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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 2.2


nanWrite the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.8, 31.28, 32.43, 33.8-33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.8. בָּעֵת הַהִוא הִבְדִּיל יְהוָה אֶת־שֵׁבֶט הַלֵּוִי לָשֵׂאת אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁמוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 31.28. הַקְהִילוּ אֵלַי אֶת־כָּל־זִקְנֵי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְשֹׁטְרֵיכֶם וַאֲדַבְּרָה בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָעִידָה בָּם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 10.8. At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covet of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day." 31.28. Assemble unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers, that I may speak these words in their ears, and call heaven and earth to witness against them." 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.2, 13.12-13.13, 13.15, 20.8-20.11, 22.28, 28.1, 31.12-31.17, 34.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מִסֻּכֹּת וַיַּחֲנוּ בְאֵתָם בִּקְצֵה הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 13.2. קַדֶּשׁ־לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל־רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה לִי הוּא׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 13.15. וַיְהִי כִּי־הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ וַיַּהֲרֹג יְהֹוָה כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבְּכֹר אָדָם וְעַד־בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה עַל־כֵּן אֲנִי זֹבֵחַ לַיהוָה כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם הַזְּכָרִים וְכָל־בְּכוֹר בָּנַי אֶפְדֶּה׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 22.28. מְלֵאָתְךָ וְדִמְעֲךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר בְּכוֹר בָּנֶיךָ תִּתֶּן־לִּי׃ 28.1. שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמֹתָם עַל הָאֶבֶן הָאֶחָת וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַשִּׁשָּׁה הַנּוֹתָרִים עַל־הָאֶבֶן הַשֵּׁנִית כְּתוֹלְדֹתָם׃ 28.1. וְאַתָּה הַקְרֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן׃ 31.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 31.13. וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 31.14. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא לָכֶם מְחַלְלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת כִּי כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 13.2. ’Sanctify unto Me all the first-born, whatsoever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast, it is Mine.’" 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s." 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 13.15. and it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man, and the first-born of beast; therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the womb, being males; but all the first-born of my sons I redeem." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 22.28. Thou shalt not delay to offer of the fulness of thy harvest, and of the outflow of thy presses. The first-born of thy sons shalt thou give unto Me." 28.1. And bring thou near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons." 31.12. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 31.13. ’Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you." 31.14. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’" 34.20. And the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck. All the first-born of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before Me empty."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.4, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.31, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 4.21, 5.22, 5.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.14, 10.18, 10.20, 10.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.14. וְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה תֹּאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתָּךְ כִּי־חָקְךָ וְחָק־בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.18. הֵן לֹא־הוּבָא אֶת־דָּמָהּ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ פְּנִימָה אָכוֹל תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתָהּ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוֵּיתִי׃ 10.14. And the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee; for they are given as thy due, and thy sons’due, out of the sacrifices of the peace-offerings of the children of Israel." 10.18. Behold, the blood of it was not brought into the sanctuary within; ye should certainly have eaten it in the sanctuary, as I commanded.’" 