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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



647
Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 2.11
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10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.5, 1.10-1.11, 16.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.11. וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־דָּמוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 16.3. כִּי־בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תִּטְהָרוּ׃ 16.3. בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה׃ 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.10. And if his offering be of the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-offering, he shall offer it a male without blemish." 1.11. And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall dash its blood against the altar round about." 16.3. Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering."
3. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 17.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.8. אֶל־שָׂדֶה טּוֹב אֶל־מַיִם רַבִּים הִיא שְׁתוּלָה לַעֲשׂוֹת עָנָף וְלָשֵׂאת פֶּרִי לִהְיוֹת לְגֶפֶן אַדָּרֶת׃ 17.8. It was planted in a good soil By many waters, That it might bring forth branches, and that it might bear fruit, That it might be a stately vine."
4. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
5. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. (ישעיהו מה, ז) יוצר אור ובורא חשך,לימא יוצר אור ובורא נוגה,כדכתיב קאמרינן,אלא מעתה (ישעיהו מה, ז) עושה שלום ובורא רע מי קא אמרינן כדכתיב אלא כתיב רע וקרינן הכל לישנא מעליא הכא נמי לימא נוגה לישנא מעליא,אלא אמר רבא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום,בשלמא מדת לילה ביום כדאמרינן יוצר אור ובורא חשך אלא מדת יום בלילה היכי משכחת לה,אמר אביי גולל אור מפני חשך וחשך מפני אור,ואידך מאי היא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אהבה רבה וכן אורי ליה רבי אלעזר לר' פדת בריה אהבה רבה,תניא נמי הכי אין אומרים אהבת עולם אלא אהבה רבה ורבנן אמרי אהבת עולם וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו לא, ג) ואהבת עולם אהבתיך על כן משכתיך חסד,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל השכים לשנות עד שלא קרא ק"ש צריך לברך משקרא ק"ש א"צ לברך שכבר נפטר באהבה רבה,אמר רב הונא למקרא צריך לברך ולמדרש א"צ לברך,ור' אלעזר אמר למקרא ולמדרש צריך לברך למשנה א"צ לברך,ור' יוחנן אמר אף למשנה נמי צריך לברך [אבל לתלמוד א"צ לברך],ורבא אמר אף לתלמוד צריך (לחזור ו) לברך,דאמר רב חייא בר אשי זימנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב לתנויי פרקין בספרא דבי רב הוה מקדים וקא משי ידיה ובריך ומתני לן פרקין.,מאי מברך א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לעסוק בדברי תורה,ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי הערב נא ה' אלהינו את דברי תורתך בפינו ובפיפיות עמך בית ישראל ונהיה אנחנו וצאצאינו וצאצאי עמך בית ישראל כלנו יודעי שמך ועוסקי תורתך ברוך אתה ה' המלמד תורה לעמו ישראל,ורב המנונא אמר אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו ברוך אתה ה' נותן התורה אמר רב המנונא זו היא מעולה שבברכות,הלכך לימרינהו לכולהו:,תנן התם אמר להם הממונה ברכו ברכה אחת והם ברכו וקראו עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר וברכו את העם ג' ברכות אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא,מאי ברכה אחת כי הא דרבי אבא ור' יוסי בר אבא אקלעו לההוא אתרא בעו מנייהו מאי ברכה אחת לא הוה בידייהו ואתו שיילוהו לרב מתנה לא הוה בידיה אתו שיילוהו לרב יהודה אמר להו הכי אמר שמואל אהבה רבה,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש יוצר אור כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי זריקא לאו בפירוש אתמר אלא מכללא אתמר דאמר ר' זריקא א"ר אמי אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש זאת אומרת ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו,אי אמרת בשלמא יוצר אור הוו אמרי היינו דברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלא קא אמרי אהבה רבה 11b. b“Who forms light and creates darkness,Who makes peace and creates evil, I am the Lord Who does all these things” (Isaiah 45:7).,With regard to this formula of the blessing, the Gemara asks: bLet him saythe following formula instead: bWho forms light and creates brightness,so as not to mention darkness, which has negative connotations.,The Gemara answers: bWe saythe blessing basthe verse bis writtenin the Bible and do not alter the formula that appears in the verse.,The Gemara strongly objects: bBut if so,what about the continuation of the verse: b“Who makes peace and creates evil”? Do we saythis blessing bas it is writtenin the Bible? bRather, it is written evil and we euphemistically recitethe blessing ball thingsto avoid mention of evil. bHere, too, let us euphemistically say brightnessinstead of darkness., bRather, Rava said:The reason we recite: “Who creates darkness” is bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night during the day,and thereby unify day and night as different parts of a single entity.,The Gemara continues and asks: bGranted, the attribute of nightis mentioned bduring the day, as we say: Who forms light and creates darkness, but where do you find the attribute of daymentioned bat night?In the blessing over the radiant lights recited at night there is no mention of “Who forms light.”, bAbaye said:Nevertheless, the attribute of day is mentioned at night in the words: bRolling away light before the darkness and darkness before the light. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what isthe formula of bthe otherblessing recited before iShema /i? bRav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: An abounding love [ iahava rabba /i]. And Rabbi Elazar instructed his son, Rabbi Pedat,to balsosay: bAn abounding love. /b, bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite: An eternal love [ iahavat olam /i]; rather,one recites: bAn abounding love. And the Rabbis saythat one recites: bAn eternal love, and so it says: “And an eternal love I have loved you, therefore I have drawn you with kindness”(Jeremiah 31:2).,The blessing: An abounding love, is about God’s love for us and includes praise for His giving us the Torah. Therefore, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who arose to study, until he recites iShemahe must recite aspecial bblessingover the Torah. bIf healready brecited iShemahe need not recitethat bblessing, as he has exemptedhimself bbyreciting the blessing of: bAn abounding love,which includes the components of the blessing over the Torah.,Having mentioned the blessing recited over Torah, the Gemara focuses on a dispute over what constitutes Torah in terms of requiring a blessing. bRav Huna said: Forthe study of bBible, one must recite a blessing,as it is the word of God, band forhalakhic bmidrash,the derivation of ihalakhotfrom verses, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: For Bible and midrash,which includes ihalakhotderived from verses themselves, bone must recite a blessing; for Mishna,which is only comprised of halakhic rulings issued by the Sages, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even for Mishna,which includes final, binding halakhic rulings, bone must recite a blessing as well, but for Talmud,which comprises a study of the Mishna and the rationales for its rulings, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rava said: Even for Talmud,which is the means to analyze the significance of the ihalakhot /i, and is the only form of Torah study that leads one to its true meaning, bone must recite a blessing. /b,This statement is supported by the practical ihalakhaderived from observation of Rav’s practice. His student, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, said: Many times I stood before Rav to study our chapter in the iSifra /i,also known as iTorat Kohanim /i, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, bof the school of Rav,and I saw that Rav bwould first wash his hands,then brecite a blessing,and only then bhe would teach us our chapter.This demonstrates that even before their study of iTorat Kohanim /i, which, due to Rav’s explanation of the reasons behind the ihalakhot /i, was the equivalent of studying Talmud, one must recite a blessing.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatformula of bblessings does he recite?There is a dispute over the formula of the blessings as well. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The formula of this blessing is like the standard formula for blessings recited over other mitzvot: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, bWho sanctified us with his mitzvot and commanded us to engage in matters of Torah. