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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 4.21-4.24


nanAnd he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom


nanand who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months.


nanAnd he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him.


nanAnd what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

41 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.1-15.4, 15.9, 15.12, 15.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.1. מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע־שָׁנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁמִטָּה׃ 15.1. נָתוֹן תִּתֵּן לוֹ וְלֹא־יֵרַע לְבָבְךָ בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֶׂךָ וּבְכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ׃ 15.2. לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכֲלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 15.2. וְזֶה דְּבַר הַשְּׁמִטָּה שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַשֶּׁה בְּרֵעֵהוּ לֹא־יִגֹּשׂ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־אָחִיו כִּי־קָרָא שְׁמִטָּה לַיהוָה׃ 15.3. אֶת־הַנָּכְרִי תִּגֹּשׂ וַאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֶת־אָחִיךָ תַּשְׁמֵט יָדֶךָ׃ 15.4. אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־בְּךָ אֶבְיוֹן כִּי־בָרֵךְ יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן־לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 15.9. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה דָבָר עִם־לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל לֵאמֹר קָרְבָה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְרָעָה עֵינְךָ בְּאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן וְלֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 15.12. כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃ 15.17. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־הַמַּרְצֵעַ וְנָתַתָּה בְאָזְנוֹ וּבַדֶּלֶת וְהָיָה לְךָ עֶבֶד עוֹלָם וְאַף לַאֲמָתְךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה־כֵּן׃ 15.1. At the end of every seven years thou shalt make a release." 15.2. And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed." 15.3. of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is with thy brother thy hand shall release." 15.4. Howbeit there shall be no needy among you—for the LORD will surely bless thee in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it—" 15.9. Beware that there be not a base thought in thy heart, saying: ‘The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand’; and thine eye be evil against thy needy brother, and thou give him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin in thee." 15.12. If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee." 15.17. then thou shalt take an awl, and thrust it through his ear and into the door, and he shall be thy bondman for ever. And also unto thy bondwoman thou shalt do likewise."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.10-23.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.11. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְיִתְרָם תֹּאכַל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכַרְמְךָ לְזֵיתֶךָ׃ 23.12. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן־אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר׃ 23.10. And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in the increase thereof;" 23.11. but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of thy people may eat; and what they leave the beast of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard." 23.12. Six days thou shalt do thy work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; that thine ox and thine ass may have rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 6.11, 7.6-8.14, 24.40, 41.51 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6-2.7, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.1-27.5, 27.7-27.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.1. וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ אַחִים וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לַאֲחֵי אָבִיו׃ 27.1. וַתִּקְרַבְנָה בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד בֶּן־חֵפֶר בֶּן־גִּלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה בֶן־יוֹסֵף וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֹתָיו מַחְלָה נֹעָה וְחָגְלָה וּמִלְכָּה וְתִרְצָה׃ 27.2. וְנָתַתָּה מֵהוֹדְךָ עָלָיו לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.2. וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂיאִם וְכָל־הָעֵדָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 27.3. אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃ 27.4. לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃ 27.5. וַיַּקְרֵב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטָן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 27.7. כֵּן בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד דֹּבְרֹת נָתֹן תִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אֲבִיהֶם וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ אֶת־נַחֲלַת אֲבִיהֶן לָהֶן׃ 27.8. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ כִּי־יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ׃ 27.9. וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ בַּת וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְאֶחָיו׃ 27.11. וְאִם־אֵין אַחִים לְאָבִיו וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְיָרַשׁ אֹתָהּ וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחֻקַּת מִשְׁפָּט כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 27.1. Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah." 27.2. And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door of the tent of meeting, saying:" 27.3. ’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons." 27.4. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’" 27.5. And Moses brought their cause before the LORD." 27.7. ’The daughters of Zelophehad speak right: thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father’s brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them." 27.8. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter." 27.9. And if he have no daughter, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his brethren." 27.10. And if he have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his father’s brethren." 27.11. And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it. And it shall be unto the children of Israel a statute of judgment, as the LORD commanded Moses.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 1.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַתָּשָׁב נָעֳמִי וְרוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה כַלָּתָהּ עִמָּהּ הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵי מוֹאָב וְהֵמָּה בָּאוּ בֵּית לֶחֶם בִּתְחִלַּת קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים׃ 1.22. So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, with her, who returned out of the field of Moab—and they came to Beth-lehem in the beginning of barley harvest."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10.30, 10.33 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.33. מִבְּנֵי חָשֻׁם מַתְּנַי מַתַּתָּה זָבָד אֱלִיפֶלֶט יְרֵמַי מְנַשֶּׁה שִׁמְעִי׃ 10.30. And of the sons of Pahath-moab: Adna, and Chelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezalel, and Binnui, and Manasseh." 10.33. of the sons of Hashum: Mattenai, Mattattah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, Shimei."
12. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1-3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃ 3.1. וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃ 3.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃ 3.1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him." 3.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’"
13. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
14. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.2, 12.1-12.2, 14.1, 16.1, 32.2-32.6, 65.1-65.2, 72.13, 72.19, 72.25, 72.31, 74.2, 81.5-81.6, 81.10, 82.1-82.2, 82.7-82.20, 83.2, 89.61, 89.76, 90.14, 90.20, 90.22, 91.3, 92.1-92.2, 93.1-93.2, 93.10, 94.1, 94.3, 103.3-103.4, 104.1-104.6, 104.9-104.12, 106.7-106.9, 106.18-106.19 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 12.1. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he wa 12.2. hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones. 14.1. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance 14.1. me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork wa 16.1. From the days of the slaughter and destruction and death of the giants, from the souls of whose flesh the spirits, having gone forth, shall destroy without incurring judgement -thus shall they destroy until the day of the consummation, the great judgement in which the age shall be 32.2. And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5. is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 65.1. asked the Lord of Spirits as touching this commotion on the earth. And He said unto me: ' Because of their unrighteousness their judgement has been determined upon and shall not be withheld by Me for ever. Because of the sorceries which they have searched out and learnt, the earth and those 65.2. And in those days Noah saw the earth that it had sunk down and its destruction was nigh. And he arose from thence and went to the ends of the earth, and cried aloud to his grandfather Enoch: 72.13. becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth 72.25. parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty 72.31. and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven. 74.2. revolution. And all these Uriel, the holy angel who is the leader of them all, showed to me, and their positions, and I wrote down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote down their month 81.5. And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no 81.6. flesh is righteous in the sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. One year we will leave thee with thy son, till thou givest thy (last) commands, that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) for them, and testify to all thy children; and in the second year they shall take thee from their midst. 82.1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world. 82.1. And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, [And thy children that shall be to thee], That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought. 82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions. 82.7. And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the 82.8. Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i 83.2. them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible 89.61. He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: ' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than 89.76. beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doing 90.22. were like those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. And He said to that man who wrote before Him, being one of those seven white ones, and said unto him: ' Take those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who taking them on their own authority slew more 91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 92.1. The book written by Enoch-[Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth] for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace. 92.2. Let not your spirit be troubled on account of the times; For the Holy and Great One has appointed days for all things. 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 94.3. And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed. 103.3. That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living. 103.4. And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely. 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven 104.3. ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the 104.4. rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your 104.11. their words. But when they write down truthfully all my words in their languages, and do not change or minish ought from my words but write them all down truthfully -all that I first testified 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the 106.7. wrought on the earth. And now, my father, I am here to petition thee and implore thee that thou mayest go to Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling-place i 106.8. amongst the angels.' And when Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to me to the ends of the earth; for he had heard that 106.8. hall die [he and his sons shall be saved]. And now make known to thy son Lamech that he who has been born is in truth his son, and call his name Noah; for he shall be left to you, and he and his sons shall be saved from the destruction, which shall come upon the earth on account of all the sin and all the unrighteousness, which shall be consummated on the earth in his days. And after that there shall be still more unrighteousness than that which was first consummated on the earth; for I know the mysteries of the holy ones; for He, the Lord, has showed me and informed me, and I have read (them) in the heavenly tablets. 106.9. thou come to me ' And he answered and said: ' Because of a great cause of anxiety have I come to thee, and because of a disturbing vision