10.20. And when Moses heard that, it was well-pleasing in his sight."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.45, 23.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.45. קַח אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֶּהֱמַת הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת בְּהֶמְתָּם וְהָיוּ־לִי הַלְוִיִּם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 23.18. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר קוּם בָּלָק וּשֲׁמָע הַאֲזִינָה עָדַי בְּנוֹ צִפֹּר׃ 3.45. ’Take the Levites instead of all the first-born among the children of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites instead of their cattle; and the Levites shall be Mine, even the LORD’S." 23.18. And he took up his parable, and said: Arise, Balak, and hear; Give ear unto me, thou son of Zippor:"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.6, 33.6, 51.13, 104.4, 104.6-104.9, 104.13-104.18, 138.1, 148.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 33.6. בִּדְבַר יְהוָה שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל־צְבָאָם׃ 51.13. אַל־תַּשְׁלִיכֵנִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְרוּחַ קָדְשְׁךָ אַל־תִּקַּח מִמֶּנִּי׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 104.6. תְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ עַל־הָרִים יַעַמְדוּ־מָיִם׃ 104.7. מִן־גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן מִן־קוֹל רַעַמְךָ יֵחָפֵזוּן׃ 104.8. יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל־מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם׃ 104.9. גְּבוּל־שַׂמְתָּ בַּל־יַעֲבֹרוּן בַּל־יְשׁוּבוּן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.13. מַשְׁקֶה הָרִים מֵעֲלִיּוֹתָיו מִפְּרִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ תִּשְׂבַּע הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.14. מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר לַבְּהֵמָה וְעֵשֶׂב לַעֲבֹדַת הָאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.15. וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד׃ 104.16. יִשְׂבְּעוּ עֲצֵי יְהוָה אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָטָע׃ 104.17. אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם צִפֳּרִים יְקַנֵּנוּ חֲסִידָה בְּרוֹשִׁים בֵּיתָהּ׃ 104.18. הָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶה לַשְׁפַנִּים׃ 138.1. לְדָוִד אוֹדְךָ בְכָל־לִבִּי נֶגֶד אֱלֹהִים אֲזַמְּרֶךָּ׃ 148.8. אֵשׁ וּבָרָד שֶׁלֶג וְקִיטוֹר רוּחַ סְעָרָה עֹשָׂה דְבָרוֹ׃ 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 33.6. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth." 51.13. Cast me not away from Thy presence; and take not Thy holy spirit from me." 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers." 104.6. Thou didst cover it with the deep as with a vesture; the waters stood above the mountains." 104.7. At Thy rebuke they fled, at the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away—" 104.8. The mountains rose, the valleys sank down— Unto the place which Thou hadst founded for them;" 104.9. Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass over, That they might not return to cover the earth." 104.13. Who waterest the mountains from Thine upper chambers; The earth is full of the fruit of Thy works." 104.14. Who causeth the grass to spring up for the cattle, And herb for the service of man; To bring forth bread out of the earth," 104.15. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, Making the face brighter than oil, And bread that stayeth man's heart." 104.16. The trees of the LORD have their fill, The cedars of Lebanon, which He hath planted;" 104.17. Wherein the birds make their nests; As for the stork, the fir-trees are her house." 104.18. The high mountains are for the wild goats; The rocks are a refuge for the conies." 138.1. [A Psalm] of David. I will give Thee thanks with my whole heart, In the presence of the mighty will I sing praises unto Thee." 148.8. Fire and hail, snow and vapour, Stormy wind, fulfilling His word;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 45.7, 55.12, 63.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

45.7. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 55.12. כִּי־בְשִׂמְחָה תֵצֵאוּ וּבְשָׁלוֹם תּוּבָלוּן הֶהָרִים וְהַגְּבָעוֹת יִפְצְחוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם רִנָּה וְכָל־עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה יִמְחֲאוּ־כָף׃ 45.7. I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things." 55.12. For ye shall go out with joy, And be led forth with peace; The mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands." 63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them."
