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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1162
Anon., Letter Of Aristeas, 187


nanTaking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom


nanTaking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom 188 unimpaired to the end? After pondering for a moment he replied, 'You could best establish its security if you were to imitate the unceasing benignity of God. For if you exhibit clemency and inflict mild punishments upon those who deserve them in accordance with their deserts, you will 189 turn them from evil and lead them to repentance.' The king praised the answer and then asked the next man, How he could do everything for the best in all his actions? And he replied, 'If a man maintains a just bearing towards all, he will always act rightly on every occasion, remembering that every thought is known to God. If you take the fear of God as your starting-point, you will never miss the goal.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.14-17.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 43.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.17-19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
4. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 5.8, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 13.24, 14.3, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 26.29-27.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 5.8, 11.24-11.26, 14.3, 14.8-14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.8. What has our arrogance profited us?And what good has our boasted wealth brought us? 11.24. For thou lovest all things that exist,and hast loathing for none of the things which thou hast made,for thou wouldst not have made anything if thou hadst hated it. 11.25. How would anything have endured if thou hadst not willed it?Or how would anything not called forth by thee have been preserved? 11.26. Thou sparest all things, for they are thine,O Lord who lovest the living. 14.3. but it is thy providence, O Father, that steers its course,because thou hast given it a path in the sea,and a safe way through the waves 14.8. But the idol made with hands is accursed, and so is he who made it;because he did the work, and the perishable thing was named a god.
9. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.70-1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.70. 1.  In the first place, then, the life which the kings of the Egyptians lived was not like that of other men who enjoy autocratic power and do in all matters exactly as they please without being held to account, but all their acts were regulated by prescriptions set forth in laws, not only their administrative acts, but also those that had to do with the way in which they spent their time from day to day, and with the food which they ate.,2.  In the matter of their servants, for instance, not one was a slave, such as had been acquired by purchase or born in the home, but all were sons of the most distinguished priests, over twenty years old and the best educated of their fellow-countrymen, in order that the king, by virtue of his having the noblest men to care for his person and to attend him throughout both day and night, might follow no low practices; for no ruler advances far along the road of evil until he has those about him who will minister to his passions.,3.  And the hours of both the day and night were laid out according to a plan, and at the specified hours it was absolutely required of the king that he should do what the laws stipulated and not what he thought best.,4.  For instance, in the morning, as soon as he was awake, he first of all had to receive the letters which had been sent from all sides, the purpose being that he might be able to despatch all administrative business and perform every act properly, being thus accurately informed about everything that was being done throughout his kingdom. Then, after he had bathed and bedecked his body with rich garments and the insignia of his office, he had to sacrifice to the gods.,5.  When the victims had been brought to the altar it was the custom for the high priest to stand near the king, with the common people of Egypt gathered around, and pray in a loud voice that health and all the other good things of life be given the king if he maintains justice towards his subjects.,6.  And an open confession had also to be made of each and every virtue of the king, the priest saying that towards the gods he was piously disposed and towards men most kindly; for he was self-controlled and just and magimous, truthful, and generous with his possessions, and, in a word, superior to every desire, and that he punished crimes less severely than they deserved and rendered to his benefactors a gratitude exceeding the benefaction.,7.  And after reciting much more in a similar vein he concluded his prayer with a curse concerning things done in error, exempting the king from all blame therefor and asking that both the evil consequences and the punishment should fall upon those who served him and had taught him evil things.,8.  All this he would do, partly to lead the king to fear the gods and live a life pleasing to them, and partly to accustom him to a proper manner of conduct, not by sharp admonitions, but through praises that were agreeable and most conductive to virtue.,9.  After this, when the king had performed the divination from the entrails of a calf and had found the omens good, the sacred scribe read before the assemblage from out of the sacred books some of the edifying counsels and deeds of their most distinguished men, in order that he who held the supreme leadership should first contemplate in his mind the most excellent general principles and then turn to the prescribed administration of the several functions.,10.  For there was a set time not only for his holding audiences or rendering judgments, but even for his taking a walk, bathing, and sleeping with his wife, and, in a word, for every act of his life.,11.  And it was the custom for the kings to partake of delicate food, eating no other meat than veal and duck, and drinking only a prescribed amount of wine, which was not enough to make them unreasonably surfeited or drunken.,12.  And, speaking generally, their whole diet was ordered with such continence that it had the appearance of having been drawn up, not by a lawgiver, but by the most skilled of their physicians, with only their health in view. 1.71. 1.  Strange as it may appear that the king did not have the entire control of his daily fare, far more remarkable still was the fact that kings were not allowed to render any legal decision or transact any business at random or to punish anyone through malice or in anger or for any other unjust reason, but only in accordance with the established laws relative to each offence.,2.  And in following the dictates of custom in these matters, so far were they from being indigt or taking offence in their souls, that, on the contrary, they actually held that they led a most happy life;,3.  for they believed that all other men, in thoughtlessly following their natural passions, commit many acts which bring them injuries and perils, and that oftentimes some who realize that they are about to commit a sin nevertheless do base acts when overpowered by love or hatred or some other passion, while they, on the other hand, by virtue of their having cultivated a manner of life which had been chosen before all others by the most prudent of all men, fell into the fewest mistakes.,4.  And since the kings followed so righteous a course in dealing with their subjects, the people manifested a goodwill towards their rulers which surpassed even the affection they had for their own kinsmen; for not only the order of the priests but, in short, all the inhabitants of Egypt were less concerned for their wives and children and their other cherished possessions than for the safety of their kings.,5.  