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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1162
Anon., Letter Of Aristeas, 226


nanHaving praised this answer the king ordered the next man to reply to the question, How he could maintain his great renown? and he replied that 'If you are generous and large-hearted in bestowing kindness and acts of grace upon others, you will never lose your renown, but if you wish the aforesaid graces to continue yours, you must call upon God continually.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.14-17.20, 19.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 19.4. וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ אֲשֶׁר־יָנוּס שָׁמָּה וָחָי אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּה אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ בִּבְלִי־דַעַת וְהוּא לֹא־שֹׂנֵא לוֹ מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם׃ 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 19.4. And this is the case of the manslayer, that shall flee thither and live: whoso killeth his neighbour unawares, and hated him not in time past;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.18. עַל־פִּי יְהוָה יִסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל־פִּי יְהוָה יַחֲנוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכֹּן הֶעָנָן עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן יַחֲנוּ׃ 9.18. At the commandment of the LORD the children of Israel journeyed, and at the commandment of the LORD they encamped: as long as the cloud abode upon the tabernacle they remained encamped."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.15. בִּי מְלָכִים יִמְלֹכוּ וְרוֹזְנִים יְחֹקְקוּ צֶדֶק׃ 8.15. By me kings reign, And princes decree justice."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְהָאוּלָם עַל־פְּנֵי הֵיכַל הַבַּיִת עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי רֹחַב הַבָּיִת עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַבָּיִת׃ 6.3. וְאֶת־קַרְקַע הַבַּיִת צִפָּה זָהָב לִפְנִימָה וְלַחִיצוֹן׃ 6.3. And the porch before the atemple of the house, twenty cubits was the length thereof, according to the breadth of the house; and ten cubits was the breadth thereof before the house."
6. Homer, Iliad, 9.443 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

9.443. /a mere child, knowing naught as yet of evil war, neither of gatherings wherein men wax preeminent. For this cause sent he me to instruct thee in all these things, to be both a speaker of words and a doer of deeds. Wherefore, dear child, I am not minded hereafter
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 29.12 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.12. וְהָעֹשֶׁר וְהַכָּבוֹד מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְאַתָּה מוֹשֵׁל בַּכֹּל וּבְיָדְךָ כֹּחַ וּגְבוּרָה וּבְיָדְךָ לְגַדֵּל וּלְחַזֵּק לַכֹּל׃ 29.12. Both riches and honour come of Thee, and Thou rulest over all; and in Thy hand is power and might; and in Thy hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all."
8. Herodotus, Histories, 7.24, 7.136 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.24. As far as I can judge by conjecture, Xerxes gave the command for this digging out of pride, wishing to display his power and leave a memorial; with no trouble they could have drawn their ships across the isthmus, yet he ordered them to dig a canal from sea to sea, wide enough to float two triremes rowed abreast. The same men who were assigned the digging were also assigned to join the banks of the river Strymon by a bridge. 7.136. This was their answer to Hydarnes. From there they came to Susa, into the king's presence, and when the guards commanded and would have compelled them to fall down and bow to the king, they said they would never do that. This they would refuse even if they were thrust down headlong, for it was not their custom, said they, to bow to mortal men, nor was that the purpose of their coming. Having averted that, they next said, ,“The Lacedaemonians have sent us, O king of the Medes, in requital for the slaying of your heralds at Sparta, to make atonement for their death,” and more to that effect. To this Xerxes, with great magimity, replied that he would not imitate the Lacedaemonians. “You,” said he, “made havoc of all human law by slaying heralds, but I will not do that for which I censure you, nor by putting you in turn to death will I set the Lacedaemonians free from this guilt.”
9. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 1.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.9. 4. However, I will not go to the other extreme, out of opposition to those men who extol the Romans, nor will I determine to raise the actions of my countrymen too high; but I will prosecute the actions of both parties with accuracy. Yet shall I suit my language to the passions I am under, as to the affairs I describe, and must be allowed to indulge some lamentations upon the miseries undergone by my own country. 1.9. 4. However, when he fought with Obodas, king of the Arabians, who had laid an ambush for him near Golan, and a plot against him, he lost his entire army, which was crowded together in a deep valley, and broken to pieces by the multitude of camels. And when he had made his escape to Jerusalem, he provoked the multitude, which hated him before, to make an insurrection against him, and this on account of the greatness of the calamity that he was under.
10. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 1.3.18 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.3.18. Yes, my son, said she; but at your grandfather’s Median vs. Persian ideals of justice court they do not recognize the same principles of justice as they do in Persia . For he has made himself master of everything in Media, but in Persia equality of rights is considered justice. And your father is the first one to do what is ordered by the State and to accept what is decreed, and his standard is not his will but the law. Mind, therefore, that you be not flogged within an inch of your life, when you come home, if you return with a knowledge acquired from your grandfather here of the principles not of kingship but of tyranny, one principle of which is that it is right for one to have more than all. But your father, at least, said Cyrus, is more shrewd at teaching people to have less than to have more, mother. Why, do you not see, he went on, that he has taught all the Medes to have less than himself? So never fear that your father, at any rate, will turn either me or anybody else out trained under him to have too much.
11. Theocritus, Idylls, 17.95-17.130 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.4, 11.21, 19.26, 37.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.4. The government of the earth is in the hands of the Lord,and over it he will raise up the right man for the time. 10.4. Do not boast about wearing fine clothes,nor exalt yourself in the day that you are honored;for the works of the Lord are wonderful,and his works are concealed from men. 19.26. There is a rascal bowed down in mourning,but inwardly he is full of deceit. 37.7. Every counselor praises counsel,but some give counsel in their own interest.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.3, 10.4, 11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.3. For your dominion was given you from the Lord,and your sovereignty from the Most High,who will search out your works and inquire into your plans. 10.4. When the earth was flooded because of him,wisdom again saved it,steering the righteous man by a paltry piece of wood. 11.21. For it is always in thy power to show great strength,and who can withstand the might of thy arm?
14. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.70-1.72, 31.14, 40.3.3, 40.3.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.70. 1.  In the first place, then, the life which the kings of the Egyptians lived was not like that of other men who enjoy autocratic power and do in all matters exactly as they please without being held to account, but all their acts were regulated by prescriptions set forth in laws, not only their administrative acts, but also those that had to do with the way in which they spent their time from day to day, and with the food which they ate.,2.  In the matter of their servants, for instance, not one was a slave, such as had been acquired by purchase or born in the home, but all were sons of the most distinguished priests, over twenty years old and the best educated of their fellow-countrymen, in order that the king, by virtue of his having the noblest men to care for his person and to attend him throughout both day and night, might follow no low practices; for no ruler advances far along the road of evil until he has those about him who will minister to his passions.,3.  And the hours of both the day and night were laid out according to a plan, and at the specified hours it was absolutely required of the king that he should do what the laws stipulated and not what he thought best.,4.  For instance, in the morning, as soon as he was awake, he first of all had to receive the letters which had been sent from all sides, the purpose being that he might be able to despatch all administrative business and perform every act properly, being thus accurately informed about everything that was being done throughout his kingdom. Then, after he had bathed and bedecked his body with rich garments and the insignia of his office, he had to sacrifice to the gods.,5.  When the victims had been brought to the altar it was the custom for the high priest to stand near the king, with the common people of Egypt gathered around, and pray in a loud voice that health and all the other good things of life be given the king if he maintains justice towards his subjects.,6.  And an open confession had also to be made of each and every virtue of the king, the priest saying that towards the gods he was piously disposed and towards men most kindly; for he was self-controlled and just and magimous, truthful, and generous with his possessions, and, in a word, superior to every desire, and that he punished crimes less severely than they deserved and rendered to his benefactors a gratitude exceeding the benefaction.,7.  And after reciting much more in a similar vein he concluded his prayer with a curse concerning things done in error, exempting the king from all blame therefor and asking that both the evil consequences and the punishment should fall upon those who served him and had taught him evil things.,8.  All this he would do, partly to lead the king to fear the gods and live a life pleasing to them, and partly to accustom him to a proper manner of conduct, not by sharp admonitions, but through praises that were agreeable and most conductive to virtue.,9.  After this, when the king had performed the divination from the entrails of a calf and had found the omens good, the sacred scribe read before the assemblage from out of the sacred books some of the edifying counsels and deeds of their most distinguished men, in order that he who held the supreme leadership should first contemplate in his mind the most excellent general principles and then turn to the prescribed administration of the several functions.,10.  For there was a set time not only for his holding audiences or rendering judgments, but even for his taking a walk, bathing, and sleeping with his wife, and, in a word, for every act of his life.,11.  And it was the custom for the kings to partake of delicate food, eating no other meat than veal and duck, and drinking only a prescribed amount of wine, which was not enough to make them unreasonably surfeited or drunken.,12.  And, speaking generally, their whole diet was ordered with such continence that it had the appearance of having been drawn up, not by a lawgiver, but by the most skilled of their physicians, with only their health in view. 1.71. 1.  Strange as it may appear that the king did not have the entire control of his daily fare, far more remarkable still was the fact that kings were not allowed to render any legal decision or transact any business at random or to punish anyone through malice or in anger or for any other unjust reason, but only in accordance with the established laws relative to each offence.,2.  And in following the dictates of custom in these matters, so far were they from being indigt or taking offence in their souls, that, on the contrary, they actually held that they led a most happy life;,3.  for they believed that all other men, in thoughtlessly following their natural passions, commit many acts which bring them injuries and perils, and that oftentimes some who realize that they are about to commit a sin nevertheless do base acts when overpowered by love or hatred or some other passion, while they, on the other hand, by virtue of their having cultivated a manner of life which had been chosen before all others by the most prudent of all men, fell into the fewest mistakes.,4.  And since the kings followed so righteous a course in dealing with their subjects, the people manifested a goodwill towards their rulers which surpassed even the affection they had for their own kinsmen; for not only the order of the priests but, in short, all the inhabitants of Egypt were less concerned for their wives and children and their other cherished possessions than for the safety of their kings.,5.  Consequently, during most of the time covered by the reigns of the kings of whom we have a record, they maintained an orderly civil government and continued to enjoy a most felicitous life, so long as the system of laws described was in force; and, more than that, they conquered more nations and achieved greater wealth than any other people, and adorned their lands with monuments and buildings never to be surpassed, and their cities with costly dedications of every description. 1.72. 1.  Again, the Egyptian ceremonies which followed upon the death of a king afforded no small proof of the goodwill of the people towards their rulers; for the fact that the honour which they paid was to one who was insensible of it constituted an authentic testimony to its sincerity.,2.  For when any king died all the inhabitants of Egypt united in mourning for him, rending their garments, closing the temples, stopping the sacrifices, and celebrating no festivals for seventy-two days; and plastering their heads with mud and wrapping strips of linen cloth below their breasts, women as well as men went about in groups of two or three hundred, and twice each day, reciting the dirge in a rhythmic chant, they sang the praises of the deceased, recalling his virtues; nor would they eat the flesh of any living thing or food prepared from wheat, and they abstained from wine and luxury of any sort.,3.  And no one would ever have seen fit to make use of baths or unguents or soft bedding, nay more, would not even have dared to indulge in sexual pleasures, but every Egyptian grieved and mourned during those seventy-two days as if it were his own beloved child that had died.,4.  But during this interval they had made splendid preparations for the burial, and on the last day, placing the coffin containing the body before the entrance to the tomb, they set up, as custom prescribed, a tribunal to sit in judgment upon the deeds done by the deceased during his life.,5.  And when permission had been given to anyone who so wished to lay complaint against him, the priests praised all his noble deeds one after another, and the common people who had gathered in myriads to the funeral, listening to them, shouted their approval if the king had led a worthy life,,6.  but if he had not, they raised a clamour of protest. And in fact many kings have been deprived of the public burial customarily accorded them because of the opposition of the people; the result was, consequently, that the successive kings practised justice, not merely for the reasons just mentioned, but also because of their fear of the despite which would be shown their body after death and of eternal obloquy. of the customs, then, touching the early kings these are the most important. 31.14. 1.  Eumenes, having recruited a force of mercenary troops, not only gave all of them their pay, but honoured some with gifts and beguiled them all with promises, evoking their goodwill; in this he did not at all resemble Perseus. For Perseus, when twenty thousand Gauls arrived to join him in the war against Rome, alienated this great body of allies in order to husband his wealth. Eumenes, however, though not over rich, when enlisting foreign troops honoured with gifts all who were best able to render him service. Accordingly, the former, by adopting a policy, not of royal generosity, but of ignoble and plebeian meanness, saw the wealth he had guarded taken captive together with his whole kingdom, while the latter, by counting all things else second to victory, not only rescued his kingdom from great dangers but also subjugated the whole nation of the Gauls.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 85-89, 84 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

