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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1162
Anon., Letter Of Aristeas, 30


nanand I now have the following proposal to lay before you. The books of the law of the Jews (with some few others) are absent from the library. They are written in the Hebrew characters and language and have been carelessly interpreted, and do not represent the original text as I am


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 1.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. And the people of Israel who were present at that time kept the passover and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.6, 3.10, 4.3, 4.16, 8.3, 8.5, 8.9, 8.12, 8.16-8.17, 9.6, 9.10, 9.13-9.15, 9.22, 10.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 8.3. וַתּוֹסֶף אֶסְתֵּר וַתְּדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתִּפֹּל לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו וַתֵּבְךְּ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־לוֹ לְהַעֲבִיר אֶת־רָעַת הָמָן הָאֲגָגִי וְאֵת מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 8.5. וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב וְאִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן לְפָנָיו וְכָשֵׁר הַדָּבָר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְטוֹבָה אֲנִי בְּעֵינָיו יִכָּתֵב לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־הַסְּפָרִים מַחֲשֶׁבֶת הָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לְאַבֵּד אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 8.12. בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר׃ 8.16. לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃ 8.17. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וּבְכָל־עִיר וָעִיר מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וְרַבִּים מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מִתְיַהֲדִים כִּי־נָפַל פַּחַד־הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.6. וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 9.15. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 9.22. כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאוֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים׃ 10.3. כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וְגָדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו דֹּרֵשׁ טוֹב לְעַמּוֹ וְדֹבֵר שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־זַרְעוֹ׃ 4.3. And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 8.3. And Esther spoke yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews." 8.5. And she said: ‘If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Jews that are in all the king’s provinces;" 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language." 8.12. upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar." 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour." 8.17. And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, the Jews had gladness and joy, a feast and a good day. And many from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen upon them." 9.6. And in Shushan the castle the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men." 9.10. the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Jews’enemy, slew they; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons." 9.15. And the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.22. the days wherein the Jews had rest from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to gladness, and from mourning into a good day; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor." 10.3. For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren; seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his seed."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 119.126 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

119.126. עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַיהוָה הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃ 119.126. It is time for the LORD to work; They have made void Thy law."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 5.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.1. וְאַף שְׁמָהָתְהֹם שְׁאֵלְנָא לְּהֹם לְהוֹדָעוּתָךְ דִּי נִכְתֻּב שֻׁם־גֻּבְרַיָּא דִּי בְרָאשֵׁיהֹם׃ 5.1. וְהִתְנַבִּי חַגַּי נביאה [נְבִיָּא] וּזְכַרְיָה בַר־עִדּוֹא נביאיא [נְבִיַּיָּא] עַל־יְהוּדָיֵא דִּי בִיהוּד וּבִירוּשְׁלֶם בְּשֻׁם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהוֹן׃ 5.1. Now the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem; in the name of the God of Israel prophesied they unto them."
8. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying:
9. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.2, 10.51, 11.9, 13.14, 14.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.2. to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides. 10.51. Then Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemy king of Egypt with the following message: 11.9. He sent envoys to Demetrius the king, saying, "Come, let us make a covet with each other, and I will give you in marriage my daughter who was Alexanders wife, and you shall reign over your fathers kingdom. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise
10. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.7, 1.10, 3.32, 4.11, 4.36, 5.25, 6.1, 6.6, 6.8, 9.4, 9.7, 9.15, 9.18, 10.8, 11.15, 12.1, 12.8, 12.40 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom' 1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.' 3.32. And the high priest, fearing that the king might get the notion that some foul play had been perpetrated by the Jews with regard to Heliodorus, offered sacrifice for the man's recovery.' 4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.' 4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.' 5.25. When this man arrived in Jerusalem, he pretended to be peaceably disposed and waited until the holy sabbath day; then, finding the Jews not at work, he ordered his men to parade under arms.' 6.1. Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,' 6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.' 6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,' 9.4. Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.' 9.7. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.' 9.15. and the Jews, whom he had not considered worth burying but had planned to throw out with their children to the beasts, for the birds to pick, he would make, all of them, equal to citizens of Athens;' 9.18. But when his sufferings did not in any way abate, for the judgment of God had justly come upon him, he gave up all hope for himself and wrote to the Jews the following letter, in the form of a supplication. This was its content:' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 11.15. Maccabeus, having regard for the common good, agreed to all that Lysias urged. For the king granted every request in behalf of the Jews which Maccabeus delivered to Lysias in writing.' 12.1. When this agreement had been reached, Lysias returned to the king, and the Jews went about their farming.' 12.8. But learning that the men in Jamnia meant in the same way to wipe out the Jews who were living among them,' 12.40. Then under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen.'
11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.6. Before I begin to torture you, old man, I would advise you to save yourself by eating pork
13. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.8, 3.3, 3.27, 4.17, 4.21, 5.6, 5.18, 5.25, 5.30, 5.42, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. Since the Jews had sent some of their council and elders to greet him, to bring him gifts of welcome, and to congratulate him on what had happened, he was all the more eager to visit them as soon as possible. 3.3. The Jews, however, continued to maintain good will and unswerving loyalty toward the dynasty; 3.3. The letter was written in the above form. 3.27. But whoever shelters any of the Jews, old people or children or even infants, will be tortured to death with the most hateful torments, together with his family. 4.17. But after the previously mentioned interval of time the scribes declared to the king that they were no longer able to take the census of the Jews because of their innumerable multitude 4.21. But this was an act of the invincible providence of him who was aiding the Jews from heaven. 5.6. For to the Gentiles it appeared that the Jews were left without any aid 5.18. After the party had been going on for some time, the king summoned Hermon and with sharp threats demanded to know why the Jews had been allowed to remain alive through the present day. 5.25. But the Jews, at their last gasp, since the time had run out, stretched their hands toward heaven and with most tearful supplication and mournful dirges implored the supreme God to help them again at once. 5.42. Upon this the king, a Phalaris in everything and filled with madness, took no account of the changes of mind which had come about within him for the protection of the Jews, and he firmly swore an irrevocable oath that he would send them to death without delay, mangled by the knees and feet of the beasts 6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews.
14. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 18.56.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18.56.4.  Moreover, we restore those who have been driven out or exiled from the cities by our generals from the time when Alexander crossed into Asia; and we decree that those who are restored by us, in full possession of their property, undisturbed by faction, and enjoying a complete amnesty, shall exercise their rights as citizens in their native states; and if any measures have been passed to their disadvantage, let such measures be void, except as concerning those who had been exiled for blood guilt or impiety in accordance with the law.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. and a very long time before him Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews, had said in his sacred volumes that the world was both created and indestructible, and the number of the books is five. The first of which he entitled Genesis, in which he begins in the following manner: "in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth; and the earth was invisible and without form." Then proceeding onwards he relates in the following verses, that days and nights, and seasons, and years, and the sun and moon, which showed the nature of the measurement of time, were created, which, having received an immortal portion in common with the whole heaven, continue for ever indestructible.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

166. And the cause of this is not merely labour, but also the sweetness with which it is combined; for the scripture says, "And the water was made sweet." But sweet and pleasant labour is called by another name, fondness for labour; for that which is sweet in labour is the love of, and desire for, and admiration of, and friendship for, what is honourable.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 212, 21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. therefore, the contributions for the most excellent object are the desire of virtue, the imitation of good men, continued care, laborious practice, incessant and unwearied labours; the contributions for the opposite object are relaxation, indifference, luxury, effeminacy, and a complete desertion of what is right.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. This is enough to say on this part of the subject. Accordingly, the young man, having been conducted into Egypt, and there, as has already been stated, having become the slave of a eunuch, gave in a few days such proofs of virtue and excellence of disposition, that he had authority over his fellow servants given to him, and the management of the whole household committed to his charge; for already his master had learnt by many circumstances to perceive that his servant in all his words and in all his actions was under the immediate direction of divine providence.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 101, 107, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. And Jacob's brother, he says, was Jubal, and the interpretation of this latter name is "inclining," being symbolically speech according to utterance; for this is naturally the brother of intellect; and it is with extraordinary propriety that he called the conversation of that intellect which changes affairs, "inclining," for it agrees after a fashion and harmonizes with both, as the equivalent weight does in a scale, or as a vessel which is tossed by the sea inclines first to one side and then to the other, from the violence of the waves; for the foolish man has not learnt how to say anything firm or stable.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.142, 1.321, 4.134, 4.149, 4.157, 4.215 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.142. from all which circumstances it is plain that the law invests the priests with the dignity and honour that belongs to kings; since he commands contributions from every description of possession to be given to them as to rulers; 1.321. for envy is never found in conjunction with virtue. Let men who do injurious things be put to shame, and seeking hiding places and recesses in the earth, and deep darkness, hide themselves, concealing their lawless iniquity from sight, so that no one may behold it. But to those who do such things as are for the common advantage, let there be freedom of speech, and let them go by day through the middle of the market place where they will meet with the most numerous crowds, to display their own manner of life in the pure sun, and to do good to the assembled multitudes by means of the principal of the outward senses, giving them to see those things the sight of which is most delightful and most impressive, and hearing and feasting upon salutary speeches which are accustomed to delight the minds even of those men who are not utterly illiterate. 4.134. And I mean by this those virtues which are of common utility, for each one of these ten laws separately, and all of them together, train men and encourage them to prudence, and justice, and piety, towards God and all the rest of the company of virtues, connecting sound words with good intentions, and virtuous actions with wise language, that so the organ of the soul may be wholly and entirely held together in a good and harmonious manner so as to produce a well-regulated and faultless innocence and consistency of life. 4.149. There is also this commandment ordained which is of great common utility, that, "Thou shalt not move thy neighbours' landmarks which the former men have set Up."{35}{deuteronomy 19:14.} And this injunction is given, as it seems, not only with respect to inheritances, and to the boundaries of the land, in order to prohibit covetousness respecting them, but also as a guard to ancient customs; for customs are unwritten laws, being the doctrines of men of old, not engraved on pillars or written on paper which may be eaten by moths, but impressed in the souls of those living under the same constitution. 4.157. The all-wise Moses seeing this by the power of his own soul, makes no mention of any authority being assigned by lot, but he has chosen to direct that all offices shall be elected to; therefore he says, "Thou shalt not appoint a stranger to be a ruler over thee, but one of thine own Brethren,"{37}{#de 17:15.