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa concludesthe blessing by adding bthe following: Lord our God, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths and in the mouths of Your people, the house of Israel, so that we and our descendants and the descendants of Your people, the house of Israel, may be those who know Your name and engage in Your Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. /b, bAnd Rav Hamnuna saidan additional formula: bWho has chosen us from all the peoples and given us His Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Giver of the Torah.With regard to this formula, bRav Hamnuna said: Thisconcise blessing bis the most outstanding of all the blessingsover the Torah, as it combines thanks to God for giving us the Torah as well as acclaim for the Torah and for Israel.,Since several formulas for the blessing over Torah were suggested, each with its own distinct advantage, the Gemara concludes: bTherefore, let us recite them allas blessings over the Torah.,The Gemara returns to dealing with the blessings that accompany iShema /i, and describes the practice in the Temple. bWe learned there,in a mishna in tractate iTamid /i: In the morning bthedeputy High Priest bappointedto oversee activity in the Temple, bsaid tothe priests who were members of the priestly watch [ imishmar /i] on duty that week: bRecite a single blessing.The members of the priestly watch brecited a blessing, and read the Ten Commandments, iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoaand iVaYomer /i,the standard recitation of iShema /i. Additionally, bthey blessed the peoplewith bthree blessings.These blessings were: bTrue and Firm,the blessing of redemption recited after iShema /i; iAvoda /i,service, the special blessing recited over God’s acceptance of the sacrifices with favor, similar to the blessing of Temple Service recited in the iAmidaprayer; band the priestly benediction,recited in the form of a prayer without the outstretched hands that usually accompany that blessing ( iTosafot /i). bAnd on Shabbat one blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch,as the watch serving in the Temple was replaced on Shabbat.,Certain details in this mishna are not sufficiently clear. First, bwhat is the single blessingthat the deputy High Priest instructed the guards to recite? The Gemara relates: It is blikethe incident bwhere Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yosei bar Abba happened tovisit ba certainunnamed bplace,and the people there basked them: What is the single blessingmentioned in the mishna? They bdid not havean answer breadily available.So bthey came and asked Rav Mattana, and hetoo bdid not havean answer breadily available. They came and asked Rav Yehuda,and bhe told them: Shmuel said as follows: An abounding loveis the single blessing recited by the priestly watch., bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saida different answer: This single blessing is: bWho creates light.That was how Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement was received in Babylonia, yet bwhen Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat this ihalakhawas not a direct quote of a statement by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bThat which Rabbi Zerika said was not stated explicitlyby Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, but brather it was inferred fromanother statement. bAs Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:From the expression: Recite a single blessing, in the mishna in tractate iTamid /i, bit followsthat failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother.This means that if only one of the blessings was recited, the obligation to recite that blessing was fulfilled, as the two blessings are not mutually dependent.,The conclusion was drawn from Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement that he held that the single blessing recited was: Who creates light. The considerations that led the Sages to that conclusion were: bGranted, if you say that they would recite: Who creates light,then the conclusion of Reish Lakish, that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not prevent onefrom reciting the bother,is understandable, as they recited: Who creates light, band did not recite: An abounding love,and they nonetheless fulfilled their obligation.
6. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

44a. is bmore lowlythan a woman, and therefore it is appropriate to recite an additional blessing on not having been born a slave.,§ bThe Sages taught: This iḥilazon /i,which bisthe source of the sky-blue dye used in ritual fringes, has the following characteristics: bIts body resembles the sea, its form resemblesthat of ba fish, it emerges once in seventy years, and with its blood one dyeswool bsky-bluefor ritual fringes. It is scarce, and btherefore it is expensive. /b,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: There is no mitzva,however bminor, that is written in the Torah, for which there is no reward given in this world; and in the World-to-Come I do not know how muchreward is given. bGo and learn fromthe following incident concerning bthe mitzva of ritual fringes. /b,There was ban incident involving a certain man who was diligent about the mitzva of ritual fringes.This man bheard that there was a prostitute inone of bthe cities overseas who took four hundred gold coins as her payment. He sent her four hundred gold coins and fixed a time tomeet with bher. When his time came, he came and sat at the entranceto her house., bThe maidservant ofthat prostitute bentered and said to her: That man who sent you four hundred gold coins came and sat at the entrance. She said: Let him enter. He entered. She arranged seven beds for him, six of silver and one of gold. Between each and every oneof them there was ba laddermade bof silver, and the topbed was the one that was made bof gold. /b, bShe went up and sat naked on the topbed, band he too went upin order bto sit naked facing her.In the meantime, bhis four ritual fringes came and slapped him on his face. He dropped down and sat himself on the ground, and she also dropped down and sat on the ground. She said to him:I take an oath by the igappaof Rome that I will not allow youto go buntil you tell me what defect you saw in me. /b, bHe said to her:I take an oath by bthe Templeservice bthat I never saw a woman as beautiful as you. Butthere is bone mitzvathat bthe Lord, our God, commanded us, and its name is ritual fringes, and inthe passage where bitis commanded, bit is written twice: “I am the Lord your God”(Numbers 15:41). The doubling of this phrase indicates: bI am the one who will punishthose who transgress My mitzvot, band I am the one who will rewardthose who fulfill them. bNow,said the man, the four sets of ritual fringes bappeared to me asif they were bfour witnesseswho will testify against me., bShe said to him: I will not allow youto go buntil you tell me: What is your name, and what is the name of your city, and what is the name of your teacher, and what is the name of the study hall in which you studied Torah? He wrotethe information band placedit bin her hand. /b, bShe arose and divided all of her property,giving bone-thirdas a bribe bto the government, one-third to the poor, and she took one-thirdwith her bin her possession, in addition to those bedsof gold and silver., bShe came to the study hall of Rabbi Ḥiyyaand bsaid to him: My teacher, instructyour students bconcerning me andhave them bmake me a convert.Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to her: My daughter, perhaps you set your sights on one of the studentsand that is why you want to convert? bShe tookthe bnotethe student had given her bfrom her hand and gave it toRabbi Ḥiyya. bHe said to her: Go take possession of your purchase. /b, bThose beds that she had arranged for him in a prohibitedfashion, bshenow barranged for him in a permittedfashion. The Gemara completes its point about the reward of mitzvot and points out how this story illustrates the concept: bThis is the reward given to him in this world, andwith regard bto the World-to-Come, I do not know how muchreward he will be given.,§ bRav Yehuda says:In the case of ba borrowed cloak, forthe first bthirty days it is exempt from ritual fringes; from then onit is bobligated. /b,The Gemara notes: bThatdistinction bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who resides in a guesthouse [ ipundaki /i] in Eretz Yisrael, or one who rents a house outside of Eretz Yisrael, forthe first bthirty dayshe is bexempt from themitzva of imezuza /i; from then onhe is bobligated. But one who rents a house in Eretz Yisraelmust baffix a imezuzaimmediately, due tothe bsettlement of Eretz Yisrael. /b,§ The mishna teaches: Absence of the bphylacteries ofthe barm does not preventfulfillment of the mitzva of the phylacteries of the head, and absence of the phylacteries of the head does not prevent fulfillment of the mitzva of the phylacteries of the arm. bRav Ḥisda said: They taughtthis bonlyin a case bwhere one hasthe other phylacteries, but they are not with him or he is unable to wear them for some reason. bButif bhe does not havethe