84. Very beautifully, therefore, does the lawgiver in his recommendations, teach us not to elect as a chief, a man who is a breeder of horses, thinking that such a one is altogether unsuited to exercise authority, inasmuch as he is in a frenzy about pleasures and appetites, and intolerable loves, and rages about like an unbridled and unmanageable horse. For he speaks thus, "Thou shalt not be able to set over thyself a man that is a stranger, because he is not thy brother; because he will not multiply for himself his horses, and will not turn his people towards Egypt.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 41-43, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. And she was attended by piety, and holiness, and truth, and right, and purity, and an honest regard for an oath, and justice, and equality, and adherence to one's engagements and communion, and prudent silence, and temperance, and orderliness, and meekness, and abstemiousness, and contentment, and good-temper, and modesty, and an absence of curiosity about the concerns of others, and manly courage, and a noble disposition and wisdom in counsel, and prudence, and forethought, and attention, and correctness, and cheerfulness, and humanity, and gentleness, and courtesy, and love of one's kind, and magimity, and happiness, and goodness. One day would fail me if I were to enumerate all the names of the particular virtues.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.157-4.169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.157. The all-wise Moses seeing this by the power of his own soul, makes no mention of any authority being assigned by lot, but he has chosen to direct that all offices shall be elected to; therefore he says, "Thou shalt not appoint a stranger to be a ruler over thee, but one of thine own Brethren,"{37}{#de 17:15.} implying that the appointment is to be a voluntary choice, and an irreproachable selection of a ruler, whom the whole multitude with one accord shall choose; and God himself will add his vote on favour of, and set his seal to ratify such an election, that being who is the confirmer of all advantageous things, looking upon the man so chosen as the flower of his race, just as the sight is the best thing in the body.XXXI. 4.158. And Moses gives also two reasons, on account of which it is not proper for strangers to be elected to situations of authority; in the first place, that they may not amass a quantity of silver, and gold, and flocks, and raise great and iniquitously earned riches for themselves, out of the poverty of those who are subjected to them; and secondly, that they may not make the nation quit their ancient abodes to gratify their own covetous desires, and so compel them to emigrate, and to wander about to and fro in interminable wanderings, suggesting to them hopes of the acquisition of greater blessings, which shall never be fulfilled, by which they come to lose those advantages of which they were in the secure enjoyment. 4.159. For our lawgiver was aware beforehand, as was natural that one who was a countryman and a relation, and who had also an especial share in the sublimest relationship of all, (and that sublimest of relationships is one constitution and the same law, and one God whose chosen nation is a peculiar people 4.160. And from the first day on which any one enters upon his office, he orders that he shall write out a copy of the book of the Law{38}{#de 17:18.} with his own hand, which shall supply him with a summary and concise image of all the laws, because he wishes that all the ordices which are laid down in it shall be firmly fixed in his soul; for while a man is reading the notions of what he is reading fleet away, being carried off by the rapidity of his utterance; but if he is writing they are stamped upon his heart at leisure, and they take up their abode in the heart of each individual as his mind dwells upon each particular, and settles itself to the contemplation of it, and does not depart to any other object, till it has taken a firm hold of that which was previously submitted to it. 4.161. When therefore he is writing, let him take care, every day, to read and study what he has written, both in order that he may thus attain to a continual and unchangeable recollection of these commands which are virtuous and expedient for all men to observe, and also that a firm love of and desire for them may be implanted in him, by reason of his soul being continually taught and accustomed to apply itself to the study and observance of the sacred laws. For familiarity, which has been engendered by long acquaintance, engenders a sincere and pure friendship, not only towards men, but even also towards such branches of learning as are worthy to be loved; 4.162. and this will take place if the ruler studies not the writings and memorials of some one else but those which he himself has written out; for his own works are, in a certain degree, more easily to be understood by each individual, and they are also more easily to be comprehended; 4.163. and besides that a man, while he is reading them, will have such considerations in his mind as these: "I wrote all this; I who am a ruler of such great power, without employing any one else as my scribe, though I had innumerable servants. Did I do all this, in order to fill up a volume, like those who copy out books for hire, or like men who practise their eyes and their hands, training the one to acuteness of sight, and the others to rapidity of writing? Why should I have done this? That was not the case; I did it in order that after I had recorded these things in a book, I might at once proceed to impress them on my heart, and that I might stamp upon my intellect their divine and indelible characters: 4.164. other kings bear sceptres in their hands, and sit upon thrones in royal state, but my sceptre shall be the book of the copy of the law; that shall be my boast and my incontestible glory, the signal of my irreproachable sovereignty, created after the image and model of the archetypal royal power of God. 4.165. And by always relying upon and supporting myself in the scared laws, I shall acquire the most excellent things. In the first place equality, than which it is not possible to discern any greater blessing, for insolence and excessive haughtiness are the signs of a narrow-minded soul, which does not foresee the future. 4.166. Equality, therefore, will win me good will from all who are subject to my power, and safety inasmuch as they will bestow on me a just requital for by kindness; but inequality will bring upon me terrible dangers, and these I shall escape by hating inequality, the purveyor of darkness and wars; and my life will be in no danger of being plotted against, because I honour equality, which has no connection with seditions, but which is the parent of light and stability. 4.167. Moreover, I shall gain another advantage, namely, that I shall not sway this way and that way, like the dishes in a scale, in consequence of perverting and distorting the commandments laid down for my guidance. But I shall endeavour to keep them, going through the middle of the plain road, keeping my own steps straight and upright, in order that I may attain to a life free from error or misfortune. 4.168. And Moses was accustomed to call the middle road the royal one, inasmuch as it lay between excess and deficiency; and besides, more especially, because in the number three the centre occupies the most important place, uniting the extremities on either side by an indissoluble chain, it being attended by these extremities as its bodyguards as though it were a king. 4.169. Moreover, Moses says that a longenduring sovereignty is the reward of a lawful magistrate or ruler who honours equality, and who without any corruption gives just decisions in a just manner, always studying to observe the laws; not for the sake of granting him a life extending over many years, combined with the administration of the commonwealth, but in order to teach those who do not understand that a governor who rules in accordance with the laws, even though he die, does nevertheless live a long life by means of his actions which he leaves behind him as immortal, the indestructible monuments of his piety and virtue.XXXIII.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 90, 182 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