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1-6.8, 9.1, 14.8-14.9, 21.10, 41.2, 60.16-60.22, 75.2, 82.4-82.7, 82.9-82.20 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.2. them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men 6.3. and beget us children.' And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not 6.4. indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecation 6.5. not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.' Then sware they all together and bound themselves 6.6. by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn 6.7. and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal 6.8. Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens. 9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright 41.2. actions of men are weighed in the balance. And there I saw the mansions of the elect and the mansions of the holy, and mine eyes saw there all the sinners being driven from thence which deny the name of the Lord of Spirits, and being dragged off: and they could not abide because of the punishment which proceeds from the Lord of Spirits. 60.16. And the spirit of the sea is masculine and strong, and according to the might of his strength he draws it back with a rein, and in like manner it is driven forward and disperses amid all the mountain 60.17. of the earth. And the spirit of the hoar-frost is his own angel, and the spirit of the hail is a good 60.18. angel. And the spirit of the snow has forsaken his chambers on account of his strength -There is a special spirit therein, and that which ascends from it is like smoke, and its name is frost. And the spirit of the mist is not united with them in their chambers, but it has a special chamber; for its course is glorious both in light and in darkness, and in winter and in summer, and in its chamber is an angel. 60.21. mist are connected, and the one gives to the other. And when the spirit of the rain goes forth from its chamber, the angels come and open the chamber and lead it out, and when it is diffused over the whole earth it unites with the water on the earth. And whensoever it unites with the water on 60.22. the earth . . . For the waters are for those who dwell on the earth; for they are nourishment for the earth from the Most High who is in heaven: therefore there is a measure for the rain 75.2. reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year i 82.4. Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which 82.5. lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them 82.6. accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 82.7. And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.2, 1.5-1.29, 2.1, 2.3-2.33, 3.5, 3.9, 3.12, 3.15, 4.2, 4.6, 4.15, 4.18, 4.23, 5.6, 5.13, 6.32, 10.1-10.3, 10.7, 10.10-10.13, 12.19, 14.20, 15.3, 15.27, 15.31-15.32, 16.1-16.4, 16.15-16.16, 16.19, 16.28, 17.11, 18.14, 19.3, 22.9, 23.11-23.31, 30.18, 30.20, 31.14, 32.21, 33.11-33.12, 41.24, 48.10-48.11, 48.13-48.14, 48.16-48.19, 50.2, 50.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them. 1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.6. of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. 1.7. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covet which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. 1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.9. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: "Unto your seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey 1.10. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: 1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 1.12. and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. 1.13. And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordices and My commandments, and the festivals of My covet 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 1.15. And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts. 1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also 1.17. and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes. 1.18. And I shall hide My face from them, and I shall deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I shall remove them from the midst of the land, and I shall scatter them amongst the Gentiles. 1.19. And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordices. 1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 1.21. and I shall gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that I shall be found of them 1.22. when they seek Me with all their heart and with all their soul. brAnd I shall disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I shall remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul 1.23. and they will be for a blessing and not for a curse, and they will be the head and not the tail. 1.24. And I shall build My sanctuary in their midst, and I shall dwell with them, and I shall be their God and they will be My people in truth and righteousness. 1.25. And I shall not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God. 1.26. And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.4. --the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds 2.5. and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer 2.6. and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 2.7. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. 2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 2.15. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth 2.16. and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 3.5. And the Lord said unto us: "It is not good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him. 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.15. if she beareth a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first week of days 4.2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 4.6. and the man who hath seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the other. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 12.19. Why do I search (them) out? If He desireth, He causeth it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desireth, He withholdeth it, And all things are in His hand. 14.20. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 15.3. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: "I am God Almighty; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covet between 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 16.1. And on the new moon of the fourth month we appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked with him 16.2. and we announced to him that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife. 16.3. And Sarah laughed, for she heard that we had spoken these words with Abraham 16.4. and we admonished her, and she became afraid, and denied that she had laughed on account of the words. 16.15. And in the middle of the fifth month he moved from thence, and dwelt at the Well of the Oath. 16.16. And in the middle of the sixth month the Lord visited Sarah and did unto her as He had spoken, and she conceived. 