other phylacteries at all, then their absence bdoes preventthe fulfillment of the mitzva to don the phylacteries that he has.,Later on, the students bsaid to him:Do byoustill bsaythat? Rav Ḥisda bsaid to them: No, ratherI would say the opposite: Concerning bone who does not havethe ability to fulfill btwo mitzvot, should he also not performthe bone mitzvathat he does have the ability to fulfill? The Gemara asks: bAnd what did he hold initiallywhen he said not to don one of the phylacteries in the absence of the other? The Gemara answers: He held that it was due to a rabbinic bdecree, lest he be negligentand not try to acquire the phylacteries that he lacks., bRav Sheshet says: Anyone who does not don phylacteries violates eight positive mitzvot.This is referring to the mitzva to don phylacteries of the arm and head, each of which is mentioned in four different passages (Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16; Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18)., bAnd anyone who does not have ritual fringes on his garments violates five positive mitzvot.This is because the mitzva of ritual fringes is stated four times in the primary passage concerning ritual fringes in Numbers: “That they prepare for themselves strings…and they shall put on the fringe of the corner a sky-blue thread. And it shall be to you for a fringe that you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord” (Numbers 15:38–39). An additional command appears in the verse: “You shall prepare yourself twisted cords” (Deuteronomy 22:12)., bAnd any priest who does not ascend the platformto recite the Priestly Benediction bviolates three positive mitzvotexpressed in the verses: “So you shall bless the children of Israel; you shall say to them” (Numbers 6:23), and: “And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel” (Numbers 6:27)., bAnyone who does not have a imezuzain his doorway violates two positive mitzvot,stated in the verses: b“And you shall write themon the doorposts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), and: b“And you shall write themon the doorposts of your house” (Deuteronomy 11:20)., bAnd Reish Lakish says: Anyone who dons phylacteries livesa blong life, as it is stated: /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66a. אמר לו רבי עקיבא או חלוף מה אם הזאה שהיא משום שבות אינה דוחה את השבת שחיטה שהיא משום מלאכה אינו דין שלא תדחה את השבת אמר לו ר' אליעזר עקיבא עקרת מה שכתוב בתורה (במדבר ט, ב) במועדו בין בחול בין בשבת,אמר לו רבי הבא לי מועד לאלו כמועד לשחיטה כלל אמר רבי עקיבא כל מלאכה שאפשר לעשותה מערב שבת אינה דוחה את השבת שחיטה שאי אפשר לעשותה מע"ש דוחה את השבת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן הלכה זו נתעלמה מבני בתירא פעם אחת חל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת שכחו ולא ידעו אם פסח דוחה את השבת אם לאו אמרו כלום יש אדם שיודע אם פסח דוחה את השבת אם לאו אמרו להם אדם אחד יש שעלה מבבל והלל הבבלי שמו ששימש שני גדולי הדור שמעיה ואבטליון ויודע אם פסח דוחה את השבת אם לאו שלחו וקראו לו אמרו לו כלום אתה יודע אם הפסח דוחה את השבת אם לאו אמר להם וכי פסח אחד יש לנו בשנה שדוחה את השבת והלא הרבה יותר ממאתים פסחים יש לנו בשנה שדוחין את השבת,אמרו לו מנין לך אמר להם נאמר מועדו בפסח ונאמר (במדבר כח, ב) מועדו בתמיד מה מועדו האמור בתמיד דוחה את השבת אף מועדו האמור בפסח דוחה את השבת,ועוד ק"ו הוא ומה תמיד שאין ענוש כרת דוחה את השבת פסח שענוש כרת אינו דין שדוחה את השבת,מיד הושיבוהו בראש ומינוהו נשיא עליהם והיה דורש כל היום כולו בהלכות הפסח התחיל מקנטרן בדברים אמר להן מי גרם לכם שאעלה מבבל ואהיה נשיא עליכם עצלות שהיתה בכם שלא שמשתם שני גדולי הדור שמעיה ואבטליון,אמרו לו ר' שכח ולא הביא סכין מע"ש מהו אמר להן הלכה זו שמעתי ושכחתי אלא הנח להן לישראל אם אין נביאים הן בני נביאים הן,למחר מי שפסחו טלה תוחבו בצמרו מי שפסחו גדי תוחבו בין קרניו ראה מעשה ונזכר הלכה ואמר כך מקובלני מפי שמעיה ואבטליון,אמר מר נאמר מועדו בפסח ונאמר מועדו בתמיד מה מועדו האמור בתמיד דוחה את השבת אף מועדו האמור בפסח דוחה שבת ותמיד גופיה מנלן דדחי שבת אילימא משום דכתיב ביה במועדו פסח נמי הא כתיב ביה מועדו,אלא מועדו לא משמע ליה הכא נמי מועדו לא משמע ליה אלא אמר קרא (במדבר כח, י) עולת שבת בשבתו על עולת התמיד מכלל [עולה] דתמיד קרבה בשבת,אמר מר ועוד ק"ו ומה תמיד שאין ענוש כרת דוחה את השבת פסח שענוש כרת אינו דין שדוחה את השבת איכא למיפרך מה לתמיד שכן תדיר וכליל ק"ו אמר להו ברישא ופרכוה והדר אמר להו גזירה שוה,וכי מאחר דגמר גזירה שוה ק"ו למה לי אלא לדידהו קאמר להו בשלמא גזירה שוה לא גמריתו דאין אדם דן גזירה שוה מעצמו אלא ק"ו דאדם דן מעצמו איבעי לכו למידן אמרו ליה קל וחומר פריכא הוא:,אמר מר למחר מי שפסחו טלה תוחב לו בצמרו גדי תוחב לו בין קרניו 66a. bRabbi Akiva said toRabbi Eliezer: bOrperhaps we can breversethe order of your argument and say the opposite: bIf,as we know by accepted tradition, bsprinklingthe purifying water on Shabbat, bwhich isprohibited only bdue to rabbinic decree, does not override Shabbat,then with regard to bslaughter, which isprohibited bas abiblically prohibited blabor, is it not right that it should not override Shabbat?Therefore, it should be prohibited to slaughter the Paschal lamb when the eve of Passover occurs on Shabbat. bRabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva,how can you say this? bYou havethus buprooted what is written in the Torah:“Let the children of Israel offer the Paschal lamb bin its appointed time”(Numbers 9:2); the phrase “at its appointed time” indicates that the offering must be brought on that day, bwhether it is a weekday or Shabbat. /b,Rabbi Akiva bsaid toRabbi Eliezer: bMy teacher, bring me an appointed timestated in the Torah bfor thesetasks, namely, carrying the animal or bringing it from outside the Shabbat limits, blike the appointed timestated bwith respect to slaughter.The Paschal lamb must be slaughtered on the fourteenth of Nisan, but there is no fixed time when the animal must be brought to the Temple, and it is therefore possible to transport it before Shabbat. bRabbi Akiva stated a principle: Any prohibited laborrequired for the offering of the sacrifice bthat can be performed on the eve of Shabbat does not override Shabbat; slaughter, which cannot be performed on the eve of Shabbat, overrides Shabbat. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughta ibaraitawith regard to the basic ihalakhagoverning the eve of Passover that boccurson Shabbat: bThis law was forgotten by the sons of Beteira,who were the leaders of their generation. bThe fourteenthof Nisan bonce occurred on Shabbat,and bthey forgot and did not know whether the Paschal lamb overrides Shabbat or not. They said: Is there any person who knows whether the Paschal lamb overrides Shabbat or not? They said to them: There is a certain manin Jerusalem bwho came up from Babylonia, and Hillel the Babylonian is his name.At one point, bhe served the twomost beminentscholars bof the generation, Shemaya and Avtalyon, andhe certainly bknows whether the Paschal lamb overrides Shabbat or not.The sons of Beteira bsentmessengers band called for him. They said to him: Do you know whether the Paschal lamb overrides Shabbat or not? He said to them: Have webut bone Paschal lamb during the year that overrides Shabbat? Do we not have many more than two hundred Paschal lambs,i.e., sacrifices, bduring the year that override Shabbat? /b, bThey said to him: From where do youknow this? bHe said to them: “Its appointed time” is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb and “its appointed time” isalso bstated with regard to the daily offering,for the verse says: “Command the children of Israel and say to them, My offering, the provision of My sacrifice made with fire, for a sweet savor to Me, shall you observe to offer Me at its appointed time” (Numbers 28:2). From here we learn that the daily offering is brought even on Shabbat. Thus, the daily morning and afternoon offerings are brought on more than fifty iShabbatotover the course of the year, and two sheep are offered every Shabbat as additional offerings, for a total of more than two hundred sacrifices a year that override Shabbat. bJust asthe expression b“its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the daily offering,indicates that it boverrides Shabbat, so too “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb,indicates that it boverrides Shabbat. /b, bAnd furthermore, it is an ia fortiori /iinference: bIf the daily offering,the neglect of which bis not punishable by ikaret /i, overrides Shabbat, is it not right that the Paschal lamb,the neglect of which bis punishable by ikaret /i, should override Shabbat? /b,After Hillel brought these proofs, bthey immediately seated him at the head and appointed him iNasiover them, and he expounded the laws of Passover that entire day.In the course of his teaching, bhe began rebuking them [ imekanteran /i] them with words. He said to them: What causedthis to happen bto you, that I should come up from Babylonia and become iNasiover you?It was bthe laziness in youthat byou did not serve the