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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 21-22


nanAnd in the sixth year of the seventh week of this jubilee Abraham called Isaac his son, and commanded him, saying:,"I am become old, and. know not the day of my death, and am full of my days. ,And behold, I am one hundred and seventy-five years old, and throughout all the days of my life I have remembered the Lord, and sought with all my heart to do His will, and to walk uprightly in all His ways.,My soul hath hated idols, (and I have despised those that served them, and I have given my heart and spirit) that I might observe to do the will of Him who created me.,For He is the living God, and He is holy and faithful, and He is righteous beyond all, and there is with Him no accepting of (men's) persons and no accepting of gifts; for God is righteous, and executeth judgment on all those who transgress His commandments and despise His covenant.,And do thou, my son, observe His commandments and His ordinances and His judgments, and walk not after the abominations and after the graven images and after the molten images.rAnd eat no blood at all of animals or cattle, or of any bird which flieth in the heaven.,And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink-offering,--offer them all together on the altar of burnt-offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord.,And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inwards,and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys.,And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord,,And eat its meat on that day and on the second day, and let not the sun on the second day go down upon it till it is eaten,,and let nothing be left over for the third day; for it is not acceptable [for it is not approved] and let it no longer be eaten,,and all who eat thereof will bring sin upon themselves; for thus I have found it written in the books of my forefathers, and in the words of Enoch, and in the words of Noah.,And on all thy oblations thou shalt strew salt, and let not the salt of the covenant be lacking in all thy oblations before the Lord.,And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam.,And of these kinds of wood lay upon the altar under the sacrifice, such as have been tested as to their appearance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or dark wood,,(but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it as before.,Besides these kinds of wood there is none other that thou shalt place (on the altar), for the fragrance is dispersed, and the smell of its fragrance goeth not up to heaven.,Observe this commandment and do it, my son, that thou mayst be upright in all thy deeds.,And at all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself with water before thou approachest to offer on the altar, and wash thy hands and thy feet before thou drawest near to the altar;,and when thou art done sacrificing, wash again thy hands and thy feet.rAnd let no blood appear upon you nor upon your clothes;,be on thy guard, my son, against blood, be on thy guard exceedingly; cover it with dust.rAnd do not eat any blood, for it is the soul; eat no blood whatever. ,And take no gifts for the blood of man, lest it be shed with impunity, without judgment; for it is the blood that is shed that causeth the earth to sin, and the earth cannot be cleansed from the blood of man save by the blood of him who shed it.,And take no present or gift for the blood of man: blood for blood,,that thou mayest be accepted before the Lord, the Most High God; for He is the defence of the good: and that thou mayest be preserved from all evil, and that He may save thee from every kind of death.,I see, my son, That all the works of the children of men are sin and wickedness, And all their deeds are uncleanness and an abomination and a pollution, And there is no righteousness with them.,Beware, lest thou shouldest walk in their ways And tread in their paths, And sin a sin unto death before the Most High God.,Else He will [hide His face from thee, And] give thee back into the hands of thy transgression, And root thee out of the land, and thy seed likewise from under heaven, And thy name and thy seed will perish from the whole earth.,Turn away from all their deeds and all their uncleanness, And observe the ordinance of the Most High God, And do His will and be upright in all things.,And He will bless thee in all thy deeds, And will raise up from thee the plant of righteousness through all the earth, throughout all generations of the earth,,And my name and thy name will not be forgotten under heaven for ever.,Go, my son, in peace. May the Most High God, my God and thy God, strengthen thee to do His will,,And may He bless all thy seed and the residue of thy seed for the generations for ever, with all righteous blessings, That thou mayest be a blessing on all the earth." rAnd he went out from him rejoicing.


nanAnd it came to pass in the first week in the forty-fourth jubilee, in the second year, that is, the year in which Abraham died, that Isaac and Ishmael came from the Well of the Oath to celebrate the feast of weeks--that is, the feast of the first-fruits of the harvest--to Abraham, their father,,and Abraham rejoiced because his two sons had come.,For Isaac had many possessions in Beersheba, and Isaac was wont to go and see his possessions and to return to his father.,And in those days Ishmael came to see his father, and they both came together,,and Isaac offered a sacrifice for a burnt-offering, and presented it on the altar of his father which he had made in Hebron.rAnd he offered a thank-offering and made a feast of joy before Ishmael, his brother:,and Rebecca made new cakes from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, her son, to take them to Abraham, his father, from the first-fruits of the land, that he might eat and bless the Creator of all things before he died.,And Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham a best thank-offering, that he might eat and drink.,And he ate and drank, and blessed the Most High God, Who hath created heaven and earth, Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, And given them to the children of men That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator.,"And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day:,behold, I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, and all my days have been unto me peace. ,The sword of the adversary hath not overcome me in all that Thou hast given me and my children all the days of my life until this day.,My God, may Thy mercy and Thy peace be upon Thy servant, and upon the seed of his sons, that they may be to Thee a chosen nation and an inheritance from amongst all the nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the days of the generations of the earth, unto all the ages.",And he called Jacob and said My son Jacob, may the God of all bless thee and strengthen thee to do righteousness, and His will before Him,,and may He choose thee and thy seed that ye may become a people for His inheritance according to His will alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, draw near and kiss me.",And he drew near and kissed him, and he said: "Blessed be my son Jacob And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages: May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness; And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of the whole earth;,May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.,Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation.,May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever.,And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and