182. for those who come over to this worship become at once prudent, and temperate, and modest, and gentle, and merciful, and humane, and venerable, and just, and magimous, and lovers of truth, and superior to all considerations of money or pleasure; just as, on the contrary, one may see that those who forsake the holy laws of God are intemperate, shameless, unjust, disreputable, weak-minded, quarrelsome, companions of falsehood and perjury, willing to sell their liberty for luxurious eating, for strong wine, for sweetmeats, and for beauty, for pleasures of the belly and of the parts below the belly; the miserable end of all which enjoyment is ruin to both body and soul.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.29-2.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.29. Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, was the third in succession after Alexander, the monarch who subdued Egypt; and he was, in all virtues which can be displayed in government, the most excellent sovereign, not only of all those of his time, but of all that ever lived; so that even now, after the lapse of so many generations, his fame is still celebrated, as having left many instances and monuments of his magimity in the cities and districts of his kingdom, so that even now it is come to be a sort of proverbial expression to call excessive magnificence, and zeal, for honour and splendour in preparation, Philadelphian, from his name; 2.30. and, in a word, the whole family of the Ptolemies was exceedingly eminent and conspicuous above all other royal families, and among the Ptolemies, Philadelphus was the most illustrious; for all the rest put together scarcely did as many glorious and praiseworthy actions as this one king did by himself, being, as it were, the leader of the herd, and in a manner the head of all the kings.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.49, 4.327-4.331, 7.390-7.391 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.49. So Moses sorted all that were fit for war into different troops, and set Joshua, the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, over them; one that was of great courage, and patient to undergo labors; of great abilities to understand, and to speak what was proper; and very serious in the worship of God; and indeed made like another Moses, a teacher of piety towards God. 4.327. 49. Now Moses lived in all one hundred and twenty years; a third part of which time, abating one month, he was the people’s ruler; and he died on the last month of the year, which is called by the Macedonians Dystrus, but by us Adar, on the first day of the month. 4.328. He was one that exceeded all men that ever were in understanding, and made the best use of what that understanding suggested to him. He had a very graceful way of speaking and addressing himself to the multitude; and as to his other qualifications, he had such a full command of his passions 4.329. as if he hardly had any such in his soul, and only knew them by their names, as rather perceiving them in other men than in himself. He was also such a general of an army as is seldom seen, as well as such a prophet as was never known, and this to such a degree, that whatsoever he pronounced, you would think you heard the voice of God himself. 4.331. nor were those that had experienced his conduct the only persons that desired him, but those also that perused the laws he left behind him had a strong desire after him, and by them gathered the extraordinary virtue he was master of. And this shall suffice for the declaration of the manner of the death of Moses. 7.391. He was also of very great abilities in understanding, and apprehension of present and future circumstances, when he was to manage any affairs. He was prudent and moderate, and kind to such as were under any calamities; he was righteous and humane, which are good qualities, peculiarly fit for kings; nor was he guilty of any offense in the exercise of so great an authority, but in the business of the wife of Uriah. He also left behind him greater wealth than any other king, either of the Hebrews or, of other nations, ever did.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.217-1.218, 2.45-2.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.217. It is true, many of the men before mentioned have made great mistakes about the true accounts of our nation in the earliest times, because they had not perused our sacred books; yet have they all of them afforded their testimony to our antiquity, concerning which I am now treating. 2.45. And for his successor Ptolemy, who was called Philadelphus, he did not only set all those of our nation free, who were captives under him, but did frequently give money [for their ransom]; and, what was his greatest work of all, he had a great desire of knowing our laws, and of obtaining the books of our sacred scriptures: 2.46. accordingly he desired that such men might be sent him as might interpret our law to him; and in order to have them well compiled, he committed that care to no ordinary persons, but ordained that Demetrius Phalereus, and Andreas, and Aristeas; the first, Demetrius, the most learned person of his age 2.47. and the others, such as were intrusted with the guard of his body, should take the care of this matter: nor would he certainly have been so desirous of learning our law and the philosophy of our nation had he despised the men that made use of it, or had he not indeed had them in great admiration. /p
23. Mishnah, Avot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. Ben Zoma said:Who is wise? He who learns from every man, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99). Who is mighty? He who subdues his [evil] inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:3). Who is rich? He who rejoices in his lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2) “You shall be happy” in this world, “and you shall prosper” in the world to come. Who is he that is honored? He who honors his fellow human beings as it is said: “For I honor those that honor Me, but those who spurn Me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30)."
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.18-1.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 1.25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser thanmen, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble;
25. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 11.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.4. Arrived before Thebes, In September, 335 B.C. Plutarch makes no mention of a previous expedition of Alexander into Southern Greece, immediately after Philip’s death, when he received the submission of all the Greek states except Sparta, and was made commander-in-chief of the expedition against Persia, in Philip’s place. See Arrian, Anab. i. 1. and wishing to give her still a chance to repent of what she had done, he merely demanded the surrender of Phoenix and Prothytes, and proclaimed an amnesty for those who came over to his side. But the Thebans made a counter-demand that he should surrender to them Philotas and Antipater, and made a counter-proclamation that all who wished to help in setting Greece free should range themselves with them; and so Alexander set his Macedonians to the work of war.
26. Plutarch, Comparison of Romulus With Theseus, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.5. give an excellent definition of love when they call it a ministration of the gods for the care and preservation of the young. For Ariadne’s love seems to have been, more than anything else, a god’s work, and a device whereby Theseus should be saved. And we should not blame her for loving him, but rather wonder that all men and women were not thus affected towards him; and if she alone felt this passion, I should say, for my part, that she was properly worthy of a god’s love, since she was fond of virtue, fond of goodness, and a lover of the highest qualities in man. 1.5. It is therefore my opinion that the philosopers Polemon, as cited in Morals, p. 780 d. give an excellent definition of love when they call it a ministration of the gods for the care and preservation of the young. For Ariadne’s love seems to have been, more than anything else, a god’s work, and a device whereby Theseus should be saved. And we should not blame her for loving him, but rather wonder that all men and women were not thus affected towards him; and if she alone felt this passion, I should say, for my part, that she was properly worthy of a god’s love, since she was fond of virtue, fond of goodness, and a lover of the highest qualities in man.
27. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.2. Four entered the orchard: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, another, and Rabbi Akiva. One looked and died. One looked and was harmed. One looked and cut down the trees. And one went up in peace and went down in peace. Ben Azzai looked and died. Scripture says about him (Psalms 116, 15): \"Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints\". Ben Zoma looked and was harmed. Scripture says about him (Proverbs 25, 16): \"Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee\" and the continuation. [Cont. of the verse: \"Lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.\" Elisha looked and cut down the trees. Scripture says about him (Ecclesiastes 5, 5): \"Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt\" etc. Rabbi Akiva went up in peace and went down in peace. Scripture says about him (Song of Songs 1, 4): \"Draw me, we will run after thee\" etc. They gave a parable: What is this similar to? To the orchard of a king and there is an attic above it. It is upon [the man] to look so long as he does not move [his eyes] from it. Another parable was given. What is this similar tp? To [a street] that passes between two paths, one of fire, and one of snow. If it leans one way, it gets burned [by the fire]. If it leans the other way it gets burned by the snow. A man must walk in the middle and not lean to or fro. A story of Rabbi Yehoshua [Who was walkin in the street and Ben Zoma came opposite him] he reached him and did not greet him. He said to him [from where and to where] Ben Zoma? He said to him: I was watching the creation, and there is not between the upper waters and the lower waters even a handbreadth. As it is written (Genesis 1, 2) \"and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters\". And it says (Deuteronomy 32, 11): \"As a vulture that stirreth up her nest\" etc. Just as the vulture flies over the nest, touching and not touching, so too there is not even a handbreadth between the upper waters and lower waters. Rabbi Yehoshua said to his students: Ben Zoma is already outside. In a few days, Ben Zoma passed away." 2.4. In their days they only argued about  laying of hands. There were five pairs. three of the first pairs said not to lay on hands and two of the other pairs said to lay on hands. Three were Nesi'im (princes) and two (of them) were the heads of courts. The words of R. Meir. R. Judah said Simon ben Shetah was Nasi (prince) and Judah ben Tabbai the head of the court....Said R. Yose: Originally there were no arguments in Israel. Rather, a 71 member court sat in the chamber of hewn stone and other courts of 23 existed in the cities of Erez Yisrael. And two courts of 3 apiece were in Jerusalem, one on the temple mount and one in Hayil. When one of them was necessary [a person] goes to the court in his city. No court (in his city)--[the person] goes to the court near his city. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court on the temple mount. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court in Hayil. If they heard they say to him; if not these and these arrive at the court in the chamber of hewn stone (And the court of the chamber of hewn stone even though it is 71, it can never have less than 23. If one of them needs to leave, he sees if there will be 23 he may leave; if not, he may not leave until there are 23. They would sit from the offering of the morning sacrifice until the offering of the afternoon sacrifice. And on sabbaths and Holidays they would enter the Beit Midrash on the temple mount.) If they heard they say to them, and if not, they establish a quorum and take a roll. If the majority says impure it is impure. If the majority says pure it is pure. From there the Halakhah (law) goes out widespread in Israel. When there increased the students of Shammai and Hillel who did not properly apprentice, conflict increased in Israel and it became as though there were two Torahs. And for there they would sit and inspect. Whoever was wise and humble and abundant and sin-fearing and mature and getting along with other people they make him a judge in his city. After being made a judge in his city they could elevate and set him on the temple mount and from there they could elevate and seat him in Hayil and from there they can elevate and seat him in the chamber of hewn stone and from there they sit and inspect the lineages of the priests and levites. A priest in whom has been found a blemish wears black and wraps in black, exits and leaves. One in whom not a blemish is found wears white and wraps in white, enters and serves with his brothers the priests. They would make a holiday that not a blemish was found among the children of Aaron. And he would bring a tenth of an Eifah of his own flour and do the service with his own hands even though it is not his priestly shift. A high priest and a regular priest who served before bringing their tenth of an Eifah their service is acceptable. 
28. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שהקב"ה מתפלל שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי תפלתם לא נאמר אלא תפלתי מכאן שהקב"ה מתפלל.,מאי מצלי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב יה"ר מלפני שיכבשו רחמי את כעסי ויגולו רחמי על מדותי ואתנהג עם בני במדת רחמים ואכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין.,תניא א"ר ישמעאל בן אלישע פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה' צבאות שהוא יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי ישמעאל בני ברכני אמרתי לו יה"ר מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין ונענע לי בראשו וקמ"ל שלא תהא ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שאין מרצין לו לאדם בשעת כעסו דכתיב (שמות לג, יד) פני ילכו והנחותי לך אמר לו הקב"ה למשה המתן לי עד שיעברו פנים של זעם ואניח לך,ומי איכא רתחא קמיה דקודשא בריך הוא,אין דתניא (תהלים ז, יב) ואל זועם בכל יום,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמנים ושמנה בשעה וזו היא רגע ואין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה שעה חוץ מבלעם הרשע דכתיב ביה (במדבר כד, טז) ויודע דעת עליון,השתא דעת בהמתו לא הוה ידע דעת עליון הוה ידע,אלא מלמד שהיה יודע לכוין אותה שעה שהקב"ה כועס בה,והיינו דאמר להו נביא לישראל (מיכה ו, ה) עמי זכר נא מה יעץ בלק מלך מואב וגו' מאי (מיכה ו, ה) למען דעת צדקות ה',א"ר אלעזר אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל דעו כמה צדקות עשיתי עמכם שלא כעסתי בימי בלעם הרשע שאלמלי כעסתי לא נשתייר משונאיהם של ישראל שריד ופליט,והיינו דקא"ל בלעם לבלק (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ומה אזעם לא זעם ה' מלמד שכל אותן הימים לא זעם.,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע א"ר אבין ואיתימא רבי אבינא רגע כמימריה.,ומנא לן דרגע רתח שנא' (תהלים ל, ו) כי רגע באפו חיים ברצונו ואב"א מהכא (ישעיהו כו, כ) חבי כמעט רגע עד יעבור זעם,ואימת רתח אמר אביי בהנך תלת שעי קמייתא כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולא וקאי אחד כרעא,כל שעתא ושעתא נמי קאי הכי,כל שעתא אית ביה שורייקי סומקי בההיא שעתא לית ביה שורייקי סומקי.,ההוא צדוקי דהוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי הוה קא מצער ליה טובא בקראי יומא חד שקל תרנגולא ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסא ועיין ביה סבר כי מטא ההיא שעתא אלטייה כי מטא ההיא שעתא ניים אמר ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא למעבד הכי (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו כתיב,וכתיב (משלי יז, כו) גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב,תנא משמיה דר' מאיר בשעה שהחמה זורחת וכל מלכי מזרח ומערב מניחים כתריהם בראשיהם ומשתחוים לחמה מיד כועס הקב"ה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי טובה מרדות אחת בלבו של אדם יותר מכמה מלקיות שנא' (הושע ב, ט) ורדפה את מאהביה וגו' ואמרה אלכה ואשובה אל אישי הראשון כי טוב לי אז מעתה וריש לקיש אמר יותר ממאה מלקיות שנאמר (משלי יז, י) תחת גערה במבין מהכות כסיל מאה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי שלשה דברים בקש משה מלפני הקב"ה ונתן לו בקש שתשרה שכינה על ישראל ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) הלוא בלכתך עמנו,בקש שלא תשרה שכינה על עובדי כוכבים ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) ונפלינו אני ועמך,בקש להודיעו דרכיו של הקב"ה ונתן לו שנא' (שמות לג, יג) הודיעני נא את דרכיך אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה יש צדיק וטוב לו ויש צדיק ורע לו יש רשע וטוב לו ויש רשע ורע לו אמר לו משה צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע רשע וטוב לו רשע בן צדיק רשע ורע לו רשע בן רשע:,אמר מר צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע איני והא כתיב (שמות לד, ז) פקד עון אבות על בנים וכתיב (דברים כד, טז) ובנים לא יומתו על אבות ורמינן קראי אהדדי,ומשנינן לא קשיא הא כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם הא כשאין אוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם,אלא הכי קא"ל צדיק וטוב לו צדיק גמור צדיק ורע לו צדיק שאינו גמור רשע וטוב לו רשע שאינו גמור רשע ורע לו רשע גמור,ופליגא דר' מאיר דא"ר מאיר שתים נתנו לו ואחת לא נתנו לו שנא' (שמות לג, יט) וחנתי את אשר אחון אע"פ שאינו הגון ורחמתי את אשר ארחם אע"פ שאינו הגון,(שמות לג, כ) ויאמר לא תוכל לראות את פני תנא משמיה דר' יהושע בן קרחה כך א"ל הקב"ה למשה כשרציתי לא רצית עכשיו שאתה רוצה איני רוצה,ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בשכר שלש זכה לשלש,בשכר (שמות ג, ו) ויסתר משה פניו זכה לקלסתר פנים בשכר כי ירא זכה (שמות לד, ל) לוייראו מגשת אליו בשכר מהביט זכה (במדבר יב, ח) לותמונת ה' יביט:,(שמות לג, כג)והסירתי את כפי וראית את אחרי אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא מלמד שהראה הקב"ה למשה קשר של תפילין:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי כל דבור ודבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה לטובה אפי' על תנאי לא חזר בו,מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם וגו' ואעשה אותך לגוי עצום אע"ג דבעא משה