותרת יליף עשירי עשירי מעמוני ומואבי מה להלן נקבות מותרות אף כאן נקבות מותרות,אי מה להלן מיד אף כאן מיד כי אהני גזירה שוה מעשירי ואילך,והאנן תנן ממזרים ונתינין אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם אחד זכרים ואחד נקבות לא קשיא הא כמאן דאמר דון מינה ומינה,הא כמאן דאמר דון מינה ואוקי באתרא,שאלו את רבי אליעזר ממזרת לאחר עשרה דרי מהו אמר להם מי יתן לי דור שלישי ואטהרנו אלמא קסבר ממזרא לא חיי וכן אמר רב הונא ממזרא לא חיי,והא אנן תנן ממזרין אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם אמר רבי זירא לדידי מפרשא לי מיניה דרב יהודה דידיע חיי דלא ידיע לא חיי דידיע ולא ידיע עד תלתא דרי חיי טפי לא חיי,ההוא דהוי בשבבותיה דר' אמי אכריז עליה דממזרא הוה בכי ואזיל אמר ליה חיים נתתי לך,אמר רב חנא בר אדא נתינים דוד גזר עליהם שנאמר (שמואל ב כא, ב) ויקרא המלך לגבעונים ויאמר אליהם והגבעונים לא מבני ישראל המה וגו',מאי טעמא גזר עלייהו דכתיב (שמואל ב כא, א) ויהי רעב בימי דוד שלש שנים שנה אחר שנה שנה ראשונה אמר להם שמא עובדי עבודת כוכבים יש בכם דכתיב (דברים יא, טז) ועבדתם אלהים אחרים והשתחויתם להם ועצר את השמים ולא יהיה מטר וגו' בדקו ולא מצאו,שניה אמר להם שמא עוברי עבירה יש בכם דכתיב (ירמיהו ג, ג) וימנעו רביבים ומלקוש לא היה ומצח אשה זונה היה לך וגו' בדקו ולא מצאו,שלישית אמר להם שמא פוסקי צדקה ברבים יש בכם ואין נותנין דכתיב (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר בדקו ולא מצאו,אמר אין הדבר תלוי אלא בי מיד ויבקש דוד את פני ה' מאי היא אמר ריש לקיש ששאל באורים ותומים,מאי משמע א"ר אלעזר אתיא פני פני כתיב הכא ויבקש דוד את פני ה' וכתיב התם (במדבר כז, כא) ושאל לו במשפט האורים לפני ה',ויאמר ה' אל שאול ואל בית הדמים על אשר המית הגבעונים אל שאול שלא נספד כהלכה ואל בית הדמים על אשר המית הגבעונים וכי היכן מצינו בשאול שהמית הגבעונים אלא מתוך שהרג נוב עיר הכהנים שהיו מספיקין להם מים ומזון מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הרגן,קא תבע אל שאול שלא נספד כהלכה וקא תבע על אשר המית הגבעונים אין דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (צפניה ב, ג) בקשו את ה' כל ענוי ארץ אשר משפטו פעלו באשר משפטו שם פעלו,אמר דוד שאול נפקו להו 78b. However, this is difficult, as bdidn’t Rav Kahana saythat bthey taughtthis ihalakhathat if one is not particular about the substance it is not considered an interposition bonlywhen the substance covers just ba majorityof bhisbody; bbutif it covers ball of it, it isconsidered ban interpositionby Torah law, even if he is not particular about it. The Gemara answers: bA fetus is different, as this is itsnatural manner of bgrowth.Its mother’s womb cannot be considered an interposition, as it is the fetus’ natural place of development, and therefore the fetus itself is regarded as having undergone immersion., bWhen Ravina camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said:With respect to lineage, bamong theother bnationsof the world, i.e., while they are still gentiles, bfollow the male,but if they married after bthey converted, follow themore bflawedin lineage bof the two.The Gemara explains: bAmong the nations, follow the male, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthatif bone from theother bnations had relations with a Canaanitewoman band had a sonfrom her, byou are permitted to purchase him as a slave,and he is not considered a Canaanite who may not be allowed to remain in Eretz Yisrael? bAs it is stated: “And also from the children of the strangers that dwell among you, of them may you buy,and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they may be your possession” (Leviticus 25:45).,One bmighthave thought that bevenif bone from the Canaanitenations bhad relations witha woman bfromone of btheother bnations and had a sonfrom her, byou are permitted to purchase him as a slave.Therefore, bthesame bverse states: “Which they have begotten in your land,”which indicates that slaves may be bought only bfrom those begotten in your land,i.e., from those whose father was a non-Canaanite and whose mother was a Canaanite. It is the way of women to remain in their own land, and so a child born in Eretz Yisrael was certainly born to a Canaanite mother. bButslaves may bnotbe bought bfrom those dwelling in your land.If a child is born to a Canaanite man and a non-Canaanite woman outside of Eretz Yisrael, and that offspring later returns to dwell in Eretz Yisrael, the offspring may not be acquired as a slave, because his lineage follows his father. He is regarded as a Canaanite, who may not be allowed to remain in Eretz Yisrael.,It was taught above in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa that if they married after bthey converted, follow the more flawedin lineage bof the two.The Gemara asks: bTo whatcircumstances is this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to ba male Egyptianconvert bwho married a female Ammoniteconvert, bwhatis the meaning of: More bflawedin lineage bof the two,in bthiscase? The ihalakhais that ban Ammoniteman is barred from entering into the congregation, bbut not an Ammonite woman,and so she is not flawed at all. bRather,it must be referring bto a male Ammoniteconvert bwho married a female Egyptianconvert. bIfthe child bis male, assign him tohis bAmmonitefather, so that he is permanently barred from entering the congregation. bIfit is ba female, assign her toher bEgyptianmother, so that she is treated like a second-generation Egyptian convert., strongMISHNA: /strong iMamzerimandthe bGibeoniteswho converted to Judaism in the days of Joshua bare prohibitedfrom entering into the congregation and marrying a woman who was born Jewish. bTheir prohibition is eternal,for all generations, and it applies to bboth males and females. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bReish Lakish said: A imamzeret /i,a female imamzer /i, bis permitted after ten generations.Why? He bderivedthis ihalakhaby way of a verbal analogy between the word b“tenth”stated in relation bto an Ammonite and a Moabitein the verse “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the congregation of the Lord forever” (Deuteronomy 23:4), and the word b“tenth”stated in relation to a imamzerin the verse “A imamzershall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the congregation of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:3) He explained the analogy as follows: bJust as below,with regard to an Ammonite and a Moabite, bfemales are permitted, so too here,with regard to a imamzer /i, bfemales are permitted. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bOrperhaps one should say that bjust as below,with regard to an Ammonite and a Moabite, their females are permitted bimmediately, so too here,a imamzeretis permitted bimmediately.The Gemara answers: bThe verbal analogy is effectiveonly bfromthe btenthgeneration band onward. /b,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bBut didn’t we learnin the mishna that imamzerimand Gibeonites are prohibited, and their prohibition is eternalfor all generations, and it applies to bboth males and females?The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficultfor Reish Lakish, as he understands that there is a dispute in this regard: bThisopinion, that of Reish Lakish, is bin accordance withthe itanna bwho saidthat the application of a verbal analogy is extended by way of the principle: bInfer from it, andagain bfrom it.In other words, after deducing case B from case A, all of the characteristics of case A are applied to case B. In the case discussed here, although the verbal analogy comes primarily to render a imamzerpermanently forbidden, it is extended and understood to mean that a imamzeretis permitted after ten generations., bThatother opinion, i.e., the mishna, is bin accordance withthe itanna bwho saidthat the application of a verbal analogy is limited, according to the principle: bInfer from it, andthen bleave it in its place.That is to say, after the main provision of case A is applied to case B, case B is recognized as having its own character and specific rules that apply to it. Accordingly, in the case discussed here, the verbal analogy teaches one specific ihalakhathat a imamzeris prohibited permanently, but nothing else.,The Gemara relates that the students basked Rabbi Eliezer:With regard to ba imamzeretafter ten generations, what isthe ihalakha /i? bHe said to them: Who will give me a third-generation imamzerso that bI will declare him pure?The Gemara comments: bApparently he maintainsthat ba imamzerdoes not survive. iMamzerimperish at the hand of Heaven, and therefore this question is not a practical one. bAnd similarly, Rav Huna saidthat ba imamzerdoes not survive. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut didn’t we learnin the mishna that imamzerimare prohibitedfrom entering into the congregation, band their prohibition is eternalfor all generations? How is this possible if they do not even live long enough to produce three generations? bRabbi Zeira said:This matter bwas explained to me by Rav Yehudahimself: One bwho is knownto be a imamzerwill bsurvive,as there is no concern that there will be any mingling of his seed. On the other hand, one bwho is not knownas a imamzerwill bnot survive,as he will die at the hand of Heaven so that there will be no mingling of his seed. As for one bwho is known and not known,i.e., one who is under suspicion, but it is unclear whether or not he is actually a imamzer /i, his descendants will bsurvive for three generations,but bmorethan this they will bnot survive. /b,It is related that ba certain personlived bin Rabbi Ami’s neighborhood,and following an investigation Rabbi Ami bdeclared him to be a imamzer /i.The man bwent about weepinguntil Rabbi Ami bsaid to him:You should not be upset, as now bI have given you life.As explained above, once one is publicly known as a imamzer /i, he and his descendants may survive.,§ bRav Ḥana bar Adda said:As for the bGibeonites,it was King bDavidwho bdecreed that theymay not enter into the congregation, bas it is stated: “And the king called the Gibeonites and said to them. Now the Gibeonites are not of the children of Israel,but of the remt of the Amorites” (II Samuel 21:2). This verse indicates that it was David who ruled that they are not part of the Jewish people and that they are barred from the congregation even though they converted.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat David bdecreedthat they may not enter into the congregation? In order to answer this question, the Gemara recounts all the relevant background events. bAs it is written: “And there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year”(II Samuel 21:1). In the bfirst yearDavid bsaid tothe Jewish people: bPerhaps there are idol worshippers among you,this being a sin that can lead to drought, bas it is written:“Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and you turn aside, band serve other gods, and worship them;and the anger of the Lord be kindled against you, band He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain,and the ground shall not yield her fruit” (Deuteronomy 11:16–17). bThey examinedthe matter bbut did not findsinners of this kind.,In