15. Anon., Jubilees, 1.10, 1.14, 2.7-2.10, 4.9-4.20, 4.22-4.28, 5.1-5.10, 6.10-6.18, 6.23-6.38, 7.20-7.39, 8.1-8.3, 10.1-10.17, 11.4-11.5, 11.16-11.17, 12.25-12.27, 21.10, 50.1-50.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 2.7. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. 2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 4.9. and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said "God hath raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 4.10. And in the sixth week he begat his daughter ’Azûrâ. 4.11. And Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. 4.12. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 4.13. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4.14. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth took ’Azûrâ his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. br He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 4.17. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared; 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.19. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Bâraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee 4.20. and she bare him a son in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, and he called his name Enoch. 4.22. and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months. 4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 4.24. And what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; 4.25. he saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all the children of men and for their generations. 4.26. And in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ednî, the daughter of Dânêl, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 4.27. And he was moreover with the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed him everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the rule of the sun, and he wrote down everything. 4.28. And he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the daughters of men; 5.1. And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them 5.2. that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.3. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walketh on the earth 5.4. -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other 5.5. and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 5.8. But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 5.9. And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion 5.10. and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.23. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.25. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah-twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years:... 6.26. and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.25. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 7.34. and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother. 7.35. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 7.37. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the earth. 7.38. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood. Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven; 7.39. For into Sheol will they go, And into the place of condemnation will they descend. 8.1. In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Râsû’ĕjâ, [the daughter of Sûsân,] the daughter of Elam 8.2. and she bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kâinâm. 8.3. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.9. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore. 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.14. And He said: "Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condemnation. 10.15. And one of us He commanded that we should teach Noah all their medicines; for He knew that they would not walk in uprightness, nor strive in righteousness. 10.16. And we did according to all His words: all the maligt evil ones we bound in the place of condemnation, and a tenth part of them we left that they might be subject before Satan on the earth. 10.17. And we explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, together with their seductions, how he might heal them with herbs of the earth. 11.4. and to build strong cities, and walls, and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms 11.5. and to go to war people against people, and nation against nation, and city against city, and all (began) to do evil, and to acquire arms, and to teach their sons war 11.16. And in the thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was ’Îjâskâ, the daughter of Nêstâg of the Chaldees. And she bare him Terah in the seventh year of this week. 11.17. And the prince Mastêmâ sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. 12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 50.1. And after this law I made known to thee the days of the Sabbaths in the desert of Sin[ai], which is between Elim and Sinai. 50.2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years: 50.3. but the year thereof have I not told thee till ye enter the land which ye are to possess.
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Genesis Apocryphon, 2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.16, 48.9, 49.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations. 48.9. You who were taken up by a whirlwind of fire,in a chariot with horses of fire; 49.14. No one like Enoch has been created on earth,for he was taken up from the earth.
18. Septuagint, Judith, 8.7, 16.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.7. She was beautiful in appearance, and had a very lovely face; and her husband Manasseh had left her gold and silver, and men and women slaves, and cattle, and fields; and she maintained this estate. 16.24. and the house of Israel mourned for her seven days. Before she died she distributed her property to all those who were next of kin to her husband Manasseh, and to her own nearest kindred.
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.10. There was one who pleased God and was loved by him,and while living among sinners he was taken up.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. But there are three kinds of life. The first life, to God; the second, with respect to the creature; the third, is on the borders of both, being compounded of the two others. Now, the life to God has not descended to us, and has not come to the necessities of the body. Again, life with respect to the creature has not wholly ascended up to heaven, nor has it sought to ascend, but it lurks in unapproachable recesses, and rejoices in a life which is no life.
22. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 9-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Abraham, styled the friend, was found faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to the words of God. He, in the exercise of obedience, went out from his own country, and from his kindred, and from his father's house, in order that, by forsaking a small territory, and a weak family, and an insignificant house, he might inherit the promises of God. For God said to him, Get you out from your country, and from your kindred, and from your father's house, into the land which I shall show you. And I will make you a great nation, and will bless you, and make your name great, and you shall be blessed. And I will bless them that bless you, and curse them that curse you; and in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed. Genesis 12:1-3 And again, on his departing from Lot, God said to him, Lift up your eyes, and look from the place where you now are, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward; for all the land which you see, to you will I give it, and to your seed forever. And I will make your seed as the dust of the earth, [so that] if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall your seed also be numbered. Genesis 13:14-16 And again [the Scripture] says, God brought forth Abram, and spoke unto him, Look up now to heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them; so shall your seed be. And Abram believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness. On account of his faith and hospitality, a son was given him in his old age; and in the exercise of obedience, he offered him as a sacrifice to God on one of the mountains which He showed him.
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.83, 3.96, 4.326 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.83. 4. For indeed Seth was born when Adam was in his two hundred and thirtieth year, who lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth begat Enos in his two hundred and fifth year; who, when he had lived nine hundred and twelve years, delivered the government to Cai his son, whom he had in his hundred and ninetieth year. He lived nine hundred and five years. 3.96. Now there was a variety in their sentiments about it; some saying that he was fallen among wild beasts; and those that were of this opinion were chiefly such as were ill-disposed to him; but others said that he was departed, and gone to God; 4.326. and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God.
24. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
25. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.1, 4.21, 7.10, 7.12, 7.17, 7.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.3, 5.9, 12.2-12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Galatians, 1.17, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me.
28. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.25, 11.5-11.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.25. Therefore he is also able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, seeing he ever lives to make intercession for them. 11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 11.6. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to him, for he who comes to God must believe that he exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him.
29. New Testament, Philippians, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God.
30. New Testament, Romans, 8.34, 12.1, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.
31. New Testament, John, 12.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.36. While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light." Jesus said these things, and he departed and hid himself from them.
32. New Testament, Mark, 9.1-9.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 13.43, 17.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.43. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light.
34. Anon., Targum Neofiti, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

37. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.27.3, 4.16.2, 5.5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 23, 43, 45, 92, 19 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Justin: It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we are now discussing. This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and dug for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision; but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised, along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary, in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, 'That you may know that I am God who redeemed you.' Ezekiel 20:12
39. Tertullian, Against The Jews, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4. It follows, accordingly, that, in so far as the abolition of carnal circumcision and of the old law is demonstrated as having been consummated at its specific times, so also the observance of the Sabbath is demonstrated to have been temporary. For the Jews say, that from the beginning God sanctified the seventh day, by resting on it from all His works which He made; and that thence it was, likewise, that Moses said to the People: Remember the day of the sabbaths, to sanctify it: every servile work you shall not do therein, except what pertains unto life. Whence we (Christians) understand that we still more ought to observe a sabbath from all servile work always, and not only every seventh day, but through all time. And through this arises the question for us, what sabbath God willed us to keep? For the Scriptures point to a sabbath eternal and a sabbath temporal. For Isaiah the prophet says, Your sabbaths my soul hates; Isaiah 1:13 and in another place he says, My sabbaths you have profaned. Whence we discern that the temporal sabbath is human, and the eternal sabbath is accounted divine; concerning which He predicts through Isaiah: And there shall be, He says, month after month, and day after day, and sabbath after sabbath; and all flesh shall come to adore in Jerusalem, says the Lord; which we understand to have been fulfilled in the times of Christ, when all flesh - that is, every nation - came to adore in Jerusalem God the Father, through Jesus Christ His Son, as was predicted through the prophet: Behold, proselytes through me shall go unto You. Thus, therefore, before this temporal sabbath, there was withal an eternal sabbath foreshown and foretold; just as before the carnal circumcision there was withal a spiritual circumcision foreshown. In short, let them teach us, as we have already premised, that Adam observed the sabbath; or that Abel, when offering to God a holy victim, pleased Him by a religious reverence for the sabbath; or that Enoch, when translated, had been a keeper of the sabbath; or that Noah the ark-builder observed, on account of the deluge, an immense sabbath; or that Abraham, in observance of the sabbath, offered Isaac his son; or that Melchizedek in his priesthood received the law of the sabbath. But the Jews are sure to say, that ever since this precept was given through Moses, the observance has been binding. Manifest accordingly it is, that the precept was not eternal nor spiritual, but temporary, which would one day cease. In short, so true is it that it is not in the exemption from work of the sabbath- that is, of the seventh day - that the celebration of this solemnity is to consist, that Joshua the Son of Nun, at the time that he was reducing the city Jericho by war, stated that he had received from God a precept to order the People that priests should carry the ark of the testament of God seven days, making the circuit of the city; and thus, when the seventh day's circuit had been performed, the walls of the city would spontaneously fall. Joshua 6:1-20 Which was so done; and when the space of the seventh day was finished, just as was predicted, down fell the walls of the city. Whence it is manifestly shown, that in the number of the seven days there intervened a sabbath-day. For seven days, whencesoever they may have commenced, must necessarily include within them a sabbath-day; on which day not only must the priests have worked, but the city must have been made a prey by the edge of the sword by all the people of Israel. Nor is it doubtful that they wrought servile work, when, in obedience to God's precept, they drove the preys of war. For in the times of the Maccabees, too, they did bravely in fighting on the sabbaths, and routed their foreign foes, and recalled the law of their fathers to the primitive style of life by fighting on the sabbaths. Nor should I think it was any other law which they thus vindicated, than the one in which they remembered the existence of the prescript touching the day of the sabbaths. Whence it is manifest that the force of such precepts was temporary, and respected the necessity of present circumstances; and that it was not with a view to its observance in perpetuity that God formerly gave them such a law.
40. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.1-9.17.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 enoch, aramaic fragments of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 100
abegg, m.g. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
abraham, servant of Gera, Judith (2014) 259
abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 259; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
adam and eve Gera, Judith (2014) 259
albani, m. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
angels, abode of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 640, 643
angels, elohim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
angels, fellowship with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, human-like appearance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
angels, interaction of enoch with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 222, 640
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
angels, metatron Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
angels, penemue Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
angels, scribes Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220, 222
angels, uriel/ouriel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45, 60
animals, fish, and birds Gera, Judith (2014) 259
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
apocalyptic writings/ thought Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
asael, azael, and human sin Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
ascend/ascension, enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
astrology Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
astronomical book of enoch VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 28, 121
astronomy Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
authority, conferring strategies xviii Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
authority, divine Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
authority, interpretive strategies Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
beloved ones, enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
blessing Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 259
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 259
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 259
book of the watchers, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
books, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
cainan Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
calculation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
calendar/calendrical issues Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 258, 259
calendar Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
calendars, solar Bowen and Rochberg, Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts (2020) 533
chain of mediation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
chariot (see also merkavah), helios Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
children, vulnerable Gera, Judith (2014) 259
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 222, 640
children/offspring, humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
christ Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
christian Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
circumcision Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
cosmos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
cross, f.m. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
david Gera, Judith (2014) 259
dead sea scrolls Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
deeds, books of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
deeds, of humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
demons, and fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 100
demons, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
demons, as spirits of giants Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
dreams/dream visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
ecclesiasticus Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
el-gabal Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
elchesai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
elijah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68
emesa Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
endogamy Gera, Judith (2014) 259
enoch, and revealed knowledge Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 88
enoch, as author Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87, 88, 94
enoch, as father Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
enoch, as pre-christian christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
enoch, as prophet Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 88
enoch, as rebuking fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
enoch, as righteous apart from the law Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
enoch, as scribe Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87, 88; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 220, 222
enoch, as seer/visionary Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
enoch, elevation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
enoch, escape from death Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
enoch, interpreter Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
enoch, otherworldly journeys of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 88
enoch Bowen and Rochberg, Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts (2020) 533; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 28
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35, 45, 60
enochic literary tradition, and jubilees Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87, 88, 94
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
enochic literary tradition, place of epistle of enoch in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
enochic literary tradition, scientific interests in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
enochic literature, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 88, 100
epistemology Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
eusebius of caesarea Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
evil, pre-rabbinic jewish approaches to Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 100
evil, problem of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 94
festivals VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 28
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 258, 259
firmament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
flood/deluge, great/noahs, as punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
flood Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45, 60
garcía martínez, f. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
garden, of righteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
garden of eden Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45, 60
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
genesis, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35, 45
