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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1162
Anon., Letter Of Aristeas, 308


nanWhen the work was completed, Demetrius collected together the Jewish population in the place where the translation had been made, and read it over to all, in the presence of the translators, who met with a great reception also from the people, because of the great benefits which they had


nanWhen the work was completed, Demetrius collected together the Jewish population in the place where the translation had been made, and read it over to all, in the presence of the translators, who met with a great reception also from the people, because of the great benefits which they had 309 conferred upon them. They bestowed warm praise upon Demetrius, too, and urged him to have the whole law transcribed and present a copy to their leaders. 310 After the books had been read, the priests and the elders of the translators and the Jewish community and the leaders of the people stood up and said, that since so excellent and sacred and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was and no 311 alteration should be made in it. And when the whole company expressed their approval, they bade them pronounce a curse in accordance with their custom upon any one who should make any alteration either by adding anything or changing in any way whatever any of the words which had been written or making any omission. This was a very wise precaution to ensure that the book might be preserved for all the future time unchanged. 312 When the matter was reported to the king, he rejoiced greatly, for he felt that the design which he had formed had been safely carried out. The whole book was read over to him and he was greatly astonished at the spirit of the lawgiver. And he said to Demetrius, 'How is it that none of the historians or the poets have ever thought it worth their while to allude to such a wonderful 313 achievement?' And he replied, 'Because the law is sacred and of divine origin. And some of those who formed the intention of dealing with it have been smitten by God and therefore desisted from their purpose.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 18.1-18.8 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Baruch, 1.2, 1.15-3.8, 3.9-4.4 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.3-24.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 35.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.16. וַיִּסְעוּ מִבֵּית אֵל וַיְהִי־עוֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ לָבוֹא אֶפְרָתָה וַתֵּלֶד רָחֵל וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ׃ 35.16. And they journeyed from Beth-el; and there was still some way to come to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading."
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 8.20, 14.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.20. Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends. 14.20. This is a copy of the letter which the Spartans sent: "The rulers and the city of the Spartans to Simon the high priest and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our brethren, greeting.
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 11.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.16. The letter written to the Jews by Lysias was to this effect:'Lysias to the people of the Jews, greeting.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 35-36, 34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 35-36, 34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.34-2.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.34. So when they had won his approval, they immediately began to fulfil the objects for which that honourable embassy had been sent; and considering among themselves how important the affair was, to translate laws which had been divinely given by direct inspiration, since they were not able either to take away anything, or to add anything, or to alter anything, but were bound to preserve the original form and character of the whole composition, they looked out for the most completely purified place of all the spots on the outside of the city. For the places within the walls, as being filled with all kinds of animals, were held in suspicion by them by reason of the diseases and deaths of some, and the accursed actions of those who were in health. 2.35. The island of Pharos lies in front of Alexandria, the neck of which runs out like a sort of tongue towards the city, being surrounded with water of no great depth, but chiefly with shoals and shallow water, so that the great noise and roaring from the beating of the waves is kept at a considerable distance, and so mitigated. 2.36. They judged this place to be the most suitable of all the spots in the neighbourhood for them to enjoy quiet and tranquillity in, so that they might associate with the laws alone in their minds; and there they remained, and having taken the sacred scriptures, they lifted up them and their hands also to heaven, entreating of God that they might not fail in their object. And he assented to their prayers, that the greater part, or indeed the universal race of mankind might be benefited, by using these philosophical and entirely beautiful commandments for the correction of their lives. 