} implying that the appointment is to be a voluntary choice, and an irreproachable selection of a ruler, whom the whole multitude with one accord shall choose; and God himself will add his vote on favour of, and set his seal to ratify such an election, that being who is the confirmer of all advantageous things, looking upon the man so chosen as the flower of his race, just as the sight is the best thing in the body.XXXI. 4.215. But you seem rashly to forget those precepts of general advantage which I enjoined you to observe. For, at all events, if you had recollected the commandment concerning the seventh year, in which I commanded you to allow the land to remain fallow and sacred, without being exhausted by any agricultural operation of any kind, by reason of the labours which it has been going through for the six preceding years, and which is has undergone, producing its crops at the appointed seasons of the year in accordance with the ordices of nature; you would not now be introducing innovations, and giving vent to all your covetous desires, be seeking for unprecedented crops, sowing a land fit for the growth of trees, and especially one planted with vines, in order by two crops every year, both being founded in iniquity, to increase your substance out of undue avarice, amassing money by lawless desires.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.1, 1.7, 1.67, 1.132, 1.162, 2.2-2.3, 2.5-2.6, 2.25-2.28, 2.31-2.32, 2.35, 2.37-2.40, 2.47, 2.51, 2.58, 2.154, 2.200, 2.261, 2.278, 2.290 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. I have conceived the idea of writing the life of Moses, who, according to the account of some persons, was the lawgiver of the Jews, but according to others only an interpreter of the sacred laws, the greatest and most perfect man that ever lived, having a desire to make his character fully known to those who ought not to remain in ignorance respecting him 1.7. And his father and mother were among the most excellent persons of their time, and though they were of the same time, still they were induced to unite themselves together more from an uimity of feeling than because they were related in blood; and Moses is the seventh generation in succession from the original settler in the country who was the founder of the whole race of the Jews. 1.67. For the burning bush was a symbol of the oppressed people, and the burning fire was a symbol of the oppressors; and the circumstance of the burning bush not being consumed was an emblem of the fact that the people thus oppressed would not be destroyed by those who were attacking them, but that their hostility would be unsuccessful and fruitless to the one party, and the fact of their being plotted against would fail to be injurious to the others. The angel, again, was the emblem of the providence of God, who mitigates circumstances which appear very formidable, so as to produce from them great tranquillity beyond the hopes or expectation of any one. 1.132. But at this time its attack was prompted by God, so that its treachery and hostility were redoubled, since it not only displayed all its own natural covetousness, but also all that eagerness which it derived from the divine providence which went it forth, and armed it and excited it to acts of valour against the natives. 1.162. but, perhaps, since Moses was also destined to be the lawgiver of his nation, he was himself long previously, through the providence of God, a living and reasonable law, since that providence appointed him to the lawgiver, when as yet he knew nothing of his appointment. 2.2. For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; 2.3. and it is on these subjects that I have now been constrained to choose to enlarge; for I conceive that all these things have fitly been united in him, inasmuch as in accordance with the providential will of God he was both a king and a lawgiver, and a high priest and a prophet, and because in each office he displayed the most eminent wisdom and virtue. We must now show how it is that every thing is fitly united in him. 2.5. But a king and a lawgiver ought to pay attention not only to human things, but also to divine ones, for the affairs of neither kings nor subjects go on well except by the intervention of divine providence; on which account it was necessary that such a man as Moses should enjoy the first priesthood, in order that he might with perfectly conducted sacrifices, and with a perfect knowledge of the proper way to serve God, entreat for a deliverance from evil and for a participation in good, both for himself and for the people whom he was governing, from the merciful God who listens favourably to prayers. 2.6. But since there is an infinite variety of both human and divine circumstances which are unknown both to king, and lawgiver, and chief priest, for a man is no less a created and mortal being from having all these offices, or because he is clothed with such a vast and boundless inheritance of honour and happiness, he was also of necessity invested with the gift of prophecy, in order that he might through the providence of God learn all those things which he was unable to comprehend by his own reason; for what the mind is unable to attain to, that prophecy masters. 2.25. And that beauty and dignity of the legislation of Moses is honoured not among the Jews only, but also by all other nations, is plain, both from what has been already said and from what I am about to state. 2.26. In olden time the laws were written in the Chaldaean language, and for a long time they remained in the same condition as at first, not changing their language as long as their beauty had not made them known to other nations; 2.27. but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation. 2.28. And since this undertaking was an important one, tending to the general advantage, not only of private persons, but also of rulers, of whom the number was not great, it was entrusted to kings and to the most illustrious of all kings. 2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person. 2.32. And having explained his wishes, and having requested him to pick him out a number of men, of perfect fitness for the task, who should translate the law, the high-priest, as was natural, being greatly pleased, and thinking that the king had only felt the inclination to undertake a work of such a character from having been influenced by the providence of God, considered, and with great care selected the most respectable of the Hebrews whom he had about him, who in addition to their knowledge of their national scriptures, had also been well instructed in Grecian literature, and cheerfully sent them. 2.35. The island of Pharos lies in front of Alexandria, the neck of which runs out like a sort of tongue towards the city, being surrounded with water of no great depth, but chiefly with shoals and shallow water, so that the great noise and roaring from the beating of the waves is kept at a considerable distance, and so mitigated. 2.37. Therefore, being settled in a secret place, and nothing even being present with them except the elements of nature, the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven, concerning the creation of which they were going in the first place to explain the sacred account; for the account of the creation of the world is the beginning of the law; they, like men inspired, prophesied, not one saying one thing and another another, but every one of them employed the self-same nouns and verbs, as if some unseen prompter had suggested all their language to them. 2.38. And yet who is there who does not know that every language, and the Greek language above all others, is rich in a variety of words, and that it is possible to vary a sentence and to paraphrase the same idea, so as to set it forth in a great variety of manners, adapting many different forms of expression to it at different times. But this, they say, did not happen at all in the case of this translation of the law, but that, in every case, exactly corresponding Greek words were employed to translate literally the appropriate Chaldaic words, being adapted with exceeding propriety to the matters which were to be explained; 2.39. for just as I suppose the things which are proved in geometry and logic do not admit any variety of explanation, but the proposition which was set forth from the beginning remains unaltered, in like manner I conceive did these men find words precisely and literally corresponding to the things, which words were alone, or in the greatest possible degree, destined to explain with clearness and force the matters which it was desired to reveal. 2.40. And there is a very evident proof of this; for if Chaldaeans were to learn the Greek language, and if Greeks were to learn Chaldaean, and if each were to meet with those scriptures in both languages, namely, the Chaldaic and the translated version, they would admire and reverence them both as sisters, or rather as one and the same both in their facts and in their language; considering these translators not mere interpreters but hierophants and prophets to whom it had been granted it their honest and guileless minds to go along with the most pure spirit of Moses. 2.47. Again, the historical part may be subdivided into the account of the creation of the world, and the genealogical part. And the genealogical part, or the history of the different families, may be divided into the accounts of the punishment of the wicked, and of the honours bestowed on the just; we must also explain on what account it was that he began his history of the giving of the law with these particulars, and placed the commandments and prohibitions in the second order; 2.51. For both in his commandments and also in his prohibitions he suggests and recommends rather than commands, endeavouring with many prefaces and perorations to suggest the greater part of the precepts that he desires to enforce, desiring rather to allure men to virtue than to drive them to it, and looking upon the foundation and beginning of a city made with hands, which he has made the commencement of his work a commencement beneath the dignity of his laws, looking rather with the most accurate eye of his mind at the importance and beauty of his whole legislative system, and thinking it too excellent and too divine to be limited as it were by any circle of things on earth; and therefore he has related the creation of that great metropolis, the world, thinking his laws the most fruitful image and likeness of the constitution of the whole world. 2.58. But when the whole of that district was thus burnt, inhabitants and all, by the impetuous rush of the heavenly fire, one single man in the country, a sojourner, was preserved by the providence of God because he had never shared in the transgressions of the natives, though sojourners in general were in the habit of adopting the customs of the foreign nations, among which they might be settled, for the sake of their own safety, since, if they despised them, they might be in danger from the inhabitants of the land. And yet this man had not attained to any perfection of wisdom, so as to be thought worthy of such an honour by reason of the perfect excellence of his nature; but he was spared only because he did not join the multitude who were inclined to luxury and effeminacy, and who pursued every kind of pleasure and indulged every kind of appetite, gratifying them abundantly, and inflaming them as one might inflame fire by heaping upon it plenty of rough fuel. 2.154. Then, when they had both come out and held up their hands in front of their head, they, with a pure and holy mind, offered up such prayers as were suitable and becoming for the nation. And while they were still praying a most marvellous prodigy happened; for from out of the inmost shrine, whether it was a portion of the purest possible aether, or whether the air, according to some natural change of the elements, had become dissolved with fire, on a sudden a body of flame shone forth, and with impetuous violence descended on the altar and consumed all that was thereon, with the view, as I imagine, of showing in the clearest manner that none of the things which had been done had been done without the especial providence of God. 2.200. And was not either the tongue of the man who uttered such impiety loosened, or the ears of him who was destined to hear such things closed up? unless, indeed, that was done in consequence of some providential arrangement of justice, which does not think that either any extraordinary good or that any enormous evil ought to be kept in darkness, but that such should be revealed in order to the most complete manifestation of virtue or vice, so that it may adjudge the one to be worthy of acceptance and the other of punishment. 2.261. And Moses, when he saw this, was naturally indigt with those who were thus disobedient; for how could he help being so, when those who had beheld such numerous and great actions which could not possibly be perverted into mere fictitious and well contrived appearances, but which had been easily accomplished by the divine providence, did not only doubt, but even absolutely disbelieved, and were the hardest of all man to be convinced? 2.278. Then, joining together and assembling in one place, they cried out upon the prophet as if he had given the priesthood to his brother, and to his nephews, out of consideration for their relationship to him, and had given a false account of their appointment, as if it had not taken place under the direction of divine providence, as we have represented. 2.290. These things, therefore, are wonderful; and most wonderful of all is the end of his sacred writings, which is to the whole book of the law what the head is to an animal.
23. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 216, 316, 346, 350, 373, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. and, as they wished to curry favour with him by a novel kind of flattery, so as to allow, and for the future to give the rein to, every sort of ill treatment of us without ever being called to account, what did they proceed to do? All the synagogues that they were unable to destroy by burning and razing them to the ground, because a great number of Jews lived in a dense mass in the neighbourhood, they injured and defaced in another manner, simultaneously with a total overthrow of their laws and customs; for they set up in every one of them images of Gaius, and in the greatest, and most conspicuous, and most celebrated of them they erected a brazen statue of him borne on a four-horse chariot.
25. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 3.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

75. Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes, in number something more than four thousand in my opinion, who derive their name from their piety, though not according to any accurate form of the Grecian dialect, because they are above all men devoted to the service of God, not sacrificing living animals, but studying rather to preserve their own minds in a state of holiness and purity.
27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.111, 11.338, 12.138-12.144, 20.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.111. So these men offered the largest sacrifices on these accounts, and used great magnificence in the worship of God, and dwelt in Jerusalem, and made use of a form of government that was aristocratical, but mixed with an oligarchy, for the high priests were at the head of their affairs, until the posterity of the Asamoneans set up kingly government; 11.338. whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 20.234. at which time Jesus, the son of Josadek, took the high priesthood over the captives when they were returned home. Now he and his posterity, who were in all fifteen, until king Antiochus Eupator, were under a democratical government for four hundred and fourteen years;
28. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.44. of the same mind also was Ptolemy the son of Lagus, as to those Jews who dwelt at Alexandria.” For he intrusted the fortresses of Egypt into their hands, as believing they would keep them faithfully and valiantly for him; and when he was desirous to secure the government of Cyrene, and the other cities of Libya to himself, he sent a party of Jews to inhabit them.
