Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



647
Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 22.1
NaN
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

36 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.1-1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. נָאווּ לְחָיַיִךְ בַּתֹּרִים צַוָּארֵךְ בַּחֲרוּזִים׃ 1.1. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.1. THE song of songs, which is Solomon’s. 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 . . \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 32.10 32.10 32 10 \n3 8 8 8 None\n4 8.1 8.1 8 1 \n5 9 9 9 None\n6 9.1 9.1 9 1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.12, 20.1, 22.8, 34.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 22.8. עַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּשַׁע עַל־שׁוֹר עַל־חֲמוֹר עַל־שֶׂה עַל־שַׂלְמָה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר כִּי־הוּא זֶה עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ׃ 34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 22.8. For every matter of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, whereof one saith: 'This is it,' the cause of both parties shall come before God; he whom God shall condemn shall pay double unto his neighbour." 34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 8.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.12. אכתוב־[אֶכְתָּב־] לוֹ רבו [רֻבֵּי] תּוֹרָתִי כְּמוֹ־זָר נֶחְשָׁבוּ׃ 8.12. Though I write for him never so many things of My Law, they are accounted as a stranger’s."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 9.11, 23.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.11. הֵן יַעֲבֹר עָלַי וְלֹא אֶרְאֶה וְיַחֲלֹף וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 23.8. הֵן קֶדֶם אֶהֱלֹךְ וְאֵינֶנּוּ וְאָחוֹר וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 9.11. Lo, He goeth by me, and I see Him not. He passeth on also, but I perceive Him not." 23.8. Behold, I go forward, but He is not there, And backward, but I cannot perceive Him;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 7.24, 17.3-17.5, 26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.24. וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 17.3. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז בַּמַּחֲנֶה אוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 17.5. לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹבְחִים עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וֶהֱבִיאֻם לַיהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְזָבְחוּ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה אוֹתָם׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 7.24. And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it." 17.3. What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it without the camp," 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 17.5. To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they sacrifice in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest, and sacrifice them for sacrifices of peace-offerings unto the LORD." 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.7. וָאֵרֶא בַפְּתָאיִם אָבִינָה בַבָּנִים נַעַר חֲסַר־לֵב׃ 7.7. And I beheld among the thoughtless ones, I discerned among the youths, A young man void of understanding,"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 50.11, 102.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

50.11. יָדַעְתִּי כָּל־עוֹף הָרִים וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי׃ 102.1. כִּי־אֵפֶר כַּלֶּחֶם אָכָלְתִּי וְשִׁקֻּוַי בִּבְכִי מָסָכְתִּי׃ 102.1. תְּפִלָּה לְעָנִי כִי־יַעֲטֹף וְלִפְנֵי יְהוָה יִשְׁפֹּךְ שִׂיחוֹ׃ 50.11. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine." 102.1. A Prayer of the afflicted, when he fainteth, and poureth out his complaint before the LORD. "
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 38.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

38.14. כְּסוּס עָגוּר כֵּן אֲצַפְצֵף אֶהְגֶּה כַּיּוֹנָה דַּלּוּ עֵינַי לַמָּרוֹם אֲדֹנָי עָשְׁקָה־לִּי עָרְבֵנִי׃ 38.14. Like a swallow or a crane, so do I chatter, I do moan as a dove; mine eyes fail with looking upward. O LORD, I am oppressed, be Thou my surety. ."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. יֵשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיֹּאמַר רְאֵה־זֶה חָדָשׁ הוּא כְּבָר הָיָה לְעֹלָמִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה מִלְּפָנֵנוּ׃ 1.1. דִּבְרֵי קֹהֶלֶת בֶּן־דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.1. THE WORDs OF the Koheleth, the son of David, king in Jerusalem."
11. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
12. Mishnah, Hulin, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. If one slaughtered with [the smooth edge of] a hand sickle, with a flint or with a reed, the slaughtering is valid. All may slaughter; at all times one may slaughter; and with any implement one may slaughter, except a scythe, a saw, teeth or a finger nail, since these strangle. One who slaughtered with a scythe, moving it forward only: Bet Shammai declare it invalid, But Bet Hillel declare it valid. If the teeth of the scythe were filed away it is regarded as an ordinary knife."
13. Mishnah, Peah, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.4. As for carob trees, [they are not divided] as long as they see one another. Rabban Gamaliel said: we had this custom in the house of my father. We would give separate peah from the olive trees in each direction and [one peah] for all the carob trees that saw one another. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok said in his name: also for the carob trees they had in the whole city [they only gave one peah]."
14. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.20-7.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 3.7, 13.3, 30.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֹאת הַבְּהֵמָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי ל, ה): כָּל אִמְרַת אֱלוֹהַּ צְרוּפָה, רַב אָמַר לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶן אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל, ה): מָגֵן הוּא לְכָל הַחֹסִים בּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן כָּל בְּהֵמוֹת וְלִוְיָתָן הֵן קֶנִיגִין שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה קֶנִיגִין שֶׁל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, זוֹכֶה לִרְאוֹתָהּ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, כֵּיצַד הֵם נִשְׁחָטִים, בְּהֵמוֹת נוֹתֵץ לַלִּוְיָתָן בְּקַרְנָיו וְקוֹרְעוֹ, וְלִוְיָתָן נוֹתֵץ לַבְּהֵמוֹת בִּסְנַפִּירָיו וְנוֹחֲרוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים זוֹ שְׁחִיטָה כְּשֵׁרָה הִיא, וְלֹא כָּךְ תָּנִינַן הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּבַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּלְעוֹלָם שׁוֹחֲטִין חוּץ מִמַּגַּל קָצִיר, וְהַמְגֵרָה, וְהַשִּׁנַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן חוֹנְקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (ישעיה נא, ד): תּוֹרָה חֲדָשָׁה מֵאִתִּי תֵצֵא, חִדּוּשׁ תּוֹרָה מֵאִתִּי תֵצֵא. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֲרִיסְטוֹן עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת לַעֲבָדָיו הַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל נְבֵלוֹת בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה זוֹכֶה לִרְאוֹתוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ויקרא ז, כד): וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם (ויקרא יא, ב): זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכֵלוּ. 30.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים טז, יא): תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹדִיעֵנִי בְּאֵיזֶה פִּילוֹן מְפֻלָּשׁ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד אִם חַיִּים אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, יִסּוּרִין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב (משלי ו, כג): וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר. שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, שִׂבְּעָנוּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה שְׂמָחוֹת, מִקְרָא, מִשְׁנָה, תַּלְמוּד, תּוֹסֶפְתָּא וְאַגָּדוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת פָּנֶיךָ, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה וּפְנֵיהֶם דּוֹמוֹת לַחַמָּה וּלְבָנָה, לָרָקִיעַ, לַכּוֹכָבִים, לַבְּרָקִים וּלְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים וְלַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. לַחַמָּה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה. לַלְּבָנָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה. לָרָקִיעַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ. לַכּוֹכָבִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. לַבְּרָקִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחום ב, ה): מַרְאֵיהֶן כַּלַּפִּידִים כַּבְּרָקִים יְרוֹצֵצוּ. לְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים מִנַּיַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מה, א): לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שׁשַׁנִּים. לַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ד, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ. (תהלים טז, יא): נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח, וְכִי מִי מוֹדִיעֵנוּ אֵיזוֹ כַּת הַחֲבִיבָה וְהַנְּעִימָה שֶׁבָּהֶן, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר זוֹ שֶׁבָּאָה מִכֹּחָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וּמִכֹּחָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת, וְאָחֳרָנָא אָמַר אֵלּוּ סוֹפְרִין וּמַשְׁנִין שֶׁמְּלַמְּדִין תִּינוֹקוֹת בַּאֲמִתָּן, שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד בִּימִינוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אַל תְּהִי קוֹרֵא כֵּן אֶלָּא שֶׁבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְווֹת שֶׁבֶּחָג, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין שֶׁבַּלּוּלָב, וְסֻכָּה, חֲגִיגָה וְשִׂמְחָה. אִם שִׂמְחָה לָמָּה חֲגִיגָה וְאִם חֲגִיגָה לָמָּה שִׂמְחָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין מָשָׁל לִשְׁנַיִם שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אֵצֶל הַדַּיָּן וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן הוּא נוֹצֵחַ, אֶלָּא מַאן דְּנָסַב בָּאיָין בִּידֵיהּ, אֲנַן יָדְעִין דְּהוּא נָצוֹחַיָיא, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּאִין וּמְקַטְרְגִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן נָצַח, אֶלָּא בַּמֶּה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יוֹצְאִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלוּלָבֵיהֶן וְאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן בְּיָדָן, אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין דְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִינוּן נָצוֹחַיָּא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.
16. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

17. Anon., Sifra, 2.12 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.12. 2) Not necessarily. This may be so with the sneh, the beginning of G d's speaking, but not with the ohel moed (the tent of meeting), which was not the beginning. — This is refuted by Mount Sinai, which was not the beginning of G-d's speaking to him, and where dibbur is nonetheless preceded by kriyah (Shemoth 19:3)."
18. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 313 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39a. התם ידיע ממשו הכא לא ידיע ממשן:,וטרית טרופה וציר שאין בה דגה וכו': מאי חילק אמר רב נחמן בר אבא אמר רב זו סולתנית ומפני מה אסורה מפני שערבונה עולה עמה:,תנו רבנן אין לו עכשיו ועתיד לגדל לאחר זמן כגון הסולתנית והעפיץ הרי זה מותר יש לו עכשיו ועתיד להשיר בשעה שעולה מן הים כגון אקונס ואפונס כטספטייס ואכספטייס ואוטנס מותר,אכריז רבי אבהו בקיסרי קירבי דגים ועוברן ניקחין מכל אדם חזקתן אינן באים אלא מפלוסא ואספמיא כי הא דאמר אביי האי צחנתא דבב נהרא שריא,מ"ט אילימא משום דרדיפי מיא והאי דג טמא כיון דלית ליה חוט השדרה בדוכתא דרדיפי מיא לא מצי קאי והא קא חזינן דקאי,אלא משום דמליחי מיא והאי דג טמא כיון דלית ליה קלפי בדוכתא דמליחי מיא לא מצי קאי והא קחזינן דקאי אלא משום דלא מרבה טינא דג טמא אמר רבינא האידנא דקא שפכי ביה נהר גוזא ונהר גמדא אסירי,אמר אביי האי חמרא דימא שרי תורא דימא אסיר וסימניך טמא טהור טהור טמא,אמר רב אשי שפר נונא שרי קדש נונא אסיר וסימניך (שמות טז, כג) קדש לה' איכא דאמרי קבר נונא אסור וסימניך קברי עובדי כוכבים,רבי עקיבא איקלע לגינזק אייתו לקמיה ההוא נונא דהוה דמי לחיפושא חפייה בדיקולא חזא ביה קלפי ושרייה רב אשי איקלע לטמדוריא אייתו לקמיה ההוא נונא דהוה דמי לצלופחא נקטיה להדי יומא חזא דהוה ביה צימחי ושרייה,רב אשי איקלע לההוא אתרא אייתו לקמיה נונא דהוי דמי לשפרנונא חפייה במשיכלי חיורי חזא ביה קלפי ושרייה רבה בר בר חנה איקלע לאקרא דאגמא קריבו ליה צחנתא שמעיה לההוא גברא דהוה קרי ליה באטי,אמר מדקא קרי ליה באטי ש"מ דבר טמא אית ביה לא אכל מיניה לצפרא עיין בה אשכח ביה דבר טמא קרי אנפשיה (משלי יב, כא) לא יאונה לצדיק כל און:,והקורט של חילתית: מ"ט משום דמפסקי ליה בסכינא אע"ג דאמר מר נותן טעם לפגם מותר אגב חורפיה דחילתיתא מחליא ליה שמנוניתא והוה ליה כנותן טעם לשבח ואסור,עבדיה דר' לוי הוה קא מזבין חילתיתא כי נח נפשיה דר' לוי אתו לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמרו ליה מהו למיזבן מיניה אמר להו עבדו של חבר הרי הוא כחבר,רב הונא בר מניומי זבן תכילתא מאנשי דביתיה דרב עמרם חסידא אתא לקמיה דרב יוסף לא הוה בידיה,פגע ביה חנן חייטא א"ל יוסף עניא מנא ליה בדידי הוה עובדא דזביני תכילתא מאנשי דביתיה דרבנאה אחוה דר' חייא בר אבא ואתאי לקמיה דרב מתנא לא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה מהגרוניא אמר לי נפלת ליד הכי אמר שמואל אשת חבר הרי היא כחבר,תנינא להא דת"ר אשת חבר הרי היא כחבר עבדו של חבר הרי הוא כחבר חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי הן בחזקתן עד שתיפסל,ת"ר אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חברות אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אינן צריכין לקבל דברי חברות לכתחלה דברי ר"מ,ר' יהודה אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל דברי חברות לכתחלה וכן היה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קושרת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת למוכס והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו,אמר רב חבי"ת אסור בחותם אחד חמפ"ג מותר בחותם אחד חלב בשר יין תכלת 39a. The Gemara explains: bThere, the substance ofthe wine bis a recognizablecomponent of the fish stew; bhere, its substance is not a recognizablecomponent of the pickled vegetables.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd minced itarit /ifish, band brine that does not havea ikilbit bfishfloating in it, and iḥilakare all prohibited. The Gemara asks: bWhatis iḥilak /i? Rav Naḥman bar Abba saysthat bRav says: This is isultanit /i,a type of small fish that is generally caught before its scales have developed. bAnd for whatreason bis it prohibited?It is bbecause itssize causes it to be bintermingledwith other fish, and as a result isultanit brisesout of the water bwithnon-kosher fish when bitis caught., bThe Sages taught:If a fish bdoes not currently possessscales bbut will growthem baftera period of btime, such as the isultanitand iafiyatz /ifish, bit is permitted.Likewise, if bit hasscales bnow but will shedthem bwhen itis caught and brises from the sea, such as iakunasand iafuna /i, iketasfatiyasand iakhsaftiyasand iotanas /ifish, it is bpermitted. /b, bRabbi Abbahu announced in Caesarea: Fish entrails and their eggs may be purchased from any person,as bthe presumption with regard to themis that bthey come only from Pelusium [ iPilusa /i] and Spain [ iAspamya /i],and non-kosher fish are not found in those areas. This is bsimilar to that which Abaye says: These small fish [ itzaḥanta /i] of the Bav River are permitted,as non-kosher fish are not found in that river.