impurity, That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) transgressions; (and) thy sins of ignorance.,And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth,rAnd may He renew His covenant with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages,,And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in truth and righteousness throughout all the days of the earth.,And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words, And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy father: ,Separate thyself from the nations, And eat not with them: And do not according to their works, And become not their associate; For their works are unclean, And all their ways are a pollution and an abomination and uncleanness.,They offer their sacrifices to the dead And they worship evil spirits, And they eat over the graves,,And all their works are vanity and nothingness.rThey have no heart to understand And their eyes do not see what their works are, And how they err in saying to a piece of wood: 'Thou art my God,' And to a stone: 'Thou art my Lord and thou art my deliverer.' [And they have no heart.],And as for thee, my son Jacob, May the Most High God help thee And the God of heaven bless thee And remove thee from their uncleanness and from all their error.,Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan; For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. ,For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred, And all his seed will be destroyed from off the earth and all the residue thereof, And none springing from him will be saved on the day of judgment.,And as for all the worshippers of idols and the profane (b) There will be no hope for them in the land of the living;,(e) And there will be no remembrance of them on the earth; (c) For they will descend into Sheol,,(d) And into the place of condemnation will they go, As the children of Sodom were taken away from the earth So will all those who worship idols be taken away. Fear not, my son Jacob, And be not dismayed, O son of Abraham: May the Most High God preserve thee from destruction, And from all the paths of error may He deliver thee.,This house have I built for myself that I might put my name upon it in the earth: [it is given to thee and to thy seed for ever], and it will be named the house of Abraham;,it is given to thee and to thy seed for ever; for thou wilt build my house and establish my name before God for ever:,thy seed and thy name will stand throughout all generations of the earth.",And he ceased commanding him and blessing him.rAnd the two lay together on one bed, and Jacob slept in the bosom of Abraham, his father's father,and he kissed him seven times, and his affection and his heart rejoiced over him.rAnd he blessed him with all his heart,and said: "The Most High God, the God of all, and Creator of all, who brought me forth from Ur of the Chaldees, that He might give me this land to inherit it for ever, and that I might establish a holy seed--blessed be the Most High for ever.",And he blessed Jacob and said: "My son, over whom with all my heart and my affection I rejoice,,may Thy grace and Thy mercy be lift up upon him and upon his seed alway.,And do not forsake him, nor set him at nought from henceforth unto the days of eternity, and may Thine eyes be opened upon him and upon his seed, that Thou mayest preserve him, and bless him, and mayest sanctify him as a nation for Thine inheritance;,And bless him with all Thy blessings from henceforth unto all the days of eternity, and renew Thy covenant and Thy grace with him and with his seed according to all Thy good pleasure unto all the generations of the earth.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.1-5.2, 5.4-5.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 5.1. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃] 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them." 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.3, 17.4, 22.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 17.4. אֲנִי הִנֵּה בְרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וְהָיִיתָ לְאַב הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם׃ 22.18. וְהִתְבָּרֲכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלִי׃ 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’" 17.4. ’As for Me, behold, My covet is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of a multitude of nations." 22.18. and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast hearkened to My voice.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.14, 10.18, 10.20, 10.25, 14.2-14.7, 17.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.14. וְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה תֹּאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתָּךְ כִּי־חָקְךָ וְחָק־בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.18. הֵן לֹא־הוּבָא אֶת־דָּמָהּ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ פְּנִימָה אָכוֹל תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתָהּ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוֵּיתִי׃ 14.2. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 14.2. וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃ 14.3. וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃ 14.3. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.6. אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 10.14. And the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee; for they are given as thy due, and thy sons’due, out of the sacrifices of the peace-offerings of the children of Israel." 10.18. Behold, the blood of it was not brought into the sanctuary within; ye should certainly have eaten it in the sanctuary, as I commanded.’" 10.20. And when Moses heard that, it was well-pleasing in his sight." 14.2. This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest." 14.3. And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper;" 14.4. then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop." 14.5. And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water." 14.6. As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water." 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.2-19.8, 23.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהּ מוּם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָלָה עָלֶיהָ עֹל׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל כִּי אֶת־מִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה טִמֵּא מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.3. וּנְתַתֶּם אֹתָהּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו׃ 19.4. וְלָקַח אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְהִזָּה אֶל־נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִדָּמָהּ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים׃ 19.5. וְשָׂרַף אֶת־הַפָּרָה לְעֵינָיו אֶת־עֹרָהּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ וְאֶת־דָּמָהּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁהּ יִשְׂרֹף׃ 19.6. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן עֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תוֹלָעַת וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֶל־תּוֹךְ שְׂרֵפַת הַפָּרָה׃ 19.7. וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְטָמֵא הַכֹּהֵן עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.8. וְהַשֹּׂרֵף אֹתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו בַּמַּיִם וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 23.18. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר קוּם בָּלָק וּשֲׁמָע הַאֲזִינָה עָדַי בְּנוֹ צִפֹּר׃ 19.2. This is the statute of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying: Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer, faultless, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke." 19.3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, and she shall be brought forth without the camp, and she shall be slain before his face." 19.4. And Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle of her blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times." 