the bsecondyear of the drought David bsaid to them: Perhaps there are transgressorsin sexual matters bamong you,as this too can lead to drought, bas it is written: “Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there has been no latter rain; yet you had a harlot’s forehead,you refused to be ashamed” (Jeremiah 3:3), which indicates that licentious behavior can lead to a cessation of rainfall. Again bthey examinedthe matter, bbut did not findsinners of this kind either.,In the bthirdyear bhe said to them: Perhaps there are among you those who pledgemoney bto charity in public, but do notactually bgiveany charity. bAs it is written: “As vapors and wind without rain, so is he that boasts himself of a false gift”(Proverbs 25:14), teaching that one who falsely boasts of making a gift prevents the rain from falling. Once again bthey examinedthe matter, bbut could not findsuch sinners.,Having unsuccessfully searched the Jewish people for sins that cause drought, David bsaid: The matter depends on nothing otherthan bmyself. Immediatelyit is stated: b“And David sought the presence of the Lord”(II Samuel 21:1). The Gemara asks: bWhat is this?How did David seek God? bReish Lakish said: He inquired through the iUrim VeTummim /i,the stones embedded in the High Priest’s breastplate, which served as a means of communicating with God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat David’s seeking was by way of the iUrim VeTummim /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This is bderivedby way of a verbal analogy between the word b“presence” usedhere and the word b“presence”used elsewhere. bIt is written here: “And David sought the presence of the Lord,” and it is written there:“And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, bwho shall inquire for him by the judgment of the iUrimin the presence of the Lord”(Numbers 27:21). Consequently, the “presence of the Lord” sought by David must have involved the iUrim VeTummim /i.,The verse continues: b“And the Lord said: It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he put to death the Gibeonites”(II Samuel 21:1). The Gemara explains: b“For Saul”means that the Jewish people were punished bbecause he was not eulogized properly. “And for his bloody house”is b“because he put to death the Gibeonites.”The Gemara is puzzled by this explanation: bNow, where do we find that Saul put to death the Gibeonites?The Gemara clarifies: bRather, because he killedthe people of bNob, the city of priests, who would providethe Gibeonites bwith water and foodin exchange for their services, bthe verse ascribes to him as if hehimself had bkilled them. /b,The Gemara questions this understanding: On one hand, God bdemandsretribution bbecause Saul was not eulogized properly, whileon the other hand, bHe demandsretribution bbecauseSaul himself bput to death the Gibeonites.The Gemara answers: bYes,this is how it should be. bAs Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Seek the Lord, all the humble of the earth, that have executed [ ipa’alu /i] His justice”(Zephaniah 2:3)? bWheremention is made of the bjusticeto be carried out against a person, bhisgood bdeeds[ipa’alo/b] should be mentioned bthereas well., bDavid said:With regard to the eulogy for bSaul, there havealready bpassed /b
48. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 17.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

49. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 28-29, 37, 40, 8, 18 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

50. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 28, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

51. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.92-7.98

7.92. The first order, because they have striven with great effort to overcome the evil thought which was formed with them, that it might not lead them astray from life into death. 7.93. The second order, because they see the perplexity in which the souls of the ungodly wander, and the punishment that awaits them. 7.94. The third order, they see the witness which he who formed them bears concerning them, that while they were alive they kept the law which was given them in trust. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.96. The fifth order, they rejoice that they have now escaped what is corruptible, and shall inherit what is to come; and besides they see the straits and toil from which they have been delivered, and the spacious liberty which they are to receive and enjoy in immortality. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 7.98. The seventh order, which is greater than all that have been mentioned, because they shall rejoice with boldness, and shall be confident without confusion, and shall be glad without fear, for they hasten to behold the face of him whom they served in life and from whom they are to receive their reward when glorified.
52. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 11.23, 28.3

53. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 14

54. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.3.3