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat Abaye unequivocally permitted eating these fish and was not concerned about the potential presence of non-kosher fish among them? bIf we saythat it is bdue tothe fact bthatthe bwater flows rapidly, and these non-kosher fish, since they do not have a spinal cord, are not able to exist in a place where the water flows rapidly,as the current carries the non-kosher fish out of the Bav River, and consequently all the remaining fish are kosher, that is not the case, bsince we see thatnon-kosher fish bexistin rivers with strong currents., bRather,perhaps Abaye permitted the fish bbecausethe bwater is salty, and these non-kosher fish are not able to exist in a place of salty water since they do not have scales.This, too, is not the case, bsince we see thatnon-kosher fish bexistin salty water. bRather,Abaye permitted the small fish in the Bav River bbecausethe bmudin that river bis notsuitable for bnon-kosher fishto breproduce.The conditions in the river render it an unproductive habitat for non-kosher fish. bRavina says: Nowadays, asthe government built canals between the rivers, and the bGoza River andthe bGamda River spill intothe Bav and carry non-kosher fish there, it is bprohibitedto eat the small fish without thorough inspection.,The Gemara cites several other statements of iamora’imthat concern the halakhic status of fish. bAbaye says: Thiscreature known as the bsea donkey [ iḥamara deyamma /i]is bpermitted;the creature known as the bsea ox [ itora deyamma /i]is bprohibited, and your mnemonicto remember this ihalakhais: bImpure is pure,and bpure is impure,i.e., the name of an animal which is non-kosher on land is kosher in the sea, and that which is kosher on land is non-kosher in the sea., bRav Ashi said:The type of fish known as ishefar nuna /iis bpermitted,and the type of fish known as ikadesh nuna /iis bprohibited, and your mnemonicto remember this ihalakhais: That which is bholy [ ikodesh /i]is bto the Lord,and not for humans. And bsome saythat Rav Ashi said: The type of fish known as ikevar nuna /iis bprohibited, and your mnemonicis: The grave [ ikever /i] is impure like the bgraves of gentiles. /b,The Gemara relates several incidents involving Sages and their rulings with regard to fish. bRabbi Akiva happenedto come bto Ginzakand bthey brought before him a certain fish that was similar to a iḥippusha /i,a non-kosher aquatic creature. When bhe enclosed it in a basket he sawthat bithad bscaleswhich it shed as it struggled to escape from the basket, band he permitted iton that basis. bRav Ashi happenedto come bto Tamduriawhere bthey brought before him a certain fish that was similar to an eel [ itzelofḥa /i]. He took it outand held it bagainstthe light of bdayand bsaw that there were thin scales on it, and he permitted it. /b, bRav Ashialso bhappenedto come bto a certain landwhere bthey brought before him a fish that was similar to a ishefarnuna /i. He enclosed it in a white vesseland bsawthat bitshed dark bscales,which he could see against the white background of the container, band he permitted it. Rabba bar bar Ḥana happenedto come bto Akra DeAgmaand bthey brought himsome itzaḥanta /i,a dish prepared from small fish. bHe heard a certain man calling it ibatei /i,the name of a non-kosher sea creature.,Rabba bar bar Ḥana bsaidto himself: bFromthe fact bthat he called it ibatei /i,I can bconclude fromhere that bthere is a non-kosher substance inthe itzaḥanta /i. And bhe did not eat from itthat night. bIn the morning, he examinedthe dish and in fact bfound a non-kosher substance in it. He readthe following verse babout himself: “No sin shall befall the righteous”(Proverbs 12:21).,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd a sliver of iḥiltit /imay not be consumed, although one may derive benefit from it. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited? It is bbecause they slice it with a knifeon which there is presumably non-kosher residue. And beven though the Master saidthat a prohibited substance that bimparts flavor tothe bdetrimentof the mixture is bpermitted,that principle does not apply in this case because bas a result of the sharpness of the iḥiltit /i,the act of slicing it with a knife bsweetens,i.e., enhances, the taste of bthenon-kosher bresidue. Andthere-fore bit is likea prohibited substance that bimparts flavor tothe benhancementof the mixture, bandit is bprohibited. /b,The Gemara relates that the gentile bslave of Rabbi Levi would sell iḥiltit /i,and it was permitted to purchase it from him as he was the slave of a Sage. bWhen Rabbi Levi passed away, they came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him:Now that Rabbi Levi has passed, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether or not it is permitted bto purchase iḥiltit bfrom hisgentile slave? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to them: The slave of a iḥaver /i,one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, especially ihalakhotof ritual purity, iteruma /i, and tithes, bis as a iḥaver /ihimself, and therefore it is permitted to buy iḥiltitfrom him.,The Gemara relates another incident that involves the status of a iḥaverand his household. bRav Huna bar Minyumi purchased sky-blue dye [ itekhelta /i] from the people of the household,i.e., the wife, bof Rav Amram the pious.One may purchase sky-blue dye for ritual fringes only from a reliable individual, as it is easy to counterfeit it. Rav Huna then bcame before Rav Yosefto ask if he could rely on her assurance that it was usable for the mitzva. The answer bwas not available toRav Yosef.,Later, bḤa the tailor happened tomeet Rav Huna, and bhe said to him: From wherecould bpoorRav bYosef have known the answer to this question? Ḥa continued: bThere was an incident in which Iwas involved, bas I purchased sky-blue dye from the people of the household,i.e., the wife, bof Rabena’a, brother of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, and I came before Rav Mattanato ask him the same question, and the answer bwas not available to himeither. bIthen bcame before Rav Yehuda of Hagronya,who bsaid to me: You have fallen intomy bhand,i.e., I am the only one who can answer your question. bThisis what bShmuel says: The wife of a iḥaverisherself considered blike a iḥaver /i,and you may therefore rely on her statement.,The Gemara comments: bWe learnhere bthat which the Sages taughtexplicitly in a ibaraita /i: bThe wife of a iḥaveris like a iḥaver /i; the slave of a iḥaveris like a iḥaver /i.Furthermore, with regard to ba iḥaverthat died, his wife and children and members of his household remain in their presumptivestatus buntil they are suspectedof engaging in inappropriate deeds. bAnd similarly,with regard to ba courtyard in which they sell sky-blue dye, it remains in its presumptivestatus as a place in which kosher sky-blue dye is sold buntil it is disqualifieddue to unscrupulous behavior., bThe Sages taught: The wife of one who is not careful to keep the particulars of certain ihalakhot[ iam ha’aretz /i], wholater bmarries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the daughter of an iam ha’aretzwho marries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the slave of an iam ha’aretzwho is sold to a iḥaver /i, must all acceptupon themselves the commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus. But the wife of a iḥaverwholater bmarries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the daughter of a iḥaverwho marries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the slave of a iḥaverwho was sold to an iam ha’aretz /i,these people bneed not acceptupon themselves the commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: They too must acceptupon themselves the commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar wouldillustrate this point and bsay:There was ban incident involving a certain woman who married a iḥaverand would tie for him phylacteries on his hand,and she later bmarried a tax collector and would tie for him tax-seals on his hand,which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.,§ bRav says:The substances represented by the acronym iḥet /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i, itavare prohibitedif they were deposited with a gentile while they were sealed bwithonly bone seal.Those represented by the acronym iḥet /i, ibeit /i, ipeh /i, igimmelare permittedif they were deposited with a gentile while they were sealed bwith one seal.The Gemara elaborates: bMilk [ iḥalav /i], meat [ ibasar /i], wine [ iyayin /i],and bsky-blue dye [ itekhelet /i] /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה' בחרבו הקשה וגו':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות 74b. i.e., ba diver [ ibar amoraei /i]went into the water bto bringup this chest, bandthe fish bbecame angry and sought to sever his thigh, butthe diver bthrewupon it ba flask of vinegar and they descendedand swam away. bA Divine Voice emergedand bsaid to us: Whatright bdo you have totouch bthe crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-bluewool bin it tobe used in the ritual fringes of bthe righteous in the World-to-Come? /b, bRav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring itup, and the bsnake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven cameand bcut off its head,and bthe water turned into blooddue to the enormousness of the snake. bAnother snake came, tookthe precious stone, band hung iton the dead snake, band it recovered. It returnedand again bsought to swallow the ship,and yet again ba bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone,and bthrew it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placedthe stone bon them,and bthey tookthe stone band flew away with it. /b,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for whatreason bdid you tremble?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: I saw a great light in the sea.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning”(Job 41:10)., bRav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut openthe thigh band toreoff the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat band put it on the grass. Bythe time bthat we brought wood, the thigh had repaireditself, band we roasted it. When we returnedto that place bafter twelve monthsof bthe yearhad passed, bwe saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life [ isamterei /i],while bthose coals were of broom. /b,The verse states: b“And God created the great sea monsters”(Genesis 1:21). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretedthis as a reference to the bsea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His soreand great and strong bswordwill punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: bEverything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupledand produced offspring, they would have bdestroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and saltedthe female to preserve it for the banquet bfor the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea”(Isaiah 27:1)., bAnd He created even the beasts on the thousand hills(see Psalms 50:10) bmale and female. Andthey were so enormous that bif they would have coupledand produced offspring, bthey would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooledthe sexual desire of bthe female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is statedabout the beasts: b“Lo now, his strength is in his loins”(Job 40:16); bthisis referring to the bmale.The continuation of the verse: b“And his force is in the stays of his body”; thisis the bfemale,alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: bThere too,with regard to the leviathan, blet Him castrate the male and cool the female;why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: bFish are unrestrained,and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let Him do the opposite,and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: bIf you wish, saythat the bsalted female is better; if you wish, sayinstead bthatsince bit is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is bnot proper conductto sport bwith a female.The Gemara asks: bHere too,with regard to the beasts, blet Himpreserve the bfemale in salt,instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: bSalted fish is good,but bsalted meat is not good. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world,so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,it is benough that I will stay within my ownwaters. God bimmediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab”(Job 26:12)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from herethat bthe name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for watersof the sea that bcover him, no creature could withstand his smell,as his corpse emits a terrible stench. bAs it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain;for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, bas the waters cover the sea”(Isaiah 11:9). bDo not readthis phrase as b“cover the sea”; ratherread it as: bCover the minister of the sea,i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi,i.e., the Hula Lake, band in the Sea of Tiberias,the Sea of Galilee, band rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth”(Job 40:23). bRava bar Ulla strongly objects to thisexplanation of the verse, stating: But bthisverse bis written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla saidthat this is the meaning of the verse: bWhen are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: bSeas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods”(Psalms 24:2)? bThese arethe bseven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these arethe bseven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom,i.e., the Dead Sea, bthe Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea,i.e., the Mediterranean. bAnd these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga,which are the rivers of Damascus., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8a. הדולפנין פרין ורבין כבני אדם מאי דולפנין אמר רב יהודה בני ימא,כל שביציו מבחוץ מוליד וכל שבפנים מטיל ביצים,איני והאמר שמואל אווז ואווז בר כלאים זה בזה והוינן בה מ"ט אמר אביי זה ביציו מבחוץ וזה ביציו מבפנים ותרוייהו מטילי ביצים,אלא כל שזכרותו מבחוץ מוליד מבפנים מטיל ביצים,כל שתשמישו ביום יולד ביום בלילה יולד בלילה כל שתשמישו בין ביום בין בלילה יולד בין ביום בין בלילה,תשמישו ביום יולד ביום תרנגול בלילה יולד בלילה עטלף תשמישו בין ביום בין בלילה יולד בין ביום בין בלילה אדם וכל דדמי ליה,למאי נפקא מינה לכדרב מרי בריה דרב כהנא דאמר רב מרי בריה דרב כהנא בדק בקינה של תרנגולין מערב יו"ט ולא מצא בה ביצה ולמחר השכים ומצא בה ביצה מותרת באכילה ביו"ט אימר לא בדק יפה,והלא בדק יפה אימר יצתה רובה וחזרה הוה וכדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן ביצה שיצתה רובה מערב יו"ט וחוזרת מותרת לאוכלה ביו"ט,כל שתשמישו ועיבורו שוה יולדים ומגדלים זה מזה הכל משמשין פנים כנגד עורף חוץ משלשה שמשמשין פנים כנגד פנים ואלו הן דג ואדם ונחש,ומ"ש הני תלתא כי אתא רב דימי אמרי במערבא הואיל ודיברה עמהם שכינה,תנא גמל אחור כנגד אחור:,ת"ר תרנגולת לעשרים ואחד יום וכנגדה באילן לוז כלב לחמשים יום וכנגדו באילן תאינה חתול לחמשים ושנים יום וכנגדו באילן תות חזיר לששים יום כנגדו באילן תפוח שועל וכל מיני שרצים ששה חדשים וכנגדם באילן תבואה,בהמה דקה טהורה לחמשה חדשים וכנגדן באילן גפן בהמה גסה טמאה לשנים עשר חודש וכנגדו באילן דקל טהורה לתשעה חדשים וכנגדה באילן זית הזאב והארי והדוב והנמר והברדלס והפיל והקוף והקיפוף לשלש שנים וכנגדן באילן בנות שוח,אפעה לשבעים שנה וכנגדו באילן חרוב חרוב זה משעת נטיעתו עד שעת גמר פירותיו שבעים שנה וימי עיבורו שלש שנים נחש לשבע שנים ולאותו רשע לא מצינו חבר ויש אומרים מוכססים,מנא הני מילי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ומטו בה משום דר' יהושע בן חנניא שנאמר (בראשית ג, יד) ארור אתה מכל הבהמה ומכל חית השדה אם מבהמה נתקללה מחיה לא כ"ש,אלא לומר לך כשם שנתקללה הבהמה מחיה אחד לשבעה ומאי ניהו חמור מחתול כך נתקלל הוא מבהמה אחת לשבע דהוה ליה שב שני,אימא כשם שנתקללה חיה מבהמה אחת לשלש שנים ומאי ניהו ארי מחמור כך נתקלל הוא מחיה אחת לשלש שנים דהוה ליה תשע שנים 8a. bThe idulfaninreproduce like people.The Gemara asks: bWhat are idulfanin /i? Rav Yehuda says:They are creatures that are called bsons of the sea. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: In the case of banymale animal bwhose testicles are external,the female bgives birthto live offspring, bandin the case of banymale animal bwhose testicles are internal,the female blays eggs. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But doesn’t Shmuel saythat a domestic bgoose and a wild goose areconsidered bdiverse kinds,and one may not mate them bwith each other. And we discussed it: What is the reason? Abaye said:In the case of bthisone, the male wild goose, bits testicles are external, andin the case of bthatone, the domestic goose, bits testicles are internal.The Gemara comments: bAndyet bbothgeese blay eggs.Evidently, the fact that the male’s testicles are external does not prove that the female gives birth., bRather,the ibaraitamust mean the following: With regard to banyanimal bwhose malereproductive borganis bexternal,the female bgives birth,and in the case of any male animal whose reproductive organ is binternal,the female blays eggs.Although the testicles of the male wild goose are external, its reproductive organ is internal.,§ The ibaraitacontinues to discuss matters of animal procreation: bAnyspecies bwhose sexual intercourseoccurs only bduring the daytime gives birthonly bduring the daytime;any species whose intercourse occurs only bat night gives birthonly bat night; anyspecies bwhose intercourseoccurs bboth during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at night. /b,The Gemara elaborates: The statement that any species whose bintercourseoccurs bduring the daytime gives birth during the daytimeis referring to ba chicken.The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs bat night gives birth at nightis referring to ba bat.The statement that any species whose bintercourseoccurs bboth during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at nightis referring to ba human and anycreature bthat is similar to him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhathalakhic bdifference isthere whether an animal gives birth during the daytime or at night? The Gemara answers: The difference is bwith regard to that which Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana,said. bAs Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said:If one bexamined a chicken’s nest on a Festival eve and did not find an egg in it, and the following day,on the Festival, bhe rose early,before dawn, band found an egg in it, consumptionof the egg is bpermitted on the Festival.It is not considered an egg that was laid on the Festival, which is forbidden (see iBeitza2a), as chickens do not lay eggs at night. Although he examined the nest before the Festival and failed to find an egg there, one is compelled to bsaythat bhe did not examinethe nest bcarefully. /b,The Gemara challenges: bBut he did examinethe nest bcarefully,as the ibaraitastates that he examined it. The Gemara explains: One must bsaythat this bwasa case where bmost ofthe egg bemergedon the eve of the Festival band returnedinside its mother before the examination. bAndthis ruling is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says:In a case where bmost of the egg emerged on the eve of the Festival and returnedinside its mother it is bpermitted to eat it on the Festival,as once most of it emerged it is considered to have been laid already.,§ The ibaraitacontinues: bAnytwo animals of different species bwhosemanner of bintercourse andtime of bgestation are identical can have offspringtogether bandcan braise,i.e., nurse, the young bof each other.With regard to the manner of intercourse, ballspecies bengage in intercoursewith bthe faceof the male bopposite the back of the neckof the female, meaning that the male comes from behind the female, bexcept for threespecies bthat engage in intercourse face-to-face, and they are these: Fish, and humans, andthe bsnake. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is differentabout bthese three? When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he reported that bthey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, the following explanation: They are different bbecause the Divine Presence spoke with them.This occurred when the fish swallowed the prophet Jonah (see Jonah 2:11), when Adam and other prophets were spoken to by God, and when the snake caused Adam and Eve to sin (see Genesis 3:14).,A itanna btaught: A camelengages in intercourse bback to backwith its mate.,§ The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat discusses the length of gestation for various animals. bThe Sages taughtthat ba chickenhatches bafter twenty-one days, and corresponding to itin length of gestation bwith regard to trees is the almond,which ripens twenty-one days after the budding of the flower. bA doggives birth bafter fifty days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the fig. A catgives birth bafter fifty-two days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the mulberry. A piggives birth bafter sixty days,and bcorresponding to it with regard to trees is the apple. A fox and all types of creeping animalsgive birth after bsix months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees,i.e., plants, bis grain. /b, bSmall kosher livestock,such as sheep or goats, give birth bafter five months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the grapevine. Large non-kosher livestock,such as camels or donkeys, give birth bafter twelve months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the date palm.Large bkosherlivestock, such as cows, give birth bafter nine months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the olive. The wolf, and the lion, and the bear, and the leopard, and the ibardelas /i, and the elephant, and the monkey, and the long-tailed apegive birth bafter three years, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the white fig. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bA vipergives birth bafter seventy years, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the carob.In the case of bthis carob,the period bfrom the time of its planting until the time of the ripening of its fruit is seventy years, and the length of its gestation is three years. A snakeis born bafter seven years, and for that wickedanimal bwe have not found a counterpartamong trees. bAnd some saythat imukhsasim /iare the equivalent, as they ripen after seven years.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matter,that the gestation period of a snake is seven years, derived? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, andsome bdetermined itto be bin the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya:It is derived from bthatwhich bis statedwith regard to the punishment of the snake for causing Adam and Eve to sin: b“Cursed are you from among all animals, and from among all beasts of the field”(Genesis 3:14), in that your gestation period should be longer than all of them. Now, why does the verse mention the beasts of the field, i.e., undomesticated animals? bIfthe snake bwas cursedmore bthan the domesticated animals,then ball the more sois it bnotclear that it was cursed more bthan the undomesticated animals?The shortest gestation period of domesticated animals, which is five months for a goat, is longer than the shortest gestation period among undomesticated animals, which is fifty-two days for a cat., bRather,the verse mentions the beasts of the field bto tell you: Just as the domesticated animals were cursedmore bthan the undomesticated animals bya proportion of bone to seven;the Gemara interjects: bAndwith regard to bwhatcase bis that?It is with regard to ba donkey,whose gestation period as mentioned is twelve months, compared bto a cat,whose gestation period is fifty-two days. Seven times longer than fifty-two days is 364 days, which means that the gestation period of the donkey, which is one year, is almost exactly seven times longer than that of the cat. Rav Yehuda continues: bSo too,the snake bwas cursedmore bthan domesticated animals,i.e., the donkey, in a proportion of bone to seven, which isa total of bseven years. /b,The Gemara challenges: bSaythat the verse can be interpreted as follows: bJust as the undomesticated animals were cursedmore bthan the domesticated animalsby a measure of boneyear bto three years;the Gemara interjects: bAndin bwhatcase bis that?It is in the case of ba lion,whose gestation period is three years, compared bto a donkey,whose gestation period is one year. The Gemara continues its challenge: bSo too,the snake bwas cursedmore bthan the undomesticated animals,i.e., the lion, by a proportion of boneyear bto three years, which is nine years. /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב [לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא] העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים 17a. bin the heavenly entourage [ ipamalia /i]of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; br band in the earthly entourage,the Sages, br band among the disciples engaged inthe study of bYour Torah, br bwhether they engage in itsstudy bfor its own sake or not for its own sake. br bAnd all those engagedin Torah study bnot for its own sake, br bmay it beYour bwillthat bthey will come to engagein its study bfor its own sake. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, br band do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. br bSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You br bthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? brOn the one hand, bthe yeast in the dough,the evil inclination that is within every person; br band the subjugation to the kingdomson the other. br bMay it be Your will br bthat You will deliver us from their hands,of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, brso that bwe may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rava said the following: br bMy God, before I was created I was worthless, br band now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created,I am no more significant. br bI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. br bI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. brTherefore, bmay it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, br band that thosetransgressions bthat I have committed, br bcleanse in Your abundant mercy; br bbutmay this cleansing bnotbe bby means of suffering and serious illness,but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. br bAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur. /b, bWhen Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: br bMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. br bTo those who curse me let my soul be silent br band may my soul be like dust to all. br bOpen my heart to Your Torah, br band may my soul pursue your mitzvot. br bAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, br bfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. br bAnd all who plan evil against me, br bswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. br bMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, br bLord, my Rock and my Redeemer. /b,The Gemara recounts that bwhen Rav Sheshet would sit inobservance of ba fast, after he prayed he said as follows: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You brthat bwhen the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. br bAndalthough bonly its fat and blood were offered fromthat sacrifice on the altar, his transgression bis atoned for him. br bAnd now, I sat inobservance of ba fast and my fat and blood diminished. br bMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished beconsidered as if bI offereda sacrifice bbefore You on the altar, br band may I find favor in Your eyes.brHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions., bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa would concludestudy of bthe book of Job, he said the following: br bA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death.Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. brRather, bhappy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, br bwho gives pleasure to his Creator, br bwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. brSuch a person lived his life fully, band about him, Solomon said: br b“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth”(Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset., bRabbi Meir was wont to saythe following idiom: br bStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways br band to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. br bKeep My Torah in your heart, br band fear of Me should be before your eyes. br bGuard your mouth from all transgression, br band purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. br bAndif you do so, bI,God, bwill be with you everywhere. /b, bThe Sages in Yavne were wont to say: br bIwho learn Torah bamGod’s bcreature and my counterpartwho engages in other labor bisGod’s bcreature. br bMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. br bI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. br bAnd just as he does not presume toperform bmy work, so I do not presume toperform bhis work. br bLest you say: Iengage in Torah study ba lot, while heonly engages in Torah study ba little,so I am better than he, br bit hasalready bbeen taught: br bOne who brings a substantialsacrifice band one who brings a meagersacrifice have equal merit, br bas long as he directs his heart towards Heaven(Rav Hai Gaon, iArukh /i)., bAbaye was wont to say: br bOne must always be shrewdand utilize every strategy binorder to achieve bfearof Heaven and performance of mitzvot. brOne must fulfill the verse: b“A soft answer turns away wrath”(Proverbs 15:1) brand take steps to bincrease peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, br band with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace,despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all ( iMe’iri /i), br bso that he will be loved abovein God’s eyes, br bpleasant belowin the eyes of the people, br band acceptable to allof God’s bcreatures. /b,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that bthey said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him inissuing a bgreeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace,as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first., bRava was wont to say: br bThe objective ofTorah bwisdomis to achieve brepentance and good deeds; br bthat one should not readthe Torah band studymishna and become arrogant br band spurn his father and his mother and his teacher br band one who is greater than he in wisdom or inthe bnumberof students who study before him, br bas it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them”(Psalms 111:10). br bIt is not statedsimply: bAll who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them,those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning bthose who dosuch deeds bfor their own sake,for the sake of the deeds themselves, bnot those who do them not for their own sake. brRava continued: bOne who does them not for their own sake,it would have been bpreferable for him had he not been created. /b, bRav was wont to say: br bThe World-to-Come is not like this world. br bIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, br bno procreation, nobusiness bnegotiations, br bno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. br bRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: br b“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank”(Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: bGreater is the promisefor the future bmade by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say”(Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men., bRav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya:By bwhatvirtue bdo women meritto receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward bfor bringing their children to readthe Torah bin the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to studymishna bin the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall. /b, bWhen the Sageswho had been studying there btook leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the followingblessing: br bMay you see your world,may you benefit from all of the good in the world, bin your lifetime, br band may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, br band may your hopebe sustained bfor many generations. brMay byour heart meditate understanding, br byour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. brMay byour eyelids look directly before you, br byour eyes shine in the light of Torah, br band your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. brMay byour lips express knowledge, br byour kidneys rejoice in the upright, br band your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days,God (see Daniel 7)., bWhen the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following,in accordance with the verse: b“Our leaders are laden,there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14)., bOur leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disputed the proper understanding of this verse. bOne said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering. /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. בטשה ביה אמרה ליה לא כך כתוב (שמואל ב כג, ה) ערוכה בכל ושמורה אם ערוכה ברמ"ח אברים שלך משתמרת ואם לאו אינה משתמרת תנא תלמיד אחד היה לרבי אליעזר שהיה שונה בלחש לאחר ג' שנים שכח תלמודו,תנא תלמיד אחד היה לו לרבי אליעזר שנתחייב בשריפה למקום אמרו הניחו לו אדם גדול שמש,א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא פתח פומיך קרי פתח פומיך תני כי היכי דתתקיים ביך ותוריך חיי שנאמר (משלי ד, כב) כי חיים הם למצאיהם ולכל בשרו מרפא אל תקרי למצאיהם אלא למוציאיהם בפה,א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא חטוף ואכול חטוף ואישתי דעלמא דאזלינן מיניה כהלולא דמי,א"ל רב לרב המנונא בני אם יש לך היטב לך שאין בשאול תענוג ואין למות התמהמה ואם תאמר אניח לבני חוק בשאול מי יגיד לך בני האדם דומים לעשבי השדה הללו נוצצין והללו נובלין,א"ר יהושע בן לוי המהלך בדרך ואין עמו לוייה יעסוק בתורה שנאמר (משלי א, ט) כי לוית חן הם,חש בראשו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר כי לוית חן הם לראשך חש בגרונו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר וענקים לגרגרותיך חש במעיו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר רפאות תהי לשרך חש בעצמותיו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר ושקוי לעצמותיך חש בכל גופו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר ולכל בשרו מרפא,אמר רב יהודה בר' חייא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן סם לחבירו לזה יפה ולזה קשה אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן תורה לישראל סם חיים לכל גופו שנאמר ולכל בשרו מרפא,א"ר אמי מ"ד (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך אימתי ד"ת נעי' בזמן שתשמרם בבטנך ואימתי תשמרם בבטנך בזמן שיכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ר' זירא אמר מהכא (משלי טו, כג) שמחה לאיש במענה פיו ודבר בעתו מה טוב אימתי שמחה לאיש בזמן שמענה בפיו ל"א אימתי שמחה לאיש במענה פיו בזמן שדבר בעתו מה טוב,ר' יצחק אמר מהכא (דברים ל, יד) כי קרוב אליך הדבר מאד בפיך ובלבבך לעשותו אימתי קרוב אליך בזמן שבפיך ובלבבך לעשותו,רבא אמר מהכא (תהלים כא, ג) תאות לבו נתתה לו וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה אימתי תאות לבו נתתה לו בזמן שארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה,רבא רמי כתיב תאות לבו נתתה לו וכתיב וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה זכה תאות לבו נתתה לו לא זכה וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה,תנא דבי ר"א בן יעקב כל מקום שנאמר נצח סלה ועד אין לו הפסק עולמית נצח דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף,סלה דכתיב (תהלים מח, ט) כאשר שמענו כן ראינו בעיר ה' צבאות בעיר אלהינו אלהים יכוננה עד עולם סלה ועד דכתיב (שמות טו, יח) ה' ימלוך לעולם ועד:,(סימן ענקים לחייו לוחות חרות): א"ר (אליעזר) מאי דכתיב (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך אם משים אדם עצמו כענק זה שרף על הצואר ונראה ואינו נראה תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,ואמר ר"א מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יג) לחיו כערוגת הבשם אם משים אדם עצמו כערוגה זו שהכל דשין בה וכבושם זה שהכל מתבשמין בה תלמודו מתקיים ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים,וא"ר מ"ד (שמות לא, יח) לוחות אבן אם אדם משים עצמו את לחייו כאבן זו שאינה נמחית תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,וא"ר (אליעזר) מאי דכתיב (שמות לב, טז) חרות על הלוחות אלמלי לא נשתברו לוחות הראשונות לא נשתכחה תורה מישראל,רב אחא בר יעקב אמר אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר חרות אל תיקרי חרות אלא חירות,אמר רב מתנה מאי דכתיב (במדבר כא, יח) וממדבר מתנה אם משים אדם עצמו כמדבר זה שהכל דשין בו תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,רבא בריה דרב יוסף בר חמא הוה ליה מלתא לרב יוסף בהדיה כי מטא מעלי יומא דכיפורי אמר איזיל ואפייסיה אזל אשכחיה לשמעיה דקא מזיג ליה כסא אמר ליה הב לי ואימזגיה אנא יהב ליה מזגיה כדטעמיה אמר דמי האי מזיגא למזיגא דרבא בריה דרב יוסף בר חמא א"ל אנא הוא,א"ל לא תתיב אכרעיך עד דמפרשת לי הני קראי מאי דכתיב וממדבר מתנה וממתנה נחליאל ומנחליאל במות ומבמות הגיא,א"ל אם אדם משים עצמו כמדבר זה שהכל דשין בו תורה ניתנה לו במתנה וכיון שניתנה לו במתנה נחלו אל שנאמר וממתנה נחליאל וכיון שנחלו אל עולה לגדולה שנאמר ומנחליאל במות,ואם מגיס לבו הקדוש ברוך הוא משפילו שנאמר ומבמות הגיא ואם חוזר בו הקב"ה מגביהו שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, ד) כל גיא ינשא,אמר רב הונא מ"ד (תהלים סח, יא) חיתך ישבו בה תכין בטובתך לעני אלהים אם אדם משים עצמו כחיה זו שדורסת ואוכלת ואיכא דאמרי שמסרחת ואוכלת תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם עושה כן הקדוש ברוך הוא עושה לו סעודה בעצמו שנאמר תכין בטובתך לעני אלהים,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יח) נוצר תאנה יאכל פריה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כתאנה מה תאנה זו 54a. bShe kicked himand bsaid to him: Isn’t it written as follows: “Ordered in all things and secure”(ii Samuel 23:5), which indicates that bifthe Torah bis ordered in your 248 limbs,i.e., if you exert your entire body in studying it, bit will be secure, and if not, it will not be secure.The Gemara relates that bit wassimilarly btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer had a student who would study quietly,and bafter three years he forgot his studies. /b,Incidental to the story cited above involving a student of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites the following episode: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer had a student who was liable forthe punishment of death by bburning,for his sins bagainst God,but the Rabbis bsaid: Let himalone and do not punish him as he deserves, because bhe served a great person. /b,The Gemara cites instructions issued by Shmuel that are similar to those of Berurya. bShmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Keen scholar [ ishina /i], open your mouth and readfrom the Torah, bopen your mouth and studythe Talmud, bin order thatyour studies bshould endure in you andthat byou should live a long life, as it is stated: “For they are life to those who find them, and health to all their flesh”(Proverbs 4:22). bDo not read: “To those who find them [ ilemotzeihem /i],” butrather b“to those who express them [ ilemotzi’eihem /i],” withtheir bmouth. /b,The Gemara cites additional instructions issued by Shmuel: bShmuel said to Rav Yehuda,his beloved student: bKeen scholar, grab and eat, grab and drink, as the world from which we are departing is like a wedding feast,whose joy is only temporary, and one who does not take pleasure in it now will not be able to do so in the future.,Similarly, bRav said to Rav Hamnuna: My son, if you havemoney, bdo well for yourself.There is no point waiting, bas there is no pleasure in the netherworld, and death does not tarry. And if you say: I willsave up in order to bleave for my children, who told you the law of the netherworld,i.e., how do you know which of you will die first ( iArukh /i)? bPeople are similar to grass of the field,in that bthese blossom,i.e., grow, and their actions are blessed, band these witherand die.,Having expounded the verse “For they are life to those who find them” as referring to the Torah, the Gemara cites another teaching related to this verse that praises the Torah. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who is walking along the way without a companionand is afraid bshould engage in Torahstudy, bas it is statedwith regard to the words of Torah: b“For they shall be a graceful wreath [ ilivyat ḥen /i]for your head, and chains about your neck” (Proverbs 1:9). The word ilivyatis understood here as a reference to ilevaya /i, accompaniment, so that the verse is interpreted to mean that Torah is a graceful accompaniment to one who is traveling., bOne who feelspain bin his head should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “For they shall be a graceful wreath for your head.” One who feelspain bin his throat should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And chains about your neck.” One who feelspain bin his intestines should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8). bOne who feelspain bin his bones should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And marrow to your bones”(Proverbs 3:8). bOne who feelspain bin his entire body should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And health to all their flesh”(Proverbs 4:22)., bRav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, said: Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person gives a drug to his fellow, it is good for thispart of his body band it is harmful to thatother part of his body. bButthe attribute of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so; He gave the Torah to the Jewish people,and bit is a drug of life for one’s entire body, as it is stated: “And health to all their flesh.” /b,The Gemara continues with praise for Torah study and knowledge. bRav Ami said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within you; let them be firmly attached together to your lips”(Proverbs 22:18)? bWhen are words of Torah pleasant? When you keep them within youand know them. bAnd when will you keep them within you? When they will be attached together to your lips,i.e., when you articulate them audibly and expound them., bRabbi Zeira saidthat this idea is derived bfrom here: “A man has joy in the answer of his mouth; and a word in due season, how good it is”(Proverbs 15:23). bWhen does a man have joy? When an answerrelated to Torah study bis in his mouth. Another version: When does a man have joy in the answer of his mouth? Whenhe experiences the fulfillment of: bA word in due season, how good it is,i.e., when he knows when and how to address each issue., bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat this idea is derived bfrom here: “But the matter is very near to you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it”(Deuteronomy 30:14). bWhenis it bvery near to you? When it is in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it,i.e., when you articulate your Torah study., bRava saidthat this idea is actually derived bfrom here: “You have given him his heart’s desire, and have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah”(Psalms 21:3). bWhen have You given him his heart’s desire? When You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah,i.e., when he converses in words of Torah., bRava raised aninternal bcontradictionin that very verse: In the beginning of the verse bit is written: “You have given him his heart’s desire,”implying that it is enough for one to request in his heart, whereas in the end of the verse bit is written: “And You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah,”indicating that one must express his prayers verbally. Rava himself resolved the contradiction: If one bis fortunate, “You have given him his heart’s desire,”even if he does not give verbal expression to his wants. But if he bis not fortunate,at least b“You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah.” /b,With regard to the end of this verse, a Sage bof the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bWherever it states inetzaḥ/b, bSelah,or iva’ed/b, the matter bwill never cease. iNetzaḥ /i, as it is written: “For I will not contend forever; neither will I be eternally [ ilanetzaḥ /i] angry”(Isaiah 57:16), which demonstrates that inetzaḥbears a similar meaning to forever., bSelah, as it is written: “As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the Lord of Hosts, in the city of our God; may God establish it forever, Selah”(Psalms 48:9), which demonstrates that Selah means forever. iVa’ed /i, as it is written: “The Lord shall reign forever and ever [ iva’ed /i]”(Exodus 15:18).,In light of the previous discussion, the Gemara cites several expositions of verses proposed by Rabbi Eliezer, while first providing them