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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 8.19


nanand his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth


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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.27, 33.8-33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.27. וְעָשִׂיתָ עֹלֹתֶיךָ הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְדַם־זְבָחֶיךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַבָּשָׂר תֹּאכֵל׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 12.27. and thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the LORD thy God; and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out against the altar of the LORD thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.12, 4.25-4.26, 19.6, 19.10-19.15, 19.22, 20.26, 24.4-24.5, 24.7, 24.12, 25.16, 25.31-25.40, 28.15-28.20, 28.30, 28.42-28.43, 30.1-30.10, 30.22-30.32, 30.34-30.36, 31.18, 32.16, 34.1, 37.17-37.24, 40.20-40.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ הָאוֹת כִּי אָנֹכִי שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָהָר הַזֶּה׃ 4.25. וַתִּקַּח צִפֹּרָה צֹר וַתִּכְרֹת אֶת־עָרְלַת בְּנָהּ וַתַּגַּע לְרַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי חֲתַן־דָּמִים אַתָּה לִי׃ 4.26. וַיִּרֶף מִמֶּנּוּ אָז אָמְרָה חֲתַן דָּמִים לַמּוּלֹת׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.11. וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם עַל־הַר סִינָי׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.14. וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר אֶל־הָעָם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וַיְכַבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה־שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם׃ 25.16. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־הָאָרֹן אֵת הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃ 25.32. וְשִׁשָּׁה קָנִים יֹצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הָאֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 25.33. שְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח וּשְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפָרַח כֵּן לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.34. וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ׃ 25.35. וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת־שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.36. כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְהֶעֱלָה אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ וְהֵאִיר עַל־עֵבֶר פָּנֶיהָ׃ 25.38. וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.39. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 28.15. וְעָשִׂיתָ חֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֵפֹד תַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ זָהָב תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 28.16. רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה כָּפוּל זֶרֶת אָרְכּוֹ וְזֶרֶת רָחְבּוֹ׃ 28.17. וּמִלֵּאתָ בוֹ מִלֻּאַת אֶבֶן אַרְבָּעָה טוּרִים אָבֶן טוּר אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וּבָרֶקֶת הַטּוּר הָאֶחָד׃ 28.18. וְהַטּוּר הַשֵּׁנִי נֹפֶךְ סַפִּיר וְיָהֲלֹם׃ 28.19. וְהַטּוּר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לֶשֶׁם שְׁבוֹ וְאַחְלָמָה׃ 28.42. וַעֲשֵׂה לָהֶם מִכְנְסֵי־בָד לְכַסּוֹת בְּשַׂר עֶרְוָה מִמָּתְנַיִם וְעַד־יְרֵכַיִם יִהְיוּ׃ 28.43. וְהָיוּ עַל־אַהֲרֹן וְעַל־בָּנָיו בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָוֺן וָמֵתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו׃ 30.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 30.1. וְכִפֶּר אַהֲרֹן עַל־קַרְנֹתָיו אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה מִדַּם חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת לְהַקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה וְאַמָּתַיִם קֹמָתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ קַרְנֹתָיו׃ 30.3. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר אֶת־גַּגּוֹ וְאֶת־קִירֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָיו וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 30.3. וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּמְשָׁח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי׃ 30.4. וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת זָהָב תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ מִתַּחַת לְזֵרוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי צַלְעֹתָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו וְהָיָה לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֹתוֹ בָּהֵמָּה׃ 30.5. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 30.6. וְנָתַתָּה אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.9. לֹא־תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה וְנֵסֶךְ לֹא תִסְּכוּ עָלָיו׃ 30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.23. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ מָר־דְּרוֹר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם מַחֲצִיתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם וּקְנֵה־בֹשֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם׃ 30.24. וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין׃ 30.25. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתוֹ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה׃ 30.26. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת׃ 30.27. וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה וְאֶת־כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃ 30.28. וְאֶת־מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ׃ 30.29. וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ׃ 30.31. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.32. עַל־בְּשַׂר אָדָם לֹא יִיסָךְ וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ כָּמֹהוּ קֹדֶשׁ הוּא קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 30.34. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ סַמִּים נָטָף וּשְׁחֵלֶת וְחֶלְבְּנָה סַמִּים וּלְבֹנָה זַכָּה בַּד בְּבַד יִהְיֶה׃ 30.35. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתָהּ קְטֹרֶת רֹקַח מַעֲשֵׂה רוֹקֵחַ מְמֻלָּח טָהוֹר קֹדֶשׁ׃ 30.36. וְשָׁחַקְתָּ מִמֶּנָּה הָדֵק וְנָתַתָּה מִמֶּנָּה לִפְנֵי הָעֵדֻת בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 34.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פְּסָל־לְךָ שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וְכָתַבְתִּי עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר שִׁבַּרְתָּ׃ 34.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת בְּרִית נֶגֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ אֶעֱשֶׂה נִפְלָאֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִבְרְאוּ בְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הַגּוֹיִם וְרָאָה כָל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בְקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂה יְהוָה כִּי־נוֹרָא הוּא אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה עִמָּךְ׃ 37.17. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה עָשָׂה אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה הָיוּ׃ 37.18. וְשִׁשָּׁה קָנִים יֹצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הָאֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 37.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח וּשְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בְּקָנֶה אֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפָרַח כֵּן לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 37.21. וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת־שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִמֶּנָּה׃ 37.22. כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה הָיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 37.23. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 37.24. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר עָשָׂה אֹתָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־כֵּלֶיהָ׃ 40.21. וַיָּבֵא אֶת־הָאָרֹן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיָּשֶׂם אֵת פָּרֹכֶת הַמָּסָךְ וַיָּסֶךְ עַל אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 3.12. And He said: ‘Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.’" 4.25. Then Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet; and she said: ‘Surely a bridegroom of blood art thou to me.’" 4.26. So He let him alone. Then she said: ‘A bridegroom of blood in regard of the circumcision.’" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.10. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments," 19.11. and be ready against the third day; for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai." 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.14. And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their garments." 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’" 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Come up to Me into the mount and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law and the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayest teach them.’" 25.16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee." 25.31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it." 25.32. And there shall be six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candle-stick out of the other side thereof;" 25.33. three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower; so for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.34. And in the candlestick four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof." 25.35. And a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.36. Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold." 25.37. And thou shalt make the lamps thereof, seven; and they shall light the lamps thereof, to give light over against it." 25.38. And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold." 25.39. of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels." 25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount." 28.15. And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skilful workman; like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it." 28.16. Four-square it shall be and double: a span shall be the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof." 28.17. And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, four rows of stones: a row of carnelian, topaz, and smaragd shall be the first row;" 28.18. and the second row a carbuncle, a sapphire, and an emerald;" 28.19. and the third row a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst;" 28.20. and the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper; they shall be inclosed in gold in their settings." 28.30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart, when he goeth in before the LORD; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually." 28.42. And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach." 28.43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go in unto the tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die; it shall be a statute for ever unto him and unto his seed after him." 30.1. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon; of acacia-wood shalt thou make it." 30.2. A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be; and two cubits shall be the height thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it." 30.3. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about." 30.4. And two golden rings shalt thou make for it under the crown thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make them; and they shall be for places for staves wherewith to bear it." 30.5. And thou shalt make the staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold." 30.6. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the ark-cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations." 30.9. Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt-offering, nor meal-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering thereon." 30.10. And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’" 30.22. Moreover the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.23. ’Take thou also unto thee the chief spices, of flowing myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty," 30.24. and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin." 30.25. And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil." 30.26. And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of meeting, and the ark of the testimony," 30.27. and the table and all the vessels thereof, and the candlestick and the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense," 30.28. and the altar of burnt-offering with all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof." 30.29. And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy; whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy." 30.30. And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 30.31. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: This shall be a holy anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations." 30.32. Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any like it, according to the composition thereof; it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you." 30.34. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense; of each shall there be a like weight." 30.35. And thou shalt make of it incense, a perfume after the art of the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy." 30.36. And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tent of meeting, where I will meet with thee; it shall be unto you most holy. ." 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 34.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first; and I will write upon the tables the words that were on the first tables, which thou didst break." 37.17. And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, were of one piece with it." 37.18. And there were six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof;" 37.19. three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower. So for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 37.20. And in the candlestick were four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof;" 37.21. and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of it." 37.22. Their knops and their branches were of one piece with it; the whole of it was one beaten work of pure gold." 37.23. And he made the lamps thereof, seven, and the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, of pure gold." 37.24. of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof." 40.20. And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put the ark-cover above upon the ark." 40.21. And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the veil of the screen, and screened the ark of the testimony; as the LORD commanded Moses."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3, 2.15, 2.25, 3.7-3.8, 3.17-3.19, 3.21, 6.13-6.22, 8.20, 10.1, 10.32, 28.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.25. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יִתְבֹּשָׁשׁוּ׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 6.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.14. עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר קִנִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַתֵּבָה וְכָפַרְתָּ אֹתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בַּכֹּפֶר׃ 6.15. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַתֵּבָה חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃ 6.16. צֹהַר תַּעֲשֶׂה לַתֵּבָה וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה וּפֶתַח הַתֵּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂהָ׃ 6.17. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃ 6.18. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 6.19. וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃ 6.21. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃ 6.22. וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן עָשָׂה׃ 10.1. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃ 10.1. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 10.32. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.25. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them." 6.13. And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth." 6.14. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; with rooms shalt thou make the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch." 6.15. And this is how thou shalt make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits." 6.16. A light shalt thou make to the ark, and to a cubit shalt thou finish it upward; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it." 6.17. And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish." 6.18. But I will establish My covet with thee; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’wives with thee." 6.19. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female." 6.20. of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive." 6.21. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’" 6.22. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he." 8.20. And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar." 10.1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood." 10.32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood." 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. נִדְמוּ עַמִּי מִבְּלִי הַדָּעַת כִּי־אַתָּה הַדַּעַת מָאַסְתָּ וְאֶמְאָסְאךָ מִכַּהֵן לִי וַתִּשְׁכַּח תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶשְׁכַּח בָּנֶיךָ גַּם־אָנִי׃ 4.6. My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; Because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to Me; Seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I also will forget thy children."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.3, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. לְפָנָיו אָכְלָה אֵשׁ וְאַחֲרָיו תְּלַהֵט לֶהָבָה כְּגַן־עֵדֶן הָאָרֶץ לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו מִדְבַּר שְׁמָמָה וְגַם־פְּלֵיטָה לֹא־הָיְתָה לּוֹ׃ 2.3. A fire devoureth before them, And behind them a flame blazeth; The land is as the garden of Eden before them, And behind them a desolate wilderness; Yea, and nothing escapeth them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.10, 4.26, 4.31, 6.8, 14.20, 17.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.26. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 6.8. וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ מִסֹּלֶת הַמִּנְחָה וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־הַלְּבֹנָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּנְחָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אַזְכָּרָתָהּ לַיהוָה׃ 17.5. לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹבְחִים עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וֶהֱבִיאֻם לַיהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְזָבְחוּ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה אוֹתָם׃ 4.10. as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering." 4.26. And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 6.8. And he shall take up therefrom his handful, of the fine flour of the meal-offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meal-offering, and shall make the memorial-part thereof smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 14.20. And the priest shall offer the burnt-offering and the meal-offering upon the altar; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean." 17.5. To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they sacrifice in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest, and sacrifice them for sacrifices of peace-offerings unto the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.26, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 50.21, 89.25, 89.27, 89.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

50.21. אֵלֶּה עָשִׂיתָ וְהֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי דִּמִּיתָ הֱיוֹת־אֶהְיֶה כָמוֹךָ אוֹכִיחֲךָ וְאֶעֶרְכָה לְעֵינֶיךָ׃ 89.25. וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃ 50.21. These things hast thou done, and should I have kept silence? Thou hadst thought that I was altogether such a one as thyself; but I will reprove thee, and set the cause before thine eyes." 89.25. But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ." 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.6-8.9, 12.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיָּבִאוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֶל־מְקוֹמוֹ אֶל־דְּבִיר הַבַּיִת אֶל־קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֶל־תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 8.6. לְמַעַן דַּעַת כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֵין עוֹד׃ 8.7. כִּי הַכְּרוּבִים פֹּרְשִׂים כְּנָפַיִם אֶל־מְקוֹם הָאָרוֹן וַיָּסֹכּוּ הַכְּרֻבִים עַל־הָאָרוֹן וְעַל־בַּדָּיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 8.8. וַיַּאֲרִכוּ הַבַּדִּים וַיֵּרָאוּ רָאשֵׁי הַבַּדִּים מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ עַל־פְּנֵי הַדְּבִיר וְלֹא יֵרָאוּ הַחוּצָה וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.9. אֵין בָּאָרוֹן רַק שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר הִנִּחַ שָׁם מֹשֶׁה בְּחֹרֵב אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִם־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.27. אִם־יַעֲלֶה הָעָם הַזֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת זְבָחִים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם וְשָׁב לֵב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם אֶל־רְחַבְעָם מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וַהֲרָגֻנִי וְשָׁבוּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָם מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה׃ 8.6. And the priests brought in the ark of the covet of the LORD unto its place, into the Sanctuary of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubim." 8.7. For the cherubim spread forth their wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubim covered the ark and the staves thereof above." 8.8. And the staves were so long that the ends of the staves were seen from the holy place, even before the Sanctuary; but they could not be seen without; and there they are unto this day." 8.9. There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone which Moses put there at Horeb, when the LORD made a covet with the children of Israel when they came out of the land of Egypt." 12.27. If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then will the heart of this people turn back unto their lord, even unto Rehoboam king of Judah; and they will kill me, and return to Rehoboam king of Judah.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.19. וּמְעִיל קָטֹן תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ אִמּוֹ וְהַעַלְתָה לוֹ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה בַּעֲלוֹתָהּ אֶת־אִישָׁהּ לִזְבֹּחַ אֶת־זֶבַח הַיָּמִים׃ 2.19. Moreover his mother made him a little coat, and brought it to him from year to year, when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.10, 5.24, 6.2-6.7, 28.16, 41.17-41.20, 49.10, 51.3, 57.6, 60.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.24. לָכֵן כֶּאֱכֹל קַשׁ לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ וַחֲשַׁשׁ לֶהָבָה יִרְפֶּה שָׁרְשָׁם כַּמָּק יִהְיֶה וּפִרְחָם כָּאָבָק יַעֲלֶה כִּי מָאֲסוּ אֵת תּוֹרַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְאֵת אִמְרַת קְדוֹשׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל נִאֵצוּ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5. וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7. וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃ 41.17. הָעֲנִיִּים וְהָאֶבְיוֹנִים מְבַקְשִׁים מַיִם וָאַיִן לְשׁוֹנָם בַּצָּמָא נָשָׁתָּה אֲנִי יְהוָה אֶעֱנֵם אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אֶעֶזְבֵם׃ 41.18. אֶפְתַּח עַל־שְׁפָיִים נְהָרוֹת וּבְתוֹךְ בְּקָעוֹת מַעְיָנוֹת אָשִׂים מִדְבָּר לַאֲגַם־מַיִם וְאֶרֶץ צִיָּה לְמוֹצָאֵי מָיִם׃ 41.19. אֶתֵּן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֶרֶז שִׁטָּה וַהֲדַס וְעֵץ שָׁמֶן אָשִׂים בָּעֲרָבָה בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר וּתְאַשּׁוּר יַחְדָּו׃ 51.3. כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃ 57.6. בְּחַלְּקֵי־נַחַל חֶלְקֵךְ הֵם הֵם גּוֹרָלֵךְ גַּם־לָהֶם שָׁפַכְתְּ נֶסֶךְ הֶעֱלִית מִנְחָה הַעַל אֵלֶּה אֶנָּחֵם׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 1.10. Hear the word of the LORD, Ye rulers of Sodom; Give ear unto the law of our God, Ye people of Gomorrah." 5.24. Therefore as the tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, And as the chaff is consumed in the flame, So their root shall be as rottenness, And their blossom shall go up as dust; Because they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts, And contemned the word of the Holy One of Israel." 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke." 6.5. Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts." 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar;" 6.7. and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated." 28.16. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure foundation; He that believeth shall not make haste." 41.17. The poor and needy seek water and there is none, And their tongue faileth for thirst; I the LORD will answer them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them." 41.18. I will open rivers on the high hills, And fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of water, And the dry land springs of water." 41.19. I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia-tree, And the myrtle, and the oil-tree; I will set in the desert the cypress, the plane-tree, and the larch together;" 41.20. That they may see, and know, And consider, and understand together, That the hand of the LORD hath done this, And the Holy One of Israel hath created it." 49.10. They shall not hunger nor thirst, Neither shall the heat nor sun smite them; For He that hath compassion on them will lead them, Even by the springs of water will He guide them." 51.3. For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody." 57.6. Among the smooth stones of the valley is thy portion; They, they are thy lot; Even to them hast thou poured a drink-offering, Thou hast offered a meal-offering. Should I pacify Myself for these things?" 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.8, 18.18, 31.8-31.10, 31.12-31.14, 51.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.8. הַכֹּהֲנִים לֹא אָמְרוּ אַיֵּה יְהוָה וְתֹפְשֵׂי הַתּוֹרָה לֹא יְדָעוּנִי וְהָרֹעִים פָּשְׁעוּ בִי וְהַנְּבִיאִים נִבְּאוּ בַבַּעַל וְאַחֲרֵי לֹא־יוֹעִלוּ הָלָכוּ׃ 18.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַחְשְׁבָה עַל־יִרְמְיָהוּ מַחֲשָׁבוֹת כִּי לֹא־תֹאבַד תּוֹרָה מִכֹּהֵן וְעֵצָה מֵחָכָם וְדָבָר מִנָּבִיא לְכוּ וְנַכֵּהוּ בַלָּשׁוֹן וְאַל־נַקְשִׁיבָה אֶל־כָּל־דְּבָרָיו׃ 31.8. הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְקִבַּצְתִּים מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָרֶץ בָּם עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת יַחְדָּו קָהָל גָּדוֹל יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה׃ 31.9. בִּבְכִי יָבֹאוּ וּבְתַחֲנוּנִים אוֹבִילֵם אוֹלִיכֵם אֶל־נַחֲלֵי מַיִם בְּדֶרֶךְ יָשָׁר לֹא יִכָּשְׁלוּ בָּהּ כִּי־הָיִיתִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָב וְאֶפְרַיִם בְּכֹרִי הוּא׃ 31.12. וּבָאוּ וְרִנְּנוּ בִמְרוֹם־צִיּוֹן וְנָהֲרוּ אֶל־טוּב יְהוָה עַל־דָּגָן וְעַל־תִּירֹשׁ וְעַל־יִצְהָר וְעַל־בְּנֵי־צֹאן וּבָקָר וְהָיְתָה נַפְשָׁם כְּגַן רָוֶה וְלֹא־יוֹסִיפוּ לְדַאֲבָה עוֹד׃ 31.13. אָז תִּשְׂמַח בְּתוּלָה בְּמָחוֹל וּבַחֻרִים וּזְקֵנִים יַחְדָּו וְהָפַכְתִּי אֶבְלָם לְשָׂשׂוֹן וְנִחַמְתִּים וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים מִיגוֹנָם׃ 31.14. וְרִוֵּיתִי נֶפֶשׁ הַכֹּהֲנִים דָּשֶׁן וְעַמִּי אֶת־טוּבִי יִשְׂבָּעוּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 51.26. וְלֹא־יִקְחוּ מִמְּךָ אֶבֶן לְפִנָּה וְאֶבֶן לְמוֹסָדוֹת כִּי־שִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.8. The priests said not: ‘Where is the LORD?’ And they that handle the law knew Me not, and the rulers transgressed against Me; the prophets also prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit." 18.18. Then said they: ‘Come, and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; For instruction shall not perish from the priest, Nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the tongue, And let us not give heed to any of his words.’" 31.8. Behold, I will bring them from the north country, And gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, And with them the blind and the lame, The woman with child and her that travaileth with child together; A great company shall they return hither." 31.9. They shall come with weeping, And with supplications will I lead them; I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, In a straight way wherein they shall not stumble; For I am become a father to Israel, And Ephraim is My first-born." 31.10. Hear the word of the LORD, O ye nations, And declare it in the isles afar off, and say: ‘He that scattered Israel doth gather him, And keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock.’" 31.12. And they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, And shall flow unto the goodness of the LORD, To the corn, and to the wine, and to the oil, And to the young of the flock and of the herd; And their soul shall be as a watered garden, And they shall not pine any more at all." 31.13. Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, And the young men and the old together; For I will turn their mourning into joy, And will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow." 31.14. And I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, And My people shall be satisfied with My goodness, Saith the LORD." 51.26. And they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, Nor a stone for foundations; But thou shalt be desolate for ever, saith the LORD."