1.3.3. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַר קְרָיָיא בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, לְמָה הָיָה דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פּוֹלְיָטוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית אַחַת וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, בָּא אֶחָד וְטִלְטְלָהּ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ וְהָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, אַף כֵּן אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם, אַבְרָהָם הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים יֵשׁ לְךָ, הַרְבֵּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ לְךָ, טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ בָּעוֹלָם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בְּעוֹלָמִי, לֶךְ לְךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (בראשית יב, א): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵא לְךָ עֲלָמוֹת הַרְבֵּה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ה): וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת לוֹט בֶּן אָחִיו וְאֶת כָּל רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, וַהֲלֹא אִם מִתְכַּנְּשִׁים כָּל הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹאת יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִבְרֹאתוֹ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן. אָמַר רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֲנָשִׁים, וְשָׂרָה הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מַכְנִיסָן לְבֵיתוֹ וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וּמַאֲהִיבָן וּמְקָרְבָן וּמְגַיְּרָן וּמַכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הַמַּכְנִיס בְּרִיָה אַחַת לְתוֹךְ כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה מַעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּרָאוֹ וִיצָרוֹ וְרִיקְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִמַּה שֶּׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, שִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הִיא הָאוֹרָה, גְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא לָנוּ אוֹרָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים בָּאִים וּמִתְגַּיְּרִים וְנוֹסָפִים עָלֵינוּ, כְּגוֹן יִתְרוֹ וְרָחָב, יִתְרוֹ שָׁמַע וַאֲתָא, רָחָב שָׁמְעָה וְאַתְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֵס לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים נִתְגַּיְּרוּ, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, כג): כִּי בִרְאוֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: וְיָדְעוּ תֹעֵי רוּחַ בִּינָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לָנוּ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, וּבִזַּת הַיָּם, וּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, וּבִזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים, אָנוּ אוֹהֲבִים אוֹתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם יוֹם הַמִּיתָה וְיוֹם הַנֶּחָמָה, אֲהֵבוּךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, בְּעַלֵּמוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי תְּשׁוּבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זוֹ כַּת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה יג, ט): וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (חבקוק ג, ב): ה' שָׁמַעְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ יָרֵאתִי ה' פָּעָלְךָ בְּקֶרֶב שָׁנִים וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז, ח): כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה' אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ, עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת רֹאשׁ חוּלָה לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לִבְּכֶם לְחֵילָה, לְחוֹלָה כְּתִיב, צַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְצַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאֶמְצָעָם, וְהֵם חָלִים לְפָנָיו בְּעַלְמוּת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים (תהלים מח, טו): כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בְּעַלֵימוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, כְּאִילֵין עוּלֵימְתָא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים סח, כו): בְּתוֹךְ עֲלָמוֹת תּוֹפֵפוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, תִּרְגֵּם עֲקִילַס אַתְנִסָיָא, עוֹלָם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָוֶת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים: כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דִּכְתִיב (דברים טו, ו): כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּרַכְךָ, וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה נח, יא): וְנָחֲךָ ה' תָּמִיד.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abun r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
aggadah, in lists of components of oral law Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
agonothetes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217, 220
akinakes, holophernes sword Gera, Judith (2014) 445
amoraic literature, on gymnastic events Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375
aqiva r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
behavior Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 445
candlestick (see also menorah) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
chariot (see also merkavah), suns Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
commandments Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375
david, house of Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 127
dionysus Gera, Judith (2014) 445
eschatology Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
etrog, citron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
ezra, basis of rabbinic attitudes to Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 143
garden of eden Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
genesis, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 445
gold, objects Gera, Judith (2014) 445
grammateus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