with a bmnemonic: Chains, cheeks, tablets, engraved. Rabbi Eliezer said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And chains about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9)? bIf a person makes himself like a chain that hangs loosely on the neck,i.e., if a scholar is not pushy and disruptive to others, bandhe is also bseen but not seen,i.e., just as a chain is covered by clothes and hair, so too, the scholar does not let himself be seen, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not,if he acts in a rude and arrogant manner, bhisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd Rabbi Eliezeralso bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “His cheeks are like a bed of spices”(Song of Songs 5:13)? bIf a person makes himselfhumble blike thisgarden bbed upon which everyone treads, and like this spice with which everyone perfumes himself,i.e., which benefits not only the one who wears it, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd Rabbi Eliezerfurther bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Tablets [ iluḥot /i] of stone”(Exodus 31:18)? bIf a person makes his cheeks [ ileḥayav /i] like this stone that does not wear away, hisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not,i.e., if he is not diligent in his studies, bhisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd,lastly, bRabbi Eliezer said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“And the tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, bengraved upon the tablets”(Exodus 32:16)? This teaches that bhad the first tablets,the subject of this verse, bnot been broken, the Torah would never have been forgotten from the Jewish people,as the Torah would have been engraved upon their hearts., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:Had the tablets not been broken, bno nation or tongue wouldever bhave ruled over them, as it is stated: “Engraved /b”; bdo not readit bengraved[iḥarut]butrather bfreedom [ iḥeirut /i]. /b,Similarly, bRav Mattana said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“The well that the princes dug out, that the nobles of the people delved, with the scepter, with their staves. bAnd from the wilderness they went to Mattanah”(Numbers 21:18)? bIf a person makes himselfhumble blike this wilderness,which is open to all and bupon which everyone treads, hisTorah bstudy will endureand be given to him as a gift [ imattana /i]. bAnd if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Yosef had a grievance against Rava, son of Rav Yosef bar Ḥama,who is usually referred to in the Gemara simply as Rava, and as a result of the grievance the two would never meet. bWhen the eve of Yom Kippur arrived,Rava bsaid: I will go and appease him. He went and foundRav Yosef’s battendant mixing him a cupof wine. bHe said tothe attendant: bGiveit bto me, and I will mixit. bHe gave it toRava, and Rava bmixed it.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see his visitor, but bwhen he tastedthe wine bhe said: This mixture is similar to the mixtureof bRava, son of Rav Yosef bar Ḥama,who would add extra water to the wine. Rava bsaid to him: It is I. /b,Rav Yosef bsaid to him: Do not sit on your knees until you have explained these verses to me: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And from the wilderness to Mattanah; and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth; and from Bamoth to the valleyin the field of Moab, to the top of Pisgah, which looks out toward the desert” (Numbers 21:19–20)?,Rava bsaid to him: If a person makes himselfhumble blike this wilderness,which is open to all and bupon which everyone treads, the Torah will be given to him as a gift [ imattana /i]. And once it is given to him as a gift, he inherits it [ ineḥalo /i]and bGod [ iEl /i]makes it His inheritance, bas it is stated: “And from Mattanah to Nahaliel.” And once God has made it His inheritance, he rises to greatness, as it is stated: “And from Nahaliel to Bamoth,”which means heights., bAnd if he becomes haughty, the Holy One, Blessed be He, lowers him, as it is stated: “And from Bamoth to the valley.” And if he repents, the Holy One, Blessed be He, raises himback bup, as it is stated: “Every valley shall be exalted”(Isaiah 40:4)., bRav Huna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Your flock found a dwelling in it; You, O God, prepare of Your goodness for the poor”(Psalms 68:11)? bIf a person makes himself like an animal that tramplesits prey band eatsit immediately, without being particular about its food, i.e., if a scholar immediately reviews what he has heard from his teacher; band some say,like an animal bthat soils and eats,i.e., if a scholar is not particular about maintaining his honor during his Torah study, just as an animal is not particular about the quality of its food, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. And if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. And if he does so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will Himself prepare him a feast, as it is stated: “You, O God, prepare of Your goodness for the poor,”indicating that God in His goodness will Himself prepare a feast for that pauper., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “He who guards the fig tree shall eat its fruit”(Proverbs 27:18)? bWhy were matters of Torah compared to a fig tree? Just as this fig tree, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69b. ותמני לזיבה אתאי קמן בלילותא יהבינן לה תמני לנדה ושב לזיבה,זיבה תמני בעיא אלא אידי ואידי שב לנדה ותמני לזיבה,בלילותא תמני לנדה בעי,זיבה דפסיקא ליה דלא שנא כי אתיא קמן ביממא לא שנא כי אתיא קמן בליליא חשיב לה נדה דלא פסיקא ליה דכי אתיא קמן בלילותא בעי תמני ביממא לא קבעי תמני לא קחשיב לה,ואי ס"ד ספורין לפנינו בעינן כל הני טבילות למה לי תספור ז' והדר תטבול אלא לאו שמע מינה רבנן היא דאמרי לא בעינן ספורין לפנינו,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף לרב אשי לאו תרוצי קמתרצינן לה תריץ ואימא הכי ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי אם בימי נדה ספרתי ואם בימי זיבה ספרתי מטבילין אותה ט"ו טבילות,ספרתי ואיני יודעת כמה ספרתי חד יומא מיהא אי אפשר דלא ספרה חסרה לה טבילה,אלא אימא איני יודעת אם ספרתי אם לא ספרתי, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו מטמאין במשא עד שימוק הבשר עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא,בית שמאי אומרים כל הנשים מתות נדות וב"ה אומרים אין נדה אלא שמתה נדה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי במשא אילימא במשא ממש אטו כל מת מי לא מטמא במשא,אלא מאי במשא באבן מסמא,דכתיב (דניאל ו, יח) והיתית אבן חדא ושומת על פום גובא,מאי טעמא אמר רב גזרה שמא יתעלפה,תנא משום ר' אליעזר אמרו עד שיבקע כריסו,עובד כוכבים שמת [כו'] תניא אמר רבי מפני מה אמרו עובד כוכבים שמת טהור מלטמא במשא לפי שאין טומאתו מחיים מדברי תורה אלא מדברי סופרים,ת"ר שנים עשר דברים שאלו אנשי אלכסנדריא את רבי יהושע בן חיננא ג' דברי חכמה ג' דברי הגדה ג' דברי בורות ג' דברי דרך ארץ,ג' דברי חכמה הזב והזבה והנדה והיולדת והמצורע שמתו עד מתי מטמאין במשא אמר להן עד שימוק הבשר,בת משולחת מה היא לכהן,מי אמרינן קל וחומר ומה אלמנה לכ"ג שאין איסורה שוה בכל בנה פגום זו שאיסורה שוה בכל אינו דין שבנה פגום או דילמא מה לאלמנה לכהן גדול שהיא עצמה מתחללת,אמר להן 69b. bAndshe requires beightimmersions during the day to purify her bfromher iziva /i,as it is possible that she experienced bleeding for three consecutive days, rendering her a greater izava /i, and one of those was on this day that she came before the court, and it is also possible that the day she arrived she did not experience bleeding, and she was a izavaduring her last clean day and had to immerse that day. If bshe comes before us at night, we give her eightimmersions to purify herself bfrom her menstruation,including one on the night that she comes before the court, band sevenimmersions during the day to purify herself bfromher iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: With regard to her iziva /i,she still brequires eightimmersions. Since it is possible that she experienced bleeding for the third day on the day before coming to the court, she might be a greater izava /i, who starts her clean days only the day after she arrived. In addition, any of the first seven days may be the last clean day, on which she has to immerse herself. The Gemara answers: bRather,in both bthiscase band thatcase she requires bsevenimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of bmenstruation, and eightimmersions to purify herself bfromthe impurity of iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: If the woman comes bat nightto the court, she brequires eightimmersions to purify herself bfromher impurity of bmenstruation.Why does the ibaraitarequire her to immerse a total of only fifteen times when there are cases where she must immerse sixteen times?,The Gemara answers: With regard to purifying herself from the impurity of iziva /i, whichcan be taught in ba distinctmanner, bas there is no difference whether she comes before us during the dayand bthere is no difference whether she comes before us at night,the ibaraita bcountsthe fixed amount of eight immersions. By contrast, with regard to purifying herself from bmenstruation, whichthe itanna bcannotteach in ba distinctmanner, bas when she comes before us at night she requires eightimmersions but if she comes before us bduring the dayshe does bnot require eightimmersions, the itanna bdid not countboth options, but mentioned only seven immersions, which is the minimum number required.,The Gemara returns to the initial purpose of this discussion, which was to indicate that the Rabbis do not require all seven days of counting before the court. bAnd if it enters your mindthat bwe requireseven days of bcounting before us, why do Ineed ball of these immersions? Sheshould bcount sevenclean days bandonly bafterward immerse. Rather,must one bnot conclude from thisthat the ibaraita bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Akiva and bwho saythat bwe do not requireseven days of bcounting before us? /b, bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, said to Rav Ashi,in rejection of this proof: But bdidn’t you resolvea difficulty in the ibaraita /i? Since you admit that the ibaraitain any event requires revision, bresolvethis difficulty too, band say this:If a woman comes and says: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted,and I do not know bwhether I counted during the days of menstruation or whether I counted during the days of iziva /i,the court instructs bher to immerse fifteen immersions.If so, there is no proof that the Rabbis hold that the counting does not need to be before the court.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to this interpretation of the ibaraita /i: If it is referring to a case where the woman said: bI countedclean days bbut I do not know how manydays bI counted, it is impossible that she did not count at least oneclean bday.If so, she should not be required to immerse on the eighth day, in which case bshe is lackingone bimmersion,as the ibaraitarules that she must immerse fifteen times.,The Gemara answers: bRather, saythat she claims: bI do not know if I countedany clean days bor I did not countany clean days. Likewise, she does not know whether she saw the blood during her days of menstruation or during her days of iziva /i. Therefore, she must immerse fifteen times, as it is possible that she has not yet counted at all., strongMISHNA: /strong The corpses of ba izav /i, and a izava /i, and a menstruating woman, and a woman after childbirth, and a leper, who died, transmit ritual impurity by carryingtheir corpses, buntil the flesh decays.With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is britually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity. /b, bBeit Shammai say:The status of ball womenwhen they bdieis as though they were bmenstruating womenat the time of death. Therefore, the garments that they were wearing before they died are impure and require immersion. bAnd Beit Hillel say: Onlya woman bwho diedwith the impurity of ba menstruating womanhas the status of ba menstruating womanafter death., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the corpse of one of these impure people transmits ritual impurity by carrying. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes the mishna mean by the term: bBy carrying? If we saythat it bliterallymeans bby carrying,that is difficult: bIs that to saythat beveryother bcorpse does not impart ritual impurity by carrying?Since every corpse imparts impurity through carrying, why does the mishna need to specify this ihalakhain these specific cases?, bRather, whatdoes the mishna mean when it states: bBy carrying [ ibemassa /i]?It means imparting impurity bthrough a very heavy stone [ ieven mesama /i].There is a unique ihalakhawith regard to the ritual impurity of a izavand a menstruating woman. If they sit on an item, even one that cannot become ritually impure, and beneath that item there is a vessel, although the weight of the izavor the menstruating woman has no physical effect on the vessel, it becomes ritually impure.,The Gemara notes that the word imesamais based on a verse, bas it is written: “And a stone was brought and placed [ ivesumat /i] upon the mouth of the den;and the king sealed it with his own signet and with the signet of his lords, that nothing might be changed concerning Daniel” (Daniel 6:18). Accordingly, the mishna is teaching that although a corpse does not normally impart ritual impurity to vessels under a heavy stone, these specific types of corpses do transmit impurity in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the Sages decreed that these specific types of corpses impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone? bRav said:It is ba decreedue to the possibility that bperhapsone of these people might bfaintwhile sitting on the heavy stone, and it might be mistakenly thought they are dead and do not impart impurity to the vessels beneath.,A itanna btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Eliezer:All of these types of corpses listed in the mishna impart ritual impurity through a heavy stone buntil the bellyof the corpse bbursts.The Sages imposed their decree only in cases where the corpse resembles a person who has fainted. Once the corpse is clearly no longer alive, it no longer imparts ritual impurity through a heavy stone.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the corpse of ba gentile who died,although when alive he transmits impurity like a izav /i, once he dies he is ritually pure and is prevented from transmitting impurity. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: For whatreason bdidthe Sages bsaythat the corpse of ba gentile who died is ritually pureand is prevented bfrom transmitting impurity by carrying? Because his impuritythat he transmits even bwhen alive is not by Torah law, but by rabbinic law.The Sages decreed that every living gentile imparts ritual impurity in the manner of a izav /i; they did not extend their decree to include the corpse of a gentile in the manner of the corpse of a izav /i.,§ bThe Sages taught: Thewise bpeople of Alexandria asked twelve matters of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥina. Threeof them were bmatters of wisdom, threewere bmatters of iaggada /i, threewere bmatters of ignorance,and bthreewere bmatters of behavior. /b,The Gemara lists the questions. bThreewere bmatters of wisdom:The first question was with regard to ba izavand a izavaand a menstruating woman and a woman after childbirth and the leper, who died: Until when do they transmit ritual impurity by carrying?