29. Mishnah, Temurah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. There are [laws relating] to the sacrifices of an individual which do not apply to congregational sacrifices and [laws relating] to congregational sacrifices which do not apply to the sacrifices of individuals. For sacrifices of an individual can make a substitute whereas congregational sacrifices cannot make a substitute; Sacrifices of an individual can be either males or females, whereas congregational sacrifices can be only males. For sacrifices of an individual the owner is responsible for them and their libations, whereas for congregational sacrifices they are not liable for them or for their libations, although they are liable for their libations once the sacrifice has been offered. There are [laws relating] to congregational sacrifices which do not apply to the sacrifices of individuals: For congregational sacrifices override Shabbat and [the laws] of ritual impurity, whereas sacrifices of individuals do not override the Shabbat or [the laws] of ritual impurity. Rabbi Meir said: but do not the griddle cakes of a high priest and the bull for Yom Hakippurim which are sacrifices of individuals and yet override the Shabbat and [the laws] of ritual impurity? The matter therefore depends on [whether] the time [for the offering up] is fixed."
30. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane.
31. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.22.150 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Justin, First Apology, 31.2, 31.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 3.12-3.13 (2nd cent. CE

3.12. THEN he ran up to Apollonius and addressed him in the Greek tongue; and so far this did not seem so remarkable, because all the inhabitants of the village spoke the Greek tongue. But when he addressed him by name and said Hail so and so, the rest of the party were filled with astonishment, though our sage only felt the more confidence in his mission: for he looked to Damis and said: We have reached men who are unfeignedly wise, for they seem to have the gift of foreknowledge. And he at once asked the Indian what he must do, because he was already eager for an interview: and the Indian replied:Your party must halt here, but you must come on just as you are, for the Masters themselves issue this command. 3.13. Theword Masters at once had a Pythagorean ring for the ears of Apollonius and he gladly followed the messenger.Now the hill the summit of which is inhabited by the sages is, according to the account of our travelers, of about the same height as the Acropolis of Athens; and it rises straight up from the plain, though its natural position equally secures it from attack, for the rock surrounds it on all sides. On many parts of this rock you see traces of cloven feet and outlines of beards and of faces, and here and there impressions of backs as of persons who had slipped and rolled down. For they say that Dionysus, when he was trying to storm the place together with Heracles, ordered the Pans to attack it, thinking that they would be strong enough to stand the shock; but they were thunderstruck by the sages and fell one, one way, and another, another; and the rocks as it were took the print of the various postures in which they fell and failed. And they say that they saw a cloud floating round the eminence on which the Indians live and render themselves visible or invisible at will. Whether there were any other gates to the eminence they say they did not know; for the cloud around it did not anywhere allow them to be seen, whether there was an opening in the rampart, or whether on the other hand it was a close-shut fortress.
34. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60a. מי קוראין לא הוה בידיה אתא ושייליה לרבי יצחק נפחא א"ל אחריהן קוראין ת"ח הממונין פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ת"ח הראויין למנותם פרנסים על הציבור ואחריהן בני ת"ח שאבותיהן ממונים פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ראשי כנסיות וכל אדם,שלחו ליה בני גליל לר' חלבו מהו לקרות בחומשים בבהכ"נ בציבור לא הוה בידיה אתא שייליה לר' יצחק נפחא לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא ופשטוה מהא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן ס"ת שחסר יריעה אחת אין קורין בו,ולא היא התם מחסר במילתיה הכא לא מחסר במילתיה רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין קוראין בחומשין בבית הכנסת משום כבוד צבור,ורבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו האי ספר אפטרתא אסור למקרי ביה בשבת מאי טעמא דלא ניתן ליכתב,מר בר רב אשי אמר לטלטולי נמי אסור מ"ט דהא לא חזי למיקרי ביה ולא היא שרי לטלטולי ושרי למיקרי ביה,דר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש מעייני בספרא דאגדתא בשבתא והא לא ניתן ליכתב אלא כיון דלא אפשר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך ה"נ כיון דלא אפשר עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,בעא מיניה אביי מרבה מהו לכתוב מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה חתומה ניתנה,תיבעי למ"ד תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה כיון דמגילה מגילה ניתנה כותבין או דילמא כיון דאידבק אידבק,תיבעי למ"ד תורה חתומה ניתנה כיון דחתומה ניתנה אין כותבין או דילמא כיון דלא אפשר כתבינן א"ל אין כותבין ומה טעם לפי שאין כותבין,איתיביה אף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה א"ר שמעון בן לקיש משום ר' ינאי באל"ף בי"ת,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא אימא כמה שכתוב בטבלא,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה בטבלא וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא מה הוא כתוב בטבלא (במדבר ה, יט) אם שכב אם לא שכב הכא במאי עסקינן בסירוגין,כתנאי אין כותבין מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה ואם דעתו להשלים מותר ר' יהודה אומר בבראשית עד דור המבול בתורת כהנים עד ויהי ביום השמיני,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי בנאה תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה שנא' (תהלים מ, ח) אז אמרתי הנה באתי במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ר"ש בן לקיש אומר תורה חתומה ניתנה שנאמר (דברים לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזאת,ואידך נמי הכתיב לקוח ההוא לבתר דאידבק,ואידך נמי הכתיב במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ההוא דכל התורה כולה איקרי מגילה דכתיב (זכריה ה, ב) ויאמר אלי מה אתה רואה ואומר אני רואה מגילה עפה,אי נמי לכדרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי שמנה פרשיות נאמרו ביום שהוקם בו המשכן אלו הן פרשת כהנים ופרשת לוים ופרשת טמאים ופרשת שילוח טמאים ופרשת אחרי מות 60a. bwho readsfrom the Torah? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,who bsaid to him: After them readthe bTorah scholars who are appointed as leaders [ iparnasim /i] of the community. And after themread bTorah scholars who are fit to be appointed as leaders of the community,even if in practice they received no such appointment. The Sages said that a Torah scholar who knows how to answer any question asked of him is fit to be appointed as leader of the community. bAnd after themread bthe sons of Torah scholars whose fathers were appointed as leaders of the community. And after themread bthe heads of synagogues, andafter them bany person. /b, bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: What isthe ihalakhawith regard bto reading from iḥumashim /i,i.e., scrolls containing only one of the five books of the Torah, bin the synagogue in public?Is this permitted, or is it necessary to read from a complete Torah scroll? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,but an answer bwas notreadily bavailable to himeither. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bcame and askedthis question bin the study hall, and they resolvedthe difficulty bfrom that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to ba Torah scroll that is missingeven bone sheetof parchment, bone may not read from itin public. This indicates that an incomplete Torah scroll may not be used for a public Torah reading.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so,i.e., this cannot serve as a proof to the matter at hand. bThere,it is blackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as a sheet of parchment is missing, whereas bhere, it is not lackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as it contains a complete book. bRabba and Rav Yosef both say: One does not read from iḥumashimin the synagogue out of respect for the community. /b, bAnd Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: It is prohibited topublicly breadthe ihaftara /i, the portion from the Prophets that is read after the weekly Torah portion, bon Shabbat, from a scrollcontaining only bthe ihaftarot /i. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecausethis type of scroll bmay not be written,as the words of the Prophets must also be written as complete books., bMar bar Rav Ashi said: To handlesuch a scroll on Shabbat bis also prohibited. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause it is not fit to be read.Consequently, it is treated as set-aside [ imuktze /i] on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so;rather, bit is permitted to handlesuch a scroll band it is permitted to read from it. /b,And a proof for this is bthat Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish used to read from a scroll of iaggada /icontaining the words of the Sages bon Shabbat. Butsuch a scroll bmay not be written,for in principle, the statements of the Oral Law may not be committed to writing. bRather, since it is not possibleto remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126). bHere too,in the case of a ihaftarascroll, bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write complete books of the Bible, due to the expense, it is permitted to apply the reasoning of b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah.” /b, bAbaye raised a dilemma before Rabba: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether it is permitted bto write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study it?The Gemara notes: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll,meaning that Moses would teach the Jewish people one portion of the Torah, and then write it down, and then teach them the next portion of the Torah, and then write that down, and continue in this way until he committed the entire Torah to writing. And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook, meaning that the Torah was not written down incrementally, but rather, after teaching the Jewish people the entire Torah, Moses committed it to writing all at once.,The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma according to each opinion: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was given scroll by scroll.On the one hand it is possible to say that bsincethe Torah bwasoriginally bgiven scroll by scroll,today as well bone may writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone should say that bsince it wasultimately bjoinedtogether to form a single scroll, bit was joinedtogether and can no longer be written in separate scrolls.,And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook. On the one hand it is possible to say that bsince it was givenfrom the outset as ba completebook, bone may not writeit today in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone could say that bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write a complete Torah, bone may writeit in separate scrolls. Rabba bsaid to him: One may not writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bAnd what is the reason? Because one may not writea scroll that is only part of the Torah.,Abaye braised an objection to hisopinion from a mishna ( iYoma37b) where it was taught: Queen Helene balso fashioned a golden tabletas a gift for the Temple bon which theTorah bportiondiscussing ba isotawas written.When the priest would write the scroll of a isotain the Temple, he would copy this Torah portion from the tablet, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. This indicates that it is permitted for one to write a single portion of the Torah. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of Rabbi Yannai:There is no proof from this mishna, as the tablet prepared by Queen Helene was not written in an ordinary manner, but rather it consisted of the letters bofthe ialef-beit /i,i.e., only the first letter of each word was written on the tablet, and by looking at it the priest writing the isotascroll would remember what to write.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a ibaraitathat teaches: bWhenthe priest bwritesthe isotascroll, bhe looksat band writes that which is written on the tablet,which indicates that the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara rejects this argument: Emend the ibaraitaand bsaythat it should read as follows: He looks at and writes blike that which is written on the tablet.The tablet aids the priest in remembering the text that must actually be written.