Consequently, during most of the time covered by the reigns of the kings of whom we have a record, they maintained an orderly civil government and continued to enjoy a most felicitous life, so long as the system of laws described was in force; and, more than that, they conquered more nations and achieved greater wealth than any other people, and adorned their lands with monuments and buildings never to be surpassed, and their cities with costly dedications of every description. 1.72. 1.  Again, the Egyptian ceremonies which followed upon the death of a king afforded no small proof of the goodwill of the people towards their rulers; for the fact that the honour which they paid was to one who was insensible of it constituted an authentic testimony to its sincerity.,2.  For when any king died all the inhabitants of Egypt united in mourning for him, rending their garments, closing the temples, stopping the sacrifices, and celebrating no festivals for seventy-two days; and plastering their heads with mud and wrapping strips of linen cloth below their breasts, women as well as men went about in groups of two or three hundred, and twice each day, reciting the dirge in a rhythmic chant, they sang the praises of the deceased, recalling his virtues; nor would they eat the flesh of any living thing or food prepared from wheat, and they abstained from wine and luxury of any sort.,3.  And no one would ever have seen fit to make use of baths or unguents or soft bedding, nay more, would not even have dared to indulge in sexual pleasures, but every Egyptian grieved and mourned during those seventy-two days as if it were his own beloved child that had died.,4.  But during this interval they had made splendid preparations for the burial, and on the last day, placing the coffin containing the body before the entrance to the tomb, they set up, as custom prescribed, a tribunal to sit in judgment upon the deeds done by the deceased during his life.,5.  And when permission had been given to anyone who so wished to lay complaint against him, the priests praised all his noble deeds one after another, and the common people who had gathered in myriads to the funeral, listening to them, shouted their approval if the king had led a worthy life,,6.  but if he had not, they raised a clamour of protest. And in fact many kings have been deprived of the public burial customarily accorded them because of the opposition of the people; the result was, consequently, that the successive kings practised justice, not merely for the reasons just mentioned, but also because of their fear of the despite which would be shown their body after death and of eternal obloquy. of the customs, then, touching the early kings these are the most important.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 85-89, 84 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

84. Very beautifully, therefore, does the lawgiver in his recommendations, teach us not to elect as a chief, a man who is a breeder of horses, thinking that such a one is altogether unsuited to exercise authority, inasmuch as he is in a frenzy about pleasures and appetites, and intolerable loves, and rages about like an unbridled and unmanageable horse. For he speaks thus, "Thou shalt not be able to set over thyself a man that is a stranger, because he is not thy brother; because he will not multiply for himself his horses, and will not turn his people towards Egypt.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 41-43, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.157-4.169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.157. The all-wise Moses seeing this by the power of his own soul, makes no mention of any authority being assigned by lot, but he has chosen to direct that all offices shall be elected to; therefore he says, "Thou shalt not appoint a stranger to be a ruler over thee, but one of thine own Brethren,"{37}{#de 17:15.} implying that the appointment is to be a voluntary choice, and an irreproachable selection of a ruler, whom the whole multitude with one accord shall choose; and God himself will add his vote on favour of, and set his seal to ratify such an election, that being who is the confirmer of all advantageous things, looking upon the man so chosen as the flower of his race, just as the sight is the best thing in the body.XXXI. 4.158. And Moses gives also two reasons, on account of which it is not proper for strangers to be elected to situations of authority; in the first place, that they may not amass a quantity of silver, and gold, and flocks, and raise great and iniquitously earned riches for themselves, out of the poverty of those who are subjected to them; and secondly, that they may not make the nation quit their ancient abodes to gratify their own covetous desires, and so compel them to emigrate, and to wander about to and fro in interminable wanderings, suggesting to them hopes of the acquisition of greater blessings, which shall never be fulfilled, by which they come to lose those advantages of which they were in the secure enjoyment. 4.159. For our lawgiver was aware beforehand, as was natural that one who was a countryman and a relation, and who had also an especial share in the sublimest relationship of all, (and that sublimest of relationships is one constitution and the same law, and one God whose chosen nation is a peculiar people 4.160. And from the first day on which any one enters upon his office, he orders that he shall write out a copy of the book of the Law{38}{#de 17:18.} with his own hand, which shall supply him with a summary and concise image of all the laws, because he wishes that all the ordices which are laid down in it shall be firmly fixed in his soul; for while a man is reading the notions of what he is reading fleet away, being carried off by the rapidity of his utterance; but if he is writing they are stamped upon his heart at leisure, and they take up their abode in the heart of each individual as his mind dwells upon each particular, and settles itself to the contemplation of it, and does not depart to any other object, till it has taken a firm hold of that which was previously submitted to it. 4.161. When therefore he is writing, let him take care, every day, to read and study what he has written, both in order that he may thus attain to a continual and unchangeable recollection of these commands which are virtuous and expedient for all men to observe, and also that a firm love of and desire for them may be implanted in him, by reason of his soul being continually taught and accustomed to apply itself to the study and observance of the sacred laws. For familiarity, which has been engendered by long acquaintance, engenders a sincere and pure friendship, not only towards men, but even also towards such branches of learning as are worthy to be loved; 4.162. and this will take place if the ruler studies not the writings and memorials of some one else but those which he himself has written out; for his own works are, in a certain degree, more easily to be understood by each individual, and they are also more easily to be comprehended; 4.163. and besides that a man, while he is reading them, will have such considerations in his mind as these: "I wrote all this; I who am a ruler of such great power, without employing any one else as my scribe, though I had innumerable servants. Did I do all this, in order to fill up a volume, like those who copy out books for hire, or like men who practise their eyes and their hands, training the one to acuteness of sight, and the others to rapidity of writing? Why should I have done this? That was not the case; I did it in order that after I had recorded these things in a book, I might at once proceed to impress them on my heart, and that I might stamp upon my intellect their divine and indelible characters: 4.164. other kings bear sceptres in their hands, and sit upon thrones in royal state, but my sceptre shall be the book of the copy of the law; that shall be my boast and my incontestible glory, the signal of my irreproachable sovereignty, created after the image and model of the archetypal royal power of God. 4.165. And by always relying upon and supporting myself in the scared laws, I shall acquire the most excellent things. In the first place equality, than which it is not possible to discern any greater blessing, for insolence and excessive haughtiness are the signs of a narrow-minded soul, which does not foresee the future. 