twomost beminentscholars bof the generationliving in Eretz Yisrael, bShemaya and Avtalyon. /b, bThey said toHillel: bOur teacher,if one bforgot and did not bring a knife on the eve of Shabbatand cannot slaughter his Paschal lamb, bwhat isthe law? Since he could have brought the knife before Shabbat, he cannot bring it on Shabbat; but what should he do in this situation? bHe said to them: Ionce bheard this ihalakha /ifrom my teachers bbut I have forgottenit. bBut leaveit bto the Jewish people; if they are not prophetsto whom God has revealed His secrets, bthey are the sons of prophets,and will certainly do the right thing on their own., bThe next day,on Shabbat that was the eve of Passover, bone whose Paschal offering was a lambtook the knife and bstuck it in its wool;and bone whose Paschal offering was a goat,which does not have wool, bstuck it between its horns.Hillel bsaw the incident and remembered the ihalakha /ithat he had once learned band said: Thisis the tradition bI received from the mouths of Shemaya and Avtalyon,meaning that this is in fact the proper course of action. This concludes the text of the ibaraitaand the Gemara will begin to elucidate it., bThe Master saidabove: b“Its appointed time” is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb and “its appointed time” is stated with regard to the daily offering. Just as “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the daily offering,indicates that it boverrides Shabbat, so too “its appointed time,” which is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb,indicates that it boverrides Shabbat. And from where do wederive bthat the daily offering itself overrides Shabbat? If we say because “in its appointed time” is written in its regard, “in its appointed time” is also written with regard to the Paschal lamb.Were it possible to derive from this expression that the sacrifice is offered even on Shabbat, it would not be necessary to derive the law governing the Paschal lamb from a verbal analogy between the daily offering and the Paschal lamb., bRather,you must conclude that the expression b“its appointed time,”which is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb, bdoes not indicate toHillel that the Torah was so particular about the timing of the Paschal lamb that its slaughter overrides Shabbat. bHere too,with regard to the daily offering, you must say that b“its appointed time” does not indicate to himthat it is brought on Shabbat, and so this expression is not the source of this law. bRather,the law is derived from bthe versethat bstates: “The burnt-offering of Shabbat on its Shabbat, beside the continual burnt-offeringand its libation” (Numbers 28:10), from which bit may be inferred that the daily burnt-offering is broughteven bon Shabbat. /b,The Gemara raises another question: bThe Master saidin that same ibaraita /i: bAnd furthermore, it is an ia fortioriinference: If the daily offering,the neglect of which bis not punishable by ikaret /i, overrides Shabbat, is it not right that the Paschal lamb,the neglect of which bis punishable by ikaret /i, should override Shabbat?The Gemara points out that bthere is room to refutethe logic of this argument: bWhatis unique about bthe daily offeringthat enables it to override Shabbat? bThat it is frequent,and something that is frequent always takes precedence; bandalso that it is totally bconsumedon the altar, unlike the Paschal lamb, most of which is eaten by human beings. The Gemara explains that this is what happened: Hillel bfirst told them the ia fortioriinference, but they refuted itand proved that it was not reliable, as explained above; band then he told them the verbal analogy,and a verbal analogy is based on an oral tradition originating from Moses at Sinai and must be accepted.,The Gemara asks: bBut sinceHillel blearnedthis bverbal analogyfrom his teachers, bwhy do Ineed ban ia fortiori /iinference? Why did he add a logical argument of his own if he had an explicit verbal tradition that this was the ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: bRather, he said it for them,to show that they had not sufficiently exerted themselves in clarifying this ihalakha /i: bGranted, you did not learn the verbal analogyon your own, because you acted according to the principle that bone may not expound a verbal analogy on one’s own.Since there is no limit to the laws that one can extract using this method of derivation, such a derivation is only legitimate if it has been transmitted as part of the oral tradition, and apparently they did not learn this verbal analogy from their teachers. bBut an ia fortiori /iinference, bwhich one can derive on one’s own, you should have derivedand you would then have known how to resolve this question. bThey said to him: It is a faulty ia fortiori /iinference, as we have shown that it can be easily refuted., bThe Master saidfurther in the ibaraita /i: bThe next day, one whose Paschal offering was a lamb stuckthe knife bin its wool,and one whose Paschal offering was a bgoat stuck it between its hornsso as to avoid carrying the knife on Shabbat.
8. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שאני התם דשירה דיומיה היא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר משום ר"ע בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה על שם שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו,בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים מח, ב) גדול ה' ומהולל מאד על שם שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהן,בשלישי היו אומרים (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל על שם שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו ברביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' על שם שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן,בחמישי היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ב) הרנינו לאלהים עוזנו על שם שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי היו אומרים (תהלים צג, א) ה' מלך גאות לבש על שם שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהן בשביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת ליום שכולו שבת,א"ר נחמיה מה ראו חכמים לחלק בין הפרקים הללו אלא בראשון שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו בשני שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהם בשלישי שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו,ברביעי שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן בחמישי שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהם בשביעי על שם ששבת,וקמיפלגי בדרב קטינא דאמר רב קטינא שיתא אלפי שני הוה עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב יי' לבדו ביום ההוא (אמר אביי) תרי חרוב שנאמ' (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים,במוספי דשבתא מה היו אומרים אמר רב ענן בר רבא אמר רב הזי"ו ל"ך,ואמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב כדרך שחלוקים כאן כך חלוקין בבית הכנסת,במנחת' דשבתא מה היו אומרי' אמר רבי יוחנן אז ישיר ומי כמוך ואז ישיר,איבעי' להו הני כולהו בחד שבתא אמרי להו או דלמא כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד תא שמע דתניא א"ר יוסי עד שהראשונה אומרת אחת שניה חוזרת שתים שמע מינה כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד שמע מינה,אמר רב יהודה בר אידי א"ר יוחנן עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא,עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי מכפרת לכרוב ומכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן וממפתן לחצר ומחצר למזבח וממזבח לגג ומגג לחומה ומחומה לעיר ומעיר להר ומהר למדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה שנאמר (הושע ה, טו) אלך אשובה אל מקומי,מכפורת לכרוב מכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן דכתיב (שמות כה, כב) ונועדתי [לך שם ודברתי] אתך מעל הכפורת וכתיב וירכב על כרוב ויעף וכתיב (יחזקאל ט, ג) וכבוד אלהי ישראל נעלה מעל הכרוב אשר היה עליו אל מפתן הבית,וממפתן לחצר דכתיב (יחזקאל י, ד) וימלא הבית את הענן והחצר מלאה את נגה כבוד ה' מחצר למזבח דכתיב ראיתי את ה' נצב על המזבח וממזבח לגג דכתיב (משלי כא, ט) טוב לשבת על פנת גג מגג לחומה דכתיב והנה ה' נצב על חומת אנך מחומה לעיר דכתיב (מיכה ו, ט) קול ה' לעיר יקרא,ומעיר להר דכתיב ויעל כבוד ה' מעל תוך העיר ויעמד על ההר אשר מקדם לעיר ומהר למדבר דכתיב (משלי כא, יט) טוב שבת בארץ מדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה דכתיב אלך אשובה אל מקומי וגו',א"ר יוחנן ששה חדשים נתעכבה שכינה לישראל במדבר שמא יחזרו בתשובה כיון שלא חזרו אמר תיפח עצמן שנאמר (איוב יא, כ) ועיני רשעים תכלינה ומנוס אבד מנהם ותקותם מפח נפש,וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא מלשכת הגזית לחנות ומחנות לירושלים ומירושלים ליבנה 31a. The Gemara rejects this argument. bIt is different there, asin any case “Sing aloud” bis the psalm of the day,either because it was an ordinary Thursday or because it was Rosh HaShana. However, there is no proof from here that in all uncertain cases they would recite the psalm for an ordinary weekday, as it is possible that they did not recite any psalm at all.,§ The Gemara expands on the topic of the daily psalms recited by the Levites. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: On the firstday of the week, Sunday, bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm beginning with the phrase: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and its fullness”(Psalms 24:1), in commemoration of the first day of Creation, bbecauseon that day bHe acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world,as the angels were not created until the second day., bOn the secondday of the week bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm that begins: b“Great is the Lord, and highly to be praisedin the city of our God, His sacred mountain” (Psalms 48:2). This is bbecauseon the second day of Creation bHe separated His works,dividing between the upper waters and the lower waters, band ruled over themas King; and this psalm speaks of Jerusalem as “The city of a great King” (Psalms 48:3)., bOn the thirdday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“God stands in the congregation of God”(Psalms 82:1), bbecauseon the third day of Creation bHe revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assemblythat could now live on the dry land. bOn the fourthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“O Lord God, to Whom vengeance belongs”(Psalms 94:1), bbecauseon the fourth day of Creation bHe created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punishand take vengeance upon bthose who worship them. /b, bOn the fifthday of the week the Levites bwould recitethe psalm beginning: b“Sing aloud to God our strength”(Psalms 81:2), bbecauseon the fifth day of Creation bHe created birds and fish to praise His name. On the sixthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“The Lord reigns, He is clothed with majesty”(Psalms 93:1), bbecauseon that day bHe completed His labor and ruled overall of creation in full glory. bOn the seventhday of the week, Shabbat, bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat”(Psalms 92:1), basthe future world will be ba day that is all Shabbat. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said: What did the Sages seethat led them bto distinguish between these chapters,as they interpret the psalms recited on the six weekdays as referring to the past, whereas the psalm recited on Shabbat is referring to the future. bRather,all of the psalms refer to the past. The first six are as explained above: bOn the firstday, the reason is bthat He acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world; on the secondday, the reason is bthat He separated His works and ruled over themas King; bon the thirdday, the reason is bthat He revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assembly. /b, bOn the fourthday, the reason is bthat He created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punish those who worship them; on the fifthday, the reason is bthat He created birds and fish to praise His name; on the sixthday, the reason is bthat He completed His labor and ruled overall of creation. However, bon the seventhday, the reason is bthat He restedfrom His work, as the phrase “A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat” is referring to the first Shabbat of Creation.,The Gemara comments: bAndthese itanna’im bdisagree withregard to a statement bof Rav Ketina, as Rav Ketina said: The world will exist for six thousand years, andfor bonethousand years it will be bdestroyed, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and one day for God is a thousand years, as indicated in the verse: “For a thousand years in Your sight are but as yesterday when it is past” (Psalms 90:4). Rav Ketina’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Conversely, bAbaye said:The world will be bdestroyedfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us”(Hosea 6:2). According to the opinion of Abaye that the destruction will be for two days, there is no connection between the future world and the day of Shabbat, which is only one day.,§ The Gemara further asks: When it came bto the additional offerings of Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rav A bar Rava saidthat bRav said:They would recite in accordance with the mnemonic ihei /i, izayin /i, iyod /i, ivav /i, ilamed /i, ikaf /i.They would divide the song of iHa’azinuinto six sections, each of which began with a letter of the mnemonic: “Give ear [ iha’azinu /i], you heavens” (Deuteronomy 32:1); “Remember [ izekhor /i] the days of old” (Deuteronomy 32:7); “He made him ride [ iyarkivehu /i] on the high places of the earth” (Deuteronomy 32:13); “The Lord saw it [ ivayar /i] and spurned” (Deuteronomy 32:19); “Were it not [ ilulei /i] that I dread the enemy’s provocation” (Deuteronomy 32:27); “For i[ki]the Lord will judge His people” (Deuteronomy 32:36)., bAnd Rav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: In the manner thatthe verses of the song of iHa’azinu bare divided herefor the recitation of the additional offerings of Shabbat in the Temple, bso too are they dividedwhen they are read bin the synagogueon Shabbat.,The Gemara asks another question: When it came bto thedaily bafternoon offering on Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rabbi Yoḥa said: “Then sangMoses” (Exodus 15:1), band: “Who is like You”(Exodus 15:11), the two halves of the Song of the Sea, band: “Then Israel sangthis song” (Numbers 21:17), the entire Song of the Well., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Does bone recite all thesesections of the song of iHa’azinu bon each Shabbat, or perhaps on each and every Shabbatthey would brecite onesection? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: Bythe time bthatthose who recite bthe firstset, i.e., the verses for the additional offerings brought on Shabbat, breciteit bonce,those who recite bthe secondset, for the daily afternoon offering, would brepeattheir cycle btwice,as the first set was comprised of six sections, whereas the second set included only three sections. bLearn from herethat beach and every Shabbat they would reciteonly bonesection. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat this is correct.,§ bRav Yehuda bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,i.e., it left the Temple and Eretz Yisrael in ten stages at the time of the destruction of the First Temple, as derived bfrom verses. And corresponding to them the Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition. /b,The Gemara elaborates. bThe Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,as derived bfrom verses.The ten journeys are: bFrom the Ark cover to the cherub; and fromone bcherub tothe other bcherub; and fromthe second bcherub to the thresholdof the Sanctuary; band from the threshold to the courtyard; and from the courtyard to the altar; and from the altar to the roof; and from the roof to the wallof the Temple Mount; band from the wall to the city; and from the city to a mountainclose to Jerusalem; band fromthat bmountain to the wilderness; and from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, isolated from humanity, bas it is stated: “I will go and return to My place”(Hosea 5:15).,The Gemara cites the sources for each of these stages: bFrom the Ark coverthe Divine Presence traveled bto the cherub,and bfromone bcherub tothe other bcherub, and from thesecond bcherub to the threshold, as it is writtenwith regard to Moses in the Tabernacle: b“And there I will meet with you, and I will speak to you from above the Ark cover,from between the two cherubs” (Exodus 25:22). bAnd it is written: “And He rode upon a cherub, and flew”(II Samuel 22:11), which indicates that the glory of the Divine Presence can rest upon one cherub. bAnd it is written: “And the glory of the God of Israel had ascended from the cherub, on which it was, to the threshold of the House”(Ezekiel 9:3), i.e., the Divine Presence moved from the cherub to the threshold., bAnd from the thresholdof the Sanctuary the Divine Presence went bto the courtyard, as it is written: “And the House was filled with the cloud and the courtyard was full of the brightness of the Lord’s glory”(Ezekiel 10:4). bFrom the courtyard to the altar, as it is written: “I saw the Lord standing on the altar”(Amos 9:1). bAnd from the altar to the roof, as it is written: “It is better to dwell in a corner of the roofthan in a house together with a contentious woman” (Proverbs 21:9). bFrom the roof to the wall, as it is written: “And behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line”(Amos 7:7). bFrom the wall to the city, as it is written: “The Lord’s voice cries to the city”(Micah 6:9)., bAnd from the citythe Divine Presence arose bto the mountainnearest the Sanctuary, i.e., the Mount of Olives, bas it is written: “And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain, which is on the east side of the city”(Ezekiel 11:23). bAnd from the mountain to the wilderness, as it is written: “It is better to live in the wildernessthan with a contentious and fretful woman” (Proverbs 21:19). bAnd from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, bas it is written: “I will go and return to My placeuntil they acknowledge their guilt” (Hosea 5:15)., bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bsix months the Divine Presence lingered in the wilderness,waiting bfor the Jewish people,hoping that bperhaps they would repentand it would be able to return to its place. bWhen they did not repent,the Divine Presence bsaid: Let themdespair and bbe lost, as it is stated: “But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall have no way to flee, and their hope shall be the drooping of the soul”(Job 11:20). This concludes the discussion of the ten stages of the exile of the Divine Presence from the Holy of Holies., bAnd corresponding tothese ten stages, bthe Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition: From the Chamber of Hewn Stone,its fixed seat in the Temple, bto iḤanut /i,literally, shop, a designated spot on the Temple Mount outside the Temple proper; band from iḤanutto Jerusalem; and from Jerusalem to Yavne; /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