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a different ibaraita /i: bWhen he writes, he looks at the tablet and writes that which is written on the tablet.And bwhat is written on the tablet? “Ifa man blaywith you…and bif he did not laywith you” (see Numbers 5:19). Apparently, the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here?The tablet fashioned by Queen Helene was written bby alternatingcomplete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.,The Gemara comments: The question of whether or not writing a scroll for a child is permitted is bsubject toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne may not write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study, but ifthe writer’s bintention is to completethe scroll, bit is permitted. Rabbi Yehuda says: Inthe book of bGenesishe may write a scroll from the beginning buntil the generation of the flood. In iTorat Kohanim /i,the book of Leviticus, he may write a scroll from the beginning buntil “And it came to pass on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1).,The Gemara returns to discuss the previously mentioned dispute. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Bana’a: The Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll, as it is stated: “Then I said, behold, I come with the scroll of the book that is written for me”(Psalms 40:8). King David is saying about himself that there is a section of the Torah, “the scroll of the book,” that alludes to him, i.e., “that is written for me.” This indicates that each portion of the Torah constitutes a separate scroll. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The Torah was givenas ba completebook, bas it is stated: “Take this scroll of the Torah”(Deuteronomy 31:26), which teaches that from the outset the Torah was given as a complete unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written “take,”indicating that the Torah scroll was given whole? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is speaking about the Torah bafter it was joinedtogether to form a single unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Reish Lakish, bas well, isn’t it written: “With the scroll of the book that is written for me,”indicating that the Torah was given scroll by scroll? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse teaches that bthe entire Torah is called a scroll.This is indicated in another verse as well, bas it is written: “And He said to me: What do you see? And I said: I see a flying scroll”(Zechariah 5:2)., bAlternatively,this verse serves to allude btothe sections of the Torah discussed in bthatstatement bof Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says: Eight sections were said on the day that the Tabernacle was erected,on the first of Nisan. bThey are: The section of the priests(Leviticus 21:1–22:26); bthe section of the Levites(Numbers 8:5–26); bthe section of the impure(Leviticus 13:1– 14:57); bthe section of the sending away of the impure(Numbers 5:1–4); bthe sectionbeginning with the words b“After the death”(Leviticus, chapter 16);
35. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9a. כאן בגופן שלנו כאן בגופן שלהן,אמר ליה אביי במאי אוקימתא לההיא בגופן שלהן מאי איריא מקרא שכתבו תרגום ותרגום שכתבו מקרא אפילו מקרא שכתבו מקרא ותרגום שכתבו תרגום נמי דהא קתני עד שיכתבנו אשורית על הספר בדיו,אלא לא קשיא הא רבנן הא רשב"ג,אי רשב"ג הא איכא יונית אלא לא קשיא כאן בספרים כאן בתפלין ומזוזות,תפלין ומזוזות מ"ט משום דכתיב בהו (דברים ו, ו) והיו בהוייתן יהו מאי תרגום שכתבו מקרא איכא בשלמא תורה איכא (בראשית לא, מז) יגר שהדותא אלא הכא מאי תרגום איכא,אלא לא קשיא כאן במגילה כאן בספרים מגילה מ"ט דכתיב בה ככתבם וכלשונם מאי תרגום שכתבו מקרא איכא,אמר רב פפא (אסתר א, כ) ונשמע פתגם המלך רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר (אסתר א, כ) וכל הנשים יתנו יקר לבעליהן,רב אשי אמר כי תניא ההיא בשאר ספרים ורבי יהודה היא דתניא תפלין ומזוזות אין נכתבין אלא אשורית ורבותינו התירו יונית,והכתיב והיו אלא אימא ספרים נכתבים בכל לשון ורבותינו התירו יונית התירו מכלל דתנא קמא אסר,אלא אימא רבותינו לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יונית ותניא א"ר יהודה אף כשהתירו רבותינו יונית לא התירו אלא בספר תורה,ומשום מעשה דתלמי המלך דתניא מעשה בתלמי המלך שכינס שבעים ושנים זקנים והכניסן בשבעים ושנים בתים ולא גילה להם על מה כינסן ונכנס אצל כל אחד ואחד ואמר להם כתבו לי תורת משה רבכם נתן הקב"ה בלב כל אחד ואחד עצה והסכימו כולן לדעת אחת,וכתבו לו אלהים ברא בראשית (בראשית א, א) אעשה אדם בצלם ובדמות (בראשית א, כו),ויכל ביום הששי וישבות ביום השביעי (בראשית ב, ב) זכר ונקבה בראו (בראשית ה, ב) ולא כתבו בראם,הבה ארדה ואבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ז) ותצחק שרה בקרוביה (בראשית יח, יב),כי באפם הרגו שור וברצונם עקרו אבוס (בראשית מט, ו) ויקח משה את אשתו ואת בניו וירכיבם על נושא בני אדם (שמות ד, כ),ומושב בני ישראל אשר ישבו במצרים ובשאר ארצות ארבע מאות שנה (שמות יב, מ) וישלח את זאטוטי בני ישראל (שמות כד, ה) ואל זאטוטי בני ישראל לא שלח ידו (שמות כד, יא) 9a. bHere,the mishna is referring to Torah scrolls written in another language bin our script,i.e., in Hebrew letters. bThere,the ibaraitais referring to Torah scrolls written in another language bin their script,in the letters of another alphabet., bAbaye said toRava: bHow did you establish that ibaraita /i, i.e., that it is referring to Torah scrolls written in another language bin their script?If it is so, bwhydid the ibaraita bspecifically teachthat the legal status of a Hebrew verse in the bBible that one wrotein Aramaic btranslation, ora verse written in Aramaic btranslation that one wrotein the Hebrew of the bBible,is not that of sacred writings? The legal status of bevena Hebrew verse in the bBible that one wrotein the Hebrew of the bBible anda verse written in Aramaic btranslation that one wrote inAramaic btranslationare balsonot that of sacred writings, bas it is taughtat the end of the ibaraita /i: A Torah scroll renders the hands impure bonly if one writes it in iAshurit /iscript, bon aparchment bscroll,and bin ink. /b, bRather,the matter must be explained differently. This is bnot difficult. Thisruling in the mishna is according to bthe Rabbis,who permit writing Torah scrolls in any language, and bthatruling in the ibaraitais according to bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b,The Gemara asks: If the ibaraitais according to bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel,in addition to iAshurit /i, bisn’t there Greekin which the Torah may also be written? bRather,say this is bnot difficult. Here,the mishna is referring to Torah bscrolls,which may be written in any language; bthere,the ibaraitais referring to phylacteries and imezuzot /i, which may be written only in Hebrew, using Hebrew script.,The Gemara asks: With regard to bphylacteries and imezuzot /i, what is the reasonthat they must be written in Hebrew? The Gemara explains: It is bbecause it is written with regard to them: “Andthese words bshall be”(Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that bas they are so shall they be,without change. The Gemara raises a difficulty: If the ibaraitais referring to phylacteries and imezuzot /i, bwhatAramaic btranslation that one wrotein the Hebrew of the bBible is there? Granted,in the bTorah there isa verse written in Aramaic translation: b“ iYegar sahaduta /i”(Genesis 31:47); bhowever, here,in phylacteries and imezuzot /i, bwhatverses in Aramaic btranslation are therethat could be written in Hebrew?, bRather,say this is bnot difficult. Here,the ibaraita bis referring tothe bMegilla,the Scroll of Esther, which must be written in Hebrew; bthere,the mishna bis referring toTorah bscrolls,which may be written in any language. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the bMegillamust be written in Hebrew? It is due to the fact bthat it is written with regard tothe Megilla: b“According to their writing, and according to their language”(Esther 8:9), without change. The Gemara asks: But if the ibaraitais referring to the Megilla, bwhatAramaic btranslation that one wrotein the Hebrew of the bBible is there?The entire Megilla is written in Hebrew., bRav Pappa saidthat it is written: b“And when the king’s decree [ ipitgam /i] shall be publicized”(Esther 1:20), and that ipitgamis essentially an Aramaic word. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat it is written: b“And all the wives will give honor [ iyekar /i] to their husbands”(Esther 1:20), and iyekaris Aramaic for honor., bRav Ashisuggested a different explanation and bsaid: When that ibaraita bis taughtit is taught bwith regard to the rest ofthe bbooksof the Bible, other than the Torah. bAnd it isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPhylacteries and imezuzotare written only in iAshurit /i; and our Rabbis permittedwriting them in bGreekas well.,The Gemara asks: How did our Rabbis permit this? bIsn’t it writtenwith regard to phylacteries and imezuzot /i: b“Andthese words bshall be”(Deuteronomy 6:6), indicating that their language may not be changed. bRather, saythat this is what the ibaraitais saying: Torah bscrolls are written in any language; and our Rabbis permittedwriting them bin Greekas well. Once again the Gemara asks: Our Rabbis bpermitted? By inference,apparently bthe first itannaprohibitswriting a Torah scroll in Greek. However, he explicitly permits writing a Torah scroll in any language., bRather, sayin explanation of the ibaraita /i: bAnd our Rabbis permitted them to be written only in Greek. And it is taughtin another ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: Even when our Rabbis permitted Greek, they permitted it only in a Torah scroll,and not for other books of the Bible, which must be written only in Hebrew.,The Gemara continues: bAndthis was bdue to the incident of King Ptolemy, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involving King Ptolemyof Egypt, bwho assembled seventy-two Eldersfrom the Sages of Israel, band put them into seventy-twoseparate brooms, and did not reveal to them for whatpurpose bhe assembled them,so that they would not coordinate their responses. bHe enteredand bapproached each and every one, and said toeach of bthem: Write for mea translation of bthe Torah of Moses your teacher. The Holy One, Blessed be He, placed wisdom in the heart of each and every one, and they all agreed to onecommon bunderstanding.Not only did they all translate the text correctly, they all introduced the same changes into the translated text., bAnd they wrote for him: God created in the beginning [ ibereshit /i],reversing the order of the words in the first phrase in the Torah that could be misinterpreted as: “ iBereshitcreated God” (Genesis 1:1). They did so to negate those who believe in the preexistence of the world and those who maintain that there are two powers in the world: One is iBereshit /i, who created the second, God. And they wrote: bI shall make man in image and in likeness,rather than: “Let us make man in our image and in our likeness” (Genesis 1:26), as from there too one could mistakenly conclude that there are multiple powers and that God has human form.,Instead of: “And on the seventh day God concluded His work” (Genesis 2:2), which could have been understood as though some of His work was completed on Shabbat itself, they wrote: bAnd on the sixth day He concludedHis work, band He rested on the seventh day.They also wrote: bMale and female He created him, and they did not writeas it is written in the Torah: “Male and female bHe created them”(Genesis 5:2), to avoid the impression that there is a contradiction between this verse and the verse: “And God created man” (Genesis 1:27), which indicates that God created one person.,Instead of: “Come, let us go down, and there confound their language” (Genesis 11:7), which indicates multiple authorities, they wrote in the singular: bCome, let me go down, and there confound their language.In addition, they replaced the verse: “And Sarah laughed within herself [ ibekirba /i]” (Genesis 18:12), with: bAnd Sarah laughed among her relatives [ ibikroveha /i].They made this change to distinguish between Sarah’s laughter, which God criticized, and Abraham’s laughter, to which no reaction is recorded. Based on the change, Sarah’s laughter was offensive because she voiced it to others.,They also altered the verse: “For in their anger they slew a man and in their self-will they slaughtered an ox” (Genesis 49:6), to read: bFor in their anger they slew an ox and in their self-will they uprooted a trough,to avoid the charge that Jacob’s sons were murderers. Instead of: “And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon a donkey” (Exodus 4:20), they wrote: bAnd Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon a carrier of people,which could be understood as referring to a horse or a camel rather than the lowly donkey.,Instead of: “And the residence of the children of Israel, who resided in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years” (Exodus 12:40), which when read literally is imprecise, for they did not dwell in Egypt that long, they wrote: bAnd the residence of the children of Israel, who resided in Egypt and in other lands, was four hundred years.Instead of: “And he sent the youth of the children of Israel, who brought burnt-offerings” (Exodus 24:5), which evokes the question of why young men were sent to perform that service, they wrote: bAnd he sent the elect [ iza’atutei /i] of the