16.19. he was the first that was circumcised according to the covet which is ordained for ever. 16.28. and he was the first to celebrate the feast of tabernacles on the earth. brAnd during these seven days he brought each day to the altar a burnt-offering to the Lord 17.11. And Abraham rose up early in the morning and took bread and a bottle of water, and placed them on the shoulders of Hagar and the child, and sent her away. brAnd she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba 19.3. and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he were not indigt in the words of his mouth; and he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed. 22.9. And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day: 23.11. and they wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of Keturah in their places, and the days of weeping for Abraham were ended. 23.12. And he lived three jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred and seventy-five years, and completed the days of his life, being old and full of days. 23.13. For the days of the forefathers, of their life, were nineteen jubilees; and after the Flood they began to grow less than nineteen jubilees 23.14. and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways 23.15. with the exception of Abraham. brFor Abraham was perfect in all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing in righteousness all the days of his life; 23.16. and behold, he did not complete four jubilees in his life, when he had grown old by reason of the wickedness and was full of his days. 23.17. And all the generations which will arise from this time until the day of the great judgment will grow old quickly, before they complete two jubilees 23.18. and their knowledge will forsake them by reason of their old age [and all their knowledge will vanish away]. 23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long 23.20. and the greater part of his days are pain and sorrow and tribulation, and there is no peace: 23.21. For calamity followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such as these, one with another 23.22. illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains. 23.23. And all these will come on an evil generation, which transgresseth on the earth: their works are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and abominations. 23.24. Then they will say: "The days of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, and were good; but, behold, the days of our life, if a man hath lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years, and those evil 23.25. and there is no peace in the days of this evil generation. 23.26. And in that generation the sons will convict their fathers and their elders of sin and unrighteousness, and of the words of their mouth 23.27. and the great wickednesses which they perpetrate, and concerning their forsaking the covet which the Lord made between them and Him, that they should observe and do all His commandments and His ordices and all His laws, without departing either to the right hand or to the left. 23.28. For all have done evil, and every mouth speaketh iniquity and all their works are an uncleanness and an abomination, and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness and destruction. 23.29. Behold the earth will be destroyed on account of all their works, and there will be no seed of the vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether faithless 23.30. and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. 23.31. And they will strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 30.20. for that were a reproach unto us." brAnd it is a reproach to Israel, to those who give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him. 33.11. And there shall be nothing unclean before our God in the nation which He hath chosen for Himself as a possession. 33.12. And again, it is written a second time: "Cursed he be who lieth with the wife of his father, for he hath uncovered his father's shame"; and all the holy ones of the Lord said "So be it; so be it. 41.24. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son 48.10. And everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants and before his people. 48.11. And everything took place according to thy words; ten great and terrible judgments came on the land of Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeance on it for Israel. 48.13. And the prince of the Mastêmâ stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought before thee. 48.14. The evils indeed we permitted them to work, but the remedies we did not allow to be wrought by their hands. 48.16. And notwithstanding all (these) signs and wonders the prince of the Mastêmâ was not put to shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the hosts of the peoples of Egypt. 48.17. And I stood between the Egyptians and Israel, and we delivered Israel out of his hand, and out of the hand of his people 48.18. and the Lord brought them through the midst of the sea as if it were dry land. And all the peoples whom he brought to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them into the midst of the sea, into the depths of the aby 48.19. beneath the children of Israel, even as the people of Egypt had cast their children into the river. He took vengeance on,, of them, and one thousand strong and energetic men were destroyed on account of one suckling of the children of thy people which they had thrown into the river. 50.2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years: 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die:
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.7, 1.16, 3.9, 7.6, 9.15-9.16, 10.11, 14.17, 16.11, 17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 26.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 9.13-9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q504, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 42.15-43.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13, 3.16, 3.20-3.21, 3.24, 4.5-4.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 26.11-26.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.62, 7.9, 9.21, 10.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering." 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia."
24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.19, 18.3, 33.7, 33.8, 33.9, 33.10, 33.11, 33.12, 33.13, 33.14, 33.15, 42.15-43.33, 43.6, 43.7, 43.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.17. Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation?
25. Septuagint, Judith, 16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

16.14. Let all thy creatures serve thee, for thou didst speak, and they were made. Thou didst send forth thy Spirit, and it formed them; there is none that can resist thy voice.
26. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.11, 9.1, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 9.1. O God of my fathers and Lord of mercy,who hast made all things by thy word 11.20. Even apart from these, men could fall at a single breath when pursued by justice and scattered by the breath of thy power. But thou hast arranged all things by measure and number and weight.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 103-105, 20-30, 102 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 101-128, 89-100 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

100. But seven alone, as I said before, neither produces nor is produced, on which account other philosophers liken this number to Victory, who had no mother, and to the virgin goddess, whom the fable asserts to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: and the Pythagoreans compare it to the Ruler of all things. For that which neither produces, nor is produced, remains immovable. For generation consists in motion, since that which is generated, cannot be so without motion, both to cause production, and to be produced. And the only thing which neither moves nor is moved, is the Elder, Ruler, and Lord of the universe, of whom the number seven may reasonably be called a likeness. And Philolaus gives his testimony to this doctrine of mine in the following Words:ù"for God," says he "is the ruler and Lord of all things, being one, eternal, lasting, immovable, himself like to himself, and different from all other beings." XXXIV.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Now when the supper was got ready, he took a goat’s skin, and put it about his arm, that by reason of its hairy roughness, he might by his father be believed to be Esau; for they being twins, and in all things else alike, differed only in this thing. This was done out of his fear, that before his father had made his supplications, he should be caught in his evil practice, and lest he should, on the contrary, provoke his father to curse him. So he brought in the supper to his father. 1.27. 1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. But when the earth did not come into sight, but was covered with thick darkness, and a wind moved upon its surface, God commanded that there should be light:
30. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.10. The incident of Reuven is read but not translated. The story of Tamar is read and translated. The first part of the incident of the golden calf is both read and translated, but the second is read but not translated. The blessing of the priests, the stories of David and Amnon are not read or translated. They do not conclude with the portion of the chariot as a haftarah. But Rabbi Judah permits this. R. Eliezar says: they do not conclude with “Proclaim Jerusalem’s [abominations]” (Ezekiel as a haftarah."
31. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.1-4.2, 9.1, 12.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 9.1. The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from the sky fallen to the earth. The key to the pit of the abyss was given to him. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth.
32. New Testament, Galatians, 4.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar.
33. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.4. By faith, Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he had testimony given to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness with respect to his gifts; and through it he, being dead, still speaks.
34. New Testament, Luke, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
35. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 60.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. א"ר חנן אפי' בעל החלומות אומר לו לאדם למחר הוא מת אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנאמר (קהלת ה, ו) כי ברוב חלומות והבלים ודברים הרבה כי את האלהים ירא,מיד (ישעיהו לח, ב) ויסב חזקיהו פניו אל הקיר ויתפלל אל ה',מאי קיר אמר רשב"ל מקירות לבו שנא' (ירמיהו ד, יט) מעי מעי אוחילה קירות לבי וגו',ר' לוי אמר על עסקי הקיר אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ומה שונמית שלא עשתה אלא קיר אחת קטנה החיית את בנה אבי אבא שחפה את ההיכל כולו בכסף ובזהב על אחת כמה וכמה (ישעיהו לח, ג) זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך באמת ובלב שלם והטוב בעיניך עשיתי,מאי והטוב בעיניך עשיתי א"ר יהודה אמר רב שסמך גאולה לתפלה ר' לוי אמר שגנז ספר