2.37. Therefore, being settled in a secret place, and nothing even being present with them except the elements of nature, the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven, concerning the creation of which they were going in the first place to explain the sacred account; for the account of the creation of the world is the beginning of the law; they, like men inspired, prophesied, not one saying one thing and another another, but every one of them employed the self-same nouns and verbs, as if some unseen prompter had suggested all their language to them. 2.38. And yet who is there who does not know that every language, and the Greek language above all others, is rich in a variety of words, and that it is possible to vary a sentence and to paraphrase the same idea, so as to set it forth in a great variety of manners, adapting many different forms of expression to it at different times. But this, they say, did not happen at all in the case of this translation of the law, but that, in every case, exactly corresponding Greek words were employed to translate literally the appropriate Chaldaic words, being adapted with exceeding propriety to the matters which were to be explained; 2.39. for just as I suppose the things which are proved in geometry and logic do not admit any variety of explanation, but the proposition which was set forth from the beginning remains unaltered, in like manner I conceive did these men find words precisely and literally corresponding to the things, which words were alone, or in the greatest possible degree, destined to explain with clearness and force the matters which it was desired to reveal. 2.40. And there is a very evident proof of this; for if Chaldaeans were to learn the Greek language, and if Greeks were to learn Chaldaean, and if each were to meet with those scriptures in both languages, namely, the Chaldaic and the translated version, they would admire and reverence them both as sisters, or rather as one and the same both in their facts and in their language; considering these translators not mere interpreters but hierophants and prophets to whom it had been granted it their honest and guileless minds to go along with the most pure spirit of Moses. 2.41. On which account, even to this very day, there is every year a solemn assembly held and a festival celebrated in the island of Pharos, to which not only the Jews but a great number of persons of other nations sail across, reverencing the place in which the first light of interpretation shone forth, and thanking God for that ancient piece of beneficence which was always young and fresh. 2.42. And after the prayers and the giving of thanks some of them pitched their tents on the shore, and some of them lay down without any tents in the open air on the sand of the shore, and feasted with their relations and friends, thinking the shore at that time a more beautiful abode than the furniture of the king's palace. 2.43. In this way those admirable, and incomparable, and most desirable laws were made known to all people, whether private individuals or kings, and this too at a period when the nation had not been prosperous for a long time. And it is generally the case that a cloud is thrown over the affairs of those who are not flourishing, so that but little is known of them;
13. Strabo, Geography, 17.1.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.1.8. The shape of the site of the city is that of a chlamys or military cloak. The sides, which determine the length, are surrounded by water, and are about thirty stadia in extent; but the isthmuses, which determine the breadth of the sides, are each of seven or eight stadia, bounded on one side by the sea, and on the other by the lake. The whole city is intersected by roads for the passage of horsemen and chariots. Two of these are very broad, exceeding a plethrum in breadth, and cut one another at right angles. It contains also very beautiful public grounds and royal palaces, which occupy a fourth or even a third part of its whole extent. For as each of the kings was desirous of adding some embellishment to the places dedicated to the public use, so, besides the buildings already existing, each of them erected a building at his own expense; hence the expression of the poet may be here applied, one after the other springs. All the buildings are connected with one another and with the harbour, and those also which are beyond it.The Museum is a part of the palaces. It has a public walk and a place furnished with seats, and a large hall, in which the men of learning, who belong to the Museum, take their common meal. This community possesses also property in common; and a priest, formerly appointed by the kings, but at present by Caesar, presides over the Museum.A part belonging to the palaces consists of that called Sema, an enclosure, which contained the tombs of the kings and that of Alexander (the Great). For Ptolemy the son of Lagus took away the body of Alexander from Perdiccas, as he was conveying it down from Babylon; for Perdiccas had turned out of his road towards Egypt, incited by ambition and a desire of making himself master of the country. When Ptolemy had attacked [and made him prisoner], he intended to [spare his life and] confine him in a desert island, but he met with a miserable end at the hand of his own soldiers, who rushed upon and despatched him by transfixing him with the long Macedonian spears. The kings who were with him, Aridaeus, and the children of Alexander, and Roxana his wife, departed to Macedonia. Ptolemy carried away the body of Alexander, and deposited it at Alexandreia in the place where it now lies; not indeed in the same coffin, for the present one is of hyalus (alabaster ?) whereas Ptolemy had deposited it in one of gold: it was plundered by Ptolemy surnamed Cocce's son and Pareisactus, who came from Syria and was quickly deposed, so that his plunder was of no service to him.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.103, 12.107-12.108, 13.67 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.103. Accordingly, when three days were over, Demetrius took them, and went over the causeway seven furlongs long: it was a bank in the sea to an island. And when they had gone over the bridge, he proceeded to the northern parts, and showed them where they should meet, which was in a house that was built near the shore, and was a quiet place, and fit for their discoursing together about their work. 12.107. Now when the law was transcribed, and the labor of interpretation was over, which came to its conclusion in seventy-two days, Demetrius gathered all the Jews together to the place where the laws were translated, and where the interpreters were, and read them over. 12.108. The multitude did also approve of those elders that were the interpreters of the law. They withal commended Demetrius for his proposal, as the inventor of what was greatly for their happiness; and they desired that he would give leave to their rulers also to read the law. Moreover, they all, both the priest and the ancientest of the elders, and the principal men of their commonwealth, made it their request, that since the interpretation was happily finished, it might continue in the state it now was, and might not be altered. 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages;
15. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.49. and as for Ptolemy Philometor and his wife Cleopatra, they committed their whole kingdom to Jews, when Onias and Dositheus, both Jews, whose names are laughed at by Apion, were the generals of their whole army; but certainly instead of reproaching them, he ought to admire their actions, and return them thanks for saving Alexandria, whose citizen he pretends to be;
16. New Testament, Acts, 6.2, 13.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak.
17. New Testament, Luke, 4.20-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.
18. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. בנס היו עומדין,אין מהוה הוו ולא הוו ידעי הי באמצע תיבה והי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים ותקינו פתוחין באמצע תיבה וסתומין בסוף תיבה,סוף סוף אלה המצות שאין נביא עתיד לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,וא"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו מפי ר' אליעזר ור' יהושע תרגום של נביאים יונתן בן עוזיאל אמרו מפי חגי זכריה ומלאכי ונזדעזעה ארץ ישראל ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה יצתה בת קול ואמרה מי הוא זה שגילה סתריי לבני אדם,עמד יונתן בן עוזיאל על רגליו ואמר אני הוא שגליתי סתריך לבני אדם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא אלא לכבודך עשיתי שלא ירבו מחלוקת בישראל,ועוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו דייך מ"ט משום דאית ביה קץ משיח,ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו והא אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום,ושום שכל אלו הפסוקין ויבינו במקרא אלו פיסקי טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורת שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,מאי שנא דאורייתא דלא אזדעזעה ואדנביאי אזדעזעה דאורייתא מיפרשא מלתא דנביאי איכא מילי דמיפרשן ואיכא מילי דמסתמן דכתיב (זכריה יב, יא) ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון בבקעת מגידון,ואמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא ידענא מאי קאמר ביומא ההוא יסגי מספדא בירושלים כמספדא דאחאב בר עמרי דקטל יתיה הדדרימון בן טברימון ברמות גלעד וכמספדא דיאשיה בר אמון דקטל יתיה פרעה חגירא בבקעת מגידו,(דניאל י, ז) וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה אבל חרדה גדולה נפלה עליהם ויברחו בהחבא מאן נינהו אנשים אמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא זה חגי זכריה ומלאכי,אינהו עדיפי מיניה ואיהו עדיף מינייהו אינהו עדיפי מיניה דאינהו נביאי ואיהו לאו נביא איהו עדיף מינייהו דאיהו חזא ואינהו לא חזו,וכי מאחר דלא חזו מ"ט איבעיתו אע"ג דאינהו לא חזו מזלייהו חזו,אמר רבינא שמע מינה האי מאן דמיבעית אע"ג דאיהו לא חזי מזליה חזי מאי תקנתיה ליקרי ק"ש ואי קאים במקום הטנופת לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע גרמידי ואי לא לימא הכי עיזא דבי טבחי שמינא מינאי:,והשתא דאמרת מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר לדרשה משפחה ומשפחה למאי אתא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא להביא משפחות כהונה ולויה שמבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,תניא נמי הכי כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה מכאן סמכו של בית רבי שמבטלין תלמוד תורה ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה קל וחומר מעבודה ומה עבודה שהיא חמורה מבטלינן תלמוד תורה לא כל שכן,ועבודה חמורה מתלמוד תורה והכתיב (יהושע ה, יג) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא והנה איש עומד לנגדו [וגו'] וישתחו (לאפיו),והיכי עביד הכי והאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בלילה חיישינן שמא שד הוא שאני התם דאמר ליה כי אני שר צבא ה',ודלמא משקרי גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלה,אמר לו אמש בטלתם תמיד של בין הערבים ועכשיו בטלתם תלמוד תורה אמר לו על איזה מהן באת אמר לו עתה באתי מיד (יהושע ח, ט) וילן יהושע בלילה ההוא בתוך העמק אמר רבי יוחנן 3a. bstood by way of a miracle? /b,The Gemara answers: bYes,two forms of these letters bdid existat that time, bbutthe people bdid not know whichone of them was to be used bin the middle of the word and which at the end of the word, and the Seers came and establishedthat bthe openforms are to used be bin the middle of the word and the closedforms bat the end of the word. /b,The Gemara asks: bUltimately,however, doesn’t the phrase b“these are the commandments”(Leviticus 27:34) indicate bthat a prophet is not permitted to initiate any matterof ihalakha bfrom now on? Rather,it may be suggested that the final letters already existed at the time of the giving of the Torah, but over the course of time the people bforgot them,and the prophets bthencame and breestablished them. /b,§ The Gemara cites another ruling of Rabbi Yirmeya or Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bTheAramaic btranslation of the Torahused in the synagogues bwas composed by Onkelos the convert based onthe teachings of bRabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. TheAramaic btranslation of the Prophets was composed by Yonatan ben Uzziel based ona tradition going back to the last prophets, bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.The Gemara relates that when Yonatan ben Uzziel wrote his translation, bEretz Yisrael quakedover an area of bfour hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs,and ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Who is this who has revealed My secrets to mankind? /b, bYonatan ben Uzziel stood up on his feet and said: I am the one who has revealed Your secrets to mankindthrough my translation. However, bit is revealed and known to You that I did this not for myown bhonor, and not for the honor of the house ofmy bfather, but ratherit was bfor Your honorthat bI did this, so that discord not increase among the Jewish people.In the absence of an accepted translation, people will disagree about the meaning of obscure verses, but with a translation, the meaning will be clear., bAndYonatan ben Uzziel balso sought to reveal a translation of the Writings,but ba Divine Voice emerged and said to him: It is enough for youthat you translated the Prophets. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat he was denied permission to translate the Writings? bBecause it has in ita revelation of bthe end,when the bMessiahwill arrive. The end is foretold in a cryptic manner in the book of Daniel, and were the book of Daniel translated, the end would become manifestly revealed to all.,The Gemara asks: bWas the translation of the Torahreally bcomposed by Onkelos the convert? Didn’t Rav Ika bar Avin saythat bRav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenwith respect to the days of Ezra: b“And they read in the book, the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and they caused them to understand the reading”(Nehemiah 8:8)? The verse should be understood as follows: b“And they read in the book, the Torah of God,” this is thescriptural btext; “distinctly,” this is the translation,indicating that they immediately translated the text into Aramaic, as was customary during public Torah readings., b“And they gave the sense,” these arethe divisions of the text into separate bverses. “And they caused them to understand the reading,” these are the cantillation notes,through which the meaning of the text is further clarified. bAnd some saythat bthese are theMasoretic btraditionswith regard to the manner in which each word is to be written. This indicates that the Aramaic translation already existed at the beginning of the Second Temple period, well before the time of Onkelos. The Gemara answers: bTheancient Aramaic translation bwas forgotten and thenOnkelos came and breestablished it. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout the translation of Prophets? Why is it that when Onkelos revealed the translation bof the Torah,Eretz Yisrael bdid not quake, andwhen he revealed the translation bof the Prophets, it quaked?The Gemara explains: bThemeaning of bmattersdiscussed bin the Torah is clear,and therefore its Aramaic translation did not reveal the meaning of passages that had not been understood previously. Conversely, in bthe Prophets, there are matters that are clear and there are matters that are obscure,and the Aramaic translation revealed the meaning of obscure passages. The Gemara cites an example of an obscure verse that is clarified by the Aramaic translation: bAs it is written: “On that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon”(Zechariah 12:11)., bAndwith regard to that verse, bRav Yosef said: Were it not for theAramaic btranslation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying,as the Bible does not mention any incident involving Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. The Aramaic translation reads as follows: bOn that day, the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning for Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tavrimon, in Ramoth-Gilead, and like the mourning for Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon.The translation clarifies that the verse is referring to two separate incidents of mourning, and thereby clarifies the meaning of this verse.,§ The Gemara introduces another statement from the same line of tradition. The verse states: b“And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves”(Daniel 10:7). bWho were these men?The term “men” in the Bible indicates important people; who were they? bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThese arethe prophets bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. /b,The Gemara comments: In certain ways bthey,the prophets, bwere greater than him,Daniel, and in certain ways bhe,Daniel, bwas greater than them. They were greater than him, as they were prophets and he was not a prophet.Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were sent to convey the word of God to the Jewish people, while Daniel was not sent to reveal his visions to others. In another way, however, bhe was greater than them, as he sawthis vision, band they did not seethis vision, indicating that his ability to perceive obscure and cryptic visions was greater than theirs.,The Gemara asks: bSince they did not seethe vision, bwhat is the reason that they were frightened?The Gemara answers: bEven though they did not seethe vision, btheir guardian angels sawit, and therefore they sensed that there was something fearful there and they fled., bRavina said: Learn fromthis incident that with regard to bone who is frightenedfor no apparent reason, balthough he does not seeanything menacing, bhis guardian angel seesit, and therefore he should take steps in order to escape the danger. The Gemara asks: bWhat is his remedy? He should recite iShema /i,which will afford him protection. bAnd if he is standing in a place of filth,where it is prohibited to recite verses from the Torah, bhe should distance himself four cubits from hiscurrent blocationin order to escape the danger. bAnd ifhe is bnotable to do so, blet him say the followingincantation: bThe goat of the slaughterhouse is fatter than I am,and if a calamity must fall upon something, it should fall upon it.,§ After this digression, the Gemara returns to the exposition of a verse cited above. bNowthat byou have saidthat the phrases b“every province” and “every city”appear bforthe purposes of midrashic bexposition, for whatexposition do the words b“every family”appear in that same verse (Esther 9:28)? bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said:These words come bto include the priestly and Levitical families,and indicate bthat they cancel their servicein the Temple band come to hear the reading of the Megilla. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The priests at theirTemple bservice, the Levites on their platformin the Temple, where they sung the daily psalm, band the Israelites at their watches,i.e., the group of Israelites, corresponding to the priestly watches, who would come to Jerusalem and gather in other locations as representatives of the entire nation to observe or pray for the success of the Temple service, ball cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe priests at their service, the Levites on the platform, and the Israelites at their watches, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.The Sages of bthe house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi breliedupon the ihalakhastated bhereand determined bthat one cancels his Torah study and comes to hear the reading of the Megilla.They derived this principle by means of ban ia fortiori /iinference bfrom theTemple bservice: Just asone who is engaged in performing bservicein the Temple, bwhich isvery bimportant, cancelshis service in order to hear the Megilla, is it bnot all the more soobvious that one who is engaged in bTorah studycancels his study to hear the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: bIs theTemple bservice more important than Torah study? Isn’t it written: “And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood over against himwith his sword drawn in his hand. And Joshua went over to him and said to him: Are you for us, or for our adversaries? And he said, No, but I am captain of the host of the Lord, I have come now. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, band bowed down”(Joshua 5:13–14).,The Gemara first seeks to clarify the incident described in the verse. bHow didJoshua bdo this,i.e., how could he bow to a figure he did not recognize? bDidn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: It is prohibited for a person to greet his fellow at nightif he does not recognize him, as bwe are concerned that perhaps it is a demon?How did Joshua know that it was not a demon? The Gemara answers: bThere it was different, asthe visitor bsaid to him: But I am captain of the host of the Lord. /b,The Gemara asks: bPerhapsthis was a demon band he lied?The Gemara answers: It bis learnedas a tradition that demons bdo not utter the name of Heaven for naught,and therefore since the visitor had mentioned the name of God, Joshua was certain that this was indeed an angel.,As for the angel’s mission, the Gemara explains that the angel bsaid toJoshua: bYesterday,i.e., during the afternoon, byou neglected the afternoon daily offeringdue to the impending battle, band now,at night, byou have neglected Torah study,and I have come to rebuke you. Joshua bsaid to him: For which of thesesins bhave you come? He said to him: I have come now,indicating that neglecting Torah study is more severe than neglecting to sacrifice the daily offering. Joshua bimmediatelydetermined to rectify the matter, as the verses states: b“And Joshua lodged that night”(Joshua 8:9) b“in the midst of the valley[iha’emek/b]” (Joshua 8:13), and bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
19. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.38 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, None

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning
21. Epigraphy, Cij, 1440



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(great) library of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 59, 201, 238
abaton Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
acts, synagogues, synagogues, sermons Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
administration/administrative Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 242, 439, 443, 449, 451
alexandrian, community (jewish) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
allegorical interpretation/allegory Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
antioch-of-pisidia, synagogue, synagogue, and paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
aristeas, letter of on exodus from egypt Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 119
aristeas (narrator) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72, 168
baruch Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
ben sira/sirach Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 242
cemetery (tell el-yahoudieh) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 242
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 211
christian/christianity Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
citizens Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 451
city of alexandria, canopic road Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 58
city of alexandria, great lighthouse Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 57
city of alexandria, heptastadium Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 56, 58
city of alexandria, island of pharos Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 56, 57, 58, 59
city of alexandria, royal quarters Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 58
cleopatra ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
cleopatra iii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
commemoration Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
community/communities (jewish), alexandria Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
community/communities (jewish), egyptian-jewish Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
community/communities (jewish), jewish-christian Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
community/communities (jewish) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
community rule (serekh hayaḥad 1qs) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
culture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439
demetrius of phalerum Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 56, 57, 59, 201, 238; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 242, 439, 441, 443
deputation to eleazar Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
digressions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
diodorus siculus Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 58
dreams Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 441
egypt Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
elders and synagogue, and amidah, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