children of Israel.The same term was substituted again several verses later, rendering the verse: “And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand” (Exodus 24:11), as: bAnd upon the elect of the children of Israel He laid not His hand. /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. קרובים ונתרחקו הוו אתו לקמיה לדינא אמר להו פסילנא לכו לדינא,אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך כר' יהודה אנן מייתינן איגרתא ממערבא דאין הלכה כרבי יהודה,אמר להו אטו בקבא דקירא אידבקנא בכו דלא קאמינא פסילנא לכו לדינא אלא משום דלא צייתיתו דינא:,אוהב זה שושבינו וכו':,וכמה אמר ר' אבא אמר רבי ירמיה אמר רב כל שבעת ימי המשתה ורבנן משמיה דרבא אמרי אפילו מיום ראשון ואילך:,השונא כל שלא דבר כו': ת"ר (במדבר לה, כג) והוא לא אויב לו יעידנו (במדבר לה, כג) ולא מבקש רעתו ידיננו,אשכחן שונא אוהב מנלן,קרי ביה הכי והוא לא אויב לו ולא אוהב לו יעידנו ולא מבקש רעתו ולא טובתו ידיננו,מידי אוהב כתיב אלא סברא הוא אויב מאי טעמא משום דמרחקא דעתיה אוהב נמי מקרבא דעתיה,ורבנן האי לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מאי דרשי ביה,חד לדיין,אידך כדתניא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה והוא לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מכאן לשני תלמידי חכמים ששונאין זה את זה שאין יושבין בדין כאחד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כיצד בודקים את העדים היו מכניסין אותן לחדר ומאיימין עליהן ומוציאין את כל האדם לחוץ ומשיירין את הגדול שבהן,ואומרים לו אמור היאך אתה יודע שזה חייב לזה אם אמר הוא אמר לי שאני חייב לו איש פלוני אמר לי שהוא חייב לו לא אמר כלום עד שיאמר בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז,ואחר כך מכניסין את השני ובודקין אותו אם נמצאו דבריהן מכוונין נושאין ונותנין בדבר,שנים אומרים זכאי ואחד אומר חייב זכאי שנים אומרים חייב ואחד אומר זכאי חייב אחד אומר חייב ואחד אומר זכאי אפילו שנים מזכין או שנים מחייבין ואחד אומר איני יודע יוסיפו הדיינין,גמרו את הדבר היו מכניסין אותן הגדול שבדיינין אומר איש פלוני אתה זכאי איש פלוני אתה חייב,ומניין לכשיצא לא יאמר אני מזכה וחביריי מחייבים אבל מה אעשה שחביריי רבו עלי על זה נאמר ((ויקרא יט, טז) לא תלך רכיל בעמך ואומר) (משלי יא, יג) הולך רכיל מגלה סוד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היכי אמרי' להו אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר,אמר (ליה) רבא יכלי למימר שב שני הוה כפנא ואבבא אומנא לא חליף,אלא אמר רבא אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יח) מפץ וחרב וחץ שנון איש עונה ברעהו עד שקר,אמר (ליה) רב אשי יכלי למימר שב שני הוה מותנא ואיניש בלא שניה לא שכיב,אלא אמר רב אשי אמר לי נתן בר מר זוטרא אמרינן להו סהדי שקרי אאוגרייהו זילי דכתיב (מלכים א כא, י) והושיבו שנים אנשים בני בליעל נגדו ויעידוהו לאמר ברכת אלהים ומלך:,אם אמר הוא אמר לי כו' עד שיאמרו בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז:,מסייע ליה לרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב צריך שיאמר אתם עדיי,איתמר נמי א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר) משטה אני בך פטור,תניא נמי הכי מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ולא עוד אלא אפילו הכמין לו עדים אחורי גדר ואמר לו מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן רצונך שתודה בפני פלוני ופלוני אמר לו מתיירא אני שמא תכפיני לדין למחר אמר לו תניהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ואין טוענין למסית,מסית מאן דכר שמיה חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני אם לא טען אין טוענין לו ובדיני נפשות אע"ג דלא טען טוענין לו ואין טוענין למסית,מאי שנא מסית אמר ר' חמא בר חנינא מפירקיה דרבי חייא בר אבא שמיע לי שאני מסית דרחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין טוענין למסית מנחש הקדמוני דא"ר שמלאי הרבה טענות היה לו לנחש לטעון ולא טען ומפני מה לא טען לו הקב"ה לפי שלא טען הוא,מאי הוה ליה למימר דברי הרב ודברי תלמיד דברי מי שומעין דברי הרב שומעין,אמר חזקיה מניין שכל המוסיף גורע שנאמר (בראשית ג, ג) אמר אלהים לא תאכלו ממנו ולא תגעו בו,רב משרשיא אמר מהכא (שמות כה, י) אמתים וחצי ארכו,רב אשי אמר (שמות כו, ז) עשתי עשרה יריעות,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא דאמר משטה אני בך אבל אמר 29a. bwere relativesof his band became not relatedto him, as Mar Ukva’s wife, who was their sister, died. bThey came before him for judgment.Mar Ukva bsaid to them: I am disqualified from adjudicating for you. /b, bThey said toMar Ukva: bWhat is your opinionaccording to which you disqualify yourself? Do you rule bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that since you have children we are still relatives? bWe shall bring a letter from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthatthe ihalakha /iis bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b,Mar Ukva bsaid to them: Is that to saythat bI am stuck to you with a ikavof wax [ ikira /i]?I agree bthatwe are not considered relatives; bI am saying that I am disqualified from adjudicating for you only because you will not obey the verdict,and I do not wish to participate in such judgment.,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yehuda, one who loves or one who hates one of the litigants is disqualified from bearing witness. One who blovesone of the litigants; bthisis referring to bhis groomsman. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndfor bhow longis the groomsman disqualified? bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRav says:Throughout ball of the seven days of feasting. And the Rabbis say in the name of Rava: Even from the first dayafter the wedding band onwardhe is no longer disqualified; he is disqualified only on the wedding day itself.,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who hatesthe litigant is referring to banyonewho, out of enmity, bdid not speakwith the litigant for three days. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: This ihalakhais derived from the verse: “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm” (Numbers 35:23), that one about whom it can be stated: b“And he was not his enemy,” can testify about him.And one who b“neither sought his harm” can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWe founda source for the disqualification of one who bhates; from where do wederive that one who blovesis disqualified?,The Gemara answers that one should bread intothe verse blike this:One about whom it can be stated: bAnd he who was not his enemy nor one who loves him, can testify about him;and one who bneither sought his harm nor his favor can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs: One who loves, writtenin the verse? How can the verse be read in this manner? bRather,the extension of the disqualification to one who loves him as well bisbased on blogical reasoning: What is the reason an enemyis disqualified from bearing witness? It is bbecause he feels a sense of aversiontoward that individual and might testify falsely against him. A similar logic can be employed with regard to one who bloves, as well: He feels a sense of affinitytoward that individual, and might testify falsely on his behalf.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Rabbis,who do not agree with Rabbi Yehuda, bderive from thisverse: b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm”? /b,The Gemara answers: bOnepart of the verse is necessary bforthe ihalakhathat ba judgewho loves or hates one of the litigants is disqualified. The Rabbis agree with this ihalakha /i, as such a judge is naturally inclined to favor one of the litigants., bThe otherpart of the verse is interpreted bin accordance with that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:With regard to the verse b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm,”it is derived bfrom here that two Torah scholars who hate each other cannot sit in judgmenttogether bas one.Because of their hatred they will come to contradict each other’s rulings unjustly., strongMISHNA: /strong bHow dothe judges bexamine the witnesses? They bring them into a roomin the courthouse band intimidate themso that they will speak only the truth. bAnd they take all the people,other than the judges, boutsideso that they should not tell the other witnesses the questions the judges ask and the answers the first witness gives, band they leaveonly bthe eldest ofthe witnesses to testify first., bAnd they say to him: Say howexactly byou know that thislitigant bowes money to thatlitigant, as the plaintiff claims. bIf he said:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true bthat I owethe plaintiff, or if he says: bSo-and-so said to me thatthe defendant bowesthe plaintiff, the witness bhas said nothingand his testimony is disregarded. It is not valid testimony bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him,e.g., btwo hundred dinars.By admitting to the debt in the presence of witnesses he renders himself liable to pay the amount that he mentioned., bAnd afterward they bring in the secondwitness band examine himin the same manner. bIf their statements are found to be congruentthe judges then bdiscuss the matter. /b,If the opinions of the judges are divided, as btwojudges bsaythat the defendant is bexemptfrom payment band one sayshe is bliableto pay, he is bexempt.If btwo sayhe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,he is bliable.If bone sayshe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,or bevenif btwoof the judges bdeemhim bexempt or twoof them bdeemhim bliable, andthe other bone says: I do not know,the court bmust addmore bjudgesand then rule in accordance with the majority opinion. This is because the one who abstains is considered as though he is not a member of the court.,After the judges bfinish the matterand reach a decision, bthey bring inthe litigants. bThe greatest of the judges says: So-and-so, you are exemptfrom paying; or: bSo-and-so, you are liableto pay., bAnd from whereis it derived that bwhenthe judge bleavesthe courtroom bhe may not say: I deemedyou bexempt and my colleagues deemedyou bliable, but what can I do, as my colleagues outnumbered meand consequently you were deemed liable? bAbout this it is stated: “You shall not go as a talebearer among your people”(Leviticus 19:16), band it says: “One who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets,but one who is of a faithful spirit conceals a matter” (Proverbs 11:13)., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the judges intimidate the witnesses. The Gemara asks: bWhat do we say to them? Rav Yehuda saysthat bthisis what bwe say to them:It is stated: b“As clouds and wind without rain, so is he who boasts himself of a false gift”(Proverbs 25:14). In other words, there will be no rain and no blessing from your deeds if you lie., bRava said to him:If so, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves that they do not have to worry about this punishment, according to the folk saying: bSeven years there was a famine, but over the craftsman’s door it did not pass.If the witnesses are not farmers, they do not need to worry over lack of rain. Consequently, they will disregard this concern., bRather, Rava saidthat bwe saythis verse bto them: “As a hammer, and a sword, and a sharp arrow, so is a man who bears false witness against his neighbor”(Proverbs 25:18), meaning that a false witness will die prematurely., bRav Ashi said to him:Here too, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves a folk saying: bSeven years there was a pestilence, but a manwho has bnotreached bhis years did not die;everyone dies at his predestined time. Therefore, they will disregard this concern as well.,The Gemara presents another suggestion: bRather, Rav Ashi said: Natan bar Mar Zutra said to methat bwe say to themthat bfalse witnesses are belittledeven bby those who hire them,and all the more so by others; bas it is writtenthat Jezebel said when she ordered witnesses to be hired to testify against Naboth: b“And set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: You cursed God and the king”(I Kings 21:10). Even Jezebel, who gave the orders to hire them, called them “base fellows.”,§ The mishna teaches that bifthe witness bsaid:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true that I owe him, his testimony is disregarded bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him two hundred dinars. /b,The Gemara comments: bThis supportsthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The debtor bneeds to sayto the witnesses to the loan or in his admission that he owes the creditor: bYou are my witnesses.Otherwise, their testimony is not valid., bIt was also statedthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,i.e., you owe me one hundred dinars, and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaidto him: bI was teasing you,i.e., I did not mean it seriously when I said that I owed it to you, the respondent is bexempt. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaid to him: I was teasing you,the respondent is bexempt. /b, bAnd moreover,the respondent is exempt bevenin a case where the claimant bhid witnesses forthe respondent bbehind a fenceso that the respondent would not see them, band said to him: Ihave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the respondent bsaid to him: Yes,and the claimant then said to him: bDo you wish to admitthe debt bin the presence of so-and-so and so-and-so?And the respondent bsaid to him: I am afraidto do so, blest you compel me togo to bjudgment,where, based on their testimony, you will be given the right to forcibly take the money from me whenever you want. But between you and me, I admit that I owe you. And bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give methe one hundred dinars that you admitted to owing me, and the respondent bsaid to him: I was teasing you.The respondent is bexemptbecause he can claim that he stated his admission only to appease the claimant temporarily, and did not mean to actually admit to owing the money, as he did not know that there were witnesses present., bButthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter,i.e., one who is accused of inciting others to idol worship.,The Gemara asks: bAn inciter? Who mentioned anything about it?This matter was not discussed in the ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: Ifthe defendant bdid not advance a claimthat he was teasing the plaintiff, the judges bdo not advancethis bclaim for him.Apparently, he stated his admission seriously. bBut incases of bcapital law, even ifthe defendant bdid not advanceany bclaimon his own behalf, the judges badvance a claim on his behalf. Butthe judges bdo not advance claims on behalf of an inciter. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout ban inciter,that the court does not seek to deem him innocent? bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: I heard at the lecture of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbathat ban inciter is different, as the Merciful One statesconcerning him: b“Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him”(Deuteronomy 13:9). In this unique case, the court is not required to try to deem him innocent., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthatthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter?It is derived bfromthe incident of bthe primordial snakewho tempted Eve; he was the first inciter. bAs Rabbi Simlai says: The snake could have advanced many claimson its own behalf, bbut it did not claimthem. bAnd for whatreason bdid the Holy One, Blessed be He, not advancethese bclaims for it,deeming the snake exempt from punishment? bBecausethe snake bdid not advancethese bclaims itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat could he have said?The Gemara answers: The snake could have said that it is not to blame, as when there is a contradiction between bthe statement of the teacher and the statement of the student, whose statement should one listen to? One should listen to the statement of the teacher.Since God instructed Adam and Eve not to eat from the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Adam and Eve should have heeded God’s words and not those of the snake., bḤizkiyya says: From whereis it derived bthat anyone who adds, subtracts?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedthat Eve said: b“God has said: You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it”(Genesis 3:3), whereas God had actually rendered prohibited only eating from the tree but not touching it, as it is stated: “But of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it” (Genesis 2:17). Because Eve added that there was a prohibition against touching the tree, the snake showed her that touching it does not cause her to die, and she consequently sinned by eating from it as well., bRav Mesharshiyya saysthat the idea that one who adds, subtracts can also be proven bfrom here: “Two cubits [ iamatayim /i] and a half shall be its length”(Exodus 25:10). Without the letter ialefat the beginning of the word iamatayim /i, it would be read imatayim /i, which would mean two hundred cubits. The addition of the ialeftherefore reduces this term to only two cubits., bRav Ashi saysanother example: In the verse: b“Eleven [ iashtei esrei /i] curtains”(Exodus 26:7), without the letter iayinat the beginning of the phrase it would read ishtei esrei /i, twelve. Therefore, the additional letter iayinreduces the amount from twelve to eleven., bAbaye says:With regard to the case of one who denies a debt to which he admitted in the presence of hidden witnesses, the Sages btaughtthat he is exempt bonlyin a case bwhere he says: I was teasing you. Butif bhe says: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115a. מותר בקניבת ירק (ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן יום כיפורים שחל להיות בחול) מפצעין באגוזים ומפרכסין ברימונים מן המנחה ולמעלה מפני עגמת נפש דבי רב יהודה מקנבי כרבא דבי רבה גרדי קארי כיון דחזא דהוו קא מחרפי אמר להו אתא איגרתא ממערבא משמיה דר' יוחנן דאסיר:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ואלו קשרים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן ובין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובים בכל לשון טעונים גניזה ומפני מה אין קורין בהם מפני ביטול בית המדרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איתמר היו כתובים תרגום או בכל לשון רב הונא אמר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ורב חסדא אמר מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אליבא דמאן דאמר ניתנו לקרות בהן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דמצילין כי פליגי אליבא דמאן דאמר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב הונא אמר אין מצילין דהא לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב חסדא אמר מצילין משום בזיון כתבי הקדש תנן כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן בין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון מאי לאו שקורין בהן נביאים ושאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון דלא ניתנו לקרות בהן וקתני מצילין ותיובתא דרב הונא,אמר לך רב הונא ותסברא אימא סיפא טעונין גניזה השתא אצולי מצילינן גניזה מיבעי אלא רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה ורב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהם נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהם כתובים במה דברים אמורים שכתובין בלשון הקדש אבל בכל לשון אין מצילין ואפילו הכי גניזה בעו רב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהן נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון נמי מצילין והכי קאמר ומקק שלהן טעונין גניזה,מיתיבי היו כתובים תרגום וכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא האי תנא סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן ת"ש היו כתובין גיפטית מדית עיברית עילמית יוונית אע"פ שלא ניתנו לקרות בהן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא תנאי היא דתניא היו כתובין תרגום ובכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ר' יוסי אומר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה,אמר ר' יוסי מעשה באבא חלפתא שהלך אצל רבן גמליאל בריבי לטבריא ומצאו שהי' יושב על שלחנו של (יוחנן הנזוף) ובידו ספר איוב תרגום והוא קורא בו אמר לו זכור אני ברבן גמליאל אבי אביך שהיה עומד ע"ג מעלה בהר הבית והביאו לפניו ספר איוב תרגום ואמר לבנאי שקעהו תחת הנדבך אף הוא צוה עליו וגנזו ר' יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר עריבה של טיט כפו עליו אמר רבי שתי תשובות בדבר חדא וכי טיט בהר הבית מנין ועוד וכי מותר לאבדן ביד אלא מניחן במקום התורפה והן מרקיבין מאליהן מאן תנאי 115a. btrimming vegetables is permitted. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:If bYom Kippur occurs ona bweekday, one may crack nuts and remove pomegranate seeds fromthe late bafternoon and onward,because doing so involves no actual labor and bdue to anxiety,i.e., if a person does not know that there is food prepared for when the fast ends, he suffers more during the final hours of the day (Rabbi Zeraḥia HaLevi). The Gemara relates: The members of bRav Yehuda’s house would trim cabbage.The members of bRabba’s house would scrub gourds. OnceRabba bsawthat bthey were doingthis bearly,before the late afternoon, bhe said to them: A letter came from the West,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, bin the nameof bRabbi Yoḥa,saying that doing so is bprohibited. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat, bwhether they are readin public, e.g., Torah or Prophets scrolls, bor whether they are not readin public, e.g., Writings scrolls. This ruling applies beven though they were written in anyforeign blanguage.According to the Rabbis, those scrolls are not read in public, but they are still sacred and require burial. bAnd whydoes bone not readthe Writings on Shabbat? bDue to suspensionof Torah study bin the study hall.People came to the study hall at specific times on Shabbat to hear words of ihalakha,and other texts were not allowed at those times., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was statedthat iamora’imdebated the status of sacred writings bwritten inAramaic btranslation or in anyother blanguage. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. The Gemara adds: bAccording to the one who saidthat sacred writings written in other languages bmay be read, everybody agreesthat bone may rescuethem. bWhere they argueis baccording to the one who said that they may not be read. Rav Huna said: One may not rescuethem, bas they may not be read.Whereas bRav Ḥisda said: One may rescuethem bdue to disgrace to sacred writingsthat will result. bWe learnedin the mishna: With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat bwhether they are readin public bor whether they are not readin public, beven if they are written in anyforeign blanguage. What, is it notthat the phrase: b“That they are read”is referring to the books of the bProphets, andthe phrase: b“That they are not read”is referring to the bWritings? Even though these arebooks bwritten in anyforeign blanguage, which may not be read, it is taught that one may save them.This then is ba conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRav Huna. /b, bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: Anddo byou understandthe mishna that way? bSay the latter clauseof the mishna, which states: They brequire burial.This is unnecessary, as bnow,that it was mentioned that bwe rescue themfrom the fire, bis it necessaryto say that they require bburial? Rather,the mishna must be emended. bRav Huna reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning. Rav Huna reconcilesthis bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings. In whatcase bisthis bstatement said? It isin a case bwhere they are written in the holy tongue, butif they are not written in Hebrew but bin anyother blanguage,they are bnot rescuedfrom the fire on Shabbat, band even so, they require burial. Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings, even if they are written in any languageother than Hebrew, they are balso rescued. And this is whatthe mishna bis saying: And even the decayedsections of parchment brequire burial. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslationor in bany languageother than Hebrew, bthey are rescued from the fireon Shabbat. And this is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who states that these are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This itannaholdsthat sacred writings not written in Hebrew bmay be read,whereas Rav Huna stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the itannawho holds that they may not be read, and therefore may not be rescued. bComeand bhearanother proof from that which was taught in a different ibaraita /i: Sacred writings that bwere writtenin bCoptic,Egyptian; bMedian; iIvrit /i,i.e., ancient Hebrew script; bEilamitic;or bGreek are rescued from the fireon Shabbat, beven though they may not be read.This is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who holds that they are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This isa dispute between itanna’im,as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslation or in any languageother than Hebrew, bone may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bRabbi Yosei says: One may not rescue them from the fire. /b, bRabbi Yosei said:There was ban incident involvingmy bfather, Ḥalafta, who went to the esteemed Rabban Gamlielof Yavne in bTiberias, where he found him sitting at the table of Yoḥa HaNazuf and in his handthere was ba translation of the book of Job, and he was readingfrom bit.Yoḥa bsaid toRabban Gamliel of Yavne: bI remember Rabban Gamliel, your father’s father, who was standing on top of a step on the Temple Mount. And they brought before him a translation of the book of Job, and he said to the builder: Bury thisbook bunder the course of bricks.When he heard of that incident, Rabban Gamliel of Yavne bordered that itbe buried band he buried it. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, saysthat on the Temple Mount bthey overturned a large bowl of mortar on it. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid:There are btwo responses to thisthat prove that it did not happen: bOne, from where would they get mortar on the Temple Mount?Construction on the Temple Mount was performed with other materials, not with mortar. bAnd furthermore, is it permitted toactively bdestroyeven sacred writings that are not read, bwith one’s hands? Rather,at the very least bthey leave them in a neglected place,where they are likely to decompose quickly, band they decay on their own.The Gemara seeks to clarify: bWho arethe itanna’im /iwho dispute this ihalakhaaccording to Rav Huna?
38. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. מתני׳ big strongיש /strong /big בקרבנות יחיד שאין בקרבנות הציבור ויש בקרבנות הציבור שאין בקרבנות היחיד שקרבנות היחיד עושין תמורה ואין קרבנות הציבור עושין תמורה,קרבנות היחיד נוהגות בין בזכרים בין בנקבות וקרבנות הציבור אין נוהגין אלא בזכרים קרבנות היחיד חייבין באחריותן ובאחריות נסכיהם וקרבנות הציבור אין חייבין באחריותן ולא באחריות נסכיהן אבל חייבין באחריות נסכיהן משקרב הזבח,יש בקרבנות הציבור מה שאין בקרבנות יחיד שקרבנות הציבור דוחין את השבת ואת הטומאה וקרבנות יחיד אינן דוחות לא את השבת ולא את הטומאה,א"ר מאיר והלא חביתי כ"ג ופר של יוה"כ קרבנות היחיד הן ודוחין את השבת ואת הטומאה אלא שזמנו קבוע, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big קרבן יחיד עושה תמורה כו' וכללא הוא והרי עופות דקרבן יחיד ואין עושה תמורה כי קתני בבהמה קתני,והרי ולד דקרבן יחיד הוא ואין עושה תמורה הא מני רבי יהודה היא דאמר הולד עושה תמורה,והרי תמורה עצמה דקרבן יחיד היא ואין תמורה עושה תמורה כי קתני בעיקר זיבחא קתני,השתא דאתית להכי אפילו תימא רבנן בעיקר זיבחא קתני,קרבנות היחיד נוהגות בין בזכרים בין בנקבות וכללא הוא והרי עולה דקרבן יחיד וזכר אתיא נקבה לא אתיא,האיכא עולת העוף דתניא תמות וזכרות בבהמה ואין תמות וזכרות בעופות,והרי חטאת דקרבן יחיד היא ונקבה אתיא זכר לא אתיא האיכא שעיר נשיא דמייתי זכר,והאיכא אשם יחיד דזכר אתי נקבה לא אתי כי קאמרי רבנן קרבן דשוי בין ביחיד בין בציבור אשם ביחיד איתיה בצבור ליתיה ואיבעית אימא מי קתני כל קרבנות יש בקרבנות קתני ומאי ניהו שלמים ואי בעי נקבה מייתי ואי בעי זכר מייתי,קרבנות יחיד חייבין באחריותן [כו'] מנא לן,דת"ר (ויקרא כג, לז) דבר יום [ביומו] מלמד שכל היום כשר למוספין (ויקרא כג, לז) ביומו מלמד שאם עבר היום ולא הביאן אינו חייב באחריותן,יכול לא יהא חייב באחריות נסכיהם ואע"פ שקרב הזבח ת"ל (במדבר כט, יח) מנחתם ונסכיהם בלילה מנחתם ונסכיהם למחר,ר"ל אמר מהכא (ויקרא כג, לח) מלבד שבתות ה',וצריכא דאי כתב רחמנא מלבד שבתות ה' הוה אמינא ביום אין ובלילה לא אמר קרא ומנחתם ונסכיהם ואי כתב רחמנא מנחתם ונסכיהם ולא כתב מלבד שבתות ה' הוה אמינא בלילה אין ביממא לא,ומאי שנא משום דבקדשים לילה הולך אחר היום צריכי,ונסכים מי קרבי בלילה והתנן אין לי אלא דברים שדרכן ליקרב בלילה כגון אברים ופדרים שמקריבין מבוא השמש ומתעכלין והולכין כל הלילה כולו,דברים שדרכן ליקרב ביום כגון הקומץ הלבונה ומנחת נסכים שמעלן מבוא השמש מבוא השמש סלקא דעתך והאמרת דברים שדרכן ליקרב ביום נינהו אלא עם בא השמש שמתעכלין והולכין כל הלילה מנין תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ו, ב) זאת תורת העולה ריבה,קתני מיהא נסכים ביום אמר רמי בר חמא לא קשיא כאן ליקדש כאן ליקרב,אמר ליה רבא אי מיקדש קדשי קרובי מיקרבי והא תניא זה הכלל כל הקרב ביום אין קדוש אלא ביום וכל הקרב בלילה קדוש בלילה בין ביום בין בלילה קדוש בין ביום בין בלילה אלא אמר רב יוסף סמי מנחת נסכים מהא מתניתא,כי סליק רב דימי אשכחיה לרב ירמיה דיתיב וקאמר משמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי מנין לנסכים הבאים עם הזבח שאין קריבין אלא ביום ת"ל (במדבר כט, לט) ולנסכיכם ולשלמיכם מה שלמים ביום אף נסכים ביום,אמר אי אשכחיה דכתיב איגרתא שלחי ליה לרב יוסף 14a. strongMISHNA: /strong bThere are ihalakhotin effect bwith regard to offerings of an individual that are notin effect bwith regard to communal offerings; and there are ihalakhotin effect bwith regard to communal offerings that are notin effect bwith regard to offerings of an individual.The mishna elaborates: There are ihalakhotin effect with regard to offerings of an individual that are not in effect with regard to communal offerings, bas offerings of an individual rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for the offering ba substitute, and communal offerings do not rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for the offering ba substitute. /b, bofferings of an individual apply to,i.e., can be brought from, bboth males and females, but communal offerings apply only to males.If bofferings of an individualwere not brought at the appropriate time, one is bobligated tobring btheir compensation and compensationfor btheiraccompanying meal offering and blibationsat a later date, bbutif bcommunal offeringswere not brought at the appropriate time, one is bobligated tobring bneither their compensation nor compensationfor btheiraccompanying meal offering and blibationsat a later date. bButone is bobligated tobring bcompensationfor btheiraccompanying meal offering and blibations once the offering is sacrificed. /b, bThere are ihalakhotin effect bwith regard to communal offerings that are notin effect bwith regard to offerings of an individual, as communal offerings override Shabbat,in that they are sacrificed on Shabbat, bandthey override britual impurity,i.e., they are sacrificed even if the priests are impure with impurity imparted by a corpse; band offerings of an individual override neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity. /b, bRabbi Meir said: But aren’t the High Priest’s griddle-cakeofferings band the bull of Yom Kippur offerings of an individual, andyet bthey override Shabbat and ritual impurity. Rather,this is the principle: Any offering, individual or communal, bwhose time is fixedoverrides Shabbat and ritual impurity, whereas any offering, individual or communal, whose time is not fixed overrides neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that bofferings of an individual rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for the offering ba substitute.The Gemara asks: bAndis bthisan established bprinciple?Does every offering of an individual render a non-sacred animal exchanged for it a substitute? bButwhat about bbirds,i.e., a dove or a pigeon, bwhichare brought as ban offering of an individual, but they do not rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for them ba substitute?The Gemara answers: bWhenthe mishna bteachesthat offerings of an individual render a non-sacred animal exchanged for the offering a substitute, it bis teachingthis only bwith regard to an animaloffering, not a bird offering.,The Gemara objects: bButwhat about the boffspringof a sanctified animal, bwhich isbrought and sacrificed on the altar as ban offering of an individualof the same type as its mother, bandyet it bdoes not rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for it ba substitute?The Gemara explains: In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thismishna? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidthat bthe offspringof a sanctified animal brendersa non-sacred animal exchanged for it ba substitute. /b,The Gemara objects: bButwhat about ba substitute itself, which isbrought and sacrificed on the altar as ban offering of an individual, andyet ba substitute does not rendera non-sacred animal exchanged for it ba substitute?The Gemara answers: bWhenthe mishna bteachesthat an offering of an individual renders a non-sacred animal exchanged for it a substitute, it bis teachingthis only bwith regard to the primary offering,not a substitute of an offering.,The Gemara comments: bNow that you have arrived at thisanswer, byoucan beven saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Yehuda and maintain that the offspring of an offering does not render a non-sacred animal exchanged for it a substitute. The reason is that one can explain that the mishna bis teachingits ihalakhaonly bwith regard to the primary offering,not the offspring of an offering.,§ The mishna teaches: bofferings of an individual apply to,i.e., can be brought from, bboth males and females.The Gemara asks: bIsthis an established bprinciple,that all offerings of an individual may be brought from either a male or female animal? bButwhat about ba burnt offering, which is an offering of an individual, andyet it bcomesas ba maleanimal but does bnot comeas ba femaleanimal.,The Gemara answers that bthere is a bird burnt offering,i.e., there is a type of burnt offering that can be either a female or male bird. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The requirement of bunblemished status andthe requirement of bmale statusboth apply to a sacrificial banimalbrought as a burnt offering, bbutthe requirement of bunblemished status andthe requirement of bmale statusdo bnotapply to sacrificial bbirdsbrought as burnt offerings.,The Gemara objects: bButwhat about ba sin offering, which is an offering of an individual, andyet bcomesas ba femaleanimal but does bnot comeas ba maleanimal. The Gemara explains: Although burnt offerings of an individual must be female, bthere is the goat sin offering of a king, whichis sacrificed by a specific individual and bis broughtspecifically as ba maleanimal.,The Gemara further objects: bBut there isthe bindividual guilt offering, which comesas ba maleanimal but does bnot comeas ba femaleanimal. The Gemara explains: bWhen the Sages statedthis ihalakhain the mishna they were referring only to ban offering that is equivalent,i.e., which is brought bbothas ban offering of an individual andas ba communaloffering, whereas ba guilt offering isbrought as ban offering of an individualbut bis notbrought as ba communaloffering. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead an alternative explanation: bDoesthe mishna bteach: All offeringsmay be brought as either male or female? It does not. Rather, the mishna bteaches: There are offeringsof an individual that may be brought as male or female; band what are they? Peace offerings; andin the case of such an offering, bifone bwants he brings a femaleanimal band ifhe bwants he brings a maleanimal.,§ The mishna teaches: If bofferings of an individualwere not brought at the appropriate time, one is bobligated tobring btheir compensationand compensation for their accompanying meal offering and libations at a later date, whereas if communal offerings were not brought at the appropriate time, one is obligated to bring neither their compensation nor compensation for their accompanying meal offering and libations at a later date. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i, that if a communal offering was not sacrificed at the appropriate time it is not brought at a later stage?,The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states in the section of the Torah dealing with additional offerings: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to bring an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt offering, and a meal offering, a sacrifice, and libations, beach dayon its own day” (Leviticus 23:37). This bteaches that the entire day is fit forbringing the badditionalofferings. The term: b“On its own day,” teaches that if the day has passed andthe priests bdid not bringthe additional offerings, bone is not obligated tobring btheir compensation,and the offering cannot be brought at a later date.,The ibaraitacontinues: One bmighthave thought that bone should not be obligated tobring bcompensationfor btheiraccompanying blibationsat a later date beven if theadditional boffering has been sacrificed,e.g., if there were no meal offerings or libations available at that time. Therefore, bthe verse states,in the chapter dealing with the additional offerings of the Festivals: b“Their meal offerings and their libations”(Numbers 29:37). It is derived from here that the meal offerings and libations which are brought with the additional animal offerings of the Festivals can be sacrificed even bin the nightafter the animal offering. The phrase b“their meal offerings and their libations”further teaches that these meal offerings and libations can be sacrificed even bon the following day. /b, bReish Lakish saidthat the source is from the following verse: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to bring an offering made by fire unto the Lord…each on its own day; bbeside the iShabbatotof the Lord”(Leviticus 23:37–38). The verse is expounded as speaking of a Festival that occurred on a Sunday, and therefore it is teaching that the meal offerings and libations for the additional offerings of the previous Shabbat may be brought on the following Festival day., bAndthe Gemara notes that both verses are bnecessary, as if the Merciful One had writtenonly the verse: b“Beside the iShabbatotof the Lord,” I would saythat bon the dayfollowing Shabbat, byes,one may bring the offerings, bbut on the nightafter Shabbat, bno,one may not bring them, just as the offering itself could not have been brought at night. Therefore, bthe verse states: “And their meal offerings and their libations.” And if the Merciful One had writtenonly: b“Their meal offerings and their libations,” and not written: “Beside the iShabbatotof the Lord,” I would saythat bat night, yes,the offerings may be brought, bbut on thefollowing bdaythey may bnotbe brought.,The Gemara asks: bAndin bwhatway bisthe night bdifferent fromthe day, that one might have thought the outstanding meal offerings and libations may be brought only at night but not during the day? The Gemara explains bthatone might have thought so because bwith regard to sacrificialanimals and offerings the bnight follows the day.Therefore, the Torah had to teach that the meal offering and libations may be brought even the following day. The Gemara concludes that indeed both verses bare necessary. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd libations, may they be sacrificed at night? Didn’t we learnin a ibaraita /i: bI havederived bonlywith regard to bitems that are normally sacrificed at night, for example, the limbsof a burnt offering band the fatsof burnt offerings and other offerings, bthat one sacrificesthem bafter sunset and they are consumed throughout the entire night.This is derived from the verse: “This is the law of the burnt offering: It is that which goes up on its firewood upon the altar all night unto the morning” (Leviticus 6:2).,The ibaraitacontinues: But with regard to bitems that are normally sacrificed in the day, for example the handfulof the meal offering, and bthe frankincense, and the meal offeringthat accompanies bthe libations,from where is it derived bthat one may bring them upand burn them bafter sunset?The Gemara asks: Would it benter your mindthat they may be burned bafter sunset? But didn’t you saythat these are bitems that are normally sacrificed in the day? Rather,the question of the ibaraitais as follows: bFrom whereis it derived that these items may be sacrificed bwith sunset,i.e., just before sunset, binwhich case bthey are consumed throughout the entire nightand not during the day? bThe verse states: “This is the law of the burnt offering”(Leviticus 6:2), a phrase that bincludedeverything sacrificed on the altar.,The Gemara reiterates its previous difficulty: bIn any event,the ibaraita bteachesthat the meal offering that accompanies the blibationsis brought only bin the day,not at night. bRami bar Ḥama saidthat this is bnot difficult. Here,where the verse states: “Their meal offerings and libations,” it is referring bto consecratingthe offering if one placed it in a consecrated utensil at night. The offering becomes consecrated and may not be used for non-sacred purposes. bThere,in the verse cited by the ibaraitaas teaching that it may be brought only in the day and not at night, it is referring bto sacrificingthe offering on the altar. Even if an offering was consecrated at night, it may not be sacrificed until the following morning., bRava said toRami bar Ḥama: bIfthe meal offering accompanying the libations bcan be consecratedat night, it should also be fit bto be sacrificedat night. No distinction can be made between consecrating and sacrificing, as bisn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThis is the principle: Anyoffering bthat is sacrificed in the day is consecrated only in the day; and anyoffering bthat is sacrificed at night is consecratedonly bat night;and any offering that is sacrificed bboth in the day and at night is consecratedboth bin the day and at night. Rather, Rav Yosef said:The meal offering accompanying the libations may be sacrificed at night, and therefore one should bdelete from this ibaraita /ithe item: Meal offering that accompanies bthe libations,from the list of the offerings that may not be brought at night.,With regard to Rav Yosef’s claim that the item: Meal offering that accompanies the libations, should be removed from the ibaraita /i, the Gemara states: bWhen Rav Dimi ascendedfrom Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael, bhe found Rav Yirmeya sitting and saying in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: From whereis it derived that blibations that come withan animal boffering may be sacrificed only in the day? The verse states:“These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your voluntary offerings, and your burnt offerings, and your meal offerings, band your libations, and your peace offerings”(Numbers 29:39). The juxtaposition of these two items teaches that bjust as peace offeringsmay be sacrificed only during bthe day, so too libationsmay be sacrificed only during bthe day. /b,Rav Dimi bsaidto Rav Yirmeya: bIf I findsomeone bwhocan bwritethis opinion in ba letter,I will bsend it to Rav Yosefin Babylonia
39. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.38, 12.1, 13.12.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

40. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-159, 16, 160-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 2, 20, 200-209, 21, 210-219, 22, 220-229, 23, 230-239, 24, 240-249, 25, 250-259, 26, 260-269, 27, 270-279, 28, 280-289, 29, 290-299, 3, 300-309, 31, 310-319, 32, 320-322, 33-39, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(great) library of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54, 201, 234
adoulis inscription Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
aegyptiaca Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
aggada Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
alexander the great Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
alexandria, jewish community of Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 172
alexandria, philos perspective on Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
alexandria Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 148, 322, 435
alexandrian library Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
allegorical interpretation/allegory Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 148
alphabet Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 120
ambassadors Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245, 322
ammi son of r. hiya bar abba, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
andreas, companion of aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
andreas Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
antiochus, iv Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
antiochus, vii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