4.166. Equality, therefore, will win me good will from all who are subject to my power, and safety inasmuch as they will bestow on me a just requital for by kindness; but inequality will bring upon me terrible dangers, and these I shall escape by hating inequality, the purveyor of darkness and wars; and my life will be in no danger of being plotted against, because I honour equality, which has no connection with seditions, but which is the parent of light and stability. 4.167. Moreover, I shall gain another advantage, namely, that I shall not sway this way and that way, like the dishes in a scale, in consequence of perverting and distorting the commandments laid down for my guidance. But I shall endeavour to keep them, going through the middle of the plain road, keeping my own steps straight and upright, in order that I may attain to a life free from error or misfortune. 4.168. And Moses was accustomed to call the middle road the royal one, inasmuch as it lay between excess and deficiency; and besides, more especially, because in the number three the centre occupies the most important place, uniting the extremities on either side by an indissoluble chain, it being attended by these extremities as its bodyguards as though it were a king. 4.169. Moreover, Moses says that a longenduring sovereignty is the reward of a lawful magistrate or ruler who honours equality, and who without any corruption gives just decisions in a just manner, always studying to observe the laws; not for the sake of granting him a life extending over many years, combined with the administration of the commonwealth, but in order to teach those who do not understand that a governor who rules in accordance with the laws, even though he die, does nevertheless live a long life by means of his actions which he leaves behind him as immortal, the indestructible monuments of his piety and virtue.XXXIII.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.217-1.218, 2.45-2.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.217. It is true, many of the men before mentioned have made great mistakes about the true accounts of our nation in the earliest times, because they had not perused our sacred books; yet have they all of them afforded their testimony to our antiquity, concerning which I am now treating. 2.45. And for his successor Ptolemy, who was called Philadelphus, he did not only set all those of our nation free, who were captives under him, but did frequently give money [for their ransom]; and, what was his greatest work of all, he had a great desire of knowing our laws, and of obtaining the books of our sacred scriptures: 2.46. accordingly he desired that such men might be sent him as might interpret our law to him; and in order to have them well compiled, he committed that care to no ordinary persons, but ordained that Demetrius Phalereus, and Andreas, and Aristeas; the first, Demetrius, the most learned person of his age 2.47. and the others, such as were intrusted with the guard of his body, should take the care of this matter: nor would he certainly have been so desirous of learning our law and the philosophy of our nation had he despised the men that made use of it, or had he not indeed had them in great admiration. /p
15. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.18-1.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 1.25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser thanmen, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble;
16. New Testament, Romans, 12.19-12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
17. New Testament, Matthew, 5.43-5.48, 7.12, 22.34-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
18. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. bwe will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. bRabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead.The reason is that bwhile the resurrection of the deadbenefits only bthe righteous, rainbenefits bboth the righteous and the wicked.The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Sincerainfall bis equivalent to the resurrection of the dead,the Sages bestablishedits recitation binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead.According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the dayon which bthe Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ ilikḥi /i] shall drop as the rain”(Deuteronomy 32:2), band ilekaḥmeans nothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ ilekaḥ /i]; do not forsake My Torah”(Proverbs 4:2). bRava said:Rainfall is even bgreater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,”and when one makes a comparison, bwhichobject bismade bdependent upon which? You must saythat bthe lesserobject bis dependent upon the greaterone. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. bRava raised a contradiction:At the beginning of the verse bit is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof /i] as the rain,”in a harsh manner, bandyet later in the verse, bit is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,”in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: bIf he is a worthy Torah scholar,the Torah flows through him blike the dew, but ifhe is bnotworthy, bit snaps his neck [ iorfehu /i] like thepowerful brain. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torahstudy bwill be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18), band it says: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8), band it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life”(Proverbs 8:35). bAnd anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake,e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah bwill be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof] as the rain,” and iarifa /imeans bnothing otherthan bkilling, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ iarefu /i] there in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4)., bRabbi Yirmeyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teacha halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: My heart is weak and I cannotstrain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, blet the Master tell us a matter of iaggada /i,which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to himthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For man is a tree of the field”(Deuteronomy 20:19)? bAnd is manactually ba tree of the field? /b, bRather,it is bbecause it is writtenearlier in the same verse: b“You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is writtenin the next verse: b“Them you may destroy and cut down”(Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. bHow so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but ifhe is bnotworthy: b“He you may destroy and cut down.” /b,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Iron sharpens iron,so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust aswith bthese iron implements, one sharpens the otherwhen they are rubbed against each other, bso too,when bTorah scholarsstudy together, they bsharpen one another in ihalakha /i. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29)? bTo tell you: Just as fire does not ignitein ba lonestick of wood but in a pile of kindling, bso too, matters of Torah are not retainedand understood properly by ba lonescholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., bAnd this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a bsword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And not only that, butthose who study by themselves bgrow foolishfrom their solitary Torah study, bas it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b, bAnd not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i] and for that we have sinned”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ inoalu /i]…they have caused Egypt to go astray”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a smallpiece of bwood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen greatTorah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my studentsI have learned bmore thanfrom ball of them. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction.In one verse bit is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water”(Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, band it is writtenelsewhere: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that bif he is a worthy studentthe teacher must seek him out, as in b“to him who is thirsty bring water,” but ifthe student is bnotworthy, then b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,”i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raisedanother bcontradiction.In one verse bit is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad”(Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse bit is written: “Let them be your own”(Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: bIf the studentsitting before you bis worthy,then b“Let your springs be dispersed abroad,”as you should teach him, but bifhe is bnotworthy, then b“Let them be your own.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes bto tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly,i.e., a humble person., bAnd Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is writtenwith regard to water: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is writtenin the same verse: b“Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.”This verse comes bto tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels,e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, bso too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b,The Gemara cites a related incident: This bis as the daughter of theRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya,who was an ugly man: bWoe to glorious wisdomsuch as yours, which is contained bin an ugly vessel.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her,in a seemingly unrelated response: Does byour father keep his wine insimple bclay vessels?The emperor’s daughter bsaid to him: Rather, in what,then, bshould he keep it?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her: You, who are so important,should bput it in vessels of gold and silver. /b,The emperor’s daughter bwent and saidthis bto her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour.When his advisors bcame and told the emperorthat the wine had turned sour, bhe said tohis daughter: bWho told youto do bthis?His daughter bresponded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya.The emperor bsummoned himand bsaid to him: Why did you say this to her?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her,to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: bBut there are handsome people who are learned. /b
20. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.38 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, None

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(great) library of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
agent Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
alexandria Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55, 237
allegorical interpretation/allegory Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
allegory, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
andreas, companion of aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
archytas, aristeas, letter of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
aristeas, letter of, allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, aristotelian mean Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, critique of pagan religion Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, eleazars apology for the law Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, food laws Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, hellenistic accommodation Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of, mediating position Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas, letter of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristeas Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
aristeas (narrator) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
aristotle, doctrine of the mean Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
aristotle Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
ben sira/sirach Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 357
benefactions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
bible, books Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
bockmuehl, markus Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
castle Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
chreia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
country Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
courage Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336
court Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
culture, hellenistic Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
cynic, homily Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
cynic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
dead sea scrolls Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 357
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
deputation to eleazar Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
digressions Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
dreams Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
education Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
eleazar, high priest Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237
eleazar, jewish high priest Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
eleazer Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
emendation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237, 337, 357
environment, cultural Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
epilogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
equanimity Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336
ethnographers, hellenistic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
ethopoeia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
eusebius of caesarea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
exodus, book of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
exodus paradigm Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
exodus story, ps.-aristeass rewriting Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
fame Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336
fear of god Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
friends, of the king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335, 350
genesis, book of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 349
gentiles Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
gifts, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 335, 336, 337, 339, 357