eleazar, high priest Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 168, 242, 439, 443
elissaios, translator Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 451
emendation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
environment, cultural Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
epigraphy (inscriptions) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
epilogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ethnic boundaries/identity/markers Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
eusebius of caesarea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 441
exile Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
exodus paradigm Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ezra Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 443
festivals/feasts Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 451
food/dietary laws Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 242
food laws, explanation of, in letter of aristeas Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 119
formula valetudinis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
frame narrative/story Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
funerary epitaphs Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
gentiles Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
gifts, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 168
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72, 441, 443
greek, culture/religion Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
greek, literature/sources Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 439, 443
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165, 183; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 72, 439, 443, 451
ha-rabim (the many) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
hebrew, text, parent/source Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439
hebrew Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439, 443
hellenism/hellenistic culture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
hellenism/hellenistic period, culture Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
heracleopolis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439
homeric scholarship/exegesis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 242
identity, construction of Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
identity, jewish/ethnic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
identity emergence, jewish Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
instruction, school, education Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146, 157
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 242
isis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
islam Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165
jeremiah Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
jerusalem, as imagined in the letter of aristeas Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 56
jerusalem Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 439, 443
jewish antiquities Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
jews, distinctiveness of, in egypt Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 119
jews, harmonious existence in egypt with gentiles Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 119
jews in alexandria, jewish district/delta quarter Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 59
jews in alexandria, politeuma/πολίτευμα Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 58, 201, 238
josephus Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 57; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 441, 449
judaeans, of alexandria Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
judaism, alexandrian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72, 439, 451
judeans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439, 441, 443, 449
justice Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72, 168, 441
kingship Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 242, 439, 443, 449
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
legislation, jewish/moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 441
legislator/lawgiver Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 441
letter of aristeas, adaption of exodus story in the Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
letter of aristeas, translation of the hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
letter of aristeas Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165, 183; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146, 157
loyal/loyalty Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
luke, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
luke, sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
military Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
moses, authority of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
moses Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 183; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439, 443, 451
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 439
narrator (aristeas, gentile) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72
nazareth, jesus in synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
nomos, law of the judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
offering Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
onias Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
onias community, organization of Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
onias community Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
papyri Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168, 449
petition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
philae Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
philo, descriptions of the city of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 57
philo of alexandria Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165, 183; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449, 451
physis, as natural law Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