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.19. וַיִּקַּח מָנוֹחַ אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַצּוּר לַיהוָה וּמַפְלִא לַעֲשׂוֹת וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים׃ 13.19. So Manoaĥ took the kid with the meal offering, and offered it upon the rock to the Lord: and the angel did wondrously, and Manoaĥ and his wife looked on."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 5.5, 28.13-28.14, 36.35, 47.1-47.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.5. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה זֹאת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בְּתוֹךְ הַגּוֹיִם שַׂמְתִּיהָ וּסְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ אֲרָצוֹת׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 36.35. וְאָמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ הַלֵּזוּ הַנְּשַׁמָּה הָיְתָה כְּגַן־עֵדֶן וְהֶעָרִים הֶחֳרֵבוֹת וְהַנְשַׁמּוֹת וְהַנֶּהֱרָסוֹת בְּצוּרוֹת יָשָׁבוּ׃ 47.1. וְהָיָה יעמדו [עָמְדוּ] עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 47.1. וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 47.2. וּפְאַת־יָם הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל מִגְּבוּל עַד־נֹכַח לְבוֹא חֲמָת זֹאת פְּאַת־יָם׃ 47.2. וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפוֹנָה וַיְסִבֵּנִי דֶּרֶךְ חוּץ אֶל־שַׁעַר הַחוּץ דֶּרֶךְ הַפּוֹנֶה קָדִים וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם מְפַכִּים מִן־הַכָּתֵף הַיְמָנִית׃ 47.3. בְּצֵאת־הָאִישׁ קָדִים וְקָו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף בָּאַמָּה וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי בַמַּיִם מֵי אָפְסָיִם׃ 47.4. וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי בַמַּיִם מַיִם בִּרְכָּיִם וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי מֵי מָתְנָיִם׃ 47.5. וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף נַחַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲבֹר כִּי־גָאוּ הַמַּיִם מֵי שָׂחוּ נַחַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵעָבֵר׃ 47.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הֲרָאִיתָ בֶן־אָדָם וַיּוֹלִכֵנִי וַיְשִׁבֵנִי שְׂפַת הַנָּחַל׃ 47.7. בְּשׁוּבֵנִי וְהִנֵּה אֶל־שְׂפַת הַנַּחַל עֵץ רַב מְאֹד מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה׃ 47.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה יוֹצְאִים אֶל־הַגְּלִילָה הַקַּדְמוֹנָה וְיָרְדוּ עַל־הָעֲרָבָה וּבָאוּ הַיָּמָּה אֶל־הַיָּמָּה הַמּוּצָאִים ונרפאו [וְנִרְפּוּ] הַמָּיִם׃ 47.9. וְהָיָה כָל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹץ אֶל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא שָׁם נַחֲלַיִם יִחְיֶה וְהָיָה הַדָּגָה רַבָּה מְאֹד כִּי בָאוּ שָׁמָּה הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה וְיֵרָפְאוּ וָחָי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָבוֹא שָׁמָּה הַנָּחַל׃ 47.11. בצאתו [בִּצֹּאתָיו] וּגְבָאָיו וְלֹא יֵרָפְאוּ לְמֶלַח נִתָּנוּ׃ 47.12. וְעַל־הַנַּחַל יַעֲלֶה עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה כָּל־עֵץ־מַאֲכָל לֹא־יִבּוֹל עָלֵהוּ וְלֹא־יִתֹּם פִּרְיוֹ לָחֳדָשָׁיו יְבַכֵּר כִּי מֵימָיו מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הֵמָּה יוֹצְאִים והיו [וְהָיָה] פִרְיוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְעָלֵהוּ לִתְרוּפָה׃ 5.5. Thus saith the Lord GOD: This is Jerusalem! I have set her in the midst of the nations, and countries are round about her." 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire." 36.35. And they shall say: This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden; and the waste and desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited." 47.1. And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar. 47.2. Then brought he me out by the way of the gate northward, and led me round by the way without unto the outer gate, by the way of the gate that looketh toward the east; and, behold, there trickled forth waters on the right side." 47.3. When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and he caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles." 47.4. Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees. Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through waters that were to the loins." 47.5. Afterward he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not pass through; for the waters were risen, waters to swim in, a river that could not be passed through." 47.6. And he said unto me: ‘Hast thou seen this, O son of man?’ Then he led me, and caused me to return to the bank of the river." 47.7. Now when I had been brought back, behold, upon the bank of the river were very many trees on the one side and on the other." 47.8. Then said he unto me: ‘These waters issue forth toward the eastern region, and shall go down into the Arabah; and when they shall enter into the sea, into the sea of the putrid waters, the waters shall be healed." 47.9. And it shall come to pass, that every living creature wherewith it swarmeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed and may live whithersoever the river cometh." 47.10. And it shall come to pass, that fishers shall stand by it from En-gedi even unto En-eglaim; there shall be a place for the spreading of nets; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many." 47.11. But the miry places thereof, and the marshes thereof, shall not be healed; they shall be given for salt." 47.12. And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for healing.’ ."
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 29.31 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.31. וַיַּעַן יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר עַתָּה מִלֵּאתֶם יֶדְכֶם לַיהוָה גֹּשׁוּ וְהָבִיאוּ זְבָחִים וְתוֹדוֹת לְבֵית יְהוָה וַיָּבִיאוּ הַקָּהָל זְבָחִים וְתוֹדוֹת וְכָל־נְדִיב לֵב עֹלוֹת׃ 29.31. Then Hezekiah answered and said: ‘Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the LORD, come near and bring sacrifices and thank-offerings into the house of the LORD.’ And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank-offerings; and as many as were of a willing heart brought burnt-offerings."
17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4.2-4.3, 4.12-4.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה ויאמר [וָאֹמַר] רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ וְגֻלָּהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וְשִׁבְעָה נֵרֹתֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁבְעָה מוּצָקוֹת לַנֵּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 4.3. וּשְׁנַיִם זֵיתִים עָלֶיהָ אֶחָד מִימִין הַגֻּלָּה וְאֶחָד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָהּ׃ 4.12. וָאַעַן שֵׁנִית וָאֹמַר אֵלָיו מַה־שְׁתֵּי שִׁבֲּלֵי הַזֵּיתִים אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד שְׁנֵי צַנְתְּרוֹת הַזָּהָב הַמְרִיקִים מֵעֲלֵיהֶם הַזָּהָב׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לֵאמֹר הֲלוֹא יָדַעְתָּ מָה־אֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר לֹא אֲדֹנִי׃ 4.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־הַיִּצְהָר הָעֹמְדִים עַל־אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 4.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I said: ‘I have seen, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and its seven lamps thereon; there are seven pipes, yea, seven, to the lamps, which are upon the top thereof;" 4.3. and two olive-trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.’" 4.12. And I answered the second time, and said unto him: ‘What are these two olive branches, which are beside the two golden spouts, that empty the golden oil out of themselves?’" 4.13. And he answered me and said: ‘Knowest thou not what these are?’ And I said: ‘No, my lord.’" 4.14. Then said he: ‘These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth.’"
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10.1-10.3, 26.1-26.6, 32.3, 64.2, 67.2, 89.1, 89.9-89.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.1. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech 10.1. battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and 10.2. and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come 10.2. ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth 10.3. upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape 26.1. And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were 26.2. trees with branches abiding and blooming [of a dismembered tree]. And there I saw a holy mountain 26.3. and underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow 26.4. ravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon 26.6. them. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much. 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 67.2. Up before Me, a lot without blame, a lot of love and uprightness. And now the angels are making a wooden (building), and when they have completed that task I will place My hand upon it and preserve it, and there shall come forth from it the seed of life, and a change shall set in so that the 89.1. And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon; 89.1. And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the 89.9. retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.
19. Anon., Jubilees, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.31, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.33, 5, 8.10, 8.10-9.15, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.20, 8.21, 8.25, 8.27, 8.28, 9.6, 9.14, 9.15, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.14, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 19.13, 26.33, 26.34, 35.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them.
20. Cicero, Republic, 6.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.15. Atque ego ut primum fletu represso loqui posse coepi, Quaeso, inquam, pater sanctissime atque optime, quoniam haec est vita, ut Africanum audio dicere, quid moror in terris? quin huc ad vos venire propero? Non est ita, inquit ille. Nisi enim deus is, cuius hoc templum est omne, quod conspicis, istis te corporis custodiis liberaverit, huc tibi aditus patere non potest. Homines enim sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur illum globum, quem in hoc templo medium vides, quae terra dicitur, iisque animus datus est ex illis sempiternis ignibus, quae sidera et stellas vocatis, quae globosae et rotundae, divinis animatae mentibus, circulos suos orbesque conficiunt celeritate mirabili. Quare et tibi, Publi, et piis omnibus retinendus animus est in custodia corporis nec iniussu eius, a quo ille est vobis datus, ex hominum vita migrandum est, ne munus humanum adsignatum a deo defugisse videamini.
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Miscellaneous Rules, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.18, 1.21, 2.9, 3.35, 4.12-4.14, 10.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. He engaged Ptolemy king of Egypt in battle, and Ptolemy turned and fled before him, and many were wounded and fell. 1.21. He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils. 2.9. her glorious vessels have been carried into captivity. Her babes have been killed in her streets,her youths by the sword of the foe. 3.35. Lysias was to send a force against them to wipe out and destroy the strength of Israel and the remt of Jerusalem; he was to banish the memory of them from the place 4.12. When the foreigners looked up and saw them coming against them 4.13. they went forth from their camp to battle. Then the men with Judas blew their trumpet 4.14. and engaged in battle. The Gentiles were crushed and fled into the plain 10.3. And Demetrius sent Jonathan a letter in peaceable words to honor him;
23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.17. Noah was found perfect and righteous;in the time of wrath he was taken in exchange;therefore a remt was left to the earth when the flood came.
24. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.6. For even in the beginning, when arrogant giants were perishing,the hope of the world took refuge on a raft,and guided by thy hand left to the world the seed of a new generation.
25. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.115-3.116, 3.256, 3.319-3.350 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.115. 115 Into the world again, and therefore he 3.116. Himself became first conscious of his power. 3.256. Evil to pass from one place to another 3.319. Or, if men's notice he escape, he shall 3.320. 320 By ample satisfaction he destroyed. 3.321. [For the Heavenly finished earth a common good 3.322. For all, and in all hearts as best gift thought.] 3.323. A hundredfold from one, and thus complete 3.325. 325 God's measure. But to them shall also come 3.326. Misfortune, nor do they escape from plague. 3.327. And even thou, forsaking thy fair shrine 3.328. Shalt flee away when it becomes thy lot 3.329. To leave the holy land. And thou shalt be 3.330. 330 Carried to the Assyrians, and shalt see 3.331. Young children and wives serving hostile men; 3.332. And every means of life and wealth shall perish; 3.333. And every land shall be filled up with thee 3.334. And every sea; and everyone shall be 3.335. 335 offended with thy customs; and thy land 3.336. Shall all be desert; and the altar fenced 3.337. And temple of the great God and long wall 3.338. Shall all fall to the ground, since in thy heart 3.339. The holy law of the immortal God 3.340. 340 Thou didst not keep, but, erring, thou didst serve 3.341. Unseemly images, and didst not fear 3.342. The immortal Father, God of all mankind 3.343. Nor will to honor him; but image 3.344. of mortals thou didst honor Therefore now 3.345. 345 of time seven decades shall thy fruitful land 3.346. And the wonders of thy temple all be waste. 3.347. But there remains for thee a goodly end 3.348. And greatest glory, as the immortal God 3.349. Granted thee. But do thou wait and confide 3.350. 350 In the great God's pure laws, when he shall lift
26. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 168, 165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

165. But bulls, and rams, and goats, which Egypt holds in honour, and all other images of corruptible matter which, in report alone, are accounted God's, have no real existence, but are all fictitious and false; for those who look upon life as only a tragedy full of acts of arrogance and stories of love, impressing false ideas on the tender minds of young men, and using the ears as their ministers, into which they pour fabulous trifles, waste away and corrupt their minds, compelling them to look upon persons who were never even men in their minds, but always effeminate creatures as God's;
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.37-1.50, 1.66, 1.96-1.97, 2.164-2.166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. And the witnesses of this fact are those who have not merely tasted philosophy with their outermost lips, but who have abundantly feasted on its reasonings and its doctrines; for the reasoning of these men, being raised on high far above the earth, roams in the air, and soaring aloft with the sun, and moon, and all the firmament of heaven, being eager to behold all the things that exist therein, finds its power of vision somewhat indistinct from a vast quantity of unalloyed light being poured over it, so that the eye of his soul becomes dazzled and confused by the splendour. 1.38. But he does not on that account faint and renounce the task which he has undertaken, but goes on with invincible determination towards the sight which he considers attainable, as if he were a competitor at the games, and were striving for the second prize, though he has missed the first. And guess and conjecture are inferior to true perception, as are all those notions which are classed under the description of reasonable and plausible opinions. 1.39. Though, therefore, we do not know and cannot accurately ascertain what each of the stars is as to its pure and real essence, still we are eager to investigate the subject, delighting in probable reasonings, because of the fondness for learning which is implanted in our nature. 1.40. And so in the same way, though we cannot attain to a distinct conception of the truly living God, we still ought not to renounce the task of investigating his character, because even if we fail to make the discovery, the very search itself is intrinsically useful and an object of deserved ambition; since no one ever blames the eyes of the body because they are unable to look upon the sun itself, and therefore shrink from the brilliancy which is poured upon them from its beams, and therefore look down upon the earth, shrinking from the extreme brilliancy of the rays of the sun.VIII. 1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.42. On which account, I beg and entreat of thee to receive the supplication of a man who is thy suppliant and devoted to God's service, and desirous to serve thee alone; for as the light is not known by the agency of anything else, but is itself its own manifestation, so also thou must alone be able to manifest thyself. For which reason I hope to receive pardon, if, from want of any one to teach me, I am so bold as to flee to thee, desiring to receive instruction from thyself. 1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you. 1.45. When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it. 1.46. But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.48. And some of your race, speaking with sufficient correctness, call them ideas (ideai 1.49. Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 1.66. We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit. 1.96. and it also attracts the intellect of philosophers to examine its different parts. For God intends that the high priest should in the first place have a visible representation of the universe about him, in order that from the continual sight of it he may be reminded to make his own life worthy of the nature of the universe, and secondly, in order that the whole world may co-operate with him in the performance of his sacred rites. And it is exceedingly becoming that the man who is consecrated to the service of the Father of the world should also bring his son to the service of him who has begotten him. 1.97. There is also a third symbol contained in this sacred dress, which it is important not to pass over in silence. For the priests of other deities are accustomed to offer up prayers and sacrifices solely for their own relations, and friends, and fellow citizens. But the high priest of the Jews offers them up not only on behalf of the whole race of mankind, but also on behalf of the different parts of nature, of the earth, of water, of air, and of fire; and pours forth his prayers and thanksgivings for them all, looking upon the world (as indeed it really i 2.164. Apart from the fact that the legislation is in a certain way teaching about the priesthood and that the one who lives by the laws is at once considered a priest, or rather a high priest, in the judgment of truth, the following point is also remarkable. The multitude of gods, both male and female, honored in individual cities happens to be undetermined and indefinite. The poetic clan and the great company of humans have spoken fabulously about them, people for whom the search for truth is impractical and beyond their capability of investigation. Yet all do not reverence and honor the same gods, but different people different gods. The reason is that they do not consider as gods those belonging to another land but make the acceptance of them the occasion for laughter and a joke. They charge those who honor them with great foolishness since they completely violate sound sense. 2.165. But if he is, whom all Greeks together with all barbarians acknowledge with one judgment, the highest Father of both gods and humans and the Maker of the entire cosmos, whose nature--although it is invisible and unfathomable not only to sight but also to perception--all who spend their time with mathematics and other philosophy long to discover, leaving aside none of the things which contribute to the discovery and service of him, then it was necessary for all people to cling to him and not as if through some mechanical device to introduce other gods into participation of equal honors. 2.166. Since they slipped in the most essential matter, the nation of the Jews--to speak most accurately--set aright the false step of others by having looked beyond everything which has come into existence through creation since it is generate and corruptible in nature, and chose only the service of the ungenerate and eternal. The first reason for this is because it is excellent; the second is because it is profitable to be dedicated and associated with the Older rather than those who are younger and with the Ruler rather than those who are ruled and with the Maker rather those things which come into existence.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. on which account they frequent all the most prosperous and fertile countries of Europe and Asia, whether islands or continents, looking indeed upon the holy city as their metropolis in which is erected the sacred temple of the most high God, but accounting those regions which have been occupied by their fathers, and grandfathers, and great grandfathers, and still more remote ancestors, in which they have been born and brought up, as their country; and there are even some regions to which they came the very moment that they were originally settled, sending a colony of their people to do a pleasure to the founders of the colony.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 225, 278, 281, 288, 294, 299, 305, 334, 346, 203 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

203. and he, when he had read the letter, ordered a colossal statue gilt all over, much more costly and much more magnificent than the rich altar which had been erected in Jamnia, by way of insult to be set up in the temple of the metropolis, having for his most excellent and sagacious counsellors Helicon, that man of noble birth, a chattering slave, a perfect scum of the earth, and a fellow of the name of Apelles, a tragic actor, who when in the first bloom of youth, as they say, made a market of his beauty, and when he was past the freshness of youth went on the stage;
30. Anon., 2 Baruch, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 1.2, 4.2, 9.3, 29.3-29.6, 40.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.109, 1.122-1.147 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.109. 1. Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. 1.122. 1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. 1.123. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians. 1.124. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; 1.125. and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. 1.126. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. 1.127. of the three sons of Javan also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta. 1.128. Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim. And so many nations have the children and grandchildren of Japhet possessed. 1.129. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination. 1.131. For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites. 1.132. The memory also of the Mesraites is preserved in their name; for all we who inhabit this country [of Judea] called Egypt Mestre, and the Egyptians Mestreans. Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself: 1.133. there is also a river in the country of Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that river and the adjoining country by the appellation of Phut: but the name it has now has been by change given it from one of the sons of Mesraim, who was called Lybyos. We will inform you presently what has been the occasion why it has been called Africa also. 1.134. Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now called Judea, and called it from his own name Canaan. The children of these [four] were these: Sabas, who founded the Sabeans; Evilas, who founded the Evileans, who are called Getuli; Sabathes founded the Sabathens, they are now called by the Greeks Astaborans; 1.135. Sabactas settled the Sabactens; and Ragmus the Ragmeans; and he had two sons, the one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans: but Nimrod, the son of Chus, staid and tyrannized at Babylon, as we have already informed you. 1.136. Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name of one only, the Philistim; for the Greeks call part of that country Palestine. 1.137. As for the rest, Ludieim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cephthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown. 1.138. The sons of Canaan were these: Sidonius, who also built a city of the same name; it is called by the Greeks Sidon Amathus inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity: Arudeus possessed the island Aradus: Arucas possessed Arce, which is in Libanus. 1.139. But for the seven others, [Eueus,] Chetteus, Jebuseus, Amorreus, Gergesus, Eudeus, Sineus, Samareus, we have nothing in the sacred books but their names, for the Hebrews overthrew their cities; and their calamities came upon them on the occasion following. 1.141. and, being drunk, he fell asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly manner. When his youngest son saw this, he came laughing, and showed him to his brethren; but they covered their father’s nakedness. 1.142. And when Noah was made sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not curse him, by reason of his nearness in blood, but cursed his prosperity: and when the rest of them escaped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But as to these matters, we shall speak more hereafter. 1.143. 4. Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others. 1.144. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. 1.145. of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. 1.146. Sala was the son of Arphaxad; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. 1.147. Now Joctan, one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, Abimael, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilat, and Jobab. These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it. And this shall suffice concerning the sons of Shem.
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.52. The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the Navel of the country. 3.52. Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria.
34. Mishnah, Yoma, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. After the Ark had been taken away, there was a stone from the days of the earlier prophets, called “shtiyah”, three fingers above the ground, on which he would place [the pan of burning coals]."
35. New Testament, Acts, 8.38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.38. He commanded the chariot to stand still, and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him.
36. New Testament, Apocalypse, 22.1-22.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.1. He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb 22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 22.3. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.
37. New Testament, Colossians, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together.
38. New Testament, Luke, 19.43-19.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.43. For the days will come on you, when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you, surround you, hem you in on every side 19.44. and will dash you and your children within you to the ground. They will not leave in you one stone on another, because you didn't know the time of your visitation.
39. New Testament, Matthew, 2.9, 20.32, 23.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. They, having heard the king, went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the young child was. 20.32. Jesus stood still, and called them, and asked, "What do you want me to do for you? 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not!
40. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 13.8-13.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 2.5, 16.5, 18.6, 22.2, 34.9, 55.7, 69.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 2.5. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה, רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים וּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (תהלים א, ו): כִּי יוֹדֵעַ ה' דֶּרֶךְ צַדִּיקִים וְדֶרֶךְ רְשָׁעִים תֹּאבֵד. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ בְּאֵיזֶה מֵהֶם חָפֵץ, אִם בְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֵלּוּ אִם בְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֵלּוּ, כֵּיוָן דִּכְתִיב וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאוֹר כִּי טוֹב, הֱוֵי בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים חָפֵץ, וְאֵינוֹ חָפֵץ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה, מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בָּנוּי וְחָרֵב וּבָנוּי, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, הֲרֵי בָּנוּי, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה נא, טז): לִנְטֹעַ שָׁמַיִם וְלִיסֹד אָרֶץ וְלֵאמֹר לְצִיּוֹן עַמִּי אָתָּה. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ, הֲרֵי חָרֵב, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (ירמיה ד, כג): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, הֲרֵי בָּנוּי וּמְשֻׁכְלָל לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה ס, א): קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ, וּכְתִיב (ישעיה ס, כ): כִּי הִנֵּה הַחשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח ה' וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה. 16.5. וַיִּקַּח ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וגו' (בראשית ב, טו), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עִלָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יד, ב): וּלְקָחוּם עַמִּים וֶהֱבִיאוּם וגו'. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר פִּתָּה אוֹתוֹ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (הושע יד, ג): קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל ה' וגו'. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר הִנִּיחַ לוֹ וְהֵגֵן עָלָיו וְעִדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר לְהַנִּיחוֹ וּלְהָגֵן עָלָיו וּלְעַדְּנוֹ מִכָּל אִילָנֵי גַּן עֵדֶן. וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ, נָתַן לוֹ מִצְוַת שַׁבָּת, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, יא): וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי. לְעָבְדָהּ, (שמות כ, ט): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד. וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, (דברים ה, יב): שָׁמוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ג, יב): תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים, וּכְתִיב (במדבר כח, ב): תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ. 18.6. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים (בראשית ב, כה), אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר שְׁלשָׁה הֵן שֶׁלֹא הִמְתִּינוּ בְּשַׁלְוָתָן שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אָדָם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וְסִיסְרָא. אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כה): וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ, לֹא בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְהוּא בְּשַׁלְוָתוֹ. וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, א): וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי בשֵׁשׁ משֶׁה, כִּי בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא משֶׁה. סִיסְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, כח): מַדּוּעַ בּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ לָבוֹא, בְּכָל יוֹם הָיָה לָמוּד לָבוֹא בְּשָׁלשׁ שָׁעוֹת בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, וְעַכְשָׁיו בָּאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא, הֱוֵי וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם (בראשית ג, א), לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ קְרָא לוֹמַר אֶלָּא (בראשית ג, כא): וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ מֵאֵי זוֹ חַטָּיָה קָפַץ עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹתוֹ הָרָשָׁע, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן מִתְעַסְּקִין בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ וְנִתְאַוָּה לָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין שֶׁלֹא לְהַפְסִיק בְּפָרָשָׁתוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ. 22.2. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע וגו', רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בְּרַבִּי אָבִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר, לֹא שִׁמְשָׁה בְּרִיָּה קֹדֶם לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וַיֵּדַע אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ, הוֹדִיעַ דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ לַכֹּל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהָאָדָם יָדַע, יָדַע מֵאֵיזוֹ שַׁלְוָה נִשְׁלָה, יָדַע מָה עָבְדַת לֵיהּ חַוָּה. אָמַר רַב אַחָא חִיוְיָא חִיוְיִךְ וְאַתְּ חִיוְיָא דְאָדָם. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת קַיִן, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שְׁלשָׁה פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְּשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה עָלוּ לַמִּטָּה שְׁנַיִם וְיָרְדוּ שִׁבְעָה, קַיִּן וּתְאוֹמָתוֹ, וְהֶבֶל וּשְׁתֵּי תְאוֹמוֹתָיו, וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת ה', חָמַת לָהּ הָא אִיתְּתָא בְּנִין, אָמְרָה הָא קִנְיַן בַּעֲלִי בְּיָדִי. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִים, הַאי אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ ה', הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת ה'. אָמַר לֵיהּ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָּא אֶת ה', לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵאָדָם, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ (בראשית א, כו): בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ, וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. 55.7. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ וגו' (בראשית כב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ בְבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, אָמַר לֵיהּ תְּרֵין בְּנִין אִית לִי אֵי זֶה בֵּן, אָמַר לוֹ: אֶת יְחִידְךָ. אָמַר לוֹ זֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ וְזֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ: אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ. אָמַר לוֹ אִית תְּחוּמִין בִּמְעַיָא. אָמַר לוֹ: אֶת יִצְחָק. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ מִיָּד, כְּדֵי לְחַבְּבוֹ בְּעֵינָיו וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר, הִיא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ, זוֹ אִפַּרְכִיָה שֶׁלָּךְ (בראשית יב, א): וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, זוֹ שְׁכוּנָתְךָ, (בראשית יב, א): מִבֵּית אָבִיךָ, זוֹ בֵּית אָבִיךָ, (בראשית יב, א): אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִלָּה לוֹ מִיָּד, כְּדֵי לְחַבְּבָהּ בְּעֵינָיו וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר וְעַל כָּל פְּסִיעָה וּפְסִיעָה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חָיְתָא, שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים כְּתִיב לֶךְ לְךָ, וְאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים אֵי זֶה חֲבִיבָה אִם הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אִם הַשְּׁנִיָּה, מִן מַה דִּכְתִיב וְלֶךְ לְךָ אֶל אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָה, הֱוֵי שְׁנִיָּה חֲבִיבָה מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְלֶךְ לְךָ אֶל אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה, רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוֹרָאָה יָצְאָה לָעוֹלָם, וְאוֹחָרָנָא אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְאָה יָצְאָה לָעוֹלָם. דִּכְוָתָהּ דְּבִיר, רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּבְּרוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת לָעוֹלָם, וְחַד אָמַר מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּבּוּר יוֹצֵא לָעוֹלָם. דִּכְוָתָה אָרוֹן, רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָאוֹרָה יוֹצְאָה לָעוֹלָם, וְחַד אָמַר מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְאָה יוֹצֵא לָעוֹלָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁמִּשָּׁם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹרֶה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וּמוֹרִידָם לְגֵיהִנֹּם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמַעְלָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיְהֵא מָרְאֶה לָךְ. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס אָמַר לַאֲתַר מַרְוָתָא דְּעַָלְמָא. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַקְּטֹרֶת קְרֵבִין, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ד, ו): אֵלֶךְ לִי אֶל הַר הַמּוֹר וְאֶל גִּבְעַת הַלְּבוֹנָה. (בראשית כב, ב): וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה, רַבִּי יוּדָן בַּר סִימוֹן אָמַר, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים יֵשׁ קָרְבָּן. בְּלֹא כֹהֵן, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּבָר מִנִּיתִיךָ שֶׁתְּהֵא כֹהֵן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קי, ד): אַתָּה כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם. (בראשית כב, ב): עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ, ַר רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַתְהֶא וּמַתְלֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא מְגַלֶּה לָהֶם טַעֲמוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר (בראשית יב, א): אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ. עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים וגו'. דִּכְוָתָהּ (יונה ג, ב): וּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה אֲשֶׁר וגו', דִּכְוָתָהּ (יחזקאל ג, כב): קוּם צֵא אֶל הַבִּקְעָה וְשָׁם אֲדַבֵּר אוֹתָךְ. 69.7. וַיִּיקַּץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ (בראשית כח, טז), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר מִמִּשְׁנָתוֹ. (בראשית כח, טז): וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ ה' בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, אָכֵן הַשְּׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, וְלֹא הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ. (בראשית כח, יז): וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אָמַר הַסֻּלָּם הַזֶּה עוֹמֵד בִּבְאֵר שֶׁבַע וְשִׁפּוּעוֹ מַגִּיעַ עַד בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, מַה טַּעַם וַיֵּצֵא יַעֲקֹב מִבְּאֵר שָׁבַע, וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן הַסֻּלָּם הַזֶּה עוֹמֵד בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְשִׁפּוּעוֹ מַגִּיעַ עַד בֵּית אֵל, מַה טַּעַם, וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית אֵל. אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם, אָמַר רַב אַחָא עָתִיד הַשַּׁעַר הַזֶּה לְהִפָּתַח לְהַרְבֵּה צַדִּיקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אֵין בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁל מַעְלָן גָּבוֹהַּ מִבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁל מַטָּן, אֶלָּא שְׁמוֹנָה עֶשְׂרֵה מִיל, מַה טַּעַם, וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם, מִנְיַן וְזֶ"ה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶרְאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בָּנוּי וְחָרֵב וּבָנוּי, וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, זֶה בָּנוּי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים סח, לו): נוֹרָא אֱלֹהִים מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁיךָ, וְאֵין זֶה, הֲרֵי חָרֵב, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ה, יז): עַל זֶה הָיָה דָּוֶה לִבֵּנוּ עַל אֵלֶּה חָשְׁכוּ עֵינֵינוּ. כִּי אִם בֵּית אֱלֹהִים, בָּנוּי וּמְשֻׁכְלָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים קמז, יג): כִּי חִזַּק בְּרִיחֵי שְׁעָרָיִךְ. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 2.5. R’ Abahu and R’ Chiya Raba. R’ Abahu said - from the beginning of the creation of the world the Holy One saw the actions of the righteous and the actions of the wicked. This is what is written “For the Lord knows the way of the righteous…” (Psalms 1:6) “Now the earth was astonishingly empty…” (Genesis 1:2) these are the actions of the wicked, “And God said, Let there be light…” (Genesis 1:3) these are the actions of the righteous. But I don’t know which one of them He desired, the actions of these or the actions of those. Since it is written “And God saw the light that it was good…” (Genesis 1:4). He desires the actions of the righteous and not the actions of the wicked. R’ Chiya Raba said – from the beginning of the creation of the world the Holy One saw the Holy Temple built, destroyed and built. “In the beginning of God's creation…” (Genesis 1:1) refers to it built, this is what it says “…to plant the heavens and to found the earth…” (Isaiah 51:16) “Now the earth was astonishingly empty…” refers to it destroyed, this is what it says “I saw the earth, and behold, it was void and unformed…” (Jeremiah 4:23), “And God said, Let there be light…” refers to it built and complete in the future to come, this is what it says “Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has shone upon you. For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and a gross darkness the kingdoms, and the Lord shall shine upon you, and His glory shall appear over you.” (Isaiah 60:1-2) " 18.6. \"And they were both naked.\" Rabbi Eleazar said: there were three who did not wait for their contentment even six hours, and these are they: Adam, and Israel, and Sisra. Adam, as it says: \"and they were not embarrassed\" (Genesis 2:25) - six hours had not passed, and he was content. Israel, as it says: \"And the nation saw that Moses delayed\" (Exodus 32:1), when six hours had passed and Moses had not appeared. Sisra, as it says: \"Why does his chariot delay in coming?\" (Judges 5:28) - every day he would come in three or four hours, and today six hours have past and he is not here - these are all cases related to \"and they were not embarrassed.\" \"And the snake was crafty\" (Genesis 3:1) - the text only needed to continue with \"And Hashem God made for Adam and his wife...\" (Genesis 3:21). Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karchah said: to teach you which temptation the snake sprung on them - he saw them engaged in the way of the world, and desired here. Rabbi Yaakov of the village of Hannin said: to not pause the story of the snake." 22.2. Now the man knew his woman Chava, etc. Rabbi Huna and Rabbi Yaakov the son of Rabbi Avin, in the name of Rabbi Aba bar Kahana said: Before the man, the creations had never had sexual relations, behold here it is not written \"and he knows\" rather, and it is written \"and he knew\", that is, he made known the way of the land to all. Another interpretation: And Adam knew - he knew from what bliss he was expelled; he knew what Chava did to him. Said Rav Acha: Chivyiah [the snake] is your snake, and you are the snake of Adam. 'And she conceived and gave birth to Kayin' - Said Rabbi Eleazar ben Azaryiah three wonders happened on that day:on that day they were created, on that day they had relations, on that day they had children. Said Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korcha: two went up to the bed and seven descended, Kayin and his female twin, Hevel and his two female twins. 'And she said: I acquired a man with God' - the woman sees herself with a baby and says 'behold the acquiring of my husband [is definitely] in my hand.'Rabbi Ishmael asked Rabbi Akiva: since you have served Nachum Ish Gam Zu for twenty two years, and [he taught that] every 'ach' and every 'rak' make for exclusion and every 'et' and every 'gam' make for inclusion, in this verse what is 'et' doing here? He [Akiva] answered: if it were written 'I acquired a man of God [w/o the 'et']' that would be a difficult thing, rather it says 'I acquired a man with God'. He said to him: 'Because this is not an empty thing for you' (Devarim 32:47), and if it was empty, it is because of you, because you cannot LIDROSH, rather 'with God' [means] that in the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah [God’s presence]." 55.7. And He said: Take, please, your son, etc. (22:2). Said God to him: ‘Take, I beg you\" — please —Your son.’ ‘Which son? I have two sons’ he said. ‘Your only son,’ replied He. ‘This one is the only one of his mother, and this one is the only one of his mother.’ \"The one you love\"—‘Is there a limit to the affections?’ \"Itzchak\" said He. And why did God not reveal it to him without delay? In order to make him [Itzchak] even more beloved in his eyes and reward him for each and every word spoken. This agrees with the opinion of Rabbi Yoha, who said: \"Get out of your country\" (Gen. 12:1) means from your province; “And from your kindred” (Gen. 12:1)—from your neighborhood; “And from your father’s house\"(Gen. 12:1)—literally your father’s house. “To the land that I will show you” (Gen. 12:1). Why did He not reveal it to him there and then? In order to make it more beloved in his eyes and to reward him for each and every word said, and for each and every step taken. Rabbi Levi b. Hayata said: ‘Get you’ is written twice, and we do not know which was more precious [in the eyes of God] the first or the second. But when it is written, “And get you to the land of Moriah” (22:2) it follows that the second occasion was more precious than the first. \"And go yourself to the land of Moriah\" Rabbi Chiya Raba and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says to the place from which instruction (hora’ah) goes out to the world, and the other says to the place from which awe (yirah) goes out to the world. Similarly regarding the Holy of Holies (devir), Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says from the place from which the commandments (dibra’ot) go out to the world, and one says from the place from which speech (dibur) goes out to the world. Similarly regarding the ark (aron), Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says to the place from which the light (ha’orah) goes out to the world, and one says to the place where awe (yirah) goes out to the world. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that from there the Holy One instructs [mor'eh] the nations of the world and brings them down [moridam] to Gehinnom. Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai said, to the place which is aligned [ra'ui] with the Holy Temple above. Rabbi Yudan said, to the place where there will be an appearance [mar'eh] to you. Rabbi Pinchas said, to the place of the Master [marvatah] of the World. The Rabbis said, to the place where the incense is offered – this is what it says “…I will go to the mountain of myrrh and to the hill of frankincense.” (Shir HaShirim 4:6) \"And offer Him there as a burnt-offering (Gen. 22:2). Rabbi Yudan bar Simon said: He [Avraham] said to Him: ‘Master of the Universe! Can there be a sacrifice without a priest?’ The Holy One of Blessing replied ‘I have already appointed you to be a priest’ as it is written, ‘You are a priest for ever’ (Ps. 110:4). \"On one of the mountains which I will tell you of (Gen. 22:2). Rabbi Huna said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili: The Holy One of Blessing first places the righteous in doubt and suspense, and then reveals to them the real meaning of the matter, as it is written \"to the land that I will show you (Gen. 12:1); \"On one of the mountains which I will tell you\"; \"And make to it the proclamation that I bid you (Jonah 3:2); similarly, \"Arise, go out into the plain and I will there speak with you (Ezek. 3:22)."
42. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, 17.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8a. רבי יהושע סבר ילפינן ממשה ור"א סבר לא ילפינן ממשה שאני משה דרב גובריה וחכ"א לא כדברי זה ולא כדברי זה אלא שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר בסוף כל ברכה וברכה מעין כל ברכה וברכה אומר,א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אם יש לו חולה בתוך ביתו אומר בברכת חולים ואם צריך לפרנסה אומר בברכת השנים,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר אחר תפלתו אפילו כסדר יוה"כ אומר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים קלנדא וסטרנורא וקרטיסים ויום גנוסיא של מלכיהם ויום הלידה ויום המיתה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים כל מיתה שיש בה שריפה יש בה עבודת כוכבים ושאין בה שריפה אין בה עבודת כוכבים אבל יום תגלחת זקנו ובלוריתו ויום שעלה בו מן הים ויום שיצא מבית האסורין ועובד כוכבים שעשה משתה לבנו אינו אסור אלא אותו היום ואותו האיש בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב חנן בר רבא קלנדא ח' ימים אחר תקופה סטרנורא ח' ימים לפני תקופה וסימנך (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני וגו',ת"ר לפי שראה אדם הראשון יום שמתמעט והולך אמר אוי לי שמא בשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי וחוזר לתוהו ובוהו וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים עמד וישב ח' ימים בתענית [ובתפלה],כיון שראה תקופת טבת וראה יום שמאריך והולך אמר מנהגו של עולם הוא הלך ועשה שמונה ימים טובים לשנה האחרת עשאן לאלו ולאלו ימים טובים הוא קבעם לשם שמים והם קבעום לשם עבודת כוכבים,בשלמא למ"ד בתשרי נברא העולם יומי זוטי חזא יומי אריכי אכתי לא חזא אלא למ"ד בניסן נברא העולם הא חזא ליה יומי זוטי ויומי אריכי דהוי זוטי כולי האי לא חזא,ת"ר יום שנברא בו אדם הראשון כיון ששקעה עליו חמה אמר אוי לי שבשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי ויחזור עולם לתוהו ובוהו וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים היה יושב בתענית ובוכה כל הלילה וחוה בוכה כנגדו כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר מנהגו של עולם הוא עמד והקריב שור שקרניו קודמין לפרסותיו שנאמר (תהלים סט, לב) ותיטב לה' משור פר מקרין מפריס,ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שור שהקריב אדם הראשון קרן אחת היתה [לו] במצחו שנאמר ותיטב לה' משור פר מקרין מפריס מקרין תרתי משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מקרן כתיב,אמר רב מתנה רומי שעשתה קלנדא וכל העיירות הסמוכות לה משתעבדות לה אותן עיירות אסורות או מותרות רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר קלנדא אסורה לכל היא רבי יוחנן אמר אין אסורה אלא לעובדיה בלבד,תנא כוותיה דר' יוחנן אע"פ שאמרו רומי עשתה קלנדא וכל עיירות הסמוכות לה משתעבדות לה היא עצמה אינה אסורה אלא לעובדיה בלבד,סטרנליא וקרטסים ויום גנוסיא של מלכיהם ויום שהומלך בו מלך לפניו אסור אחריו מותר ועובד כוכבים שעשה (בו) משתה לבנו אין אסור אלא אותו היום ואותו האיש,אמר רב אשי אף אנן נמי תנינא דקתני יום תגלחת זקנו ובלוריתו ויום שעלה בו מן הים ויום שיצא בו מבית האסורין אין אסור אלא אותו היום בלבד ואותו האיש,בשלמא אותו היום לאפוקי לפניו ולאחריו אלא אותו האיש לאפוקי מאי לאו לאפוקי משעבדיו ש"מ,תניא רבי ישמעאל אומר ישראל שבחוצה לארץ עובדי עבודת כוכבים בטהרה הן כיצד עובד כוכבים שעשה משתה לבנו וזימן כל היהודים שבעירו אע"פ שאוכלין משלהן ושותין משלהן ושמש שלהן עומד לפניהם מעלה עליהם הכתוב כאילו אכלו מזבחי מתים שנאמר (שמות לד, טו) וקרא לך ואכלת מזבחו,ואימא עד דאכיל אמר רבא אם כן נימא קרא ואכלת מזבחו מאי וקרא לך משעת קריאה הלכך 8a. bRabbi Yehoshua holdsthat bwe derive fromthe case of bMosesthat one should first praise God in prayer and only afterward issue personal requests. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer holdsthat bwe do not derive from Moseshow to act, since bMoses is different, as his might is great,i.e., he knew how to pray to God in this order. bAnd the Rabbis say:The ihalakha bis not in accordance with the statement of thisSage, who says that one should issue personal requests before praying, bnoris it bin accordance with the statement of thatSage, who says that personal requests should follow prayer. bRather, a person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer.Therefore, when Naḥum the Mede stated that this is the ihalakha /i, he was merely concurring with the opinion of the Rabbis.,With regard to the halakhic ruling, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that ba person requests his own needsduring the iAmidaprayer binthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, says in the name of Rav: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer,that is not the only option. bRather, if he wishes to recite at the conclusion of each and every blessingpersonal requests that breflect the nature of each and every blessing, he may recitethem.,Similarly, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer, if he has a sick person in his house he recitesa special prayer for him bduring the blessing of the sick. And if he is in need of sustece, he recitesa request bduring the blessing of the years. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer; but if one wishes to reciteprayers and supplications bafterfinishing bhis iAmida bprayer, evenif his personal requests bare aslong as bthe orderof the confession of bYom Kippur, he may recitethem., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the birthdayof the king, bandthe anniversary of bthe day of the deathof the king. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Every death that includespublic bburningis a festival that bincludes idol worship, andany death bthat does not includepublic bburningis bnota festival that bincludes idol worship. Butin the case of bthe day of shaving his,i.e., a gentile’s, bbeard and his locks, and the day ofhis bascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, andalso in the case of ba gentile who prepareda wedding bfeast for his sonand celebrates on that day, engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat day andwith bthat man. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Ḥa bar Rava says:When are these festivals celebrated? bKalendais celebrated during the beight days afterthe winter bsolstice,and bSaturnaliais celebrated during the beight days beforethe winter bsolstice. And your mnemonicto remember which festival is that the one that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first in the mishna, and the festival that takes place before the solstice is mentioned after, as in the verse: b“You have hemmed me in behind and before,and laid Your Hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), where the word “before” appears after the term “behind.”,With regard to the dates of these festivals, bthe Sages taught: When Adam the firstman bsawthat bthe day was progressively diminishing,as the days become shorter from the autumnal equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he bsaid: Woeis bme; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me andwill ultimately breturn tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven,as it is written: “And to dust shall you return” (Genesis 3:19). bHe arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer. /b, bOnce he sawthat the bseason of Tevet,i.e., the winter solstice, had arrived, band sawthat bthe day was progressively lengtheningafter the solstice, he bsaid:Clearly, the days become shorter and then longer, and this bis the order of the world. He went and observed a festivalfor beight days. Upon the next year, he observedboth btheseeight days on which he had fasted on the previous year, band theseeight days of his celebration, as bdays of festivities. He,Adam, bestablishedthese festivals bfor the sake of Heaven, but they,the gentiles of later generations, bestablished them for the sake of idol worship. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bthe world was created inthe month of bTishrei,one can understand why Adam believed that the days were becoming shorter as part of his punishment, as bhe saw the short daysof the winter and bhad not yet seen the long daysof summer. bBut according to the one who saysthat bthe world was created inthe month of bNisan, he hadalready bseenthe difference between bthe short days and the long days,as the days in the month of Nisan become progressively longer with the passage of time. The Gemara answers: Although Adam had experienced short days, bhe had not seen days that were this short,as in the days before the winter solstice., bThe Sages taught:On bthe day that Adam the firstman bwas created, when the sun set upon him he said: Woeis bme, as because I sinned, the world is becoming dark around me, and the world will return tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven. He spent all night fasting and crying, and Eve was crying opposite him. Once dawn broke, he said:Evidently, the sun sets and night arrives, and bthis is the order of the world. He arose and sacrificed a bull whose horns preceded its hoofsin the order that they were created, bas it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns and hoofs”(Psalms 69:32). This verse is referring to the one particular bull whose horns preceded its hoofs., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The bbull that Adam the firstman bsacrificed had one horn in its forehead, as it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns [ imakrin /i] and hooves.”The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn’t imakrin /iplural, which bindicates twohorns? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: iMikkerenis written,i.e., the letter iyodis missing from the word, indicating that there was only one horn.,§ bRav Mattana says:Since bRome establishedthe festival of bKalendaon a specific date, band all of the nearby towns are ruled byRome, i.e., they pay their tax to Rome and provide its needs but do not themselves celebrate the festival, is it bprohibited or permittedto engage in business transactions with the gentile residents of bthose towns? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is prohibitedto engage in business during the time of the bKalenda with everyone. Rabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibitedto engage in business bonly with its worshippers,whereas it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who do not celebrate the festival.,The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa: Although they saidthat bRomehas bestablishedthe festival of bKalenda and all of the nearby towns are ruled byRome, bit is prohibitedto engage in business bonly with its worshippers. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to the festivals bSaturnalia and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, andthe bday on whichthe bking was crowned,the ihalakhais that bbeforethe festival it is bprohibitedto engage in business transactions, whereas bafterthe festival it is bpermitted. Butin the case of ba gentile who prepared a feast for his sonand celebrates on that day, engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat dayitself bandwith bthat man. /b, bRav Ashi said: We learnin the mishna bas wellin accordance with Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that the prohibition applies only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to people who are ruled by them. bAsthe mishna bteaches:With regard to bthe day of shaving his beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison,engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat day andwith bthat man. /b,Rav Ashi explains the proof: bGranted,the mishna specifies that the prohibition is limited to bthat dayalone, in order bto excludethe days bbefore and after it. Butwhen it states that the prohibition applies only to bthat man, what doesthe mishna bexclude?Obviously the prohibition does not extend to all gentiles, as it is a personal festival. bDoesn’tthe mishna’s ruling serve bto exclude those who are ruled by him?Therefore, bconclude fromthe language of the mishna that a prohibition extends only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to those who are ruled by them., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael says: Jews who are outside of EretzYisrael bareconsidered to bengage in idol worship in purity,i.e., unwittingly. bHowdoes this occur? In the case of ba gentile who prepared a feast forthe marriage of bhis son, and invited all of the Jews in his town, even though they eat of their ownkosher food band drink of their ownkosher beverages, band their own attendant stands before them, the verse ascribesguilt bto them as though they ate ofthe bofferings to the dead,i.e., idols, bas it is stated:“And sacrifice to their gods, band they call you, and you eat of their sacrifice”(Exodus 34:15). Since Jews participate in a feast in which the gentile sacrifices offerings to his idol, it is as though they partook of the offering themselves.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat the verse is criticizing the Jews only bonce they eatfrom the sacrifice? bRava said: Ifthat biswhat is meant, blet the verse sayonly: bAnd you eat of their sacrifice. Whatis meant by the additional phrase: b“And they call you”?This indicates that the prohibition occurs bfrom the time of the call. Therefore, /b
45. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה' בחרבו הקשה וגו':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות 74b. i.e., ba diver [ ibar amoraei /i]went into the water bto bringup this chest, bandthe fish bbecame angry and sought to sever his thigh, butthe diver bthrewupon it ba flask of vinegar and they descendedand swam away. bA Divine Voice emergedand bsaid to us: Whatright bdo you have totouch bthe crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-bluewool bin it tobe used in the ritual fringes of bthe righteous in the World-to-Come? /b, bRav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring itup, and the bsnake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven cameand bcut off its head,and bthe water turned into blooddue to the enormousness of the snake. bAnother snake came, tookthe precious stone, band hung iton the dead snake, band it recovered. It returnedand again bsought to swallow the ship,and yet again ba bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone,and bthrew it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placedthe stone bon them,and bthey tookthe stone band flew away with it. /b,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for whatreason bdid you tremble?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: I saw a great light in the sea.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning”(Job 41:10)., bRav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut openthe thigh band toreoff the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat band put it on the grass. Bythe time bthat we brought wood, the thigh had repaireditself, band we roasted it. When we returnedto that place bafter twelve monthsof bthe yearhad passed, bwe saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life [ isamterei /i],while bthose coals were of broom. /b,The verse states: b“And God created the great sea monsters”(Genesis 1:21). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretedthis as a reference to the bsea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His soreand great and strong bswordwill punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: bEverything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupledand produced offspring, they would have bdestroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and saltedthe female to preserve it for the banquet bfor the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea”(Isaiah 27:1)., bAnd He created even the beasts on the thousand hills(see Psalms 50:10) bmale and female. Andthey were so enormous that bif they would have coupledand produced offspring, bthey would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooledthe sexual desire of bthe female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is statedabout the beasts: b“Lo now, his strength is in his loins”(Job 40:16); bthisis referring to the bmale.The continuation of the verse: b“And his force is in the stays of his body”; thisis the bfemale,alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: bThere too,with regard to the leviathan, blet Him castrate the male and cool the female;why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: bFish are unrestrained,and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let Him do the opposite,and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: bIf you wish, saythat the bsalted female is better; if you wish, sayinstead bthatsince bit is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is bnot proper conductto sport bwith a female.The Gemara asks: bHere too,with regard to the beasts, blet Himpreserve the bfemale in salt,instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: bSalted fish is good,but bsalted meat is not good. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world,so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,it is benough that I will stay within my ownwaters. God bimmediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab”(Job 26:12)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from herethat bthe name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for watersof the sea that bcover him, no creature could withstand his smell,as his corpse emits a terrible stench. bAs it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain;for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, bas the waters cover the sea”(Isaiah 11:9). bDo not readthis phrase as b“cover the sea”; ratherread it as: bCover the minister of the sea,i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi,i.e., the Hula Lake, band in the Sea of Tiberias,the Sea of Galilee, band rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth”(Job 40:23). bRava bar Ulla strongly objects to thisexplanation of the verse, stating: But bthisverse bis written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla saidthat this is the meaning of the verse: bWhen are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: bSeas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods”(Psalms 24:2)? bThese arethe bseven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these arethe bseven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom,i.e., the Dead Sea, bthe Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea,i.e., the Mediterranean. bAnd these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga,which are the rivers of Damascus., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

94b. ע"י שליח נפרע הקב"ה ממנו ע"י שליח,פרעה דכתיב ביה (שמות ה, ב) מי ה' אשר אשמע בקולו נפרע הקב"ה ממנו בעצמו דכתיב (שמות יד, כז) וינער ה' את מצרים בתוך הים וכתיב (חבקוק ג, טו) דרכת בים סוסיך וגו' סנחריב דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, כג) ביד מלאכיך חרפת ה' נפרע הקב"ה ממנו ע"י שליח דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, לה) ויצא מלאך ה' ויך במחנה אשור מאה ושמונים וחמשה אלף וגו',ר' חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו לז, כד) מרום קיצו וכתיב (מלכים ב יט, כג) מלון קיצו אמר אותו רשע בתחלה אחריב דירה של מטה ואחר כך אחריב דירה של מעלה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, כה) עתה המבלעדי ה' עליתי על המקום הזה להשחיתו ה' אמר אלי עלה אל הארץ הזאת והשחיתה מאי היא דשמע לנביא דקאמר (ישעיהו ח, ו) יען כי מאס העם הזה את מי השילוח ההולכים לאט ומשוש את רצין ובן רמליהו,אמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא הוה ידענא מאי קאמר חלף דקץ עמא הדין במלכותא דבית דוד דמדבר להון בנייח כמי שילוחא דנגדין בנייח ואיתרעיאו ברצין ובר רמליה,א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי ג, לג) מארת ה' בבית רשע ונוה צדיקים יבורך מארת ה' בבית רשע זה פקח בן רמליהו שהיה אוכל מ' סאה גוזלות בקינוח סעודה ונוה צדיקים יבורך זה חזקיה מלך יהודה שהיה אוכל ליטרא ירק בסעודה,(ישעיהו ח, ז) ולכן הנה ה' מעלה עליהם את מי הנהר העצומים והרבים את מלך אשור וכתיב (ישעיהו ח, ח) וחלף ביהודה שטף ועבר עד צואר יגיע,אלא מ"ט איעניש נביא אעשרת השבטים איתנבי איהו יהיב דעתיה על כולה ירושלים בא נביא וא"ל (ישעיהו ח, כג) כי לא מועף לאשר מוצק לה א"ר אלעזר בר ברכיה אין נמסר עם עייף בתורה ביד מי המציק לו,מאי (ישעיהו ח, כג) כעת הראשון הקל ארצה זבולון וארצה נפתלי והאחרון הכביד דרך הים עבר הירדן גליל הגוים לא כראשונים שהקלו מעליהם עול תורה אבל אחרונים שהכבידו עליהן עול תורה וראויין הללו לעשות להם נס כעוברי הים וכדורכי הירדן אם חוזר בו מוטב ואם לאו אני אעשה לו גליל בגוים,(דברי הימים ב לב, א) אחרי הדברים והאמת האלה בא סנחריב מלך אשור ויבא ביהודה ויחן על הערים הבצורות ויאמר לבקעם אליו האי רישנא להאי פרדשנא,אחרי הדברים והאמת (אחר מאי) אמר רבינא לאחר שקפץ הקב"ה ונשבע ואמר אי אמינא ליה לחזקיה מייתינא ליה לסנחריב ומסרנא ליה בידך השתא אמר לא הוא בעינא ולא ביעתותיה בעינא,מיד קפץ הקב"ה ונשבע דמייתינא ליה שנאמר (ישעיהו יד, כד) נשבע ה' צבאות לאמר אם לא כאשר דמיתי כן היתה וכאשר יעצתי היא תקום לשבור אשור בארצי ועל הרי אבוסנו וסר מעליהם עולו וסבלו מעל שכמו יסור א"ר יוחנן אמר הקב"ה יבא סנחריב וסיעתו ויעשה אבוס לחזקיהו ולסיעתו,(ישעיהו י, כז) והיה ביום ההוא יסור סבלו מעל שכמך ועולו מעל צוארך וחובל עול מפני שמן א"ר יצחק נפחא חובל עול של סנחריב מפני שמנו של חזקיהו שהיה דולק בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,מה עשה נעץ חרב על פתח בית המדרש ואמר כל מי שאינו עוסק בתורה ידקר בחרב זו בדקו מדן ועד באר שבע ולא מצאו עם הארץ מגבת ועד אנטיפרס ולא מצאו תינוק ותינוקת איש ואשה שלא היו בקיאין בהלכות טומאה וטהרה,ועל אותו הדור הוא אומר (ישעיהו ז, כא) והיה ביום ההוא יחיה איש עגלת בקר ושתי צאן וגו' ואומר (ישעיהו ז, כג) והיה ביום ההוא יהיה כל מקום אשר יהיה שם אלף גפן באלף כסף לשמיר ולשית יהיה אע"פ שאלף גפן באלף כסף לשמיר ולשית יהיה,(ישעיהו לג, ד) ואוסף שללכם אוסף החסיל אמר להם נביא לישראל אספו שללכם אמרו לו לבזוז או לחלוק אמר להם כאוסף החסיל מה אוסף החסיל כל אחד ואחד לעצמו אף שללכם כל אחד ואחד לעצמו,אמרו לו והלא ממון עשרת השבטים מעורב בו אמר להם (ישעיהו לג, ד) כמשק גבים שוקק בו מה גבים הללו מעלין את האדם מטומאה לטהרה אף ממונם של ישראל כיון שנפל ביד עובדי כוכבים מיד טיהר (כדרב פפא דאמר רב פפא) עמון ומואב טהרו בסיחון,אמר רב הונא עשר מסעות נסע אותו רשע באותו היום שנאמר (ישעיהו י, כח) בא על עית עבר במגרון למכמש יפקיד כליו עברו מעברה גבע מלון לנו חרדה הרמה גבעת שאול נסה (ישעיהו י, ל) צהלי קולך בת גלים הקשיבה לישה עניה ענתות נדדה מדמנה יושבי הגבים העיזו ((ישעיהו י, לב) עוד היום בנוב לעמוד ינופף ידו הר בת ציון גבעת ירושלם),הני טובא הויין צהלי קולך בת גלים נביא הוא דקאמר לה לכנסת ישראל צהלי קולך בת גלים בתו של אברהם יצחק ויעקב שעשו מצות כגלי הים הקשיבה לישה מהאי לא תסתפי אלא איסתפי מנבוכדנצר הרשע דמתיל כאריה שנא' (ירמיהו ד, ז) עלה אריה מסובכו וגו',מאי 94b. bby means of an agent, the Holy One, Blessed be He, exacted retribution from him by means of an agent. /b, bPharaohblasphemed God, bas it is writtenthat he said to Moses and Aaron: b“Who is the Lord that I should obey His voice?”(Exodus 5:2) bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself exacted retribution from him, as it is written: “And the Lord overthrew Egypt in the midst of the sea”(Exodus 14:27), band it is written: “You have trodden through the sea with Your horses”(Habakkuk 3:15). bSennacheribblasphemed God by means of an agent, bas it is written: “By your messengers you have taunted the Lord”(II Kings 19:23). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, exacted retribution from him by means of an agent, as it is written: “Then the angel of the Lord went forth and smote in the camp of the Assyrians one hundred and eighty-five thousand”(II Kings 19:35)., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raises a contradiction. It is writtenthat Sennacherib said: “And I will enter binto its farthest height”(Isaiah 37:24), band it is writtenin a parallel verse that he said: “And I have entered binto its farthest lodge”(II Kings 19:23). The Gemara resolves the contradiction. bThat wicked person said: Initially, I will destroythe earthly bdwelling place below,i.e., the Temple, its farthest lodge, band thereafter, I will destroythe heavenly bdwelling place above,its farthest height.,§ bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin the statement of Rab-shakeh, emissary of Sennacherib: b“Have I now come up without the Lord against this place to destroy it? The Lord said to me: Go up against this land and destroy it”(II Kings 18:25). bWhat isthis command to destroy the land? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi explains: It is referring to the fact bthat he heard the prophet who said: “Since the people rejected the waters of Shiloah that flow slowly and rejoice with Rezin and the son of Remaliah.Now therefore, behold, the Lord brings upon them…the king of Assyria” (Isaiah 8:6–7)., bRav Yosef says: Were it not for theAramaic btranslation of this verse I would not know what it is saying.It is translated: bSince this people loathed the reign of the house of David that led them gently, like the waters of the Shiloah, which flow gently, and they preferred Rezin and the son of Remaliah,who were kings from the northern kingdom of Israel. And the verse continues: “Now therefore, behold, the Lord brings upon them…the king of Assyria.”, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The curse of the Lord is in the house of the wicked, but He blesses the habitation of the just”(Proverbs 3:33)? b“The curse of the Lord is in the house of the wicked”; this isa reference to bPekah, son of Remaliah, who would eat forty ise’aof fledglings for dessertand would still not be satiated, as his property was cursed. b“But He blesses the habitation of the just”; this isa reference to bHezekiah, king of Judea, who would eat a ilitraof vegetables athis bmealand was satiated, as his property was blessed.,It is written in the verse: b“Now therefore, behold, the Lord brings up upon them the strong and abundant waters of the river, the king of Assyria”(Isaiah 8:7). bAnd it is written: “And he shall sweep through Judea; he shall inundate and pass through, reaching even the neck”(Isaiah 8:8). Rab-shakeh alluded to that prophecy when he said in the verse in Kings that the Lord said to destroy the land.,The Gemara asks: bBut what is the reasonthat Sennacherib bwas punishedif he was merely fulfilling God’s command? The Gemara answers: bThe prophet prophesied aboutthe destruction of the kingdom of Israel and the exile of bthe ten tribes,but bhe directed his attention todestroy ball of Jerusalem. The prophet came and said to him: “For there is no weariness [ imu’af] that is set [ imutzak /i] against her”(Isaiah 8:23). bRabbi Elazar bar Berekhya saysthat the verse is interpreted homiletically: bA nationthat is bweary [ iayef]from its constant engagement bin Torahstudy bis not delivered into the hands of one who oppresses [ imetzik /i] it. /b, bWhatis the meaning of the continuation of the verse, which states: b“Now the former has lightly afflicted [ ihakel /i] the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali but the latter has dealt a more grievous blow [ ihikhbid /i] by way of the sea, beyond the Jordan in the district [ igelil /i] of the nations”?The generation in Judea in the time of Hezekiah is bnot like the formergeneration of Ahaz, bwho eased [ ihekellu /i] the yoke of Torah from uponthe people. bButthe blattergeneration of Hezekiah, bwho intensified [ ihikhbidu /i] the yoke of Torah uponthe people, bis fitfor God bto performa miracle bfor them likethe miracles performed for bthose who crossed theRed bSea and those who trodthrough bthe JordanRiver. God is saying: bIfSennacherib breconsidershis planned conquest, bgood, but ifhe does bnot, I will render him wallowing [ igalil /i]in shame bamong the nations. /b,The verse states: b“After these matters and this truth, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, came and entered Judea and encamped against the fortified cities and sought to breach them for himself”(II Chronicles 32:1). The Gemara asks: Is bthis gift [ irishna /i],the invasion of Sennacherib, appropriate compensation bfor that gift [ ipardashna /i],Hezekiah’s restoration of the Temple and the worship of God in Judea?,The Gemara explains: When the verse states: b“Afterthese bmatters andthis btruth [ iemet /i],” after whatmatters is the verse referring to? bRavina says:This is referring to bafter the Holy One, Blessed be He, preempted and took an oath,referenced with the term iemet /i, that He will deliver the spoils of the army of the king of Assyria into the hands of Hezekiah. bAndthis was because bHehad bsaid: If I say to Hezekiah: I will bring Sennacherib and I will deliver him into your hands; he willthen bsay: I neither want himdelivered into my hands bnor do I wantthe accompanying bfearof bhim. /b, bImmediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, preemptedHezekiah band took an oath:I take an oath bthat I will deliver him, as it is stated: “The Lord of hosts has taken an oath, saying: Is it not as I imagined it, so has it come to pass; and as I have proposed, so shall it arise, that I will break Assyria in My land, and upon My mountains subdue him [ iavusennu /i]; then shall his yoke depart from them, and his burden depart from its shoulder”(Isaiah 14:24–25). bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Sennacherib and his entourage shall come and be transformed intoa feeding btrough [ ievus /i],in the sense of a source of sustece bfor Hezekiah and his entourage. /b,§ It is stated with regard to the downfall of Assyria: b“And it shall come to pass on that day, his burden shall be taken from on your shoulder, and his yoke from on your neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed due to fatness [ ishamen /i]”(Isaiah 10:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says: The yoke of Sennacherib was destroyed due to the oil [ ishemen /i] of Hezekiah that would burn in the synagogues and study hallswhen the Jewish people were engaged in Torah study at night., bWhat didHezekiah bdoto ensure Torah study? bHe inserted a sword at the entrance of the study hall and said: Anyone who does not engage in Torahstudy bshall be stabbed with this sword.As a result, bthey searched from Danin the north bto Beershebain the south, band did not find an ignoramus.They searched bfrom Gevat to Antipatris and did not find a male child, or a female child,or ba man, or a woman who was not experteven bin thecomplex ihalakhotof ritual purity and impurity. /b, bAndit is babout that generationthat the prophet bsays: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young calf and two sheep.And it shall come to pass, from the abundance of milk that they produce, he shall eat butter, for butter and honey shall everyone eat, everyone who remains in the midst of the land” (Isaiah 7:21–22). bAndthe prophet continues and bsays: “And it shall come to pass in that day that every place where there were one thousand vines for one thousand silver coins, it shall be for briars and thorns”(Isaiah 7:23). bAlthough one thousand vines are worth one thousand silver coinsand one could earn substantial profits through agricultural labor, the fields bwillgrow bbriars and thornsdue to neglect. The people of that generation were devoted to the study of Torah and engaged in labor only minimally to sustain themselves.,It is written: b“And your spoils shall be gathered like the gathering of the locusts;as the advance of the locusts shall he advance” (Isaiah 33:4). bThe prophet said to the Jewish people: Gather your spoilsfrom the army of Sennacherib. bThey said to him:Are we bto pillagethe spoils, each person for himself, borare we bto dividethe spoils with the monarchy? bHe said to them:Gather the spoils blike the gathering by the locusts. Just asin bthe gathering by the locusts, each and every oneof the locusts takes food bfor itself, so too,in gathering byour spoils, each and every oneof you shall take spoils bfor himself. /b, bThey said to him:Since the army of Sennacherib came to Jerusalem after its conquest of the kingdom of Israel, bisn’t the property of the ten tribes intermingled with it,and therefore, gathering the spoils would be robbery? bHe said to them: “As the advance of the locusts [ igevim /i] shall he advance”(Isaiah 33:4). bJust as these poolsof water belevate a person up froma state of britual impurity toa state of bpuritythrough immersion, bso too the property of the Jewish people, once it falls into the hands of gentiles, it immediately purifiesthe property, in the sense that it is no longer considered robbery to take it, as its owners despair of its recovery. This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rav Pappa, as Rav Pappa says:The property of bAmmon and Moab was purified throughthe conquest of bSihon.Although the Torah rendered it prohibited to conquer the land of Ammon and Moab, once Sihon conquered their land, it was permitted for the Jewish people to conquer it.,§ bRav Huna says: That wickedSennacherib btraveled ten journeys on that day, as it is stated: “He is come to Aiath, he is passed through Migron; at Michmas he deposited his baggage. They passed [ iaveru /i] Mabara; they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah trembles; Gibeath Shaul has fled. Cry with a shrill voice, daughter of Gallim; hearken, Laish; poor Anathoth. Madmenah is in flight; the inhabitants of Gebim flee to cover. This very day shall he halt at Nov; he shall shake his hand against the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem”(Isaiah 10:28–32). He traveled to all these places on the same day.,The Gemara asks: bAren’t these morethan ten? The Gemara answers that in the verse: b“Cry with a shrill voice, daughter of Gallim,”it is bthe prophet who is saying it to the congregation of Israel: “Cry with a shrill voice, daughter of Gallim,” daughter of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who performed mitzvotas numerous bas the waves of the sea. “Hearken, Laish”; from thisking, Sennacherib, bfear not; but fear Nebuchadnezzar, the wicked who is likened to a lion, as it is stated: “The lion [ iarye /i] is gone up from its thicket”(Jeremiah 4:7).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase:
48. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that ba woman wouldbe able to bsort wheat by the light of theCelebration of the bPlace of the Drawingof the Water.,§ The mishna continues: bThe pious and the men of actionwould dance before the people who attended the celebration. bThe Sages taughtin the iToseftathat bsome of them would sayin their song praising God: bHappy is our youth,as we did not sin then, bthat did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action,who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. bAnd some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youthwhen we sinned. bThese are the penitents.Both bthese and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent andGod bwill absolve him. /b, bIt is taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThey said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bhe said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here?In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. bHe wouldalso bsay this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me,and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: bIf you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. bAdditionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the waterand bhe said to it: Because you drownedothers, bthey drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned.That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bthese two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha”(I Kings 4:3), and bthey were scribes of Solomon. One daySolomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking meto take the lives of bthese two Cushites who are sitting here.Solomon bhanded them to the demonsin his service, band sent them to the district of Luz,where the Angel of Death has no dominion. bWhen they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b, bThe following day,Solomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked meto take them, bthere you sent them.The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. bImmediately, Solomon beganto speak band said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bhe would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another,juggling them, band,though all were in the air at the same time, bthey would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floorof the courtyard band straighten, andthere was bnot anyother bcreaturethat bcould do thatdue to the extreme difficulty involved. bAnd this was theform of bowing called ikidda /iperformed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: bLevi demonstrated a ikiddabefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh band came up lame.The Gemara asks: bAnd is that what caused himto be lame? bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently towardGod babove; as a great persononce bspoke impertinently towardGod babove,and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished band came up lame. And whowas this great person? It was bLevi.Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both bthis and that caused himto come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating ikidda /i.,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: bLevi would walk before RabbiYehuda HaNasi juggling bwith eight knives. Shmuelwould juggle bbefore King Shapur with eight glasses of winewithout spilling. bAbayewould juggle bbefore Rabba with eight eggs. Some sayhe did so bwith four eggs.All these were cited., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoicein bthe Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwe did not see sleep in our eyesthe entire Festival. bHow so?In the bfirst hourof the day, bthe daily morning offeringwas sacrificed and everyone came to watch. bFrom therethey proceeded btoengage in bprayerin the synagogue; bfrom there, towatch the sacrifice of bthe additional offerings; from there,to the synagogue btorecite bthe additional prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the study hallto study Torah; bfrom there to the eating and drinkingin the isukka /i; bfrom there to the afternoon prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the daily afternoon offeringin the Temple. bFrom thispoint bforward,they proceeded bto the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The Gemara wonders: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One who took ban oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs himimmediately for taking an oath in vain, band hemay bsleep immediatelybecause it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. bRather, this is whatRabbi Yehoshua bis saying: We did not experience the sense ofactual bsleep, because they wouldmerely bdoze on each other’s shoulders.In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the bfifteen stairsthat descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. bRav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing iaggadabefore him: Did you hearwith regard to bthese fifteenSongs of bAscentsin Psalms, bcorresponding to what did David say them? He said to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipesin the foundation of the Temple, the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world.Immediately, bDavid recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and caused them to subside.Rav Ḥisda asked: bIf so,should they be called bfifteenSongs of the bAscents? They should have beencalled Songs of the bDescents. /b,Rav Ḥisda continued and bsaid to him: Since you reminded meof this bmatter, this iswhat bwasoriginally bstated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes,the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write thesacred bname /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. בברייתו של עולם,ת"ר א"י נבראת תחילה וכל העולם כולו נברא לבסוף שנאמר (משלי ח, כו) עד לא עשה ארץ וחוצות א"י משקה אותה הקב"ה בעצמו וכל העולם כולו ע"י שליח שנאמר (איוב ה, י) הנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות,א"י שותה מי גשמים וכל העולם כולו מתמצית שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' א"י שותה תחילה וכל העולם כולו לבסוף שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' משל לאדם שמגבל את הגבינה נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,אמר מר ממתקין הן בעבים מנליה דא"ר יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן כתיב (תהלים יח, יב) חשכת מים עבי שחקים וכתיב (שמואל ב כב, יב) חשרת מים עבי שחקים,שקול כף ושדי אריש וקרי ביה חכשרת,ור' יהושע בהני קראי מאי דריש בהו סבר לה כי הא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא נהור ענני זעירין מוהי חשוך ענני סגיין מוהי,כמאן אזלא הא דתניא מים העליונים במאמר הם תלוים ופירותיהן מי גשמים שנאמר (תהלים קד, יג) מפרי מעשיך תשבע הארץ כמאן כר' יהושע ור' אליעזר ההוא במעשה ידיו של הקב"ה הוא דכתיב,אריב"ל כל העולם כולו מתמצית גן עדן הוא שותה שנאמר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן וגו' תנא מתמצית בית כור שותה תרקב:,ת"ר ארץ מצרים הויא ד' מאות פרסה על ד' מאות פרסה והוא אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם א' מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים לעדן ועדן אחד מס' לגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדרה לגיהנם וי"א גיהנם אין לה שיעור וי"א עדן אין לה שיעור,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, יג) שוכנת על מים רבים רבת אוצרות מי גרם לבבל שיהו אוצרותיה מליאות בר הוי אומר מפני ששוכנת על מים רבים אמר רב עתירה בבל דחצדא בלא מיטרא אמר אביי נקיטינן טובעני ולא יובשני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בג' במרחשון שואלין את הגשמים רבן גמליאל אומר בשבעה בו ט"ו יום אחר החג כדי שיגיע אחרון שבישראל לנהר פרת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבן גמליאל תניא חנניה אומר ובגולה עד ששים בתקופה אמר רב הונא בר חייא אמר שמואל הלכה כחנניה,איני והא בעו מיניה משמואל מאימת מדכרינן ותן טל ומטר אמר להו מכי מעיילי ציבי לבי טבות רישבא דילמא אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,איבעיא להו יום ששים כלפני ששים או כלאחר ששים ת"ש רב אמר יום ששים כלאחר ששים ושמואל אמר יום ששים כלפני ששים,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק וסימנך עילאי בעו מיא תתאי לא בעו מיא אמר רב פפא הלכתא יום ששים כלאחר ששים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיע י"ז במרחשון ולא ירדו גשמים התחילו היחידים מתענין ג' תעניות אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה הגיע ר"ח כסליו ולא ירדו גשמים ב"ד גוזרין שלש תעניות על הצבור אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן יחידים אמר רב הונא רבנן ואמר רב הונא יחידים מתענין שלשה תעניות שני וחמישי ושני,מאי קמשמע לן תנינא אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחילה בחמישי שלא להפקיע את השערים אלא שלש תעניות הראשונות שני וחמישי ושני,מהו דתימא הני מילי צבור אבל יחיד לא קמשמע לן תניא נמי הכי כשהתחילו היחידים להתענות מתענין שני וחמישי ושני ומפסיקין בראשי חדשים 10a. verse deals bwith the creation of the world,when all the water was contained in the deep., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: “While as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields”(Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term “land” is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while “the fields” means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, bEretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire worldis watered bthrough an intermediary, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields”(Job 5:10).,Additionally, bEretz Yisrael drinks rainwater andthe rest of bthe entire worlddrinks bfromthe remaining bresidueof rainwater left in the clouds, bas it is statedthat God is He b“who gives rain upon the land”and only afterward takes what is left “and sends water upon the fields.” bEretz Yisrael drinks first, andthe rest of bthe entire world afterward, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the landand sends water upon the fields.” There is ba parablethat illustrates this: bA personwho bkneadshis bcheeseafter it has curdled btakes the food and leaves the refuse. /b, bThe Master saidabove: The ocean waters bare sweetened in the clouds.The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes Rabbi Eliezer derive bthis?The Gemara answers bthat Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bit is written: “Darkness [ iḥeshkhat /i] of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). bAnd it is written,in a similar verse: b“Gathering of [ iḥashrat /i] waters, thick clouds of the skies”(II Samuel 22:12).,The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a ikaffor a ireish /i. If you join the two versions together, and btakethe letter ikaf /ifrom the first version bandplace it bwiththe second version of the word, which has ba ireish /i,you can bread intothe verse a new word meaning brendering fit [ iḥakhsharat /i].Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua,with regard bto these verses, whatdoes he learn from bthem?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bthisSage, Rav Dimi. bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bthey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael: When bclouds are bright, they have little water;when bclouds are dark, they have much water.Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is “a darkness of waters” in the clouds, there is also “a gathering of waters,” as rain will fall from them.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe upper watersdo not stand in any defined place; rather, they are bsuspended bythe bwordof God, band their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated:“Who waters the mountains from His upper chambers; bthe earth is full of the fruit of Your works”(Psalms 104:13). bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this statement? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer,how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: bThatverse from Psalms bis written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He,not the upper waters., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “And a river went out of Edento water the garden” (Genesis 2:10). It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom the runoff of a ibeit kor /i,a field in which a ikorof seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which ba half- ise’a[ itarkav /i],of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a ibeit kor /i, bcan be watered.If the runoff from a ibeit koris sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The area of the bland of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs. Andthis bis one sixtieththe size bof Cush, and Cushitself bis one sixtieththe size bofthe rest of bthe world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Gardenof Eden, band the Gardenof Eden bis one sixtieth of Edenitself, band Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna.You bfindthat bthe entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna,as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. bAnd some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some saythat bEden has no measure. /b, bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenabout Babylonia: b“You who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses”(Jeremiah 51:13)? bWhat caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must saythat it is bdue tothe fact that bit resides on many waters,the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, bRav said: Babylonia is wealthy sinceit can bgrow cropsfor harvest beven without rain. Abaye said: We holdthat it is better for a land to be bswampylike Babylonia, band not dry,as crops in Babylonia grow all year., strongMISHNA: /strong bOn the third ofthe month of bMarḥeshvanone starts to brequest rainby inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the iAmida /i. bRabban Gamliel says:One starts to request rain bon the seventh ofMarḥeshvan, which is bfifteen days after the festivalof iSukkot /i. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days bso thatthe blastpilgrim bof the Jewish people,who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, bcan reach the Euphrates Riverwithout being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Elazar said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel,that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Marḥeshvan. It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bḤaya says: And in the Diasporaone does not begin to request rain buntil sixtydays binto the season,i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. bRav Huna bar Ḥiyya saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [ irishba /i].This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by Ḥaya. The Gemara suggests: bPerhaps this and that are one measureof time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the bsixtieth dayitself treated as part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtiethday boris it included binthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday? The Gemara answers. bComeand bhearthat there is a dispute in this regard. bRav said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, band Shmuel said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtieth. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember the divergent opinions is: bThose above require water; those below do not require water.Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. bRav Pappa said: The ihalakhaisthat the bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, as stated by bRav,and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox., strongMISHNA: /strong If the bseventeenth of Marḥeshvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals,but not the entire community, bbegin to fast three fastsfor rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one bmay eat and drink after dark, and one is permittedduring the days of the fasts themselves to engage binthe performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearing oilon one’s body, bin wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.If the bNew Moon of Kislev arrived and rain hasstill bnot fallen,the bcourt decrees three fasts on theentire bcommunity.Similar to the individual fasts, everyone bmay eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted toengage in the performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearingone’s body bwith oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bindividualsmentioned in the mishna? bRav Huna said:This is referring to bthe Sages,who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. bAnd Rav Hunafurther said: The bindividualswho bfastthe bthree fastsdo so bon a Monday, andon the next bThursday, andagain on the following bMonday. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isRav Huna bteaching us? Wealready blearnedthis (15b): The court bmay not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather,the bfirst three fastsare established on bMonday, and Thursday, and Monday.What does Rav Huna’s statement add to this ruling?,The Gemara answers: Rav Huna’s comment is necessary, blest you saythat bthis appliesonly to ba community, butthat in the case of ban individual, no,the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to those mentioned in the mishna: bWhen the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. Andif one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, bthey interruptthe sequence bfor New Moons, /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אמרו ליה לרב יוסף הכי עביד רבא אמר ליה יהא רעוא דתרום רישך אכולה כרכא,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום אמר ליה רב מרדכי כיון שפסע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו התם איבעיא ליה למיקם משל לתלמיד הנפטר מרבו אם חוזר לאלתר דומה לכלב ששב על קיאו,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום ואם לא עשה כן ראוי לו שלא התפלל ומשום שמעיה אמרו שנותן שלום לימין ואחר כך לשמאל שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ואומר (תהלים צא, ז) יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,מאי ואומר וכי תימא אורחא דמילתא היא למיתב בימין ת"ש יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,רבא חזייה לאביי דיהיב שלמא לימינא ברישא א"ל מי סברת לימין דידך לשמאל דידך קא אמינא דהוי ימינו של הקב"ה אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דפסעי להו שלש פסיעות בכריעה אחת,ומתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון מאי מצלי רבא בר רב אדא ורבין בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב אמרי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא שנה זו גשומה ושחונה שחונה מעליותא היא אלא אימא אם שחונה תהא גשומה,רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה ולא יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין לפרנס זה מזה ולא תכנס לפניך תפלת עוברי דרכים,רבי חנינא בן דוסא הוה קא אזיל באורחא שדא מטרא עליה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בנחת וחנינא בצער פסק מיטרא כי אתא לביתיה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בצער וחנינא בנחת אתא מיטרא א"ר יוסף מאי אהניא ליה צלותיה דכהן גדול לגבי ר' חנינא בן דוסא,תנו רבנן מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שהאריך בתפלתו ונמנו אחיו הכהנים ליכנס אחריו התחילו הם נכנסין והוא יוצא אמרו לו מפני מה הארכת בתפלתך אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שהתפללתי עליכם ועל בית המקדש שלא יחרב אמרו לו אל תהי רגיל לעשות כן שהרי שנינו לא היה מאריך בתפלתו כדי שלא להבעית את ישראל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משניטל ארון אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים ראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת גבוה מן הארץ שלש אצבעות ועליה היה נותן נטל את הדם ממי שהיה ממרס בו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה,ולא היה מתכוון להזות לא למעלה ולא למטה אלא כמצליף וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים אחת ושלש אחת וארבע אחת וחמש אחת ושש אחת ושבע יצא והניחו על כן הזהב שבהיכל,הביאו לו את השעיר שחטו וקבל במזרק את דמו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים וכו' יצא והניחו על כן הזהב השני שבהיכל רבי יהודה אומר לא היה שם אלא כן אחד בלבד נטל דם הפר והניח דם השעיר,והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ולא היה מתכוון וכו' וכך היה מונה וכו' נטל דם השעיר והניח דם הפר והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכו' עירה דם הפר לתוך דם השעיר ונתן את המלא בריקן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big משנגנז לא קתני אלא משניטל תנן כמאן דאמר ארון גלה לבבל דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה',רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (ישעיהו לט, ו) לא יותר דבר אמר ה' אלו עשרת הדברות שבו,רבי יהודה (בן לקיש) אומר ארון במקומו נגנז שנאמר (מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים מן הקדש על פני הדביר ולא יראו החוצה ויהיו שם עד היום הזה,ופליגא דעולא דאמר עולא שאל רבי מתיא בן חרש את רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ברומי וכי מאחר שרבי אליעזר מלמדנו פעם ראשונה ושניה ארון גלה לבבל ראשונה הא דאמרן (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' שניה מאי היא דכתיב (איכה א, ו) ויצא מבת ציון 53b. bThey said to Rav Yosef: This is what Rava does.