44a. עכן מאי טעמא איענוש משום דהוו ידעי ביה אשתו ובניו,(יהושע ז, יא) חטא ישראל אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אע"פ שחטא ישראל הוא אמר ר' אבא היינו דאמרי אינשי אסא דקאי ביני חילפי אסא שמיה ואסא קרו ליה,(יהושע ז, יא) וגם עברו את בריתי אשר צויתי אותם גם לקחו מן החרם גם גנבו גם כחשו גם שמו בכליהם אמר ר' אילעא משום ר' יהודה בר מספרתא מלמד שעבר עכן על חמשה חומשי תורה שנאמר חמשה גם,ואמר רבי אילעא משום רבי יהודה בר מספרתא עכן מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא וגם עברו את בריתי וכתיב התם (בראשית יז, יד) את בריתי הפר,פשיטא מהו דתימא במצוה גופיה לא פקר קמ"ל,(יהושע ז, טו) וכי עשה נבלה בישראל א"ר אבא בר זבדא מלמד שבעל עכן נערה המאורסה כתיב הכא וכי עשה נבלה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כא) כי עשתה נבלה בישראל,פשיטא מהו דתימא כולי האי לא פקר נפשיה קמ"ל רבינא אמר דיניה כנערה המאורסה דבסקילה,אמר ליה ריש גלותא לרב הונא כתיב (יהושע ז, כד) ויקח יהושע את עכן בן זרח ואת הכסף ואת האדרת ואת לשון הזהב ואת בניו ואת בנותיו ואת שורו ואת חמורו ואת צאנו ואת אהלו ואת כל אשר לו אם הוא חטא בניו ובנותיו מה חטאו,אמר ליה וליטעמיך אם הוא חטא כל ישראל מה חטאו דכתיב (יהושע ז, כד) וכל ישראל עמו אלא לרדותן ה"נ כדי לרדותן,(יהושע ז, כה) וישרפו אותם באש ויסקלו אותם באבנים בתרתי אמר רבינא הראוי לשריפה לשריפה הראוי לסקילה לסקילה,(יהושע ז, כא) וארא בשלל אדרת שנער אחת טובה ומאתים שקלים כסף רב אמר איצטלא דמילתא ושמואל אמר סרבלא דצריפא,(יהושע ז, כג) ויציקום לפני ה' אמר רב נחמן בא וחבטם לפני המקום אמר לפניו רבש"ע על אלו תיהרג רובה של סנהדרין דכתיב (יהושע ז, ה) ויכו מהם אנשי העי כשלשים וששה איש ותניא שלשים וששה ממש דברי ר' יהודה אמר לו ר' נחמיה וכי שלשים וששה היו והלא לא נאמר אלא כשלשים וששה איש אלא זה יאיר בן מנשה ששקול כנגד רובה של סנהדרין,אמר רב נחמן אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, כג) תחנונים ידבר רש ועשיר יענה עזות תחנונים ידבר רש זה משה ועשיר יענה עזות זה יהושע,מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתיב ויציקום לפני ה' ואמר רב נחמן בא וחבטן לפני המקום אטו פנחס לא עביד הכי (דכתיב) (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פנחס ויפלל ותעצר המגפה ואמר ר' אלעזר ויתפלל לא נאמר אלא ויפלל מלמד שעשה פלילות עם קונו בא וחבטן לפני המקום אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם על אלו יפלו עשרים וארבעה אלף מישראל דכתיב (במדבר כה, ט) ויהיו המתים במגפה ארבעה ועשרים אלף,ואלא מהכא (יהושע ז, ז) למה העברת העביר את העם הזה את הירדן משה נמי מימר אמר (שמות ה, כב) למה הרעתה לעם הזה אלא מהכא (יהושע ז, ז) ולו הואלנו ונשב בעבר הירדן,(יהושע ז, י) ויאמר ה' אל יהושע קום לך דריש ר' שילא א"ל הקב"ה שלך קשה משלהם אני אמרתי (דברים כז, ד) והיה בעברכם את הירדן תקימו ואתם ריחקתם ס' מיל,בתר דנפק אוקים רב אמורא עליה ודרש (יהושע יא, טו) כאשר צוה ה' את משה עבדו כן צוה משה את יהושע וכן עשה יהושע לא הסיר דבר מכל אשר צוה ה' את משה,א"כ מה ת"ל קום לך א"ל אתה גרמת להם והיינו דקאמר ליה בעי (יהושע ח, ב) ועשית לעי ולמלכה כאשר עשית ליריחו ולמלכה וגו',(יהושע ה, יג) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא וגו' ויאמר לא כי אני שר צבא ה' עתה באתי [ויפול יהושע אל פניו ארצה וישתחו] היכי עביד הכי והאמר רבי יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בלילה חיישינן שמא שד הוא,שאני התם דקאמר ליה (יהושע ה, יד) אני שר צבא ה' עתה באתי וגו' ודילמא משקרי גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלה 44a. bwhat is the reasonthat in the case of bAchan they were punished?The Gemara answers: Achan’s offense was not a hidden matter bbecause his wife and children knew about it,and they did not protest.,§ When God explained to Joshua the reason for the Jewish people’s defeat at the city of Ai, He said: b“Israel has sinned”(Joshua 7:11). bRabbi Abba bar Zavda says:From here it may be inferred that beven whenthe Jewish people bhave sinned, they arestill called b“Israel.” Rabbi Abba says: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say:Even when ba myrtle is found among thorns, its name is myrtle andpeople bcall it myrtle. /b,The verse in Joshua continues: b“They have also transgressed My covet which I commanded them, and they have also taken of the dedicated property, and also stolen, and also dissembled, and also put it among their own goods.” Rabbi Ile’a says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda bar Masparta:This bteaches that Achanalso btransgressedall bfive books of the Torah, asthe word b“also” is statedhere bfivetimes., bAnd Rabbi Ile’a saysfurther bin the name of Rabbi Yehuda bar Masparta: Achan,in addition to his other evil actions, bwould stretch hisremaining bforeskinin order to conceal the fact that he was circumcised. An allusion to this offense is found in the wording of this verse. bHere,with regard to Achan, bit is written: “They have also transgressed My covet,” and there,with regard to circumcision, bit is written: “He has violated My covet”(Genesis 17:14).,The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat he concealed his circumcision, as Rabbi Ile’a said that he transgressed all five books of the Torah? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat while Achan transgressed all five books of the Torah, bwith regard to a mitzvarelating to bhis own body,such as circumcision, bhe did not act irreverently,Rabbi Ile’a bteaches usthat he sinned concerning this mitzva as well.,With regard to Achan, the verse states: b“And because he has committed a wanton deed in Israel”(Joshua 7:15). bRabbi Abba bar Zavda says:This bteaches thatAchan bengaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman.This offense is also alluded to by the wording of the verse. bHere,with regard to Achan, bit is written: “And because he has committed a wanton deed,” and there,with regard to a betrothed young woman who committed adultery, bit is written: “Because she has committed a wanton deed in Israel,to play the harlot in her father’s house” (Deuteronomy 22:21).,The Gemara asks: Isn’t this bobvious,as Achan transgressed the entire Torah? The Gemara similarly answers: bLest you saythat bhe did not act irreverently to such an extent,Rabbi Abba bar Zavda bteaches usthat he paid no heed even to this prohibition. bRavina said:This verbal analogy does not teach what Achan’s offense was; rather, it teaches that bhis punishmentwas blikethat of ba betrothed young womanwho committed adultery, for bwhichshe is executed bby stoning. /b,§ bThe Exilarch said to Rav Huna: It is written: “And Joshua took Achan, son of Zerah, and the silver, and the mantle, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had,and all Israel with him…and all Israel stoned him with stones; and they burned them with fire, and stoned them with stones” (Joshua 7:24–25). bIfAchan bsinned,so that he was liable to be stoned, bdid his sons and daughtersalso bsin,that they too should be stoned?,Rav Huna bsaid tothe Exilarch: bAnd according to your reasoningthat Achan’s family was also punished, bifAchan bsinned, did all of Israel sin? As it is written: “And all Israel with him.” Rather,Joshua took all of the people to the Valley of Achor not to stone them, but bto chastise themand strike fear into their hearts by making them witness the stoning. bSo too,he took Achan’s household there bin order to chastise them. /b,With regard to Achan’s punishment, the verse states: b“And they burned them with fire, and stoned them with stones.”The Gemara asks: Did they punish him bwith twopunishments? bRavina says: That which was fit for burning,e.g., an item of clothing, was taken out bfor burning,and bthat which was fit for stoning,e.g., an animal, was taken out bfor stoning. /b,§ In his confession, Achan states: b“And I saw among the spoil a fine mantle of Shinar, and two hundred shekels of silver”(Joshua 7:21). bRav says:A mantle of Shinar is ba cloak [ iitztela /i] ofchoice bwool [ idemeilta /i], and Shmuel says:It is ba garment [ isarbela /i] dyed with alum. /b,With regard to the spoils that Achan took for himself, the verse states: b“And they laid them out before the Lord”(Joshua 7:23). bRav Naḥman says:Joshua bcame and cast downthe spoils bbefore God.Joshua bsaid to Him: Master of the Universe,was it bbecause of thesesmall items that bthe majority of the Sanhedrin were killed? As it is written: “And the men of Ai smote of them about thirty-six men”(Joshua 7:5), band it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThirty-sixmen, bliterally,were killed; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Neḥemya said toRabbi Yehuda: bBut were theyprecisely bthirty-sixmen? bDidn’t it state only: “About thirty-six men”? Rather, this isa reference to bYair, son of Manasseh,who was killed, and bwho washimself bequivalentin importance bto the majority of the Sanhedrin,i.e., thirty-six men., bRav Naḥman says that Rav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The poor man speaks entreaties, but the rich man answers with impudence”(Proverbs 18:23)? b“The poor man speaks entreaties”; thisis a reference to bMoses,who addressed God in a tone of supplication and appeasement. b“But the rich man answers with impudence”; thisis a reference to bJoshua,who spoke to God in a belligerent manner.