antiochus iii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
apology Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43
aramaic, square script Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 322
aristarchus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
aristeas Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34
aristeas (narrator) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160, 322, 447
aristeas colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34
aristobulus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149
aristobulus (= aristobulos) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
arsinoë ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
authenticity, of the septuagint Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
ben sira/sirach Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 108
bible, books Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43
bowls Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
brother and sister gods Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
canon Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 89
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 148, 149, 150
clement of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
cleopatra ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
cleopatra iii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
coele-syria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
courtiers Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
critical signs Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34
cyprus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
dead sea scrolls Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
decree/s, edict, memoranda (prostagma) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143
demetrius, in letter of aristeas, epistle of Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
demetrius of phalerum Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54, 201, 234; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 146, 149, 150, 154, 160, 245, 322, 435, 447
dimi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
documents, official Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143, 144, 145, 160
dreams Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 147, 148
edict Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143, 145
education Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245
egypt Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43, 89; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 149, 160
egyptians Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 120, 145, 160
ekdosis Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 89
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 120, 145, 148, 149, 245, 322, 447
eleazar (high priest in letter of aristeas), unnamed in philo of alexandrias account of the ptolemaic embassy to jerusalem Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233, 241
elephantine Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
embassy Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245
emendation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ethnic boundaries/identity/markers Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
eusebius Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
eusebius of caesarea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 143
exodus story, ps.-aristeass rewriting Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234
frame narrative/story Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
friends, of the king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245
fringes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
galen Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34
genre Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
gentiles, non-jews (christians, muslims) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233
gershom, rabbenu Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
gifts, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 145, 154, 322
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
government Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
greek, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
greek, literature/sources Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 71, 120, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 245
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 108, 120, 146, 147, 148, 154, 245, 322, 435, 447
hasmonean period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
hasmoneans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245, 322
hebrew, expressions Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
hebrew, letters Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 145
hebrew, text, parent/source Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 120, 149, 150
hebrew Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 108, 120, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 245, 322
hebrew bible Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34
hecataeus of abdera Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
hefzibah inscription Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
hellenistic judaism, allegorists Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 172
hellenistic judaism, religious divisions in Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 172
hesiod Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 241
hieroglyphs Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 120
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 145, 149, 150, 322
hizkia, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
homer Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 241; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 148, 435
homeric scholarship/exegesis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 146, 147
identity, jewish/ethnic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
inscriptions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 144, 154
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 120, 148
israel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
jerusalem, as imagined in the letter of aristeas Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54
jerusalem, in letter of aristeas Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233, 241
jerusalem, ptolemy ii and Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 241
jerusalem, second temple Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 241
jerusalem, temple Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54
jerusalem Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 108, 145, 149, 322
jewish prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
jews/judeans Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234
jews in alexandria, politeuma/πολίτευμα Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 201, 202
john son of eupolemus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 143, 154, 160
judaea (judea), high priest of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233
judaea (judea), ptolemaic administration of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 241
judaism, alexandrian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 120, 147, 149, 150
judea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 322
judeans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 120, 145, 149, 154, 245, 322
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 120, 143, 144, 148, 149, 150, 154, 160, 245, 322, 435, 447
kosher law / food laws Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149
land of israel Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
land of israel (palestine) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 108, 120, 143, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 154, 245, 447
legend Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43, 89
legislation, jewish/moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 108
letter of aristeas, eleazar Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 202, 234
letter of aristeas, inclusion of jewish law into alexandrian library Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234
letter of aristeas, translation of the hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54, 234
letter of aristeas Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34
library, alexandria Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43, 89
library, athens Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 89
library Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
love Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 148
manumission/liberation of slaves Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
manuscripts, athenian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32, 34
memorandum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143, 144, 145
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
memory Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 149
mercenary Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
military Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
moses, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233, 241
moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 108, 435, 447
mount gerizim Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 202
museum/mouseion Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 54
myth, charter Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
myth, historical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 147, 148
myth, of origins Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
myth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 108, 148, 149, 322, 435, 447
oral or written ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
oral tradition Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 89
paleo-hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
papyri Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144, 145
patronage, royal/ptolemaic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 148, 154
pentateuch Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
persian, the Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
persians Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
petition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144
pharos Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 435
philip v Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
philo of alexandria Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185, 221; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 435
philocrates Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
philos perspective Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
philosophy Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149, 150
philosophystoic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149
phoenicia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
piety Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
plato Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 241; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149
plutarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
politeuma/politeumata Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
polybius Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108
priene Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143
priests, egyptian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
priests, production, point of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
pronoia/forethought/foresight Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
prostagma Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144, 160
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 71, 108, 120, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 160, 245, 322, 435, 447
pseudo-aristeas, and septuagint Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185, 221
pseudo-hecataeus, on abraham(?) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
pseudo-hecataeus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
ptolemaic, bureaucracy/bureaucratic language Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144
ptolemaic, officialdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 145
ptolemaic, period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144
ptolemaios ii philadelphos Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34
ptolemies, administration Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
ptolemy, seleucid governor Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
ptolemy Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
ptolemy i soter Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
ptolemy ii Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234
ptolemy ii philadelphus, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 233, 241
ptolemy ii philadelphus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 34, 120, 144, 145, 149, 150, 154, 160, 245, 322, 447
ptolemy iii euergetes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 154
ptolemy ix soter ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
ptolemy vi, child king Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 202
ptolemy vi philometor Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
ptolemy viii euergetes ii Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
ptolemy x alexander i Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 144
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
pythagoras Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149
qumran Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185
rabin Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
rashi Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
reader, alexandrian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
reader, jewish Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
reason Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 149, 150
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
resh lakish Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
ritual, washing Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
ritual theory Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
rome Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 245
sabbath Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
sacred scripture/s Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 148, 149
scripture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 147, 148, 149
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
seleucids Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
seleucus iv Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
septuagint, and philo Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185
septuagint, efforts to legitimize Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 172
septuagint, legend of the Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43
septuagint, pentateuch, hebraisms Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185
septuagint, readings and massoretic text Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185
septuagint, techniques of translators Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 185
septuagint, used by allegorists Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 172
septuagint/lxx, equivalent of/replacement for hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
septuagint/lxx, origins Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 146, 147, 148, 149
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71, 145, 147, 149, 150, 435, 447
septuagint Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 234
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 233, 241
septuagint lxx Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
slavery, jewish, in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225, 241
slaves/enslavement Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 143, 160
soldiers Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 160
solomon Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
strabo Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 435
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71
symposium Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
syria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
syrian wars, fifth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
syrian wars Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22
table Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 322
tefillin/phylacteries Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 148
temple, jewish, water system Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
temple, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 145, 322
temple, purity required of entrants' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 342
text-critical signs Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 147, 148
text criticism Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 34
theodektes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 146, 447
theopompus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 146, 447
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
torah Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 108, 147
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 225
transcription Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 120
translation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 22, 34, 71, 120, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 245, 435, 447
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71, 108, 148, 149, 150, 245, 322, 435
translators Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 32
travelogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 71
twelve tribes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 150
veritas hebraica Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43
virtue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 71
washing, judean ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
wisdom, jewish Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 43
wisdom/wisdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 447
yahwism, scriptures Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 201, 202
yehuda bar nahmani, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
yirmeya, rav Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
yohanan (ben nappaha), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
yosef, rav Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
yoshua ben levi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 30
zadokites Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 202