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see for himself. Rav Yosef bsaid to him: May it beGod’s bwill that you lift your head over the entire city,in reward for honoring your teacher.,§ Apropos the obligation of a student to walk backward when taking leave of his teacher, the Gemara discusses a similar topic. bRabbi Alexandri saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace,in a manner befitting one who departs from before the Holy One, Blessed be He. bRav Mordekhai said to him: Since he has taken three steps backward, he should stand thereand not return to his place immediately. This is banalogous to a student who takes leave of his teacher. If he returns immediatelyto the place where was first standing, bhe is similar to a dog who returns to its vomit,and his previous action is spoiled.,The Gemara comments that bthis was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace. And if he did not do so, it is better for him not to have prayed,as his actions are disrespectful toward God. bAnd they said in the name of Shemayathe Sage bthatwhen bone recites: Peace,he first bows bto the right and then to the left, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law to them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), band it says: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side”(Psalms 91:7).,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe reason for: bAnd it says?Why is it necessary to cite another source? The Gemara explains: bIf you saythat bit ismerely bthe usual manner to givean object bwith the righthand, but this bears no special significance, bcomeand bhear: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side,”which indicates that the right side is the more significant one.,The Gemara relates that bRava saw Abaye reciting: Peace,by bowing at the end of his prayer btohis bright first.Rava bsaid to him: Do you maintainthat you should bow bto your right? I sayyou should bow bto your leftfirst, bas it is the right of the Holy One, Blessed be He,since He is opposite you face-to-face, as it were. bRav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Huna, said: I observed that Abaye and Ravaboth btookthose bthree steps all in oneact of bbowing,without standing upright in between, by way of submission to and acceptance of God’s authority.,§ The mishna taught: bAndthe High Priest brecites a brief prayer in the outer chamber.The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes bhe pray? Rava bar Rav Adda and Ravin bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Ravthat this was his prayer: bMay it be your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot.The Gemara immediately expresses surprise at this request: Is bheat a goodmatter? Why should he request that the year be hot? bRather, sayand emend it as follows: bIfthe upcoming year is bhot, may italso bbe rainy,lest the heat harm the crops., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludedthe language of this prayer bin the name of Rav Yehuda: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judah; and may your nation Israel not depend on each other for sustece,rather, they should be sustained from the produce of their land; band let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presencewhen they pray for the rain to stop on their travels.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was walking on the roadwhen brain fell upon him. He said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable and Ḥanina is suffering. The rain stopped. When he came to his house he said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is sufferingfor lack of rain band Ḥanina is comfortable. The rain cameback. bRav Yosef said: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have with regard to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa?Notwithstanding the prayer of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s sanctity is greater, as God fulfills his bidding.,§ The mishna stated that the High Priest would not extend his prayer. bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: There was ban incidentinvolving ba certain High Priest who extended his prayer, and his fellow prieststook a vote, bcounted,and decided bto go in after himout of concern that he had died or fainted and required assistance. bThey began to enter andat that moment bhe emerged. They said to him: Why did you extend your prayer? He said to them:Why not? bDoes it trouble you that I prayed for you and for the Temple not to be destroyed? They said to him: Do not make a habit of doing so, as we learned: He would not extend his prayer, so as not to alarm the Jewish people,who might fear he had died., strongMISHNA: /strong bAfter the Ark was takeninto exile, bthere was a rockin the Holy of Holies bfrom the days of the early prophets,David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, bandthis stone bwas calledthe bfoundationrock. It was bthree fingerbreadths higher than the ground, andthe High Priest bwould placethe incense bon it.After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, bhe took the bloodof the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering bfromthe one bwho was stirring it,so it would not coagulate. bHe entered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place where hehad previously bstoodto offer the incense, between the staves. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. /b, bAnd he would neither intend to sprinklethe blood bupward norto sprinkle it bdownward, but rather like one who whips,with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. bAnd thisis how bhe would countas he sprinkled, to avoid error: bOne; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven.The High Priest then bemergedfrom there band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. /b, bThey brought him the goatto be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. bHe slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. Heagain bentered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place that hepreviously bstood, and sprinkled fromthe blood of the goat bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. And thisis how bhe would count,just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: bOne; one and one; one and two; etc.The High Priest then bemergedfrom the Holy of Holies band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there,and he btook the blood of the bullfrom the pedestal band placed the blood of the goatin its place., bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood of the bull bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outsidethe Holy of Holies, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, and he would not intend, etc. And thisis how bhe would count, etc.When he concluded, bhe took the blood of the goatfrom the pedestal band placed blood of the bullin its place on the pedestal. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe goat’s blood bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outside,just as he did with the blood of the bull, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, etc.Afterward, bhe poured the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and placedthe blood bfrom the fullbowl into the bemptybowl, so that the blood would be mixed well., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara comments with regard to the wording of the mishna: It does bnot teach: Afterthe Ark bwas buried, but: Afterit bwas taken.If so, bwe learnedthis mishna bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saidthat bthe Ark was exiled to Babyloniaand was not buried in its place, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: “And at the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord”(II Chronicles 36:10). These precious vessels must include the Ark.,Likewise, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come that all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored until this day, shall be carried to Babylonia; bnothing [ idavar /i] shall be left, says the Lord”(Isaiah 39:6). bThese are the Ten Commandments [ idibrot /i] that are inside it;they too shall not be left behind., bRabbi Yehuda ben Lakish says: The Ark was buried in its place, as it is stated: “And the ends of the staves were seen from the sacred place before the partition, but they could not be seen without; and they are there to this day”(I Kings 8:8). The expression “to this day” means forever, as the text might be read at any time. This teaches that the Ark is hidden in its place.,The Gemara comments: And bthisopinion that the Ark was exiled to Babylonia bdisagrees withthat bof Ulla, as Ulla said: Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai in Rome: And since Rabbi Eliezer taught us once and twice,i.e., from two separate verses, that bthe Ark was exiled to Babylonia.The Gemara interrupts its citation of Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash’s question to identify these two verses. bThe firstverse is bthat which we said: “And brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord.” What is the secondverse? Rabbi Eliezer said: bAs it is written: “And gone from the daughter of Zion is /b
51. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 15.22 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

15.22. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קד, יט): עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ, הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים כָּתַב משֶׁה בַּתּוֹרָה סְתוּמִים עָמַד דָּוִד וּפֵרְשָׁם, אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִמַּעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית מִשֶּׁבָּרָא שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ בָּרָא הָאוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א ג): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר. וְדָוִד פֵּרְשׁוֹ מֵאַחַר שֶׁבָּרָא אוֹר בָּרָא שָׁמָיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה, וְהָדַר (תהלים קד, ב): נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה, הֲרֵי לָמַדְנוּ מִשֶּׁבָּרָא אוֹר בָּרָא שָׁמָיִם. שְׁלשָׁה בְּרִיּוֹת קָדְמוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, הַמַּיִם וְהָרוּחַ וְהָאֵשׁ. הַמַּיִם הָרוּ וְיָלְדוּ אֲפֵלָה, הָאֵשׁ הָרָה וְיָלְדָה אוֹר, הָרוּחַ הָרָה וְיָלְדָה חָכְמָה, וּבְשֵׁשׁ בְּרִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ הָעוֹלָם מִתְנַהֵג, בָּרוּחַ, בַּחָכְמָה, וּבָאֵשׁ, וּבָאוֹר, וּבַחשֶׁךְ, וּבַמָּיִם. לְפִיכָךְ דָּוִד אָמַר (תהלים קד, א): בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה' ה' אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְאֹד, אָדָם רוֹאֶה עַמּוּד נָאֶה אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַמַּחְצָב שֶׁנֶּחְצַב מִמֶּנּוּ. נָאֶה הָעוֹלָם, בָּרוּךְ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁחֲצָבוֹ וּבְרָאוֹ בְּדָבָר, אַשְׁרֶיךָ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מָלַךְ [המליך] בָּךְ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם צָר אִיקוּנִין שֶׁלּוֹ עַל הַטַּבְלָא שֶׁל עֵץ, הַטַּבְלָא גְדוֹלָה מִצּוּרָתוֹ, הָאֱלֹהִים יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ הוּא גָדוֹל וְאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ גְּדוֹלָה. הָעוֹלָם קָטָן וְהוּא גָּדוֹל מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כו, ד): כִּי בְּיָהּ ה' צוּר עוֹלָמִים, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר צוּר עוֹלָמִים, שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים עָלָיו אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כְּלוּם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: ה' אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְאֹד, מִשֶּׁעָטַף אֶת הָאוֹר חָזַר וּבָרָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה וגו'. בָּשָׂר וָדָם מִשֶּׁבּוֹנֶה אֶת הַבַּיִת הוּא בּוֹנֶה אֶת הָעֲלִיָּה, הָאֱלֹהִים אֵינוֹ כֵן, מִשֶּׁמָּתַח מַעֲזִיבָה בָּנָה עֲלִיָּה, וּמִשֶּׁבָּנָה עֲלִיָּה הֶעֱמִיד אוֹתָן עַל אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם עַל בְּלִימָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִתְקִין מַרְכְּבוֹתָיו עֲנָנִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָאִסְטִיס שֶׁלּוֹ עַל סְעָרָה. וּמִי מוֹדִיעֲךָ כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ, דָּוִד, שֶׁהוּא פֵּרַשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים, לְהוֹדִיעַ לְבָאֵי עוֹלָם גְּבוּרָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו הַשָֹּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ, לֹא בִנְחשֶׁת וְלֹא בְבַרְזֶל אֶלָּא בִּגְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת שֶׁל מָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּנָה אֶת הָעֲלִיּוֹת, לֹא בְאֶבֶן וְלֹא בְגָזִית אֶלָּא רְכָסִים שֶׁל מָיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו. בָּשָׂר וָדָם עוֹשֶׂה סַרְגְּלָא שֶׁלּוֹ חֲזָקָה שֶׁתִּשָֹּׂא כָּל מַשָֹּׂאוֹ, וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּבַרְזֶל בִּנְחשֶׁת וּבְכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב, וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ הֶעָנָן אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ וְעוֹשֶׂה סַרְגְּלִין שֶׁלּוֹ עָבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הַשָֹּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם אִם הָיָה לְפָנָיו דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁל שְׁקִיעָה מְהַלֵּךְ הוּא עַל אֲבָנִים שֶׁהֵם קָשִׁים, וְהָאֱלֹהִים אֵינוֹ כֵן אֶלָּא עוֹזֵב אֶת הֶעָנָן הַנִּרְאֶה וּמְהַלֵּךְ עַל הָרוּחַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל כַּנְפֵי רוּחַ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם מַכְתִּיב לוֹ סִטְרַטְיוֹטִין גִּבּוֹרִים בְּרִיאִים כְּדֵי לִלְבּוֹשׁ קַסְדָּא וְשִׁרְיוֹן וּכְלֵי זַיִן, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִכְתִּיב סִטְרַטְיוֹטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵינָן נִרְאִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ד): עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת, הָרוּחַ יוֹצֵא וְהַבָּרָק אַחֲרָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ד): מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לוֹהֵט. מִשֶּׁבָּרָא רָקִיעַ בָּרָא מַלְאָכִים בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, וּבוֹ בַיּוֹם בָּרָא גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁאֵין כָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי טוֹב, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהוּא קוֹנֶה עֲבָדִים וְאוֹמֵר עֲשׂוּ אַסְפַּתִּין, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לָמָּה כָּךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁאִם יִמְרְדוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ אַסְפִּיקוּלָא, כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹרֵא אֲנִי גֵּיהִנֹּם שֶׁאֵין כָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי טוֹב, שֶׁאִם יֶחֶטְאוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם יוֹרְדִין לְתוֹכוֹ. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁנִּבְרֵאת גֵּיהִנֹּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁכֵּן הַנָּבִיא מְפָרֵשׁ (ישעיה ל, לג): כִּי עָרוּךְ מֵאֶתְמוּל תָּפְתֶּה, מִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁאָדָם יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֶתְמוֹל, וְאֵימָתַי אָדָם יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֶתְמוֹל, בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁיּוֹם אֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת לְפָנָיו. וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּרָא יַבָּשָׁה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בַּשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ה): יָסַד אֶרֶץ עַל מְכוֹנֶיהָ, וְאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אֶחָד עָרוּם וְאֶחָד לָבוּשׁ, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים, הִפְשִׁיט כְּסוּתוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד וְהִלְבִּישָׁהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, כָּךְ אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים (בראשית א, ט): יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, גִּלָּה אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְכִסָּה אֶת הַתְּהוֹם. וְכֵן דָּוִד אוֹמֵר (תהלים קד, ו): תְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ, (תהלים קד, ז): מִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁרָאָה גִתּוֹ מְלֵאָה עֲנָבִים וְהַכֶּרֶם לִבְצֹר, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְהֵיכָן אַתָּה נוֹתֵן שְׁאָר עֲנָבִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁהַגַּת קְטַנָּה, אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה גַת שֶׁתִּטֹּל לְכָל הָעֲנָבִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם, מֶה עָשָׂה רָפַשׁ הָעֲנָבִים וּבָעַט רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֲנָבִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם וְהֶחֱזִיק הַגַּת כָּל הָעֲנָבִים, כָּךְ הָיָה כָּל הָעוֹלָם מָלֵא מַיִם בְּמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ שְׁקוּעָה בַּמַּיִם, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית א, ט): וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה, אָמְרוּ הַמַּיִם הֲרֵי הָעוֹלָם אָנוּ מְלֵאִים וְעַד עַכְשָׁו צַר לָנוּ לְהֵיכָן אָנוּ הוֹלְכִין, יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ בָּעַט בָּאוֹקְיָנוֹס וַהֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כו, יב): בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ מָחַץ רָהַב, וְאֵין מָחַץ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן הֲרִיגָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, כו): וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ. כְּשֶׁהָרַג אוֹתָן יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֵן בּוֹכִין עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב לח, טז): הֲבָאתָ עַד נִבְכֵי יָם. וְלָמָּה הָרַג אוֹתָן, שֶׁהַבַּיִת שֶׁהוּא מַחֲזִיק מֵאָה חַיִּים מַחֲזִיק אֶלֶף מֵתִים, לְכָךְ נִקְרָא אוֹקְיָנוֹס יַם הַמָּוֶת, וְעָתִיד אֱלֹהִים לְרַפֹּאתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מז, ח): אֶל הַיָּמָּה הַמּוּצָאִים וְנִרְפְּאוּ הַמָּיִם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ שְׁאָר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעַט בְּאוֹקְיָנוֹס, לְקוֹל צַעֲקָתוֹ בָּרְחוּ חַבְרֵיהֶן, כְּמוֹ חַמָּר בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ וְהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים, אוֹתָן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים רָצִין וּבוֹרְחִין, כָּךְ הָיוּ שְׁאָר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם בּוֹרְחִים מִקּוֹל צַעֲקָתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹקְיָנוֹס, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ז): מִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן, וְהָיוּ בּוֹרְחִין וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין לְהֵיכָן בּוֹרְחִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ח): יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם, כְּגוֹן עֶבֶד בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ אֲדוֹנוֹ הַמְתֵּן לִי בַּשּׁוּק, וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ הֵיכָן יַמְתִּין, הִתְחִיל הָעֶבֶד אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא אֵצֶל בַּסִילְקִי אָמַר לִי לְהַמְתִּינוֹ אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵצֶל בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ אָמַר לִי, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא בְּצַד פִּיטְרוֹן אָמַר לִי, עָלָה מְצָאוֹ סְטָרוֹ מִסְטָר, אָמַר לוֹ עַל שַׁעַר פַּלְטֵרִין שֶׁל אִפַּרְכוֹס שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ, כָּךְ הָיוּ הַמַּיִם חוֹזְרִים כְּשֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית א, ט): יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל מָקוֹם אֶחָד, לֹא לַדָּרוֹם וְלֹא לַצָּפוֹן אָמַר לָהֶם אֶלָּא הָיוּ פוֹזְרִין, יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת, סְטָרָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִסְטָר אָמַר לָהֶם לִמְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל לִוְיָתָן אָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם לֵילֵךְ. מִנַּיִן כֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ח): אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם, וְזֶה מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל לִוְיָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד כו): לִוְיָתָן זֶה יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק בּוֹ, (תהלים קד, ט): גְּבוּל שַׂמְתָּ בַּל יַעֲבֹרוּן, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהִכְנִיס בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לְדִיר וְנָעַל הַמַּסְגֵּר בְּפָנֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא תֵצֵא וְתִרְעֶה אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה, כָּךְ נָעַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַיָּם בַּחוֹל וְהִשְׁבִּיעוֹ שֶׁלֹא יֵצֵא מִן הַחוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ה, כב): אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם. (תהלים קד, י): הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעֲיָנִים בַּנְחָלִים, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עֲקָלִים שֶׁל זֵיתִים, כָּבַשׁ אֶת הַקּוֹרָה זֶה עַל זֶה, וְהַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד מִלְמַעְלָה וְהַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד מִלְּמַטָּה, כָּךְ הָהָר מִכָּאן וְהָהָר מִכָּאן כְּבוּשִׁין עַל הַמַּעְיָנוֹת וְהֵן מַקְטִיעִין וְיוֹצְאִין מִבֵּין הֶהָרִים, לְכָךְ כְּתִיב: הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעֲיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים. אַחַר כָּךְ מַה דָּוִד אוֹמֵר (תהלים קד, יט): עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים, שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת וְשִׁשִּׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה חַלּוֹנוֹת בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּרָקִיעַ, מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁלשָׁה בַּמִּזְרָח, וּמֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁנַיִם בַּמַּעֲרָב, מֵהֶן בָּרָא לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וּמֵהֶן בָּרָא לַלְּבָנָה, שֶׁיְהֵא הָעוֹלָם שָׁט אַחֲרָיו וְהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ כֻּלָּן חוּץ מֵאַחַד עָשָׂר חַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַלְּבָנָה נִכְנֶסֶת לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן, כְּגוֹן אִפַּרְכוֹס וְדֻכָּס, שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹטְלִין דּוֹנָטִיבָא. אִפַּרְכוֹס נוֹטֵל לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ וְדֻכָּס לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ. כָּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִקְרָא גָּדוֹל וְהַלְּבָנָה נִקְרֵאת קָטָן, לְכָךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִקְרָא גָּדוֹל שֶׁהוּא גָדוֹל עַל הַלְּבָנָה אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם, לְכָךְ בָּרָא הַלְּבָנָה בִּשְׁבִיל מוֹעֲדוֹת שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַרְבִּין וּמְמַעֲטִין כַּלְּבָנָה וְאֵינוֹ רַע לָהּ בַּעֲבוּר תַּקָּנַת הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת, שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה מוֹנָה לַחַמָּה לִשְׁנֵי עוֹלָם וּלְשָׁנִים שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם, וְהוּא שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ קִצּוֹ שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם וְאָדָם כַּמָּה שָׁנִים רָאָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְכָל הֵימְךָ לוֹמַר שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל אֵלּוּ הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת עָשָׂה אֶת הַלְּבָנָה, עָמַד דָּוִד וּפֵרַשׁ עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְדָוִד עַד שֶׁאָנוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם נָטַלְנוּ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל לְבָנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם.