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat Joshua is considered to have answered God with impudence? bIf we saythat it is bbecause it is written: “And he laid them out before the Lord,” and Rav Naḥman saysthat this means that Joshua bcame and castthe spoils bdown before Godas part of his argument, this is difficult: bIs that to saythat bPinehas did not act the sameway in the incident involving Zimri and Cozbi? bAs it is written: “Then stood up Pinehas, and executed judgment [ ivayefallel /i], and the plague was stayed”(Psalms 106:30), band Rabbi Elazar says: And he prayed [ ivayitpallel /i], is not stated; rather, “and he executed judgment [ ivayefallel /i]”is stated, which bteaches that he entered into a judgmenttogether bwith his Creator.How so? bHe came and castZimri and Cozbi bdown before God,and bsaid to Him: Master of the Universe,was it bbecause of thesesinners that btwenty-four thousandmembers bof the Jewish people fell? As it is written: “And those that died by the plague were twenty-four thousand”(Numbers 25:9)., bRather,Joshua’s belligerence is seen bfrom thisverse: b“Why have You brought this people over the Jordan”(Joshua 7:7), as if he were complaining about God’s treatment of Israel. This too is difficult, as bMoses also saida similar statement: b“Why have You dealt ill with this people?Why is it that You have sent me?” (Exodus 5:22). bRather,Joshua’s belligerence is seen bfrom here,from the continuation of the previously cited verse in Joshua: b“Would that we had been content and had remained in the Transjordan”(Joshua 7:7).,§ With regard to the verse that states: b“And the Lord said to Joshua: Get you up;why do you lie this way on your face?” (Joshua 7:10), bRabbi Sheila taughtin a public lecture: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toJoshua: bYourown sin biseven bworse thanthat of the other Jews who sinned, as bI saidto the Jewish people: b“And it shall be when you have gone over the Jordan, that you shall set upthese stones” (Deuteronomy 27:4), band you havealready bdistanced yourselves sixty imil /ifrom the Jordan River, and you have yet to fulfill the mitzva., bAfterRav Sheila finished his lecture and bwent out, Rav,who had been present but remained silent, bplaced an interpreter alongside him,who would repeat his lecture in a loud voice so that the public could hear it, band he taught:The verse states: b“As the Lord commanded Moses His servant, so did Moses command Joshua, and so did Joshua; he left nothing undone of all that the Lord had commanded Moses”(Joshua 11:15). This indicates that Joshua could not have been guilty of a grave offense such as delaying in setting up the stones., bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Get you up,”hinting that Joshua was in fact responsible for some transgression? The matter should be understood as follows: God bsaid toJoshua: bYou causedthe Jewish people to sin, as had you not dedicated all the spoils of Jericho to the Tabernacle treasury, the entire incident of Achan taking the spoils improperly would not have occurred. bAnd this is whatGod bsaid to him at Ai: “And you shall do to Ai and her king as you did to Jericho and her king;only its spoil and its cattle shall you take for a prey to yourselves” (Joshua 8:2), instructing Joshua that the Jewish people should keep the spoils.,The verse states: b“And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho that he lifted up his eyes and looked,and, behold, a man stood over against him with his sword drawn in his hand: And Joshua went to him and said to him, Are you for us or for our adversaries? bAnd he said: No, but I am captain of the host of the Lord; I have now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down”(Joshua 5:13–14). The Gemara asks: bHow couldJoshua bdo so,bowing down to a stranger at night? bBut doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:It is bprohibited for a person to greet anotherwhom he does not recognize bat night,as bwe are concerned that perhapsthe one he doesn’t recognize bis a demon?Why was Joshua not concerned about this possibility?,The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, asthe stranger bsaid toJoshua: b“I am captain of the host of the Lord; I have now come.”The Gemara asks: bBut perhapshe was in fact a demon and bhe was lying?The Gemara answers: It bis learnedas a tradition bthatdemons bdo not utter the name of Heaven in vain,and since this figure mentioned the name of Heaven, he must have been speaking the truth.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. לברוכי למ"ד שביעי לסוכה ברוכי נמי מברכינן למ"ד שמיני לזה ולזה ברוכי לא מברכינן אמר רב יוסף נקוט דר' יוחנן בידך דרב הונא בר ביזנא וכל גדולי הדור איקלעו בסוכה בשמיני ספק שביעי מיתב הוו יתבי ברוכי לא בריכי,ודלמא סבירא להו כמ"ד כיון שבירך יו"ט ראשון שוב אינו מברך גמירי דמאפר אתו,איכא דאמרי ברוכי כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מברכינן כי פליגי למיתב למ"ד שבעה לסוכה מיתב יתבינן ולמ"ד שמיני לזה ולזה מיתב נמי לא יתבינן אמר רב יוסף נקוט דר' יוחנן בידך דמרא דשמעת' מני רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת ובשמיני ספק שביעי לבר מסוכה יתיב והלכתא מיתב יתבינן ברוכי לא מברכינן,אמר ר' יוחנן אומרים זמן בשמיני של חג ואין אומרים זמן בשביעי של פסח,וא"ר לוי בר חמא ואיתימא ר' חמא בר חנינא תדע שהרי חלוק בג' דברים בסוכה ולולב וניסוך המים ולרבי יהודה דאמר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה הרי חלוק בב' דברים,אי הכי שביעי של פסח נמי הרי חלוק באכילת מצה דאמר מר לילה ראשונה חובה מכאן ואילך רשות הכי השתא התם מלילה חלוק מיום אינו חלוק הכא אפילו מיום נמי חלוק,רבינא אמר זה חלוק משלפניו וזה חלוק משלפני פניו,(אמר רב פפא) הכא כתיב פר התם כתיב פרים,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר הכא כתיב ביום התם כתיב וביום,רב אשי אמר הכא כתיב (במדבר כט, ו) כמשפט התם כתיב כמשפטם,לימא מסייע ליה הפרים האילים והכבשים מעכבין זה את זה ורבי יהודה אומר פרים אין מעכבין זה את זה שהרי מתמעטין והולכין,אמרו לו והלא כולן מתמעטין והולכין בשמיני אמר להן שמיני רגל בפני עצמו הוא שכשם ששבעת ימי החג טעונין קרבן ושיר וברכה ולינה אף שמיני טעון קרבן ושיר וברכה ולינה 47a. with regard to whether or not bto recite the blessingover residing in the isukka /i. According bto the one who saysthat the status of the eighth day is like that of the bseventhday with regard bto themitzva of isukka /i, we also recite the blessing:To reside in the isukka /i. However, according bto the one who saysthat its status is like that of the beighthday both with regard bto this and to that, we do not recite the blessing. Rav Yosef said: Takethe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥathat on the eighth day outside Eretz Yisrael one does not recite the blessing: To reside in the isukka /i, bin your hand,i.e., adopt it as your practice. bAs Rav Huna bar Bizna and all the prominentscholars bof the generation happenedto visit a isukkaon the eighthday, with regard to which there was buncertaintythat it might be the bseventhday, and bthey were sittingin the isukka /i, but bthey did not recite the blessing. /b,The Gemara suggests: bAnd perhapsthe reason they did not recite a blessing is that bthey hold in accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who said: Once he recited the blessing onthe bfirst Festivalday bhe does not recite it againon the subsequent days, and not because it was the eighth day. The Gemara answers: That is not the reason that they did not recite the blessing, as the Sages blearnedthrough tradition bthatthese Sages bwere coming from the fields,where they had been herding their flocks, and that was the first time during the Festival