19.5. And the heifer shall be burnt in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall be burnt." 19.6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer." 19.7. Then the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, and the priest shall be unclean until the even." 19.8. And he that burneth her shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, and shall be unclean until the even." 23.18. And he took up his parable, and said: Arise, Balak, and hear; Give ear unto me, thou son of Zippor:"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 78 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיָּבֹא בְנָיָהוּ אֶל־אֹהֶל יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ צֵא וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי פֹה אָמוּת וַיָּשֶׁב בְּנָיָהוּ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּבָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה־דִבֶּר יוֹאָב וְכֹה עָנָנִי׃ 2.3. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו לִשְׁמֹר חֻקֹּתָיו מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְעֵדְוֺתָיו כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְמַעַן תַּשְׂכִּיל אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תִּפְנֶה שָׁם׃ 2.3. and keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His ordices, and His testimonies, according to that which is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

116b. and his children had been brought to him—for he had two little sons and one big one—and the women of the family had come, he talked with them in Crito’s presence and gave them such directions as he wished; then he told the women to go away, and he came to us. And it was now nearly sunset; for he had spent a long time within. And he came and sat down fresh from the bath. After that not much was said, and the servant
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1-6.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.2. them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men 6.3. and beget us children.' And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not 6.4. indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecation 6.5. not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.' Then sware they all together and bound themselves 6.6. by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn 6.7. and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal 6.8. Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.27, 1.29, 2.2, 2.18, 2.21, 2.30, 3.5, 3.9, 3.12, 3.15, 4.2, 6.13-6.14, 15.27, 18.14, 19.3, 30.18, 31.14, 48.10-48.11, 48.13-48.14, 48.16-48.19, 50.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 3.5. And the Lord said unto us: "It is not good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him. 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.15. if she beareth a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first week of days 4.2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 19.3. and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he were not indigt in the words of his mouth; and he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 48.10. And everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants and before his people. 48.11. And everything took place according to thy words; ten great and terrible judgments came on the land of Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeance on it for Israel. 48.13. And the prince of the Mastêmâ stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought before thee. 48.14. The evils indeed we permitted them to work, but the remedies we did not allow to be wrought by their hands. 48.16. And notwithstanding all (these) signs and wonders the prince of the Mastêmâ was not put to shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the hosts of the peoples of Egypt. 48.17. And I stood between the Egyptians and Israel, and we delivered Israel out of his hand, and out of the hand of his people 48.18. and the Lord brought them through the midst of the sea as if it were dry land. And all the peoples whom he brought to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them into the midst of the sea, into the depths of the aby 48.19. beneath the children of Israel, even as the people of Egypt had cast their children into the river. He took vengeance on,, of them, and one thousand strong and energetic men were destroyed on account of one suckling of the children of thy people which they had thrown into the river. 50.2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years:
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.6, 10.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 9.13-9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.49-2.61, 2.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.70. He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. First of all, it is a symbol of the excision of the pleasures which delude the mind; for since, of all the delights which pleasure can afford, the association of man with woman is the most exquisite, it seemed good to the lawgivers to mutilate the organ which ministers to such connections; by which rite they signified figuratively the excision of all superfluous and excessive pleasure, not, indeed, of one only, but of all others whatever, though that one which is the most imperious of all.
18. Mishnah, Nedarim, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.11. [If one says,] “Konam that I do not benefit from the Children of Noah,” he may benefit from Israelites, and he is forbidden to benefit from the nations of the world. [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from the seed of Abraham,” he is forbidden [to benefit] from Israelites, but permitted [to benefit] from the nations of the world. [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from Israelites”, he may buy things from them for more [than their worth] and sell them for less. [If he says, “Konam] if Israelites benefit from me, he must buy from them for less and sell for more [than their worth], if they will listen to him. [If he says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from them, nor they from me”, he may benefit only from non-Jews. [If one says,] “Konam that I do not benefit from the uncircumcised”, he may benefit from uncircumcised Israelites but not from circumcised heathens”; [If one says, “Konam] that I do not benefit from the circumcised,” he is forbidden to benefit from uncircumcised Israelites but not from circumcised non-Jews, because “uncircumcised” is a term applicable only to non-Jews, as it says, “For all the nations are uncircumcised and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart” (Jeremiah 9:25). And it says, “And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be [as one of them]” (I Samuel 17:6). And it says, “Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised exult” (II Samuel 1:20). Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: The foreskin is loathsome, since it is a term of disgrace for the wicked, as it says, “For all the nations are uncircumcised”. Rabbi Ishmael says: Great is circumcision, since thirteen covets were made upon it. Rabbi Yose says: Great is circumcision, for it overrides the Sabbath. Rabbi Joshua ben Karha says: Great is circumcision for Moses’s punishment for neglecting it was not suspended even for one hour. Rabbi Nehemiah says: Great is circumcision, since it overrides the laws of leprosy. Rabbi says: Great is circumcision, for despite all of the commandments which Abraham fulfilled he was not designated complete until he circumcised himself, as it says, “Walk before me, and be complete” (Genesis 17:1). Another explanation: “Great is circumcision, for were it not for it, the Holy One, Blessed Be He, would not have created the world, as it says, “Were it not for my covet by day and night, I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:35)."