piety Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439
pisidia, christians, sermons Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
polis Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
politarch Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
politeia, of judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
politeia/citizenship Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
politeuma' Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
politeuma/politeumata Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 441, 449, 451
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
prayer, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
priesthood, judaean Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
priests, egyptian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
priests, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 441, 443, 449, 451
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
proseuche (prayer house) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 72, 439, 443, 449, 451
psalms Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
pseudo-aristeas, and septuagint Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
ptolemaic, egypt Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 449
ptolemaic, period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
ptolemaic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 195
ptolemaic egypt, cultural funding Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
ptolemaios ii Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
ptolemy i Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 59
ptolemy ii Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 56, 59, 238
ptolemy ii philadelphus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 72, 168, 443, 449
ptolemy philadelphus, septuagint Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
ptolemy vi philometer Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168, 449
ptolemy viii euergetes ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
qumran, jewish norms Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
reading, high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
reading Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 242, 443
rhetor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
ring composition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ritual, washing Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
rome, therapeutae Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
sabbath, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146, 157
sacred scripture/s Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439
sacrifice/offering Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 168
sanctity, torah, torah shrine Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
sanctuary Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
scripture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439
separation, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
separation of men and women, therapeutae sanctuary Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
septuagint, acceptance in the jewish community Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
septuagint, in church fathers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, initiative for translation of hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
septuagint, origen Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, pentateuch, official exemplar Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, pentateuch Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, readings and massoretic text Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, transmission Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint, use in worship Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 140
septuagint/lxx, equivalent of/replacement for hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 439
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72, 439, 449
septuagint Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 238
sermon (derashah), homily, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146, 157
sermon (derashah), homily, jesus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
sermon (derashah), homily, paul Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
sermon (derashah), homily, sabbath and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165
strabo Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 58
superiority, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55
synagoge Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
targum, and torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
temple, jewish, water system Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
temple, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 443
temple Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31; Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
theodektes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 441
theopompus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 441
therapeutae, sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
therapeutae, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 157
tiberias synagogues/proseuchai, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 146
time, mythic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
time, translational Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 31
torah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 165, 183; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
translation, literal Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
translation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 168, 242, 439, 441, 443, 449, 451
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 72, 168, 242, 439, 441, 443, 449, 451
travelogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
values, moral Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 72
washing, judean ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
yahwism, scriptures Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 201