giants, and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
giants, hahyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants, mahaway Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
giants, ohyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
glessmer, u. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
goodness eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
greek language Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68
harvest, barley Gera, Judith (2014) 259
heaven Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68
heavenly tablets Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
hebrews, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
heliopolis Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
helios (see also sol invictus) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
idolatry, as linked to fallen angels and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
inheritance, by women Gera, Judith (2014) 259
instruction/teaching, by angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220, 640
instruction/teaching, sevenfold eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
instruction/teaching, to enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
instruction/teaching, wisdom/sapiential Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
instruction/teaching Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94, 100, 158
intermediary Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
intermediary theology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
irenaeus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
isaac Gera, Judith (2014) 259
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 259
israelites, territory and inheritance Gera, Judith (2014) 259
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 259
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 5
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 259
josephus Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
joshua, jubilees, book of Gera, Judith (2014) 259
journeys/voyages, by mahaway Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
journeys/voyages, by noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
journeys/voyages, heavenly, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
jubilee periods VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 28, 121
jubilees, book of Bowen and Rochberg, Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts (2020) 533
jubilees, geʿez trans. Bowen and Rochberg, Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts (2020) 533
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 640
judith, property and inheritance Gera, Judith (2014) 259
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
lamech Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 640, 643
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 259
law, revealed Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100, 158
lunar calendar VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
manasseh, judiths husband Gera, Judith (2014) 259
manasseh, king of judah Gera, Judith (2014) 259
manichaean book of giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
mastema Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
melchizedek Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
metatron Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 222, 643
milik, j.t. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
moon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
moses, as author Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87
moses, motif of illicit angelic instruction Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
moses, suppression of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
moses Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640, 643
noah Gera, Judith (2014) 259; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94, 100, 158
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
peace, activity of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
pharmacology, revelation to noah of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
philo Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
praise/glorify Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 258, 259
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
priestly divisions (mishmarot) VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
pseudepigraphic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
pseudepigraphon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
pseudepigraphy, mosaic Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 87
pseudo-eupolemos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
qumran, community/group Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222, 640
qumran community, enochic texts and traditions in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 100
ra / re (egyptian deity) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
repentance Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 60
revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
rizpah Gera, Judith (2014) 259
sabbath Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 259; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 28
sabbatical cycle VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 259
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 259
scribe, enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
scribe, metatron Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
septuagint Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35, 45
shared human and angelic culpability for.nan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
shem Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 94
sin, human culpability for Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 259
sinai, tradition Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
sun, as a heavenly body Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82, 643
sun, god Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
sun, worship Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
syria Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
syrian, gods Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 223
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
talmud Gera, Judith (2014) 259
targumim Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 35
tertullian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 158
testamentary Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81, 87, 88, 94, 100
theodicy Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 100
time Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
tobias Gera, Judith (2014) 259
tobit Gera, Judith (2014) 259
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 259
translation Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 99
tribes, israelite Gera, Judith (2014) 259
truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220, 640
violence, antediluvian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 81
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 45
visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220, 640
wacholder, b.z. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 121
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 82
wisdom, enochic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 220
wisdom, finding Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 643
wisdom, for/of the elect/righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 222
wisdom Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 258, 259; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68
worship' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
writing, authoritative Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
writing, primordial Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
writing, sacred Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 45
zebah and zalmunna, zelophehad, daughters of Gera, Judith (2014) 259
– reward for Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 68