19. New Testament, Acts, 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

93b. The Gemara answers: He holds that bone derivesthe ihalakhotof the offering of ban individual fromthe ihalakhotof another offering of ban individual,such as the burnt offering of appearance, band one does not derivethe ihalakhotof the offering of ban individual fromthe ihalakhotof ba communaloffering, e.g., the bull brought for a community-wide violation.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saidthat the exclusion of a blind person is derived bfromthe placing of hands performed by the bElders ofthe bcongregation, what is the reasonthat bhe does not derivethis bfromthe bburnt offering of appearance?The Gemara answers: He holds that bone derivesthe ihalakhotof ba matterconcerning bwhichthe requirement of bplacing hands isexplicitly bwritten with regard tothat case bitself,as is the case in the passage detailing the general requirement of placing hands, bfromanother bmatterconcerning bwhich placing hands isalso explicitly bwritten with regard tothat case bitself,as is the case in the passage describing the bull brought for a community-wide violation of a sin. This serves bto excludethe possibility of deriving the ihalakhotfrom those of the bburnt offering of appearance, asthe requirement to place hands upon it is not explicitly written in the Torah with regard to it, but rather bit itself is derived fromthe requirement stated with regard to ba voluntary burnt offering. /b,This is bas a itannataughtin a ibaraita bin the presence of Rav Yitzḥak bar Abba:With regard to the obligatory offering brought by Aaron the High Priest on the eighth day of the inauguration of the Tabernacle, it is written: b“And the burnt offering was presented, and he sacrificed in accordance with the ordice”(Leviticus 9:16). This last phrase means: bIn accordance with the ordice of a voluntary burnt offering.Accordingly, this verse bteaches aboutevery bobligatory burnt offering,including the burnt offering of appearance, bthat it requires placing hands,just as a voluntary burnt offering does.,§ The mishna states: A Canaanite bslave, the agentof the owner of the offering who brings the offering on his behalf, band a womando not place hands on their offerings. Concerning these ihalakhot /i, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The term “his hand” is mentioned three times in Leviticus, chapter 3, which details the requirement of placing hands. Each mention is expounded to exclude a different case. b“His hand”(Leviticus 3:2), bbut not the hand of hisCanaanite bslave; “his hand”(Leviticus 3:8), bbut not the hand of his agent; “his hand”(Leviticus 3:13), bbut not the hand of his wife. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed ball thesethree exclusions? The Gemara explains that all three mentions bare necessary,as bhad the Merciful One writtenonly boneexclusion, bI would saythat it serves bto excludeonly a Canaanite bslave, assince bhe is not commanded in mitzvotit is reasonable that he cannot perform the rite of placing hands. bButwith regard to ban agent, since he is commanded in mitzvot, andthere is a principle that the halakhic status of ba person’s agent is likethat of bhimself,one might bsaythat he bcould placehis bhandson the offering of the owner on the owner’s behalf, and thereby fulfill the requirement. Therefore, it is necessary to have an independent source to exclude an agent., bAnd hadthe Merciful One btaught usonly bthese two ihalakhot /i, one would have excluded only a Canaanite slave and an agent, bas they are not considered like his own flesh. Butwith regard to bhis wife, who is considered like his own flesh,one might bsaythat bshe placesher bhandson her husband’s offering. Therefore, the third mention is bnecessaryto teach that even a wife cannot fulfill the requirement on behalf of her husband.,§ The mishna states: The requirement of bplacing hands is a non-essential mitzva. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And he shall place his handupon the head of the burnt offering, band it shall be accepted for himto effect atonement for him” (Leviticus 1:4). The ibaraitaasks: bBut doesthe rite of bplacing hands effect atonement? Isn’t atonementeffected bonly throughthe presentation of the bblood? As it is statedwith regard to blood: “For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to effect atonement for your souls, bfor it is the blood of the soul that effects atonement”(Leviticus 17:11). bRather,the verse serves bto say to you that if one treated placing handsas though it were ba non-essential mitzvaand therefore neglected to perform it, then bthe verse ascribes himblame bas though he did not effect atonement; butnevertheless, in actuality, the offering batonesfor his sin and he does not need to bring another offering., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita bwith regard to waving in this way:“He shall take one male lamb as a guilt offering bto be waved to effect atonementfor him” (Leviticus 14:21). The ibaraitaasks: bDoes wavingthe offering beffect atonement? Isn’t atonementeffected bonly throughthe presentation of bthe blood? As it is stated: “For it is the blood of the soul that effects atonement”(Leviticus 17:11). bRather,the verse serves bto say to you that if one treated wavingas though it were ba non-essential mitzvaand therefore neglected to perform it, then bthe verse ascribes himblame bas though he did not effect atonement; butnevertheless, in actuality, the offering beffects atonementfor his sin and he does not need to bring another offering.,§ The mishna further states that that placing hands is performed by leaning bon the headof the offering. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The phrase “his hand upon the head” is mentioned three times in Leviticus, chapter 3. Each mention is expounded to exclude the possibility of performing the rite on a different part of the animal’s body. Placing hands is performed with b“his hand upon the head”(Leviticus 3:2), bbut notwith bhis hand on the neckof the animal; with b“his hand upon the head”(Leviticus 3:8), bbut notwith bhis hand on the backof the animal; with b“his hand upon the head”(Leviticus 3:13), bbut notwith bhis hand on the breastof the animal.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed ball thesethree exclusions? The Gemara explains that all three mentions bare necessary,as bhad the Merciful One writtenonly boneexclusion, bI would saythat it serves bto excludeonly the animal’s bneck, as it is not level with the head ofthe animal. bButwith regard to bits back, which is level with its head,one might bsaythat it is bnotprecluded and that one can fulfill the requirement by placing one’s hands there. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto have an independent source to exclude the animal’s back., bAnd hadthe Torah btaught usonly bthese two ihalakhot /i, one would have excluded only the neck and the back, basthose parts are bnot included inthe bwavingof the offering, i.e., they are not waved. bButwith regard to the animal’s bbreast, which is included in the wavingof the offering, one might say that it is bnotprecluded and that one can fulfill the requirement by placing one’s hands there. Therefore, the third mention is bnecessaryto teach that placing hands cannot be performed even on the animal’s breast., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If one placed bhis hand on the sidesof the animal’s head, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i; does one fulfill the requirement of placing hands by doing so? The Gemara answers: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAbba Bira’a, son of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, saysthat the verse: “And he shall place bhis hand upon the head ofthe burnt offering” (Leviticus 1:4), indicates that it must be done with his hand bonthe top of bits head and notwith bhis hand on the sidesof its head., bRabbi Yirmeya raises a dilemma:If one’s hands were wrapped in ba cloth, what isthe ihalakhaas btowhether the cloth is regarded as ban interpositionbetween his hands and the animal such that it invalidates the rite? The Gemara answers: bComeand bheara resolution from a ibaraita /i, which states: The rite is valid bprovided that there is no item that interposes between him and the offering. /b,§ The mishna adds that the placing of hands is performed bwith two hands.The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bReish Lakish said: As the verse stateswith regard to the Yom Kippur service: b“And Aaron shall place both his hands [ iyadav /i]upon the head of the live goat” (Leviticus 16:21). The word iyadav /i, meaning: His hands, is written without a second iyod /i, and so if read without vowels it reads as: bHis hand. But it isalso bwritten “both,”which makes clear that the intention is that he must use both of his hands. bThis established a paradigmthat in bany place where it is statedin the Torah: bHis hand, there are here twohands, bunless the verseexplicitly bspecifiesthat there is only bone. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Elazar went and stated this ihalakhain the study hall, but he did not say it in the name of Reish Lakish. Reish Lakish heardabout this band became angry.He bsaid toRabbi Elazar: bIf it enters your mindthat bwherever it is written: His hand,the meaning is that bthere areactually btwohands, then bwhy do Iever need the Torah bto write: His hands, his hands,i.e., iyadavin the plural, which it does on numerous occasions?,Reish Lakish braised objections against himfrom btwenty-fouroccasions where the Torah writes: bHis hands,for example: b“His own hands [ iyadav /i] shall bringthe offerings of the Lord” (Leviticus 7:30); b“his hands [ iyadav /i] shall contend for him,and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7); b“Guiding his hands [ iyadav /i] wittingly,for Manasseh was the firstborn” (Genesis 48:14). Rabbi Elazar bwas silent,as he had no response., bAfterReish Lakish had bcalmed down, he said toRabbi Elazar: bWhat is the reasonthat byou did not say to methe following: When I established that paradigm, bI was speakingonly about the term: bHis hands [ iyadav /i], with regard to placing hands.But with regard to other ihalakhot /i, when the Torah says “his hand” the reference is to just one hand, and so when referring to two hands it must say “his hands.”,The Gemara asks: But balso with regard to placing hands it is written,concerning Moses’ ordination of Joshua: b“And he placed his hands [ iyadav /i] upon himand gave him a charge” (Numbers 27:23), using the plural “his hands” [ iyadav /i] instead of: His hand [ iyado /i]. The Gemara clarifies that Reish Lakish meant that one could say: When I established that paradigm, bI was speakingonly about the term: His hands [ iyadav /i], bwith regard to placing handson ban animaloffering. But in all other cases, if the intention is that there were two hands, the plural must be used.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd in thesame blocationin the Temple bthat one places hands, one slaughtersthe animal. bAnd immediately followingthe rite of bplacing hands,the bslaughteris performed. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe mishna bsaying?The mishna appears to state two distinct rulings. But if so, the first statement is superfluous, because if the slaughter immediately follows the placing of hands, then it is obvious that the animal is slaughtered without changing its location. The Gemara explains that bthisis what the mishna bis saying: In thesame blocationin the Temple bthat one places hands one slaughtersthe animal, bbecause immediately followingthe rite of bplacing hands,the bslaughteris performed. There are not two distinct rulings; rather, the second statement is the explanation of the first., strongMISHNA: /strong There is an aspect of greater bstringency with regard to placing hands thanthere is bwith regard to waving, andthere is an aspect of greater stringency bwith regard to waving thanthere is bwith regard to placing hands.The stringency with regard to placing hands is bthatif several people are partners in bringing an offering, boneof them bwavesthe offering bon behalf of all theother bpartners, but one cannotfulfill the requirement of placing hands if he alone bplaces hands on behalf of all theother bpartners;rather, each member must place hands himself. bThe stringency with regard to wavingis bthat waving is practiced inthe cases of both bofferings of an individual,e.g., peace offerings, where the breast and thigh and sacrificial portions are waved, band inthe cases of bcommunal offerings,e.g., the two lambs sacrificed on iShavuot /i, which are waved together with the two loaves;
21. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

112a. דמסוכר ולא משי ידיה מפחיד שבעה יומי דשקיל מזייה ולא משי ידיה מפחיד תלתא יומי דשקיל טופריה ולא משי ידיה מפחיד חד יומא ולא ידע מאי קא מפחיד ידא אאוסיא דרגא לפחדא ידא אפותא דרגא לשינתא,תנא אוכלין ומשקין תחת המטה אפילו מחופין בכלי ברזל רוח רעה שורה עליהן ת"ר לא ישתה אדם מים לא בלילי רביעיות ולא בלילי שבתות ואם שתה דמו בראשו מפני סכנה מאי סכנה רוח רעה,ואם צחי מאי תקנתיה (נימא) שבעה קולות שאמר דוד על המים והדר נישתי שנאמר (תהלים כט, ג) קול ה' על המים אל הכבוד הרעים ה' על מים רבים קול ה' בכח קול ה' בהדר קול ה' שובר ארזים וישבר ה' את ארזי הלבנון קול ה' חוצב להבות אש קול ה' יחיל מדבר יחיל ה' מדבר קדש קול ה' יחולל אילות ויחשוף יערות ובהיכלו כולו אומר כבוד,ואי לא (נימא) הכי לול שפן אניגרון אנירדפין בין כוכבי יתיבנא בין בליעי שמיני אזילנא ואי לא אי איכא איניש בהדיה ניתעריה ולימא ליה פלניא בר פלנתא צחינא מיא והדר נישתי ואי לא מקרקש נכתמא אחצבא והדר נישתי ואי לא נישדי בה מידי והדר נישתי,ת"ר לא ישתה אדם מים לא מן הנהרות ולא מן האגמים בלילה ואם שתה דמו בראשו מפני הסכנה מאי סכנה סכנת שברירי ואי צחי מאי תקנתיה אי איכא איניש בהדיה לימא ליה פלניא בר פלנתא צחינא מיא ואי לא (נימא) איהו לנפשיה פלניא אמרה לי אימי איזדהר משברירי שברירי ברירי רירי ירי רי צחינא מיא בכסי חיורי:,ואפילו מן התמחוי וכו': פשיטא,לא נצרכא אלא אפילו לר"ע דאמר עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות הכא משום פרסומי ניסא (מודי),תנא דבי אליהו אע"פ שאמר ר"ע עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות אבל עושה הוא דבר מועט בתוך ביתו מאי נינהו אמר רב פפא כסא דהרסנא כדתנן ר' יהודה בן תימא אומר הוי עז כנמר וקל כנשר רץ כצבי וגבור כארי לעשות רצון אביך שבשמים,ת"ר שבעה דברים צוה ר"ע את רבי יהושע בנו בני אל תשב בגובהה של עיר ותשנה ואל תדור בעיר שראשיה תלמידי חכמים,ואל תכנס לביתך פתאום כ"ש לבית חבירך ואל תמנע מנעלים מרגליך השכם ואכול בקיץ מפני החמה ובחורף מפני הצינה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם אדם שהשעה משחקת לו,אמר רב פפא לא למיזבן מיניה ולא לזבוני ליה אלא למעבד שותפות בהדיה והשתא דאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (איוב א, י) מעשה ידיו ברכת כל הנוטל פרוטה מאיוב מתברך אפילו למיזבן מיניה ולזבוני ליה שפיר דמי,חמשה דברים צוה ר"ע את רבי שמעון בן יוחי כשהיה חבוש בבית האסורין אמר לו רבי למדני תורה אמר איני מלמדך אמר לו אם אין אתה מלמדני אני אומר ליוחי אבא ומוסרך למלכות אמר לו בני יותר ממה שהעגל רוצה לינק פרה רוצה להניק אמר לו ומי בסכנה והלא עגל בסכנה,אמר לו אם בקשת ליחנק היתלה באילן גדול וכשאתה מלמד את בנך למדהו בספר מוגה מאי היא אמר רבא ואיתימא רב משרשיא בחדתא שבשתא כיון דעל על,לא תבשל בקדירה שבישל בה חבירך מאי ניהו גרושה בחיי בעלה דאמר מר גרוש שנשא גרושה ארבע דעות במטה ואי בעית אימא אפילו באלמנה לפי 112a. One bwho lets blood and does not wash his hands will be afraid for seven days.One bwho cuts his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid for three days.One bwho cuts his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid for one day, and he will not know what is frighteninghim. Placing one’s bhand onhis bnostrilsis ba way tobecome bafraid.Placing one’s bhand on his forehead is a wayto fall basleep. /b,A Sage btaught:If bfood and drinkare bunderone’s bbed, even if they are covered with iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them. The Sages taught: A personshould bnot drink water on Tuesday nights or on Shabbat nights,i.e., Friday nights. bAnd if he drinkswater, bhis blood is upon hisown bhead, due tothe bdanger.