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: Until the flesh decays.This is the ihalakhataught in the mishna.,The second question referred to the bdaughterof a wife who had been bsent awayby her husband, i.e., divorced, who then married another, but after her divorce from her second husband or his death she returned and remarried her first husband, to whom she is forbidden (see Deuteronomy 24:1–4), and a daughter was born from this marriage. bWhatis bher,i.e., the daughter’s, status bwith regard tomarrying ba priest? /b, bDo we say an ia fortiori /iinference: bAnd ifin the case of ba widowmarried bto a High Priest, whose prohibition does not apply to all,i.e., it is prohibited for her only to marry a High Priest (see Leviticus 21:13–15), and yet the lineage of bher son is flawed,as he is disqualified from the priesthood, then in the case of bthisdaughter of a remarried divorcée, bwhose prohibition applies equally to allmen, bis it not right that her sonshould be of bflawedlineage? bOr perhapsthis comparison can be refuted: bWhatis notable babout a widow married to a High Priest?It is notable in bthat she herself is disqualifiedfrom the priesthood, i.e., if a High Priest engages in intercourse with her she is disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i, whereas a remarried divorcée is not disqualified from partaking of iteruma /i.,Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24a. ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא (ויקרא ו, כג) בקדש באש תשרף בקדש בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,והאי בקדש באש תשרף להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה לכדרבי שמעון דתניא רבי שמעון אומר בקדש באש תשרף לימד על חטאת ששורפין אותה בקדש ואין לי אלא זו בלבד פסולי קדשי קדשים ואמורי קדשים קלים מנין תלמוד לומר (וכל) בקדש באש תשרף,אמר ליה רבי יונתן רבך מהאי קרא קאמר לה (שמות כט, לד) ואם יותר מבשר המלואים ומן הלחם עד הבקר וגו' שאין תלמוד לומר לא יאכל ומה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל אם אינו ענין לגופיה דהא כתיב (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש תנהו ענין לשאר איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא ושרפת את הנותר נותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,והאי לא יאכל להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה לכדרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר לא יאכל כי קדש הוא כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו,אמר אביי לעולם מקרא קמא ואיפוך דליכתוב באש תשרף ולא בעי לא תאכל מה תלמוד לומר לא תאכל אם אינו ענין לגופו דנפקא ליה מדרבי אלעזר תנהו ענין לכל איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא הנותר הנותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי ואימא ליחודי ליה לאו לגופיה הוא דאתא דאי מדרבי אלעזר אין לוקין על לאו שבכללות,אלא אמר רב פפא מהכא (ויקרא ז, יט) והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל באש ישרף שאין תלמוד לומר לא יאכל מה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל,אם אינו ענין לגופו דהא נפקא ליה מקל וחומר ממעשר הקל ומה מעשר הקל אמרה תורה (דברים כו, יד) לא בערתי ממנו בטמא בשר קדש חמור לא כל שכן,וכי תימא אין מזהירין מן הדין הקישא הוא דכתיב (דברים יב, יז) לא תוכל לאכול בשעריך מעשר דגנך תירושך ויצהרך ובכורות בקרך וגו',מה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל אם אינו ענין לגופו תנהו ענין לכל איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין להנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא הנותר הנותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,אמר לי' רבינא לרב אשי ואימא לעבור עליו בשני לאוין לאו מי אמר אביי אכל פוטיתא לוקה ארבע,נמלה לוקה חמש 24a. bAnd if it does notapply to bthe matter ofthe prohibition against beating,as the prohibition against eating these items has already been mentioned, bapply it to the matter of the prohibition ofderiving bbenefit. /b,The Gemara continues: bLestone say that the verse indicates that bjust as here,the sin-offering is disposed of bwith burning, so too, all the prohibiteditems bin the Torahmust be disposed of bwith burning,therefore bthe verse said: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire”(Leviticus 6:23). This indicates that only that which is disqualified bin the sacred placeis disposed of bwith burning, but allother bprohibiteditems bin the Torahneed bnotbe disposed of bwith burning. /b,Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani asked: bAnd did thisverse: b“In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire,” come toteach bthis ihalakha /i? bIt is neededto teach bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire”;this btaught that onemust bburn adisqualified bsin-offering in the sacred place,and not outside the Temple. bAnd I have onlyderived bthis,meaning the sin-offering. bFrom where do I derive that disqualified offerings of the most sacred order and portions consumedon the altar, such as the fats bof offerings of minor sanctitythat become impure, are burned in the Temple courtyard? bThe verse states: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire.”This indicates that any disqualified offering must be burned in the sacred place.,The Sage who taught this ihalakhato Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani bsaid to him: Rabbi Yonatan, your teacher, said thatsame ihalakha bfrom this verse: “And if the flesh of the consecrationoffering, bor of the bread, remains until the morning,then you shall burn the leftover with fire; it shall not be eaten, because it is sacred” (Exodus 29:34). bAsthere is bnoneed for bthe verse to state: “It shall not be eaten,” whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “It shall not be eaten”? If it does not refer to thesubject bmatter itself, as it isalready bwrittenexplicitly: b“Then you shall burn the leftover with fire,”which indicates that one may not eat it, brefer it to the matter of the other prohibitions in the Torah. And if it does not refer to the matter ofthe prohibition against beating,as eating these items is explicitly prohibited, brefer it to the matter of the prohibition ofderiving bbenefit.This indicates that it is prohibited for one to derive benefit from any item that it is prohibited for him to eat.,The Gemara continues: bLestone say that the verse indicates that bjust as here,the sin-offering is disposed of bwith burning, so too, all the prohibiteditems bin the Torah,from which one may not benefit, must be disposed of bwith burning,therefore bthe verse said: “You shall burn the leftover,”indicating that the bleftoversacrificial meat must be disposed of bwith burning; however, allother bprohibitions in the Torahneed bnotbe disposed of bwith burning,despite the fact that it is prohibited to derive benefit from them.,The Gemara challenges: bAnd did thisphrase: b“It shall not be eaten,” cometo teach bthisprohibition against deriving benefit? bThisphrase bis neededto teach bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar saidwith regard to the statement in the verse: b“It shall not be eaten, because it is sacred,”that bthe verse comes to place a negativemitzva of beating on whatever has beenrendered bdisqualified in the sacred place.In other words, this verse teaches a general ihalakhathat one who eats from offerings that have been disqualified in the Temple transgresses a negative mitzva and is liable to be flogged. It teaches nothing with regard to a prohibition against deriving benefit., bAbaye said: Actually,derive this ihalakha bfrom the first versecited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: “And any sin-offering, of which any of the blood is brought into the tent of meeting to make atonement in the sacred place, shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire” (Leviticus 6:23). bAnd reversethe construct of his exposition. bLetthe verse bwrite: “It shall be burnt with fire,” and itwill bnot needto write: b“Shall not be eaten.”For bwhatpurpose then does bthe verse state: “It shall not be eaten”? If it does not apply tothe subject bmatter itself, as that wasalready bderived fromthe statement of bRabbi Elazarthat whatever has been rendered disqualified in the sacred place may not be eaten, bapply it to allother bprohibitions in the Torah,including leavened bread on Passover and a stoned ox. bAnd if it does notapply to the prohibition against beating,which is written explicitly, then bapply it to the prohibition ofderiving bbenefit. /b,The Gemara asks: bLestone say that the verse indicates that bjust as here,the leftover sacrificial meat is disposed of bwith burning, so too, all the prohibiteditems bin the Torah,from which one may not benefit, must be disposed of bwith burning,therefore bthe verse said:“You shall burn bthe leftover,”indicating that the bleftoversacrificial meat must bbedisposed of bwith burning; however, allother bprohibiteditems bin the Torahneed bnotbe disposed of bwith burning. /b, bRav Pappa said to Abaye: Andwhy do you hold that the phrase: “You shall not eat,” describing the sin-offering that was sacrificed inside the Sanctuary, is not needed for other purposes? bSaythat this expression bcomesin order bto designate a negativemitzva for this prohibition bitself. As, ifthis prohibition were derived only bfromthe source quoted by bRabbi Elazar,there will be a prohibition to eat the meat of the sin-offering whose blood was brought into the sanctuary; however, one would not be liable to be flogged for violating it, because bone is not flogged forviolating ba negativemitzva bstated in general terms.One is not flogged for violating a negative mitzva that contains several different prohibitions, such as this one, which refers to all disqualified offerings. This is because the negative mitzva is formulated too broadly. Therefore, it is possible to say that when the Torah states: “You shall not eat” with regard to this issue, it is teaching that there is a particular prohibition here and that one is flogged for violating it. If so, the verse cannot indicate a general prohibition against deriving benefit., bRather,this suggestion should be rejected, and bRav Pappa saidthat one derives this ihalakha bfrom here: “And the flesh that touches any impure thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire.And as for the flesh, every one that is pure may eat of it” (Leviticus 7:19). bAsthere is bnoneed for bthe verse to state: “It shall not be eaten,” whatdoes it mean when bthe verse states: “It shall not be eaten”? /b, bIf it does notrefer to the subject bmatter itself, as thatcan be bderived bymeans of ban ia fortiori /iinference bfromthe second btithe,the ihalakhotof bwhichare more blenientthan those of offerings, then it must refer to something else. As it is possible to say: bIfwith regard to the second btithe, which ismore blenientbecause it does not have the status of an offering, bthe Torah saidthat when one recites the confession over the tithes, when destroying the tithes remaining in one’s possession that had not yet been given to the appropriate recipient, he says: “I have not eaten from it in my mourning, bneither have I removed it while impure”(Deuteronomy 26:14), indicating that it is prohibited for one to remove tithes while impure, then with regard to bconsecrated meat,which is more bstringent, all the more sois it bnotclear that it may not be eaten while a person is impure?, bAnd if you saythat there is a general principle that bwe do not warn,i.e., we may not deduce a prohibition, bthrough logical derivationalone, then one could respond that his issue is not only derived through an ia fortioriinference; rather, bit isalso derived from an analogy based on ba juxtaposition. As it is written: “You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain, or of your wine, or of your oil, or the firstborn of your herdor of your flock, nor any of your vows which you have vowed, nor your voluntary offerings, nor the offering of your hand” (Deuteronomy 12:17). Since the verse itself juxtaposes tithes to offerings, it indicates that there is a prohibition with regard to offerings just as there is with regard to tithes.,The Gemara continues explaining Rav Pappa’s opinion: For bwhat purposethen does bthe verse state: “It shall not be eaten”with regard to impure consecrated meat? bIf it does notapply to bthesubject bmatterof this verse bitself,as that prohibition is derived from the second tithe, then bapply it to the matter of all prohibiteditems bin the Torah. And if it does notapply to the prohibition against beating,since that is clear, bapply it to the prohibition ofderiving bbenefit. /b,And if you say: bLestone say that the verse indicates that bjust as here,the meat that became impure in the Temple is disposed of bwith burning, so too, all the prohibiteditems bin the Torahmust be disposed of bwith burning,therefore bthe verse said: “The leftover,”indicating bthat the leftoversacrificial meat must be disposed of bwith burning; however, allother bprohibiteditems bin the Torahneed bnotbe disposed of bwith burning. /b, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: And saythat this expression: “It shall not be eaten,” comes to teach not the prohibition against deriving benefit, but rather that one who transgresses this negative mitzva bviolates two prohibitions.And there is precedent for such an explanation, as bdidn’t Abaye saywith regard to a parallel case: bIf one ate a small water creature[iputita/b], bhe is floggedwith bfoursets of lashes because one violates four prohibitions when eating such a creature? Two of these prohibitions are found in the verse that discusses all types of creeping animals: “You shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarms, neither shall you make yourselves impure with them, that you should be defiled by them” (Leviticus 11:43). A third prohibition applies to creeping animals that live in the water, as the verses say: “And all that have neither fins nor scales…They shall be a detestable thing unto you; you shall not eat of their flesh” (Leviticus 11:10–11). A fourth prohibition is cited in the verse: “And whatever does not have fins and scales you shall not eat; it is impure unto you” (Deuteronomy 14:10).,Similarly, if one ate ban ant, he is floggedwith bfivesets of lashes, two sets for the previously mentioned prohibitions of eating a creeping animal, a third based on the verse: “And every creeping thing that swarms upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 11:41), and a fourth based on the verse: “All creeping things that swarm upon the earth, them you shall not eat; for they are a detestable thing” (Leviticus 11:42). A fifth prohibition is stated in the verse: “You shall not make yourselves impure through every creeping thing that swarms upon the earth” (Leviticus 11:44).
28. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30a. הוה אמינא לשטן גירא בעיניך א"ל רבא לר' נתן בר אמי אדידך על צוארי דבריך משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתי ואמרי לה מתמני סרי עד עשרים וארבעה,כתנאי (משלי כב, ו) "חנ(ו)ך לנער על פי דרכו" ר' יהודה ורבי נחמיה חד אמר משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתין וחד אמר מתמני סרי ועד עשרים וארבעה,עד היכן חייב אדם ללמד את בנו תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כגון זבולון בן דן שלימדו אבי אביו מקרא ומשנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות מיתיבי למדו מקרא אין מלמדו משנה ואמר רבא מקרא זו תורה,כזבולון בן דן ולא כזבולון בן דן כזבולון בן דן שלמדו אבי אביו ולא כזבולון בן דן דאילו התם מקרא משנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות ואילו הכא מקרא לבד,ואבי אביו מי מיחייב והתניא (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בני בניכם ומה אני מקיים (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך לומר לך שכל המלמד את בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו למדו לו ולבנו ולבן בנו עד סוף כל הדורות, הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם אין לי אלא בניכם, בני בניכם מנין ת"ל והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך א"כ מה ת"ל בניכם בניכם ולא בנותיכם,אמר ריב"ל כל המלמד את בן בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו קבלה מהר סיני שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב (דברים ד, י),רבי חייא בר אבא אשכחיה לריב"ל דשדי דיסנא ארישיה וקא ממטי ליה לינוקא לבי כנישתא א"ל מאי כולי האי א"ל מי זוטר מאי דכתיב והודעתם לבניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מכאן ואילך רבי חייא בר אבא לא טעים אומצא עד דמקרי לינוקא ומוספיה רבה בר רב הונא לא טעים אומצא עד דמייתי לינוקא לבית מדרשא,אמר רב ספרא משום ר' יהושע בן חנניא מאי דכתיב (דברים ו, ז) ושננתם לבניך אל תקרי ושננתם אלא ושלשתם,לעולם ישלש אדם שנותיו שליש במקרא שליש במשנה שליש בתלמוד מי יודע כמה חיי לא צריכא ליומי,לפיכך נקראו ראשונים סופרים שהיו סופרים כל האותיות שבתורה שהיו אומרים וא"ו (ויקרא יא, מב) דגחון חציין של אותיות של ס"ת (ויקרא י, טז) דרש דרש חציין של תיבות (ויקרא יג, לג) "והתגלח" של פסוקים (תהלים פ, יד) יכרסמנה חזיר מיער עי"ן דיער חציין של תהלים (תהלים עח, לח) והוא רחום יכפר עון חציו דפסוקים,בעי רב יוסף וא"ו דגחון מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל ניתי ס"ת ואימנינהו מי לא אמר רבה בר בר חנה לא זזו משם עד שהביאו ספר תורה ומנאום א"ל אינהו בקיאי בחסירות ויתרות אנן לא בקיאינן,בעי רב יוסף והתגלח מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל אביי פסוקי מיהא ליתו לימנוי' בפסוקי נמי לא בקיאינן דכי אתא רב אחא בר אדא אמר במערבא פסקי ליה להאי קרא לתלתא פסוקי (שמות יט, ט) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנה אנכי בא אליך בעב הענן,תנו רבנן חמשת אלפים ושמונה מאות ושמונים ושמונה פסוקים הוו פסוקי ס"ת יתר עליו תהלים שמונה חסר ממנו דברי הימים שמונה,תנו רבנן ושננתם שיהו דברי תורה מחודדים בפיך שאם ישאל לך אדם דבר אל תגמגם ותאמר לו אלא אמור לו מיד שנאמר 30a. bI would say to the Satan: An arrow in your eye,i.e., I would not be afraid of the evil inclination at all. bRava said to Rabbi Natan bar Ami: While your hand is still on your son’s neck,i.e., while you still have authority and control over him, find him a wife. What is the appropriate age? bFrom sixteen until twenty-two, and some say from eighteen until twenty-four. /b,The Gemara notes that this is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i,based on the verse: b“Train a child in the way that he should go”(Proverbs 22:6). bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemyadisagreed about the age in which the verse instructs the parent to educate his child: bOne saidthat the verse is referring to the ages bfrom sixteen until twenty-two, and one saidit is referring to the ages bfrom eighteen until twenty-four.The dispute concerning the correct age for marriage and the dispute about educating a child are the same, as while a father still has a large measure of influence over his son, he must both teach him and find him a wife.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of a father’s obligation to teach his son Torah. bTo whatextent bis a person obligated to teach his son Torah? Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:One should emulate the education of, bfor example, Zevulun ben Dan,a contemporary of Shmuel, bwhose father’s father taught him Bible, Mishna, Talmud, ihalakhot /i, and iaggadot /i. The Gemara raises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: If a father btaughthis son bBible,he is bnotrequired to bteach him Mishna. And Rava saidin explanation of this ibaraita /i: bBible isthe bTorah,not the Prophets or Writings, i.e., he is not required to teach him anything else, including Mishna.,The Gemara answers that Shmuel’s statement should be understood as follows: One should teach his son blike Zevulun ben Dan was taughtin certain aspects, bbut not like Zevulun ben Danin other respects. One should teach his son blike Zevulun ben Danin bthat his father’s father taught him; but not like Zevulun ben Dan, as therehe was taught bBible, Mishna, Talmud, ihalakhot /i, and iaggadot /i, while here,in this ibaraita /i, one is required to teach his son bBible alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is one’s father’s father obligatedto teach him Torah? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i, that the verse: b“And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), indicates: bBut not your sons’ sons? And how do I realize,i.e., understand, the meaning of the verse: b“But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? This serves bto say to youthat bwhoever teaches his son Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he taught him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the end of all generations. /b,The Gemara answers that the itannaof this ibaraita bstatedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bthat itanna /i, as it is taughtin another ibaraita /i: From the verse b“And you shall teach them to your sons” I havederived bonlythat you must teach byour sons. From where doI derive that there is an obligation to teach byour sons’ sons? The verse states: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons.” If so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which implies only sons? This limitation teaches: bYour sons, but not your daughters. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who teaches his son’s son Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he received it from Mount Sinai, as it is stated: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons,” and juxtaposed to itis the phrase in the verse: b“The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb”(Deuteronomy 4:10), as Horeb is Mount Sinai.,The Gemara relates: Once bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba encountered Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,and saw bthat he had placedan inexpensive bcovering on his head and broughthis bchild to the synagogueto study. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba bsaid to him: Whatis the reason for ball thisfuss, as you are in such a hurry that you do not have time to dress yourself properly? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Is it insignificant, that which is written: “But make them known to your sons,” and juxtaposed to itis the phrase in the verse that states: b“The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb”?The Gemara comments: bFrom thismoment bonward, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would not taste meat [ iumtza /i],meaning he would not eat breakfast, bbefore he had read tohis bchild and added tothe child’s studies from the day before. Similarly, bRabba bar Rav Huna would not taste meat before he had broughthis bchild to the study hall. /b,§ bRav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And you shall teach them diligently [ iveshintam /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 6:7)? bDo not readthis as b“ iveshintam /i,”with the root ishin /i, inun /i, inun /i, which indicates a repetition. bRather,read it as iveshillashtam /i,with the root ishin /i, ilamed /i, ishin /i, related to the word three, ishalosh /i. This means that one must study, review, and study again, thereby dividing one’s studies into three parts.,In light of this statement, the Sages said that ba person should always divide his years into threeparts, as follows: bA third for Bible, a third for Mishna, and a third for Talmud.The Gemara asks: How can a person divide his life this way? bWho knows the length of his life,so that he can calculate how long a third will be? The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessary forone’s bdays,i.e., one should divide each day of his life in this manner., bTherefore,because they devoted so much time to the Bible, the bfirstSages bwere called: Those who count [ isoferim /i],because bthey would count all the letters in the Torah, as they would saythat the letter ivav /iin the word b“belly [ igaḥon /i]”(Leviticus 11:42) bis the midpoint of the letters in a Torah scroll.The words: b“Diligently inquired [ idarosh darash /i]”(Leviticus 10:16), bare the midpoint of the wordsin a Torah scroll. And the verse that begins with: b“Then he shall be shaven”(Leviticus 13:33), is the midpoint bofthe bverses.Similarly, in the expression: b“The boar out of the wood [ imiya’ar /i] ravages it”(Psalms 80:14), bthe iayininthe word wood b[ iya’ar /i]is the bmidpoint of Psalms,with regard to its number of letters. The verse: b“But He, being full of compassion, forgives iniquity”(Psalms 78:38), bis the midpointof bversesin the book of Psalms., bRav Yosef raises a dilemma:Does the ivavofthe word b“belly [ igaḥon /i]”belong bto this side or to this side?Is it part of the first or second half of the Torah? The Sages bsaid to him: Let us bring a Torah scroll and countthe letters. bDidn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana saywith regard to a different issue: bThey did not move from there until they brought a Torah scroll and countedthe letters? Therefore we can do the same. Rav Yosef bsaid to them: Theywere bexpertsin the bdeficient and pleneforms of words and therefore could count the letters precisely. bWe are not expertsin this regard, and therefore we would be unable to resolve the question even if we were to count the letters.,Similarly, bRav Yosef raises a dilemma:Does the midpoint of the verses in the Torah, which is b“then he shall be shaven,”belong bto this side or to this side? Abaye said to him:Even if we cannot count the letters, bwe can at least bringa Torah scroll bto count the verses.Rav Yosef explained: bWe are not experts about verses either, as when Rav Aḥa bar Adda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said: In the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bthey divide thisfollowing bverse into threeseparate bverses: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold I come to you in a thick cloud,that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever; And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:9). Perhaps there are other verses that we do not know how to divide properly., bThe Sages taught: Five thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight verses are the verses in a Torah scroll. Psalms has eight moreverses bthan that,and bChronicleshas beight fewerverses bthan that. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“And you shall teach them diligently [ iveshintam /i]”(Deuteronomy 6:7). The root ishin /i, inun /i, inun /i, of iveshintamshould be understood as meaning sharp, i.e., bthat matters of Torah should be sharpand clear bin your mouth,so bthat if a person asks you something, do not stutterin uncertainty band sayan uncertain response bto him. Rather, answer him immediately, as it is stated: /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100b. הוי אומר מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות במדה טובה כתיב (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול ובמידת פורענות הוא אומר (בראשית ז, יא) וארובות השמים נפתחו,במידת פורענות כתיב (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה והיו דראון לכל בשר והלא אדם מושיט אצבעו באור בעולם הזה מיד נכוה אלא כשם שנותן הקב"ה כח ברשעים לקבל פורענותם כך נותן הקב"ה כח בצדיקים לקבל טובתן:,רבי עקיבא אומר אף הקורא בספרים החיצונים וכו': תנא בספרי מינים רב יוסף אמר בספר בן סירא נמי אסור למיקרי א"ל אביי מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתב [ביה] לא תינטוש גילדנא מאודניה דלא ליזיל משכיה לחבלא אלא צלי יתיה בנורא ואיכול ביה תרתין גריצים,אי מפשטיה באורייתא נמי כתב (דברים כ, יט) לא תשחית את עצה אי מדרשא אורח ארעא קמ"ל דלא ליבעול שלא כדרכה,ואלא משום דכתיב בת לאביה מטמונת שוא מפחדה לא יישן בלילה בקטנותה שמא תתפתה בנערותה שמא תזנה בגרה שמא לא תינשא נישאת שמא לא יהיו לה בנים הזקינה שמא תעשה כשפים הא רבנן נמי אמרוה אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אשרי מי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות,אלא משום דכתיב לא תעיל דויא בלבך דגברי גיברין קטל דויא הא שלמה אמרה (משלי יב, כה) דאגה בלב איש ישחנה ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר ישיחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים,ואלא משום דכתיב מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא אל ביתך והא רבי נמי אמרה דתניא רבי אומר לעולם לא ירבה אדם רעים בתוך ביתו שנאמר (משלי יח, כד) איש רעים להתרועע,אלא משום דכתיב זלדקן קורטמן עבדקן סכסן דנפח בכסיה לא צחי אמר במאי איכול לחמא לחמא סב מיניה מאן דאית ליה מעברתא בדיקני' כולי עלמא לא יכלי ליה,אמר רב יוסף מילי מעלייתא דאית ביה דרשינן להו אשה טובה מתנה טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה מביתו ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפיה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת (ירמיהו ה, כז) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סודך לאחד מאלף משוכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אל תצר צרת מחר (משלי כז, א) כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא למחר איננו ונמצא מצטער על עולם שאינו שלו,(משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים בן סירא אומר אף לילות בשפל גגים גגו ובמרום הרים כרמו ממטר גגים לגגו ומעפר כרמו לכרמים,[סימן זיר"א רב"א משרשי"א חנינ"א טובי"ה ינא"י יפ"ה יוחנ"ן מרח"ם יהוש"ע מקצ"ר],אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים אלו בעלי תלמוד וטוב לב משתה תמיד אלו בעלי משנה,רבא אמר איפכא והיינו דאמר רב משרשיא משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, ט) מסיע אבנים יעצב בהם אלו בעלי משנה (קהלת י, ט) ובוקע עצים יסכן בם אלו בעלי תלמוד,רבי חנינא אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה מי שיש לו אשה רעה וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שיש לו אשה טובה רבי ינאי אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה אסטניס וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שדעתו יפה רבי יוחנן אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה רחמני וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה אכזרי רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה 100b. bYou must say that the attribute of reward is greater than the attribute of punishment,as bwith regard to the attribute of reward it is written: “He commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat”(Psalms 78:23–24). bAnd with regard to the attribute of punishmentat the time of the flood the verse bsays: “And the windows of the heavens were opened”(Genesis 7:11). To mete out punishment, God opened only windows, which are considerably smaller openings than doors, indicating that the attribute of reward is greater., bWith regard to the attribute of punishment it is written: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh”(Isaiah 66:24). The Gemara asks: bIs it not sothat when ba person extends his finger into the fire in this world, he is immediately burned?How, then, can one withstand the fire of Gehenna, which is never extinguished? bRather, just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the wicked to receive their punishment, so too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the righteous to receive their reward,His handful.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Akiva says: Also one who reads external literaturehas no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: This is a reference to reading bbooks of heretics. Rav Yosef says: It is also prohibited to read the book of ben Sira,due to its problematic content. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited to read the book of ben Sira? bIf we saythat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact bthatben Sira bwrote in it: Do not flay the skin of the fish from its ear, so that its skin does not go to ruin, but roast it on the fire and eat with it two loaves of bread,and you believe it to be nonsense, that is not a sufficient reason., bIfyour difficulty is bfrom its literalmeaning, that does not pose a difficulty, as bin the Torah,God balso wrote: “You shall not destroy its trees”(Deuteronomy 20:19). It is prohibited to destroy both trees and fish skin arbitrarily. bIfyour difficulty is bfromits bhomiletic interpretationas a euphemism, ben Sira bis teaching us proper conduct:A man bshould not engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, with his wife, as it causes her discomfort., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA daughter is for her father false treasure; due to fear for her he will not sleep at night: During her minority, lest she be seduced; during her young womanhood lest she engage in licentiousness; once she has reached her majority, lest she not marry; once she marries, lest she have no children; once she grows old, lest she engage in witchcraft(Ben Sira 42:11–14). Perhaps you believe that one should not say this to the father of daughters. bDidn’t the Sages also say itwith regard to women? They said: It is bimpossible for the worldto exist bwithout males and without females;nevertheless, bhappy is one whose children are males and woe unto him whose children are females. /b, bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bDo not introduce anxiety into your heart, as anxiety has killed mighty men(Ben Sira 14:1; 30:29). bDidn’t Solomonalready bsay itin the verse: b“Anxiety in a man’s heart dejects him [ iyashḥena /i]”(Proverbs 12:25)? bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiinterpret the term homiletically and read it as iyesiḥenna /i. bOne saysthat it means: bHe shall remove it [ iyesiḥenna /i] from his mind,and that will ease his anxiety. bAnd one says: He shall tell it [ iyesiḥenna /i] to others,and that will ease his anxiety. Both agree with the statement of ben Sira., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bBut didn’t RabbiYehuda HaNasi balso say it, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A person should never have many friends inside his house, as it is stated: “There are friends that one has to his own detriment”(Proverbs 18:24), as through his association with them he will become weak and be ruined., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA sparse-bearded man is clever; a thick-bearded man is a fool. One who blows on his cup is not thirsty. One who said: With what will I eat bread, take the bread from him. One who has a passage in his beard, the entire world is unable to overcome him.Abaye suggests: Due to all this nonsense, it is not appropriate to read this book., bRav Yosef says:Even though there are passages in the book that are inappropriate, bwe teach the superior matters that are in iteven in public. bA good wife is a good gift; she will be given into the bosom of a God-fearing man(Ben Sira 26:3). bA bad wife is leprosy for her husband. What is his remedy? He shall chase her from his house and will be healed from his leprosy(Ben Sira 25:30). bA beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days is doubled(Ben Sira 26:1). Due to his happiness, it is as though his life is twice as long.,We also teach what it states there: bAvert your eyes from a woman of grace, lest you be trapped in her snare. Turn not to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, as many have been corrupted by the beauty of the beautiful woman, and mighty are all her fatalities(Ben Sira 9:9–11). bMany are the wounds of a peddler(Ben Sira 11:36), which in this context is referring to those bwho accustomothers bto matters of forbidden sexual relations. Like a spark ignites a coal(Ben Sira 11:43), blike a cage full of birds, so too, their houses are filled with deceit(Ben Sira 11:36–37). bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bLet many be those who greet you; reveal your secrets to one in a thousand. From she who lies in your bosom guard the openings of your mouth,i.e., do not tell her everything. bGrieve not about tomorrow’s trouble, because you know not what a day may bring; perhaps tomorrow you will no longer be, and one will have worried about a world that is not his. /b,The verse states: b“All the days of the poor are terrible”(Proverbs 15:15). The book of bben Sira says: Also the nightsare terrible, as then the poor person worries. The poor person’s broof is among the lowest roofsin the city, band in the elevation of the hills is his vineyard,at the highest point, as those are of the lowest quality and consequently the least expensive places for each. bFrom the rain on the roofsof the entire city, water will flow down bto his roofand dampen it, band the soil of his vineyardis eroded by the rain and swept down btoother bvineyards. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow, based primarily on those who authored those statements. bZeira; Rava; Mesharshiyya; Ḥanina itoviyya /i,referring to Rabbi Ḥanina, who spoke of a good [ itova /i] wife; bYannai iyafe /i,referring to Rabbi Yannai, who spoke of one who is broad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i]; bYoḥa imeraḥem /i,referring to Rabbi Yoḥa, who spoke of one who is compassionate [ imeraḥem /i]; bYehoshua imekatzer /i,referring to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who spoke of one who is intolerant [ ida’ato ketzara /i]., bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“All the days of the poor are terrible, and for the good-hearted it is always a feast” (Proverbs 15:15)? b“All the days of the poor are terrible”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest constant effort in their study and encounter endless difficulties and questions. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; these are masters of the Mishna,who study only halakhic conclusions and encounter no difficulties., bRava saysthat bthe oppositeis true; band this isthat bwhich Rav Mesharshiyya said in the name of Rava: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by themand he who chops wood shall be warmed by it” (Ecclesiastes 10:9)? “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by them”; bthese are masters of the Mishna,as they invest effort, but are unable to benefit from that effort, as they do not reach halakhic conclusions. b“And he who chops wood shall be warmed by it”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest considerable effort and benefit from it, as they reach halakhic conclusions., bRabbi Ḥanina says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to bone who has a bad wife. “And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to bone who has a good wife. Rabbi Yannai says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bdelicate [ iistenis /i],i.e., one who is sensitive to repulsive items. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bbroad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i],i.e., he is not particular and will eat anything. bRabbi Yoḥa says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bcompassionate [ imeraḥem /i],as he always senses the suffering in the world and is constantly anxious. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bcrueland indifferent to suffering in the world. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to
30. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. התם הוא דמבטל אבל הכא דלא מבטל לא,ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר ששבת בגליל העליון ושאלוהו שלשים הלכות בהלכות סוכה שתים עשרה אמר להם שמעתי שמונה עשר אמר להם לא שמעתי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר חילוף הדברים שמונה עשר אמר להם שמעתי שתים עשרה אמר להם לא שמעתי,אמרו לו כל דבריך אינן אלא מפי השמועה אמר להם הזקקתוני לומר דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבותי מימי לא קדמני אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הנחתי אדם בבית המדרש ויצאתי ולא שחתי שיחת חולין ולא אמרתי דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבי מעולם,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מימיו לא שח שיחת חולין ולא הלך ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא קדמו אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישן בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הרהר במבואות המטונפות ולא הניח אדם בבית המדרש ויצא ולא מצאו אדם יושב ודומם אלא יושב ושונה ולא פתח אדם דלת לתלמידיו אלא הוא בעצמו ולא אמר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו מעולם ולא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד מבית המדרש חוץ מערבי פסחים וערבי יום הכפורים וכן היה ר' אליעזר תלמידו נוהג אחריו,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו ושלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להם חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינונים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים קלים וחמורים וגזרות שוות תקופות וגימטריאות שיחת מלאכי השרת ושיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים משלות כובסין משלות שועלים דבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה דבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא וכי מאחר שקטן שבכולן כך גדול שבכולן על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו מיד נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ב"ש פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את רבי יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו שהיה יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ולא אמרו לו דבר אמרו להם ב"ש משם ראיה אף הם אמרו לו אם כן היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין מן הסוכה קטן שאינו צריך לאמו חייב בסוכה מעשה וילדה כלתו של שמאי הזקן ופיחת את המעזיבה וסיכך על גבי המטה בשביל קטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דת"ר אזרח זה אזרח (ויקרא כג, מב) האזרח להוציא את הנשים כל לרבות את הקטנים,אמר מר האזרח להוציא את הנשים למימרא דאזרח בין נשים בין גברי משמע והתניא האזרח לרבות את הנשים האזרחיות שחייבות בעינוי אלמא אזרח גברי משמע אמר רבה הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי,הי קרא והי הלכתא ותו קרא למה לי הלכתא למה לי הא סוכה מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,יום הכפורים מדרב יהודה אמר רב נפקא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אמר קרא (במדבר ה, ו) איש או אשה 28a. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the case of the shutter and the case of the sheet. bThere,in the case of the shutter, bwhere he negatesit by shuttering the window, it is considered part of the building and it is therefore prohibited. bHowever, here,in the case of the sheet, bwhere he does not negateit, as he plans on removing it, bno,it is not necessarily prohibited.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who stayed in the Upper Galilee, andthe people there basked him thirty ihalakhotin the ihalakhotof isukka /i.In response to btwelve, he said to them: I heardan answer from my teachers, and he related what he heard. In response to the other beighteen, he said to them: I did not hearan answer. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:It was bthe reverse of these matters.In response to beighteen he said to them: I heardan answer; in response to the other btwelve he said to them: I did not hearan answer., bThey said to him: Are all the mattersthat byouknow bonly from whatyou bheard?Don’t you say any matters on your own? bHe said to them:Now byou forced me to say a matter that I did not hear from my teachers,as I must describe my character traits and the manner in which I conduct myself. bInall bmy days, no person ever preceded me into the study hall,as I am always first to arrive; band I never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and I never left anyone in the study hall and exited,as I was always last to leave; band I never engaged in idle conversation;rather, I discussed only necessary matters or matters of Torah; band I never said anything that I did not hear from my teacher.That is why he did not answer those questions that his teacher did not address.,Apropos the character traits of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites character traits of his teacher. The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer: bInall bhis days he never engaged in idle conversation; and he never walked four cubits withoutengaging in bTorahstudy band withoutdonning bphylacteries; and no person ever preceded him into the study hall; and he never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and he never contemplatedmatters of Torah bin alleyways filthywith human excrement, as doing so is a display of contempt for the Torah; band he never left anyone in the study hall and exited; and no person ever found him sitting and silent,i.e., inactive; brather, hewas always bsitting and studying; and only he opened the door for his students,disregarding his own eminent standing; band he never said anything that he did not hear from his teacher; and he never saidto his students that bthe time has arrived to ariseand leave bthe study hall except on Passover eves,when they were obligated to sacrifice the Paschal lamb, and bYom Kippur eves,when there is a mitzva to eat and drink abundantly. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer, his student, accustomedhimself to model his conduct bafter hisexample.,The Gemara continues to praise the Sages. bThe Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the Divine Presenceshould brest upon them asit did upon bMoses our teacher, and thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the sunshould bstand still for them asit did for bJoshua bin Nun, and twentywere on an bintermediatelevel between the other two. bThe greatest of allthe students was bYonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of themwas bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b,The Gemara relates: The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkaithat bhe did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; ihalakhotand iaggadot /i; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes;the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to ia fortioriinferences and verbal analogies;the calculation of the calendrical bseasons;and bnumerology [ igimmatreyaot /i].In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including bthe conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers,which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; bparables of foxes;and more generally, ba great matter and a small matter. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bA great matteris referring to the secrets of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,the conduct of the transcendent universe. bA small matteris, for example, ihalakhotthat were ultimately formulated in the framework of bthe disputes of Abaye and Rava.He did not neglect any of these disciplines so as bto fulfill that which is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries”(Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom. bAnd if the youngest of them was soprolific, bthe greatest of themwas ball the more soprolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages bsaid of Yonatan ben Uzziel,the greatest of Hillel’s students, bthat when he sat and was engaged in Torahstudy, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that bany bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone whose head and most of hisbody bwere in the isukkaand his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem it unfit, and Beit Hillel deem it fit. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai:And bwasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit and they found himsuch bthat he was sitting with his head and most of hisbody bin the isukkaand his table in the house, and they said nothing to him?Even Beit Shammai did not object. bBeit Shammai said to them:Is there bproof from there?That is not what happened; rather, bthey said to him: If you were accustomedto act in bthismanner, byou have never fulfilled the mitzva of isukkain your life. /b,The mishna continues: bWomen, slaves, and minors are exempt from themitzva of isukka /i. A minor who does not need his motherany longer bis obligatedin the mitzva. There was ban incident where the daughter-in-law of Shammai the Elder gave birthjust before iSukkot /i, and Shammai bremoved thecoat of bplasterfrom the roof, leaving the beams, band roofedwith the beams bover the bed for thenewborn bminor. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the ihalakhathat women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the mitzva of isukka /i, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? The Gemara answers that it is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: “All the homeborn in Israel shall reside in isukkot /i” (Leviticus 23:42). Had the verse stated only: bHomeborn,it would have been derived bthatany bhomebornmember of the Jewish people is obligated to observe this mitzva. However, the term with the addition of the definite article: b“The homeborn,”indicates that only certain homeborn members are obligated, i.e., men, bto the exclusion of the women.The word “all” in the phrase: b“Allthe homeborn,” comes bto include the minorscapable of performing this mitzva.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: “The homeborn”is bto the exclusion of women. Is that to say thatthe term bhomebornwithout the definite article bindicates both men and women? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to Yom Kippur that it is stated: “And it shall be a statute forever unto you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls and shall do no manner of work, the homeborn, or the stranger that sojourns among you” (Leviticus 16:29). And the term b“the homeborn”in that verse comes bto include homeborn women, who are obligated inthe mitzva of bafflictionon Yom Kippur. In that case, the definite article comes to include women. Therefore, bapparently,the term homeborn, without the definite article, bindicatesonly bmen. Rabba said: They areeach a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, band the Sagesmerely bsupported them with versesas a mnemonic device. Therefore, it is not surprising that the derivations are contradictory.,The Gemara asks: bWhichof them bisderived from bthe verse and which is a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai and merely supported by a verse? bAnd furthermore, why do Ineed bthe verse and why do Ineed bthe ihalakha /i? Isn’t isukkaa positive, time-bound mitzva, andthe principle is that bwomen are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot?There is no need for a special derivation to exempt women from the mitzva of isukka /i.,And there is no need for a derivation with regard to their obligation to fast on bYom Kippur,as that can be bderived fromthat bwhich Rav Yehudasaid that bRav said, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said, and it was likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: The verse says:“When ba man or womanshall commit any sin that a person commits, to commit a trespass against the Lord, and that soul be guilty” (Numbers 5:6).
31. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 7, 4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

32. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 28-29, 40, 8, 18 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 28, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

34. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 4.7

35. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.2

1.2. An additional meaning: \"See a man diligent in his work, before kings he will stand, he will not stand before mean men.\" That is Moses, our teacher, regarding the work of the Tabernacle. Therefore, before kings he will stand, this is Pharaoh, as it says, \"Hurriedly awaken in the morning and stand before Pharaoh (Exodus 8).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", this is Jethro. Rabbi Nehemiah said: \"You have made that which is holy, profane!\" Rather, \"Before kings he will stand\", that is King, the King of Kings, the Holy One Blessed Be He. As it is said, \"And he (Moses) was there with the Lord, for 40 days (Exodus 34).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", that is Pharaoh, as it says: \"And there was dark darkness, etc. (Exodus 10).\""
36. Anon., Tanhuma, 1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aggadah, in lists of components of oral law Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
behavior Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
death, as common fate in qohelet Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 98
eggs Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 126
god, lawgiver Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
heaven Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
hermeneutical method, rabbinic developments in Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 517
isaiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
joshua b. hananiah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
law, rabbinic Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
law, the, leviathan Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 122, 138
leviticus rabbah, scripture mediated in , example of qohelot Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 98
maasim tovim Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 517
midrash (as a method) Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
midrashim, midrash/halakhot pairings Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
mishnah, in oral torah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 200
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
moses, as legal authority Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
passover, piyyutim composed for Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
piyyut, piyyutim, prayer and' Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
pork Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 138
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
qedushta shir ha-shirim (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
rabbah Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 98
reason Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 138
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 126
ruminant/rumination Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 126
samaritan pentateuch, scripture, definition of Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
scales, seafood Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 122
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
shivata for dew (qallir) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
sinai, rabbinic appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 34
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 262
slaughter, of animals Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 122
song of songs piyyutim, intertextuality in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459, 517
thematization Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 459
torah, oral and written Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 53
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 517
world to come, the Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 138
ziz Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 126, 138