that they sat in a isukka /i., bSome saya different version of the dispute: bEveryone agrees that we do not recite the blessing; when they disagreeit is with regard to whether bto residein the isukka /i. According bto the one who saysthat the status of the eighth day is like that of the bseventhday with regard bto themitzva of isukka /i, we residein the isukka /i. However, according bto the one who saysthat its status is like that of the beighthday both with regard bto this and to that, neither do we residein the isukka /i. bRav Yosef said: Takethe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa in your hand, as who is the Masterresponsible for dissemination bof the ihalakha /i?It is bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, and on the eighthday, with regard to which there is buncertaintythat it might be the bseventhday, he himself bresides outside of the isukka /i.The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais that we residein the isukkaon the eighth day, with regard to which there is uncertainty that it might be the seventh day, but bwe do not recite the blessing. /b,§ bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bone recitesthe blessing: Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this btime, on the eighthday bof the Festival,as the eighth day is a Festival distinct from iSukkot /i, band one does not recitethe blessing of btime on the seventhday bof Passoverbecause it is not a Festival distinct from Passover., bAnd Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama said, and some sayit was bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥaninawho said: bKnowthat the eighth day of iSukkotis a Festival in and of itself and therefore requires its own blessing, bas it is distinctfrom the seven days of iSukkot bwith regard to three matters: With regard to isukka /i,as one is not obligated to sit in the isukkaon the eighth day; bandwith regard to ilulav /i,as one is not obligated to take the four species on the eighth day; bandwith regard to bthe water libation,as one does not pour the water libation on the altar on the eighth day. The Gemara notes: bAnd according to Rabbi Yehuda, who said: Witha vessel measuring bone ilog /ithe priest bpoursthe water libation ball eightdays, including the eighth day, the eighth day bisnevertheless bdistinctfrom the rest of the Festival bwith regard tothe other btwo matters. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so,the bseventhday bof Passovershould be considered distinct bas well, as it is distinctfrom the first day in terms of the obligation of beating imatza /i, as the Master said:On the bfirst nightof Passover, it is ban obligationto eat imatza /i. bFrom thatpoint bonward, it is optional;if one chooses, he eats imatza /i, and if he chooses not to eat imatza /i, he need not, provided that he does not eat leavened foods. The Gemara retorts: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? There,in the case of Passover, the ihalakhaof the seventh day bis distinct from thefirst bnight;however, bit is not distinct from thefirst bday,as on the first day there is no obligation to eat imatza /i. bHere,in the case of iSukkot /i, the eighth day of the Festival bis distinct even from thefirst bday. /b, bRavina saida different reason for the distinction between the two Festivals: bThis,the eighth day of iSukkot /i, bis distinctin terms of its ihalakhot /i, even bfromthe day just bbefore it,the seventh day. However, bthat,the seventh day of Passover, bis distinctin terms of its ihalakhot /i, only bfroma day bprevious to the day before,i.e., the first day alone. There is no distinction between the sixth and seventh days., bRav Pappa saidanother reason why the eighth day of iSukkotis considered a distinct Festival. bHere,with regard to the additional offering sacrificed on the Eighth Day of Assembly, bit is written:“And you shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: One bbull”(Numbers 29:36). bThere,with regard to the additional offering sacrificed on the first day of iSukkot /i, bit is written:“And you shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord: Thirteen bbulls”(Numbers 29:13), and on each subsequent day one bull fewer is sacrificed: Twelve on the second day, eleven on the third day, and so on, until seven are sacrificed on the seventh day. Were the eighth day part of the festival of iSukkot /i, the additional offering on that day should have included six bulls. The fact that it includes only one bull indicates that it is a distinct Festival., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Here, it is written: “On theeighth bdayyou shall have a solemn assembly; you shall do no manner of servile labor” (Numbers 29:35). This indicates that this day is distinct from the others, as bthere,with regard to the other days of iSukkot /i, bit is written: And on the day,indicating that each of the days from the second through the seventh are all continuations of the first day., bRav Ashi said: Here,with regard to the eighth day, bit is written:“Their meal-offering and their libations, for the bull, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, bas per the regulation”(Numbers 29:37). However, bthere,with regard to the seventh day, bit is written:“And their meal-offering and their libations, for the bulls, and for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, bas per their regulation”(Numbers 29:33). The Gemara understands the use of the plural pronoun: Their, to indicate that the offerings sacrificed on all seven days are related.,The Gemara asks: bLet us saythat the following bsupportsthe opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa that one recites the blessing of time on the eighth day. Failure to bring either bthe bulls,or bthe rams, or the sheepon the Festival bpreventsfulfillment of one’s obligation with bthe otheranimals, as they are considered one offering. bRabbi Yehuda says:Failure to bring bthe bulls does not preventfulfillment of one’s obligation with the botheranimals, bsince they decrease progressivelyeach day. The Torah displays flexibility with regard to the bulls. Therefore, apparently, even if they are not brought at all one fulfills his obligation with the others.,The Sages bsaid toRabbi Yehuda: bBut don’t the numbers of allthe animals beventually decrease on the eighthday, as on the other days two rams and fourteen sheep are sacrificed and on the eighth day it is one ram and seven sheep? Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to them:The bEighthDay of Assembly bis a Festival in and of itself. As just as the seven days of the festivalof iSukkot brequire an offering, and a songsung by the Levites, band a blessingunique to the festival of iSukkot /i, bandthere is a mitzva of bstaying overnightin Jerusalem after the first Festival day, bso too,the beighthday brequires an offering, and a songsung by the Levites, band a blessingunique to the Eighth Day of Assembly, bandthere is a mitzva of bstaying overnightin Jerusalem at its conclusion.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, exaltation of Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
abraham, test of Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
akedah Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
atonement Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 143
basil of seleucia Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
creation and tamid psalms Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
eschatology Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
festivals, and tamid service' Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
hippolytus of rome Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
israel, redemption of Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
kingdom of heaven Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
mercy Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
merit of the fathers (zecut avot) Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
mishnah Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 143
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
rabbinic tradition/literature, midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
romanos Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 143
sacrifice, tamid Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 143
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 243
tamid service, prayers in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
tamid service, rituals outside jerusalem Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
tamid service, significance Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
tamid tractate, in talmud Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 22
temple Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 65
yose ben yose Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 143