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis bdanger?The Gemara answers: The danger of the bevil spiritthat rules on these days.,The Gemara asks: bAnd if he is thirsty, what is his remedy?What should he drink? The Gemara answers: bHeshould bsaythe bseven voices that David said over the water, and afterward hemay bdrink. As it is stated: “The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; God of glory thunders, even the Lord upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.He makes them also skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. bThe voice of the Lord hews out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve, and strips the forests bare; and in His temple all say: Glory”(Psalms 29:3–9)., bAnd ifhe does bnotremember that verse, bheshould bsay as follows: Lul, Shafan, Anigron, Anirdafin,which are names of demons, bI sit between the stars, I walk between thinand bfatpeople, take any of them if you wish but leave me alone. bAnd ifhe does bnotrecall this incantation, bif there isanother bperson with him, heshould bwake him and say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water; and thenhe may bdrink. And ifthere is bnoother person with him, he should bknock the cover on the cup and then drink. And ifhe is bnotable to do this, bheshould bthrow someobject bin it and then drink. /b, bThe Sages taught: A personshould bnot drink water from rivers or from ponds at night. And if he drank, his blood is upon hisown bhead due to the danger.The Gemara explains: bWhat isthis bdanger? The danger of blindness.The Gemara asks: bAnd if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? If there isanother bperson with him, heshould bsay to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water. And ifthere is bnoone else with him, bheshould bsay to himself: So-and-so, my mother said to meto bbeware of ishavrirei /i,the demon of blindness. He should continue to say the following incantation, in the first part of which the demon’s name gradually disappears: iShavrirei berirei rirei yiri ri /i; I thirst for water in whiteearthenware bcups.This is an incantation against those demons.,The Gemara returns to the statement of the mishna that on Passover one must drink no less than four cups of wine: bAndthis ihalakhaapplies bevenif the poor person accepts funds bfrom the charity plate.The Gemara asks: It is bobviousthat this is the case. If there is a mitzva to drink these four cups, they must be provided for him.,The Gemara answers: The mishna bis necessary onlyto teach that this ihalakhaapplies beven according tothe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbatlike an ordinary bweekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings.If one is unable to honor Shabbat without ficial help from others, it is better for him to save money and eat his Shabbat meals as he would on a weekday rather than rely on other people. bHere,in the case of the four cups, Rabbi Akiva bconcedesthat it is appropriate for a poor person to request assistance from the community, bdue tothe obligation bto publicize the miracle. /b,With regard to this issue, bthe school of Eliyahu taughtthat balthough Rabbi Akiva said: Make your Shabbatlike ba weekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings; however, oneshould nevertheless bperform some smallalteration bin his houseto distinguish Shabbat from a weekday. The Gemara asks: bWhatis bthisalteration? bRav Pappa said:For example, one should serve bsmall, fried fish. As we learnedin a mishna: bRabbi Yehuda ben Teima says: Be bold like a leopard, light like an eagle, run like a deer, andbe bstrong like a lion to perform the will of your Father in Heaven.This statement teaches that one should exert every effort to perform a mitzva.,The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbi’s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. bThe Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son,about bseven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city,where many people pass, band studythere, as the passersby will interrupt you. bAnd do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars,as they are too busy studying to govern properly.,Rabbi Akiva continued: bAnd do not enter your house suddenly,without knocking first; ball the more sodo not enter bthe house of another,as he might not be ready to receive you. bAnd do not withhold shoes from your feet,as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. bWake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat,as it is best to eat before it grows hot, band in the winter due tothe strength you will need to tolerate bthe cold. And make your Shabbatlike ba weekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings. And exert yourselfto join together bwith a person upon whom the hour smiles,i.e., a successful person., bRav Pappa saidin explanation of this last statement: bDo not buy from him and do not sell to him.If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. bRather, form a partnership with him. And nowwe have heard bthat Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have blessed the work of his hands”(Job 1:10)? This means that banyone who took a iperutafrom Job would be blessed,even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for beven ifhe wishes bto buy from him or to sell to him it is well,i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.,The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. bRabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥaito do bfive matters whenRabbi Akiva bwas imprisoned.Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah.Rabbi Akiva bsaidto him: bI will not teach you,as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon bsaid to himin jest: bIf you will not teach me, I will tell Yoḥaimy bfather, and he will turn you over to the government.In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva bsaid: My son,know that bmore than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle,but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: And who is in danger? Isn’t the calf in danger,as you are in jail and I am the one at risk?,Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him:If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, bif you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree.This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. bAnd when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of bthatstatement? bRava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiyasaid: Rabbi Akiva was referring btolearning ba newtopic, for bonce a mistake entersone’s mind, it has benteredthere and is difficult to put right.,Rabbi Akiva further told Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: bDo not cook in a pot in which your colleague cookedhis food. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of bthisstatement? The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva is referring to marrying ba divorced woman in the lifetime of herformer bhusband. As the Master said:If ba divorced man marries a divorced woman, there are four minds in the bedduring intimacy. Each person thinks about his current and former spouse, which verges on illegitimacy. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this advice holds true beven with regard tomarrying ba widow, as /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. אמר רב יוסף סמיכה איכא בינייהו למ"ד כל הכתוב בהן מעכב בהן סמיכה מעכבא למ"ד דבר שאין מעכב לדורות אין מעכב בהן סמיכה לא מעכבא,ולדורות מנא לן דלא מעכבא דתניא (ויקרא א, ד) וסמך ונרצה וכי סמיכה מכפרת והלא אין כפרה אלא בדם שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יא) כי הדם הוא בנפש יכפר,ומה ת"ל וסמך ונרצה שאם עשאה לסמיכה שירי מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו לא כפר וכפר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר תנופה איכא בינייהו למ"ד כל הכתוב בהן מעכב בהן מעכבא ולמ"ד דבר שאין מעכב לדורות אין מעכב בהן לא מעכבא,ולדורות מנא לן דלא מעכבא דתניא (ויקרא יד, כא) לתנופה לכפר וכי תנופה מכפרת והלא אין כפרה אלא בדם שנאמר כי הדם הוא בנפש יכפר ומה ת"ל לתנופה לכפר שאם עשאה לתנופה שירי מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו לא כפר וכפר,רב פפא אמר פרישת שבעה איכא בינייהו למ"ד כל הכתוב בהן מעכב בהן מעכבא למ"ד דבר שאינו מעכב לדורות אינו מעכב בהן לא מעכבא,ולדורות מנא לן דלא מעכבא מדקא תני מתקינין ולא קתני מפרישין,רבינא אמר ריבוי שבעה ומשיחה שבעה איכא בינייהו למ"ד כל הכתוב בהן מעכב בהן מעכבא למ"ד דבר שאין מעכב לדורות אין מעכב בהן לא מעכבא,ולדורות מנא לן דלא מעכבא דתניא (ויקרא טז, לב) וכפר הכהן אשר ימשח אותו ואשר ימלא את ידו לכהן תחת אביו מה תלמוד לומר,לפי שנאמר (שמות כט, ל) שבעת ימים ילבשם הכהן תחתיו מבניו אין לי אלא נתרבה שבעה ונמשח שבעה נתרבה שבעה ונמשח יום אחד נתרבה יום אחד ונמשח שבעה מניין תלמוד לומר אשר ימשח אותו ואשר ימלא את ידו מ"מ,אשכחן ריבוי שבעה לכתחלה משיחה שבעה לכתחלה מנא לן,איבעית אימא מדאיצטריך קרא למעוטה ואיבעית אימא דאמר קרא (שמות כט, כט) ובגדי הקדש אשר לאהרן יהיו לבניו אחריו למשחה בהם ולמלא בם את ידם איתקש משיחה לריבוי מה ריבוי שבעה אף משיחה שבעה,מאי טעמא דמ"ד כל הכתוב בהן מעכב אמר רבי יצחק בר ביסנא אמר קרא (שמות כט, לה) ועשית לאהרן ולבניו ככה ככה עיכובא הוא תינח כל 5a. bRav Yosef said:The practical difference bbetween themrelates to the question of bplacing handson the head of an animal brought as an offering. According bto the one who said:Failure to perform ballthe details bthat are written in itsregard, including details that do not invalidate offerings throughout the generations, binvalidatesthe inauguration, failure to perform the bplacingof bhandson the head of the animal balso invalidatesthe inauguration. According bto the one who said: A matter that does not invalidateofferings bthroughout the generations does not invalidatethe inauguration, failure to perform the bplacingof bhandson the head of the animal bdoes not invalidatethe inauguration., bAndwith regard to the ihalakhotof offerings that apply bthroughout the generationsthe Gemara asks: bFrom where do we derivethat failure to place hands on the head of the animal bdoes not invalidatethe offering? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“And he shall placehis hand on the head of the burnt-offering, band it shall be acceptedfor him to atone on his behalf” (Leviticus 1:4). bDoesthe bplacingof bhands atonefor one’s sins? bIsn’t atonementaccomplished bonly bythe sprinkling of bthe blood, as it is stated: “For it is the blood that makes atonement by reason of the life”(Leviticus 17:11)?, bAndfor bwhatpurpose, then, bdoes the verse state: “And he shall place…and it shall be accepted”?It teaches that if bone deemedthe ritual of bplacing handsto be ba peripheral aspect of the mitzvaand consequently failed to perform it, bthe verse ascribes to himstatus bas though he did not achieveoptimal batonement; andnevertheless, the offering batonesfor his sins. Apparently, failure to lay hands on the head of the offering does not invalidate the offering throughout the generations, as atonement can be achieved without it. Nevertheless, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa, failure to lay hands on the offering invalidates the offerings brought during the inauguration., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The issue of bwavingthe offering is the practical difference bbetweenthe opinions of Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Ḥanina. According bto the one who said:Failure to perform ballthe details bthat are written in itsregard binvalidatesthe inauguration, failure to wave the offering also binvalidatesthe inauguration. bAndaccording bto the one who said: A matter that does not invalidateofferings bthroughout the generations does not invalidatethe inauguration, failure to wave the offering bdoes not invalidatethe inauguration., bAndwith regard to the ihalakhotof offerings bthroughout the generations,the Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that failure to wave the offering bdoes not invalidatethe offering? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse says: “He shall take one male lamb as a guilt-offering bto be waved to make atonementfor him” (Leviticus 14:21). bDoes wavingthe offering batonefor one’s sins? bIsn’t atonementaccomplished bonly bythe sprinkling of bthe blood, as it is stated: “For it is the blood that makes atonement by reason of the life”(Leviticus 17:11)? bAndfor bwhatpurpose, then, bdoes the verse state: To be waved to make atonement?It teaches that if bone deemedthe ritual of bwavingto be ba peripheral aspect of the mitzvaand therefore failed to perform it, bthe verse ascribes to himstatus bas though he did not achieveoptimal batonement; andnevertheless, the offering batonesfor his sins on his behalf., bRav Pappa said:The issue of bsequesteringthe priest for bsevendays is the practical difference bbetweenthe opinions of Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Ḥanina. According bto the one who said:Failure to perform ballthe details bthat are written in itsregard binvalidatesthe inauguration, failure to sequester the priest for seven days also binvalidatesthe inauguration. bAndaccording bto the one who said: A matter that does not invalidateofferings bthroughout the generations does not invalidatethe inauguration, failure to sequester the priest for seven days bdoes not invalidatethe inauguration., bAndwith regard to the ihalakhotof offerings bthroughout the generations,the Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that failure to sequester the priest for seven days bdoes not invalidatethe offering? The Gemara answers: It is derived bfrom the fact that it is taughtin the mishna: And btheywould bdesignateanother priest in his stead, band it is not taught:The Sages bremovethe designated priest from his house, despite the possibility that ultimately he might replace the High Priest and perform the Yom Kippur service. Apparently, sequestering is not essential., bRavina said:The issue of the priest performing the service with the bmultiplegarments of the High Priest for bsevendays and serving with banointmentfor bsevendays is the practical difference bbetweenthe opinions of Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Ḥanina. According bto the one who said:Failure to perform ballthe details bthat are written in itsregard binvalidatesthe inauguration, failure to serve with multiple garments and anointment for seven days also binvalidatesthe inauguration. bAndaccording bto the one who said: A matter that does not invalidateofferings bthroughout the generations does not invalidatethe inauguration, failure to serve with multiple garments and anointment for seven days bdoes not invalidatethe inauguration., bAndwith regard to the ihalakhotof offerings bthroughout the generations,the Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that failure to serve with multiple garments and anointment for seven days bdoes not invalidatethe offering? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: For bwhatpurpose bdoes the verse state: “And the priest who shall be anointed and who shall be consecrated to serve in his father’s stead shall make the atonement”(Leviticus 16:32)? If it comes to teach that all service must be performed by the High Priest, it is already written with regard to the Yom Kippur service that it must be performed by Aaron, the High Priest., bSince it is stated: “Seven days shall the son that is priest in his stead don them”(Exodus 29:30), bIderive bonlythat one who donned the bmultiplegarments of the High Priest for bsevendays band was anointed sevendays assumes the position of High Priest and may perform the service on Yom Kippur. However, with regard to whether one who donned the bmultiplegarments for bsevendays band was anointedfor boneday, or one who donned the bmultiplegarments for boneday band was anointedfor bsevendays is thereby inaugurated as High Priest, bfrom whereare those cases derived? Therefore, bthe verse states: “Who shall be anointed and who shall be consecrated”; in any casehe is appointed High Priest, even if either anointment or donning the garments did not continue for seven days.,The Gemara asks: bWe founda source for the fact that when the High Priest is appointed, there is a requirement of donning bmultiplegarments for bsevendays iab initio /i;however, bfrom where do wederive the requirement of banointmentfor bsevendays iab initio /i?According to Ravina, there is a requirement to anoint the priest on each of the seven days iab initio /i, even though failure to do so does not invalidate the offering throughout the generations. From where is that requirement derived?, bIf you wish, say:It is derived bfromthe fact bthat the verse:“And the priest who shall be anointed and who shall be consecrated to serve in his father’s stead shall make the atonement,” bis necessary to excluderequirements derived from other sources, i.e., that both donning multiple garments and anointment must be for seven days. Apparently, anointment for seven days is required iab initio /i. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived from bthatwhich bthe verse states: “And the sacred garments of Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to be anointed in them and to be consecrated in them”(Exodus 29:29). bAnointment is juxtaposedin this verse btodonning bmultiplegarments: bJust asdonning bmultiplegarments is required bfor sevendays iab initio /i, bso too, anointmentis required bfor sevendays iab initio /i.,§ After ascertaining the halakhic distinctions between the opinions of Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Ḥanina with regard to the inauguration, the Gemara proceeds to analyze the rationales for those opinions. bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof the one who said:Failure to perform ballthe details bthat are written in itsregard binvalidatesthe inauguration? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Bisna saidthat bthe verse states: “And so shall you do to Aaron and to his sonsaccording to all that I have commanded you, seven days shall you consecrate them” (Exodus 29:35). The term: bSo,teaches that failure to perform the ritual precisely in this manner binvalidatesthe inauguration. The Gemara asks: That works out bwellas a source that ball /b
23. Anon., 2 Enoch, 20.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
allegorical method Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
altar (mizbeah)̣ Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
ancient mediterranean, sacrifice in Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 70
and blood Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 70
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, entourage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
artapanus, acts of apostles comparison Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
blessing Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
blood, and consumption Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 70
burning (haqtara) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69, 70
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
christians Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
circumcise/circumcision Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
cold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
conversion Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
covenant Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
darkness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
egypt, lukan source Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
egypt, sterling, g.e. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
egypt, zelletin, h. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
fire Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
fire (ishe) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
genealogy Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
gentile Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
gilders, william Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69, 70
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
heat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
hebrew (language) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
himmelfarb, martha Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
holiness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
holiness code Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 70
impurity Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
israel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
jubilees, book of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69, 70
leper Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
levi, aramaic testament of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
maccabean revolt, and enoch tradition Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 99
masoretic text Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
moses, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 197
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
odor (reah)̣ Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
peshittah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
philosophers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
plato Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
purification Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69
ritual narrative Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69, 70
roman' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 177
sinai, mount Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 99
smoke Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 69, 70
socrates Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
testament Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
testamentary literature Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 158
testaments of the xii patriarchs, admonitions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
throne, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918
wisdom literature Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 288
worship, heavenly Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 918