52. Anon., Pirqei De Rabbi Eliezer, 11 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

53. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 18.22 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

18.22. יִתְבָּרַךְ שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁבָּרָא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה, לְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו אֵין חֵקֶר וְלִגְדֻלָּתוֹ אֵין מִסְפָּר, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים לג, ז): כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד מֵי הַיָּם נֹתֵן בְּאוֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת, מַהוּ כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד, כְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ אָמַר לוֹ לְשַׂר שֶׁל יָם פְּתַח פִּיךָ וּבְלַע כָּל מֵימוֹת בְּרֵאשִׁית, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם דַּיִּי שֶׁאֶעֱמֹד בְּשֶׁלִּי, הִתְחִיל לִבְכּוֹת, בָּעַט בּוֹ וַהֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כו, יב): בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ מָחַץ רָהַב, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא שֶׁשַֹּׂר שֶׁל יָם רַהַב שְׁמוֹ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּבָשָׁן וּדְרָכָן וְקִבְּלָן הַיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ד, יג): וְדָרַךְ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ. וְשָׂם לָהֶם חוֹל בְּרִיחַ וּדְלָתַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב לח, ח): וַיָּסֶךְ בִּדְלָתַיִם יָם, וּכְתִיב (ירמיה ה, כב): הַאוֹתִי לֹא תִירָאוּ נְאֻם ה' אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם, וּכְתִיב (איוב לח, יא): וָאֹמַר עַד פֹּה תָבוֹא וְלֹא תֹסִיף. אָמַר לוֹ הַיָּם רַבִּי אִם כֵּן יִתְעָרְבוּ מֵימַי הַמְתוּקִין בַּמְלוּחִים, אָמַר לוֹ לָאו, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹ אוֹצָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לג, ז): נֹתֵן בְּאוֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת, אִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁזֶּה תֵּמַהּ גָדוֹל שֶׁאֵין מִתְעָרְבִים כָּל מֵימֵי הַיָּם, הֲרֵי פַּרְצוּף שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם מְלֹא הַסִּיט יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מַעְיָנוֹת וְאֵין מִתְעָרְבִין זֶה בָּזֶה, מֵי עֵינַיִם מְלוּחִין, מֵי אָזְנַיִם שְׁמֵנִים, מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים, מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי עֵינַיִם מְלוּחִין, שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁאָדָם בּוֹכֶה עַל הַמֵּת בְּכָל שָׁעָה מִיָּד הָיָה מִסְתַּמֵּא, אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁהֵן מְלוּחִין פּוֹסֵק וְאֵינוֹ בּוֹכֶה. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי אָזְנַיִם שְׁמֵנִים, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ שְׁמוּעָה קָשָׁה, אִלֵּימָא תּוֹפְשָׂהּ בְּאָזְנָיו מִתְקַשֶּׁרֶת וּמֵת, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֵם שְׁמֵנִים מַכְנִיס בָּזֶה וּמוֹצִיא בָּזֶה, מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים, שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁאָדָם מֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ רַע, אִלֵּימָא מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד מֵת. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין, פְּעָמִים אוֹכֵל אֲכִילָה וְאֵינָהּ מִתְקַבֶּלֶת בְּלִבּוֹ, אִם אֵין מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין אֵין נַפְשׁוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת עוֹד, וְעוֹד לְפִי שֶׁקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב בָּהּ (תהלים יט, יא): וּמְתוּקִים מִדְּבַשׁ, לְפִיכָךְ מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין, וַהֲלוֹא דְבָרִים קַל וָחוֹמֶר, וּמַה מְּלֹא הַסִּיט יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מַעְיָנוֹת, הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (תהלים קד, כה): זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדַיִם שָׁם רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ וְלֹא בָּרָא דָּבָר אֶחָד לְבַטָּלָה, פְּעָמִים שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵעַ וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי צִרְעָה וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי עַקְרָב. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִפּוֹרִי מַעֲשֶׂה בְּעַקְרָב אֶחָד שֶׁהָלַךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צְפַרְדֵעַ אַחַת וְעָבַר עָלֶיהָ, וְהָלַךְ אוֹתוֹ עַקְרָב וְעָקַץ אֶת הָאָדָם. וְכֵן מַעֲשֶׂה בְּקוֹצֵר אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה מְעַמֵּר וְקוֹצֵר בְּבִקְעַת בֵּית תּוֹפֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא הַשָּׁרָב נָטַל עֵשֶׂב וְקָשַׁר בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, אֲתָא עֲלֵיהּ חִוְיָא גִּבָּר קָם קַטְלֵיהּ, עֲבַר עֲלֵיהּ חַבָּר, חָמָא קְטִיל חִוְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן קְטַל הָדֵין חִוְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא, אִסְתַּכַּל עִשְׂבָּא דִּבְרֵישֵׁיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ מֵרִים אַתְּ עִשְׂבָּא דִּבְרֵישֵׁךְ וְאַתְּ מַשְׁבִּיחַ, עֲבַד הָכֵי, קָרַב לְגַבֵּיהּ, לֹא הִסְפִּיק לִגַּע בּוֹ עַד שֶׁנָּשַׁר אֵבָרִים אֵבָרִים. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וּפוֹשֵׁט בְּפֶתַח עִירוֹ, רָאָה נָחָשׁ מַרְתִּיחַ וּבָא לָעִיר, מַאן דְּמוֹקְמִין לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא אָזֵיל לְהָכָא, מַאן דְּמוֹקְמִין לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא אָזֵיל לְהָכָא, אָמַר זֶה הוֹלֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָעִיר נָפְלָה הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה מְטַיֵּל בְּשׁוּנִיתָא בְּקֵיסָרִי, מָצָא קוּלִית אַחַת מֻשְׁלֶכֶת בַּדֶּרֶךְ הָיָה מַצְנַע לָהּ מִן הָכָא הָדַר מַשְׁכַּח לָהּ מִן הָכָא, אָמַר כִּמְדֻמֶּה אֲנִי שֶׁזּוֹ מְתֻקֶּנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ, בָּתַר יוֹמִין עֲבַר בַּלְדָּר מִן מַלְכוּתָא נִכְשַׁל בָּהּ וְנָפַל בָּהּ וָמֵת, בָּדְקוּ אַחֲרָיו וּמָצְאוּ בְּיָדוֹ כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בִּשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אֶחָד פִּקֵּחַ וְאֶחָד סוּמָא, יָשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכֹל פָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם לְעִשְׂבֵּי הַשָֹּׂדֶה וְאָכְלוּ, זֶה שֶׁהָיָה פִּקֵּחַ נִסְתַּמָּא, וְזֶה שֶׁהָיָה סוּמָא נִתְפַּקַּח, לֹא זָזוּ מִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁזֶּה נִסְמַךְ עַל זֶה שֶׁהָיָה סוֹמְכוֹ. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹלֵךְ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבָבֶל, כְּשֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל לֶחֶם רָאָה שְׁנֵי צִפֳּרִים מִתְנַצִּין זֶה עִם זֶה, הָרַג אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ, הָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא עֵשֶׂב וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל פִּיו וְהֶחֱיָהוּ, הָלַךְ אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וְנָטַל אוֹתוֹ הָעֵשֶׂב שֶׁנָּפַל מִן הַצִּפּוֹר וְהָלַךְ לְהַחֲיוֹת בּוֹ אֶת הַמֵּתִים, כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסֻלָּמָהּ שֶׁל צוֹר מָצָא אֲרֵי מֻשְׁלָךְ וּמֵת, הֵנִיחַ הָעֵשֶׂב עַל פִּיו וְהֶחֱיָּהוּ, עָמַד הָאֲרִי וַאֲכָלוֹ, מַתְלָא אָמְרִין טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵיד וּבִישָׁא לָא מָטֵי לָךְ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׂיחִין אֶחָד סוּמָא שֶׁיָּרַד בַּמַּיִם לִטְבֹּל, נִזְדַּמְּנָה לוֹ בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם וְטָבַל וְנִתְרַפֵּא. טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס בְּבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף, עָמַד וְגִדֵּר אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת וְנָטַל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְהִצִּיעָהּ וְהֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וְעָבַר עֲלֶיהֶן, וְשָׁלַף חַרְבּוֹ וְקִצֵּץ אֶת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה, נַעֲשָׂה נֵס הִתְחִיל דַּם מְבַצְבֵּץ מִמֶּנּוּ, הִתְחִיל מִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ לוֹמַר שֶׁעַצְמוֹ הָרַג, הִתְחִיל מִתְגַּבֵּר וְהוֹלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַיָּם הָיָה הַיָּם הוֹלֵךְ וְסוֹעֵר, אָמַר אֱלֹהֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ אֵין גְּבוּרָתוֹ אֶלָּא בַּיָּם, אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה יַעֲלֶה לַיַּבָּשָׁה וְנִרְאֶה מִי נוֹצֵחַ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רָשָׁע בֶּן רָשָׁע בְּרִיָּה פְּחוּתָה קַלָּה שֶׁבִּבְרִיּוֹתַי אֲנִי מַשְׁלִיחַ בְּךָ לְבַעֶרְךָ מִן הָעוֹלָם. נִכְנַס יַתּוּשׁ בְּחָטְמוֹ וּמֵת בְּמִיתָה מְשֻׁנָּה. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא בְּרִיָּה שְׁפָלָה, עַל שֶׁמַּכְנִיס וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא. וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי צִרְעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, כח): וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת הַצִּרְעָה. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ כְּשֶׁשָּׁלַח הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַצִּרְעָה לִפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַהֲרֹג אֶת הָאֱמוֹרִים, רְאֵה מַה כְּתִיב בָּהֶן (עמוס ב, ט): וְאָנֹכִי הִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת הָאֱמֹרִי מִפְּנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר כְּגֹבַהּ אֲרָזִים גָּבְהוֹ וְחָסֹן הוּא כָּאַלּוֹנִים וָאַשְׁמִיד פִּרְיוֹ מִמַּעַל וגו'. הָיְתָה נִכְנֶסֶת לְתוֹךְ עֵינוֹ שֶׁל יְמִין וְשׁוֹפֶכֶת אִרְסָהּ וְהָיָה מִתְבַּקֵּעַ וְנוֹפֵל וָמֵת, שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי דְבָרִים קַלִּים, לְכָל הַמִּתְגָּאִין עָלָיו שָׁלַח לָהֶם בְּרִיָה קַלָּה לְהִפָּרַע מֵהֶם, לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁאֵין גְּבוּרָתָן מַמָּשׁ, וְלֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִפָּרַע מִן הָאֻמּוֹת עַל יְדֵי דְבָרִים קַלִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ז, יח): וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִשְׁרֹק ה' לַזְּבוּב אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה יְאֹרֵי מִצְרָיִם וְלַדְּבוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר. 18.22. ---"
54. Anon., 4 Ezra, 1.19-1.21, 10.38, 10.42, 10.44

1.19. I pitied your groanings and gave you manna for food; you ate the bread of angels. 1.20. When you were thirsty, did I not cleave the rock so that waters flowed in abundance? Because of the heat I covered you with the leaves of trees. 1.21. I divided fertile lands among you; I drove out the Canaanites, the Perizzites, and the Philistines before you. What more can I do for you? says the Lord. 10.38. He answered me and said, "Listen to me and I will inform you, and tell you about the things which you fear, for the Most High has revealed many secrets to you. 10.42. but you do not now see the form of a woman, but an established city has appeared to you -- 10.44. This woman whom you saw, whom you now behold as an established city, is Zion.
55. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 35, 10

56. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 89

89. blood from the sacrifices, for many thousand beasts are sacrificed there on the feast days. And there is an inexhaustible supply of water, because an abundant natural spring gushes up from within the temple area. There are moreover wonderful and indescribable cisterns underground, as they pointed out to me, at a distance of five furlongs all round the site of the temple, and each of them has countless pipe
57. Anon., Tanhuma, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749, 931
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201, 749, 750
abraham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
adam, priest, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 583, 625, 749
adam Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
aeolians Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 124
agency, of kings McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
alexander, philip s. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283, 286
altar, incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
altar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 750, 824; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
anatolia Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 124
angelic status Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
angelification Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
angels, builders of the ark Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
animal, bovine Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal, bull Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal, unicorn Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
aptowitzer, avigdor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
ark, noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
babel, tower of Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120
babel Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 138
barker, margaret Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
belief Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
bloch, rene´e Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
body, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750, 824, 931
book of the covenant, jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 322
borgen, peder Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
bowls Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381
bowman, glenn Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
build/building activity, ark Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
bulls, black Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
bulls, red Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
bulls, white Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
busink, th. a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201, 750
canaanites van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 147
cartography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
childbirth, purification after Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
christ, as creator McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
cosmology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
cosmos, as temple McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
covenant, people/community of the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
covenant, sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
covenant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 625, 750
creation, as project McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
creation, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625, 750
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
darkness Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
david McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
david (king) Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
day, forty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
day, seventh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
deep, tehom Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125, 126
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
diaspora Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 100
didache Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 100
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
dominion McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
dorians Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 124
dream of scipio McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201, 624, 750
east, eden, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
eden/new eden Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
elior, rachel Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
enoch Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
esau van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146, 147
eschatology Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
ethnicity (common features), homeland van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 147
eve, pregcy of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
fertility Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
feuchtwang, d. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
fire Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
flood/deluge, great/noahs, as punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
flood/deluge, great/noahs, escape from, survival of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
flood Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 750; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
fragrances, offering, for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 624, 625, 749, 750, 931
frankincense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
galbanum Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
garcı´a martı´nez, florentino Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
garden of eden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 624, 625, 749, 750, 931; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
gaza van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 147
geography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
giants, punishment of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
gihon, river or spring Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
ginzberg, louis Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
goat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
god, and Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
god, comfort of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
god, dwelling of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
god, mountain of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381
gray, george buchanan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
harvest, ingathering Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
health Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
high priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
himmelfarb, martha Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
holiness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 625, 750
holy of holies Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
hunger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
idumeans van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 750, 824, 931
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
instruction/teaching, to noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
ionians Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 124
isaiah, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
jacob van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
jerusalem, vs. sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
jerusalem, zion Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
jerusalem Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 100; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), book of the covenant and covenant code Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 322
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), concept of scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 322
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), in first temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 322
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 322
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
joel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
josephus Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
jubilees Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 138
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583
king as agent of divinity McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
language, secret Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
law, god's" '151.0_213.0@oracles Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
law, revealed Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
levenson, j. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
levenson, jon d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
light Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
lord see god, armies (hosts), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
love, of shem by noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
maimonides Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
menorah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
moses, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 749
mt zion Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125, 126
myth Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
nakedness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
nickelsburg, geroge w. e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
noah, as an angel/angel-like Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah, contrasted with the fallen angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah, contrasted with the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah, escape from/survival of the flood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah, three sons Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah, transformation into an angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
noah Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 138; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 750, 931; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124
nudity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 624
palestine Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
pardoning of adam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
particularization Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 64
patai, raphael Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
patriarch Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
persia, persian era Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381
philo of alexandria Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
plant of paradise Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 931
pregnancy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
priest Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 625; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
priesthood Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583
priests Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
protection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
purification Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
qumran, deuteronomy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
qumran, moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
refuge Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 624
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
rib, eve as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625, 750
rib Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583
rock Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381
sacred place Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
sacrifice, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 750
sacrifice, animal Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 749
sacrifice Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 749, 750; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 100
sanctuary Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
sectarianism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
serpent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
seventh heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
shem Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120, 124; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
sibylline oracles Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 138
sidon van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 147
sinai, covenant Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
sinai, mount Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750, 931
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
spices, aromatic Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625, 750
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213
stacte Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
stone, michael e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 583, 625, 749, 931
suter, david Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
synagogue, zion/jerusalem Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
syria Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120
table of nations Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 120
talmon, shemaryahu Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
temple, in heaven, in philo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
temple, traditions Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 64
temple Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125, 126; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 146
temptation Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201
testament of levi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
tigchelaar, eibert j. c. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 286
tishby, isaiah Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
titanomachy Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 138
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 381, 624
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 201, 381, 583
urzeit-endzeit' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 88
vilnay, zev Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
vine Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 125
vision, ezekiel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
vision, isaiah, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 374
voice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
waters, rivers, sea Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 64
waters Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
weeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 625
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824, 931
wing, six Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 824
wrath divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 96
yom kippur Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
zion, traditions Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 64
zion Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 213; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 750, 931