gymnastic events, and divine benefactor Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
gymnastic events, as metaphor Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216
gymnastic events, in christian literature Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216
gymnastic events Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216
hasmoneans Gera, Judith (2014) 445
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 375
helios (see also sol invictus) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
hellenistic, institutions and practices Gera, Judith (2014) 445
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 445
homily Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
instruction, school, education Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
israelites, celebrate Gera, Judith (2014) 445
jacob (patriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 445
joakim of judith, and elders Gera, Judith (2014) 445
joakim of judith, celebrates victory Gera, Judith (2014) 445
joshua, jubilees, book of Gera, Judith (2014) 445
joshua b. hananiah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
judas maccabeus Gera, Judith (2014) 445
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
leviathan Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
maasim tovim Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
menahem r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 375
messianism Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
meturgeman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
midrash, amoraic Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
midrash, tannaitic Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
midrashim, midrash/halakhot pairings Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
milan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
mime Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
mishnah, in oral torah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
mishnah Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
musical instruments Gera, Judith (2014) 445
nathan r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
novick, tzvi Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 127
paintings of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 445
palms in celebrations Gera, Judith (2014) 445
pantomime Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 375
prayer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
processions, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 445
prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
r. judah i (the prince), i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
r. simeon b. yohai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
rabbinic literature, on theater attendance Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375
rabbis Gera, Judith (2014) 445
rebekka (matriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
resh laqish Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
roman entertainment, jewish attitudes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
rosh hashanah Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
sarah (matriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
scribe Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
segullah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 127
seven species Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
shimon b. yochai, r. Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
simon, brother of judas Gera, Judith (2014) 445
simonias Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
sofer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
solomon Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 127
song and dance Gera, Judith (2014) 445
sukka Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
sukkot Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 217
sun, worship Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
symbol Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
tabernacles Gera, Judith (2014) 445
talmud, palestinian Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
targum Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 443
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328, 375
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 445
thanksgiving, song and prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 445
theater, rabbinic opposition Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 220
torah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
vassal treaties, ancient near eastern' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 127
victory celebrations Gera, Judith (2014) 445
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 375
vision of merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 375
wands, ritual Gera, Judith (2014) 445
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
world to come Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283
wreaths and crowns, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 445
yannai r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yehudah ha-nasi/ rabbi judah i Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yishmael r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yohanan r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yom kippur Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 216, 217
zodiac Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
ḥuppa Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 283