רחמי עלה דמלתא ובטלה אפ"ה אוקמה בזרעיה שנא' (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשום ואליעזר ויהיו בני אליעזר רחביה הראש וגו' ובני רחביה רבו למעלה וגו',ותני רב יוסף למעלה מששים רבוא אתיא רביה רביה כתיב הכא רבו למעלה וכתיב התם (שמות א, ז) ובני ישראל פרו וישרצו וירבו: 7a. Along the same lines, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays? As it is stated: “I will bring them to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in the house of My prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). The verse bdoes not saythe house of btheir prayer, but rather, “ /bthe house of bMy prayer”; from herewe see bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat doesGod bpray? /b, bRav Zutra bar Tovia saidthat bRav said: brGod says: bMay it be My will that My mercy will overcome My angertowards Israel for their transgressions, br band may My mercy prevail over Myother battributesthrough which Israel is punished, br band may I conductmyself btoward My children,Israel, bwith the attribute of mercy, br band may I enter before them beyond the letter of the law. /b,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha,the High Priest, said: bOnce,on Yom Kippur, bI entered the innermost sanctum,the Holy of Holies, bto offer incense, andin a vision bI saw Akatriel Ya, the Lord of Hosts,one of the names of God expressing His ultimate authority, bseated upon a high and exalted throne(see Isaiah 6). br bAnd He said to me: Yishmael, My son, bless Me. br bI said to Himthe prayer that God prays: b“May it be Your will that Your mercy overcome Your anger, br band may Your mercy prevail over Yourother battributes, br band may You act toward Your children with the attribute of mercy, br band may You enter before them beyond the letter of the law.”brThe Holy One, Blessed be He, bnodded His headand accepted the blessing. This event bteaches us that you should not take the blessing of an ordinary person lightly.If God asked for and accepted a man’s blessing, all the more so that a man must value the blessing of another man., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat one must not placate a person whilehe is in the throes of bhis anger,rather he should mollify him after he has calmed down? bAs it is written,when following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it had previously, God said to him: b“My face will go, and I will give you rest”(Exodus 33:14). Rabbi Yoḥa explained: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses: bWait until My face of wrath will pass and I will grant yourrequest. One must wait for a person’s anger to pass as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is there anger before the Holy One, Blessed be He?Can we speak of God using terms like anger?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, God becomes angry, as it is stated: “God vindicates the righteous, bGod is furious every day”(Psalms 7:12)., bHow muchtime does bHis angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? One fifty-eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eighth of an hour, that is a moment.The Gemara adds: bAnd no creature canprecisely bdetermine that momentwhen God becomes angry, bexcept for Balaam the wicked, about whom it is written: “He who knows the knowledge of the Most High”(Numbers 24:16).,This should not be understood to mean that Balaam was a full-fledged prophet. bNow,clearly, Balaam bdid not know the mind of his animal; and he did know the mind of the Most High?If he could not understand the rebuke of his donkey, he was certainly unable to understand the mind of the Most High., bRather, thisverse from Numbers bteaches thatBalaam bwas able toprecisely bdetermine the hour that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry.At that moment, Balaam would utter his curse and, through God’s anger, it would be fulfilled., bAnd that is what the prophet said to Israel: “My nation, remember what Balak king of Moab advised,and how Balaam, son of Beor, responded; from Shittim to Gilgal, so that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord” (Micah 6:5). bWhat ismeant by the statement: b“So that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”? /b, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: Know how many acts of kindness I performed on your behalf, that I did not become angry during the days of Balaam the wicked, for had I become angry, there would have been no remt or survivor remaining among the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaam’s curse went unfulfilled., bAnd that is what Balaam said to Balak: “How can I curse whom God has not cursed? And how can I condemn whom God has not condemned?”(Numbers 23:8). This verse bteaches that all those days,God bwas not angry. /b, bAnd howlong bdoes His angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said:A moment lasts as long as it takes bto say it [ irega /i] /b., bFrom where do wederive that God bisonly bangry for a moment? As it is stated: “His anger is but for a moment, His favor, for a lifetime”(Psalms 30:6). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead, bfrom here,as it is stated: b“Hide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passes”(Isaiah 26:20), meaning that God’s anger passes in a mere moment.,The Gemara asks: bWhen isthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bangry? Abaye said:God’s anger is revealed through animals. bDuring the first three hoursof the day, bwhen the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg.When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry.,The Gemara asks: The rooster balso stands that way every hour.What kind of sign is this?,The Gemara answers: The difference is that beveryother bhourwhen the rooster stands in that way, bthere are red streaksin his crest. But bwhenGod is angry, bthere are no red streaksin his crest.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset himby incessantly challenging the legitimacy of bverses. One day,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi btook a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bedupon which he sat band looked at it. He thought: When the momentof God’s anger barrives, I will curse himand be rid of him. bWhen the momentof God’s anger barrived,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bslept.When he woke up, bhe saidto himself: bConclude fromthe fact that I nodded off bthat it is not proper conduct to do so,to curse people, even if they are wicked. b“His mercy is over all His creations”(Psalms 145:9) bis writteneven with regard to sinners.,Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as bit is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good”(Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.,Explaining the cause of God’s anger, bit is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the sun rises and the kings of the East and the West place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry.Since this occurs in the early hours every day, God becomes angry at His world at that moment every day., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: A single regretor pang of guilt bin one’s heart is preferable to many lashesadministered by others that cause only physical pain, bas it is stated: “And she chases her lovers,but she does not overtake them; she seeks them, but she will not find them; band she will say ‘I will go and return to my first husband; for it was better for me then than now’”(Hosea 2:9). Remorse is more effective than any externally imposed punishment listed in the verses that follow (Hosea 2:11–19). bAnd Reish Lakish saidthat in the Bible, it seems that such remorse is bpreferable to one hundred lashes, as it is stated: “A rebuke enters deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred lashes to a fool”(Proverbs 17:10)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yoseiregarding Moses’ request that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it once had: Moses brequested three things from the Holy One, Blessed be He,at that time, ball of which were granted him. He requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israeland not leave, band He grantedit bto him, as it is stated:“For how can it be known that I have found grace in Your sight, I and Your people? bIs it not in that You go with us,so that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people that are on the face of the earth?” (Exodus 33:16). The request: Is it not in that You go with us, refers to the resting of the Divine Presence upon Israel.,Moses brequested that the Divine Presence not rest upon the nations of the world, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “So that we are distinguished, I and Your people,from all the people on the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16).,Lastly, Moses brequested that the waysin which bGodconducts the bworld be revealed to him, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “Show me Your waysand I will know You” (Exodus 33:13). brMoses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe. Why is it thatthe brighteous prosper, the righteous suffer,the bwicked prosper,the bwicked suffer? brGod bsaid to him: Moses, the righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho prospers is a wickedperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho suffers is a wicked person, the son of a wicked person,who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors.,The Gemara expands upon these righteous and wicked individuals: bThe Master said: The righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson. The Gemara asks: bIs it sothat one is always punished for