golden rule Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
greco-roman world, culture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
greek, literature/sources Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237, 349, 350
hasmoneans, john hyrcanus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 349
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
hero-agent Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
high priest Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 151
high priests, vestments Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 350
house v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
identity, construction of Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
imitation of god Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 339
impartiality Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
jerusalem Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
jewish other, religious sensitivity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
joseph Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 349
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 337, 349, 350
judaeans, of alexandria Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
judaism, alexandrian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 237
judaism in egypt, jewish responses to hellenistic culture Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
judaism in egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
judea Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
justice Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335, 339
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 55, 237, 335, 336, 337, 339, 350, 357
kingdom Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
kingship Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55, 335, 339
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237, 335
leniency Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
letter of aristeas, eleazar Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
letter of aristeas, translation of the hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
literary forms Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
logos Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
love-your-enemy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
mercy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
midrash, midrashic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
military Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336
monotheistic Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
myth, historical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55
narrator (aristeas, gentile) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
nomos, law of the judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146
offering Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
paraphrasis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
peace Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
peri basileus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 339
philomatheis Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
philosophy, pythagorean Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 339
philosophy peripatetic/aristotelean Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 350
philosophystoic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
physis, as natural law Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
polis Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
politeia, of judaeans Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336
priesthood, judaean Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
progymnasa (-mata) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
prologue (to ben sira) Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
pronoia/forethought/foresight Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 55, 237, 349, 350, 357
ptolemaic king Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148, 151
ptolemaios ii Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
ptolemy i Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 55
ptolemy ii Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 55
ptolemy ii philadelphus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 237, 339, 350
purity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
representation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
reputation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
revelation Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
rhetoric/rhetorical, devices Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
rhetoric/rhetorical, handbook Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
rhetoric/rhetorical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
ring composition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
ritual, washing Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
septuagint Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 236
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
sermon on the plain Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
sibylline oracle, third, letter of aristeas comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sibylline oracle, third Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sibylline oracles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 46
sirach Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
sleep Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 357
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 146, 148
sthenidas of lokri Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 339
stobaeus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 339
stoics Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
syllogism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 350
symposium/symposia, philosophical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
symposium/symposia, royal Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52, 349
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55, 237, 335, 337, 339, 349, 350, 357
synkrisis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
table Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 349
temple, jewish, water system Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
temple Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
temple scroll Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 335
temple v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148
theodektes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 340; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 55
translation, literal Stavrianopoulou, Shifting Social Imaginaries in the Hellenistic Period: Narrations, Practices and Images (2013) 223
translation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 148, 151; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52, 55
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 55, 237, 339, 349, 357
travelogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34, 52
utopian literature/geography Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
van der horst, p. w.' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 109
variatio Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
vestments, high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 52
virtue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 237, 336
washing, judean ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 34
wealth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 336, 357
wisdom/wisdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 357
wisdom Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 40
worship Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151
zeus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 151