his ancestors’ transgressions? bIsn’t it written: “He visits iniquity of the fathers upon the children,and upon the children’s children, unto the third and fourth generations” (Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is writtenelsewhere: “Fathers shall not die for their children, band children shall not be put to death for the fathers;every man shall die for his own transgression” (Deuteronomy 24:16). bAndthe Gemara braises a contradiction between the two verses. /b,The Gemara bresolvesthe contradiction: bThis is not difficult. Thisverse from Exodus, which states that God punishes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own. While thisverse from Deuteronomy, which states that descendants are not punished for the actions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they do not adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own,as it is stated: “I visit iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and fourth generations of my enemies” (Exodus 20:5).,A righteous person is clearly not punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bRather,it must be that God bsaid toMoses bas follows: br bThe righteousperson bwho prospers isa bcompletely righteousperson whose actions are entirely good and whose reward is entirely good both in this world and in the World-to-Come. br bThe righteousperson bwho suffers isone who is bnot a completely righteousperson. Because he does have some transgressions, he is punished in this world so that he will receive a complete reward in the World-to-Come. br bThe wickedperson bwho prospers isone who is bnot a completely wickedperson. God rewards him in this world for the good deeds that he performed, so that he will receive a complete punishment in the World-to-Come. brFinally, bthe wickedperson bwho suffers isa bcompletely wickedperson. Since he performed absolutely no mitzvot and deserves no reward, he receives only punishment both in this world and in the World-to-Come (Maharsha).,Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, that God granted Moses all three of his requests, bdisagrees withthat of bRabbi Meir,as bRabbi Meir said: Twoof Moses’ requests bwere granted to him, and one was not granted to him.God granted him that the Divine Presence would rest upon Israel and not leave, and that the Divine Presence would not rest upon the nations of the world, but God did not reveal to Moses the ways in which He conducts the world. bAs it is said: “And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious”(Exodus 33:19); in His mercy, God bestows His grace upon every person, beven though he is not worthy.Similarly, God says: b“And I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy,” even though he is not worthy.According to Rabbi Meir, the way in which God conducts the world and bestows grace and mercy was not revealed even to Moses.,The Gemara continues to cite the Sages’ explanation of verses that require clarification on the same topic. With regard to God’s statement to Moses, b“And He said: ‘You cannot see My face,for man shall not see Me and live’” (Exodus 33:20), bit was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses bas follows: When I wantedto show you My glory at the burning bush, byou did not wantto see it, as it is stated: “And Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6). But bnow that you wantto see My glory, as you said: “Show me Your glory,” bI do not wantto show it to you. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa interprets Moses’ initial refusal to look upon God’s glory negatively, as he rebuffed God’s desire to be close to him.,This bdisagrees withthat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatansaid, as bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:Specifically bas a reward for threeacts of humility in averting his glance at the burning bush, Moses bwas privilegedto experience bthreegreat revelations:,Because “Moses bconcealed his face,fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6), bhe was privileged tohave his bcountece [ ikelaster /i]glow. brBecause bhe “feared,” he was privileged that “they feared to approach him”(Exodus 34:30). brBecause he did not b“gaze,” he was privileged to “behold the likeness of the Lord”(Numbers 12:8).,What did Moses see? It is said: b“And I will remove My hand, and you will see My back,but My face you will not see” (Exodus 33:23). bRav Ḥana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida,the expression: “And you will see My back,” should be understood as follows: bThis teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He,Who, as mentioned above, wears phylacteries, bshowed him the knot of the phylacteriesof His head, which is worn on the back of the head.,On this subject, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Every statementto a person or to a nation bthat emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a promise bof good, even if it was conditional, He did not renegeon it. Ultimately, every promise made by God will be fulfilled., bFrom where do wederive that all of God’s promises are fulfilled? We know this bfrom Moses our teacher,as God promised and bsaid: “Leave Me alone; I will destroy themand blot out their name from under heaven; band I will make from you a nation mightierand greater than they” (Deuteronomy 9:14). bEven thoughMoses bprayedto have the decree repealed, bandit bwas nullified, the promise was fulfilledand Moses’ bdescendantsbecame a nation mightier and greater than the 600,000 Israelites in the desert. bAs it is statedwith regard to the Levites: b“The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer…and the sons of Eliezer were Reḥaviya the chief.And Eliezer had no other sons; band the sons of Reḥaviya were very many”(I Chronicles 23:15–17)., bAnd Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Many”means more bthan 600,000.This is learned through a verbal analogy between the words bmanyand bmany. It is written herewith regard to Reḥaviya’s sons: b“Were very many.” And it is written therewith regard to the Israelites in Egypt: b“And the children of Israel became numerous and multiplied and were very many,and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them” (Exodus 1:7). Just as when the children of Israel were in Egypt, very many meant that there were 600,000 of them, so too the descendants of Reḥaviya were 600,000.
30. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.38 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

31. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, None

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning
32. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 75



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(great) library of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
agent Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
alexandria, philos perspective on Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55, 237
allegorical interpretation/allegory Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
andreas, companion of aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
angels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
archytas, aristeas, letter of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
aristeas, letter of, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, aristotelian mean Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, critique of pagan religion Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, eleazars apology for the law Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, food laws Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, hellenistic accommodation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, mediating position Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
aristeas Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
aristeas (narrator) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
aristotle, doctrine of the mean Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristotle Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
arsinoe ii Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
ben sira/sirach Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 385
benefactions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
benefactor Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 385
bible, books Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
bockmuehl, markus Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
castle Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
chreia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
country Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
courage Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
court Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
culture, hellenistic Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
cynic, homily Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
cynic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
deputation to eleazar Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
digressions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
dreams Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
education Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
egypt Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 406
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
eleazar, high priest Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237, 369
eleazar, jewish high priest Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
eleazer Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
emendation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237
environment, cultural Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
epilogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ethnographers, hellenistic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
ethopoeia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
eusebius of caesarea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
exodus, book of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
exodus paradigm Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
exodus story, ps.-aristeass rewriting Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
fame Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 367, 368, 371, 377, 406
fear of god Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
friends, of the king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
gaius caligula Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
gentiles Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
gifts, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 335, 367, 368, 371, 377, 385, 406, 418
government Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 377
greek, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
greek, literature/sources Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
greek. see also ethnography education Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 151
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237, 369, 377
hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
hecataeus of abdera Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 371
hero-agent Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
hezekiah story, absence of greek philosophical terms in Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 151
high priest Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 151
high priests, vestments Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
house v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
identity, construction of Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
imitation of god Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
impartiality Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
incense Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
jerusalem Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
joshua Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 151
judaeans, of alexandria Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
judaism, alexandrian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
judaism in egypt, jewish responses to hellenistic culture Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
judea Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
justice Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335, 368, 418
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 55, 237, 335, 367, 368, 371, 377, 385, 406, 418
kingdom Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
kingship Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 335, 406
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237, 335, 418
leniency Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
letter of aristeas, eleazar Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
letter of aristeas, translation of the hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
literary forms Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
logos Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
love Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 368, 406
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
menedemus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 377
military Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
moderation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 367
monotheistic Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
moses, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
mosollamus story, not written by greek Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 151
myth, historical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55
narrator (aristeas, gentile) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
nomos, law of the judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
offering Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
papyri Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 406
paraphrasis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
parents Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 367
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
peace Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
peri basileus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
philomatheis Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
philos perspective Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
philosophers, jews as Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 368, 377
philosophystoic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 369, 371, 418
physis, as natural law Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
piety Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 368
plutarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
polis Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
politeia, of judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 385
priesthood, judaean Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
progymnasa (-mata) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
prologue (to ben sira) Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
pronoia/forethought/foresight Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 55, 237, 371, 377, 385, 418
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews, greek education of Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 151
pseudo-phocylides Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 371, 385
ptolemaic king Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
ptolemaios ii Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
ptolemy i Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 55
ptolemy ii Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 55
ptolemy ii philadelphus, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
ptolemy ii philadelphus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237, 371
purity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
representation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
reputation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335, 377, 406, 418
revelation Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
rhetoric/rhetorical, devices Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
rhetoric/rhetorical, handbook Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
rhetoric/rhetorical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
ring composition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ritual, washing Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual purity, as prerequisite for sacrifice Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
ruler cult Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 371
sacrifice/offering Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 368
scholem, gershom g. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
self-control Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 369
septuagint Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
sibylline oracle, third, letter of aristeas comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sibylline oracle, third Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sibylline oracles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sirach Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
slavery, jewish, in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
soldiers Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148
stoics Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
superiority, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 377
symposium/symposia, philosophical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
symposium/symposia, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55, 237, 335, 369, 371, 377, 385, 406, 418
synkrisis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
temple, in heaven, in rabbinic literature Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 141
temple, jewish, water system Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
temple Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
temple scroll Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
temple v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
theocritus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 237
theodektes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
translation, literal Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
translation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148, 151; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237, 368, 377
travelogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52
universal/-ism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 418
utopian literature/geography Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
van der horst, p. w.' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
variatio Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
vestments, high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
virtue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237, 371, 418
washing, judean ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
wealth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 367, 371
wisdom/wisdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 371
wisdom Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
worship Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
zeus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151