רפואות,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשה חזקיהו המלך על ג' הודו לו ועל ג' לא הודו לו,על ג' הודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו כתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו,ועל ג' לא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון ולא הודו לו קצץ דלתות היכל ושגרם למלך אשור ולא הודו לו עבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו,ומי לית ליה לחזקיהו (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם ראש חדשים זה ניסן ואין אחר ניסן,אלא טעה בדשמואל דאמר שמואל אין מעברין את השנה ביום שלשים של אדר הואיל וראוי לקובעו ניסן סבר הואיל וראוי לא אמרינן:,א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זמרא כל התולה בזכות עצמו תולין לו בזכות אחרים וכל התולה בזכות אחרים תולין לו בזכות עצמו,משה תלה בזכות אחרים שנא' (שמות לב, יג) זכור לאברהם ליצחק ולישראל עבדיך תלו לו בזכות עצמו שנאמר (תהלים קו, כג) ויאמר להשמידם לולי משה בחירו עמד בפרץ לפניו להשיב חמתו מהשחית,חזקיהו תלה בזכות עצמו דכתיב זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך תלו לו בזכות אחרים שנא' (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת להושיעה למעני ולמען דוד עבדי והיינו דריב"ל דאמר ריב"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, יז) הנה לשלום מר לי מר אפי' בשעה ששיגר לו הקב"ה שלום מר הוא לו:,(מלכים ב ד, י) נעשה נא עליית קיר קטנה,רב ושמואל חד אמר עלייה פרועה היתה וקירוה וחד אמר אכסדרה גדולה היתה וחלקוה לשנים,בשלמא למ"ד אכסדרה היינו דכתיב קיר אלא למ"ד עלייה מאי קיר,שקירוה,בשלמא למ"ד עלייה היינו דכתיב עליית אלא למ"ד אכסדרה מאי עליית,מעולה שבבתים.,ונשים לו שם מטה ושולחן וכסא ומנורה,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר' יצחק הרוצה להנות יהנה כאלישע ושאינו רוצה להנות אל יהנה כשמואל הרמתי שנאמר (שמואל א ז, יז) ותשובתו הרמתה כי שם ביתו וא"ר יוחנן שכל מקום שהלך שם ביתו עמו.,(מלכים ב ד, ט) ותאמר אל אישה הנה נא ידעתי כי איש אלהים קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מכאן שהאשה מכרת באורחין יותר מן האיש,קדוש הוא מנא ידעה רב ושמואל חד אמר שלא ראתה זבוב עובר על שולחנו וחד אמר סדין של פשתן הציעה על מטתו ולא ראתה קרי עליו,קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא הוא קדוש ומשרתו אינו קדוש (שנא') (מלכים ב ד, כז) ויגש גיחזי להדפה א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא שאחזה בהוד יפיה.,עובר עלינו תמיד א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב כל המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומהנהו מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מקריב תמידין.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י אל יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל שנא' (תהלים קל, א) ממעמקים קראתיך ה',תניא נמי הכי לא יעמוד אדם לא על גבי כסא ולא ע"ג שרפרף ולא במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל לפי שאין גבהות לפני המקום שנאמר ממעמקים קראתיך ה' וכתיב (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטוף.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י המתפלל צריך שיכוין את רגליו שנא' (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה,(א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן) וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יט, כו) לא תאכלו על הדם לא תאכלו קודם שתתפללו על דמכם,(א"ד) א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י כל האוכל ושותה ואח"כ מתפלל עליו הכתוב אומר (מלכים א יד, ט) ואותי השלכת אחרי גויך אל תקרי גויך אלא גאיך אמר הקב"ה לאחר שנתגאה זה קבל עליו מלכות שמים:,ר' יהושע אומר עד ג' שעות: אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי יהושע:,הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד:,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא ובלבד שלא יאמר יוצר אור,מיתיבי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שהוא קורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה תיובתא דרב חסדא תיובתא,איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא מאי לא הפסיד שלא הפסיד ברכות תניא נמי הכי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שקורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה,א"ר מני גדול הקורא ק"ש בעונתה יותר מהעוסק בתורה מדקתני הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה מכלל דקורא בעונתה עדיף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים בערב כל אדם יטה ויקרא ובבקר יעמוד שנאמר (דברים ו, ז) ובשכבך ובקומך,ובית הלל אומרים כל אדם קורא כדרכו שנאמר ובלכתך בדרך,אם כן למה נאמר ובשכבך ובקומך בשעה שבני אדם שוכבים ובשעה שבני אדם עומדים,א"ר טרפון אני הייתי בא בדרך והטתי לקרות כדברי ב"ש וסכנתי בעצמי מפני הלסטים,אמרו לו כדי היית לחוב בעצמך שעברת על דברי ב"ה: 10b. Similarly, bRabbi Ḥa said: Even if the master of dreams,in a true dream, an angel ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i) btells a person that tomorrow he will die, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is stated: “For in the multitude of dreams and vanities there are many words; but fear God”(Ecclesiastes 5:6). Although the dream may seem real to him, that is not necessarily the case, and one must place his trust in God.,Having heard Isaiah’s harsh prophecy, bimmediately “Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall and prayed to the Lord”(Isaiah 38:2).,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by the word b“wall [ ikir /i]”in this context? Why did Hezekiah turn his face to a wall? bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:This symbolically alludes to the fact that Hezekiah prayed to God bfrom the chambers [ ikirot /i] of his heart, as it is statedelsewhere: b“My anguish, my anguish, I am in pain. The chambers of my heart.My heart moans within me” (Jeremiah 4:19)., bRabbi Levi said:Hezekiah intended to evoke bmattersrelating bto a wall,and bhe said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, and if the woman from Shunem, who made only a single small wallon the roof for the prophet Elisha, and byou revived her son, all the more soshould you bring life to the descendant of bmy father’s father,King Solomon, bwho covered the entireTemple bSanctuary with silver and gold.In his prayer, Hezekiah said: “Please, Lord, bplease remember that I walked before You in truth, and with a complete heart, and what was good in Your eyes I did.And Hezekiah wept sore” (Isaiah 38:3).,The Gemara asks: To bwhatspecific action was he referring when he said: b“And what was good in your sight I did”?Various opinions are offered: Mentioning Hezekiah’s merits, bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav that he juxtaposed redemption and prayerat sunrise instead of sleeping late, as was the custom of most kings ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). bRabbi Levi said: He suppressed the Book of Remediesupon which everyone relied., bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed sixinnovative bactions. With regard to threethe Sages bagreed with him, and with regard to three they did not agree with him. /b, bWith regard to threeactions the Sages bagreed with him: br bHe suppressed the Book of Remedies, and they agreed with him. br bHe ground the copper snakethrough which miracles were performed for Israel (Numbers 21:9), destroying it because it had been used in idol worship (II Kings 18:4), band they agreed with him. br bHe dragged the bones of hisevil bfather,King Ahaz, bon a bed of ropes;meaning he did not accord his father a funeral fit for a king (II Chronicles 28:27), band they agreed with him. /b,Yet, bwith regard to threeother innovations, the Sages of his generation bdid not agree with him: br bHe stopped up the waters of the Gihon,the Pool of Siloam, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel (II Chronicles 32:30), band they did not agree with him. br bHe cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the king of Assyria(II Kings 18:16), band they did not agree with him. br bHe intercalated Nisan in Nisan,creating a leap year by adding an extra month during the month of Nisan. That intercalation must be performed before the end of Adar (II Chronicles 30:2).,With regard to his intercalation of Nisan, the Gemara asks: bDid Hezekiah notaccept the ihalakha /i: b“This month will be for you the first of the months;it shall be the first for you of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2)? By inference, bthisfirst month bis Nisan, and no othermonth bis Nisan.How could Hezekiah add an additional Nisan in violation of Torah law?,The Gemara answers that the scenario was different. bRather, Hezekiah erred with regard tothe halakhic opinion ascribed in later generations to bShmuel,as bShmuel said: One may not intercalate the year on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is fit to establish itas the New Moon of bNisan.On the thirtieth day of each month, those who witnessed the new moon would come and testify before the court, which, based on their testimony, would declare that day the first day of the next month. Therefore, one may not declare a leap year on the thirtieth day of Adar, as it could potentially become the first of Nisan. Therefore, the Sages of Hezekiah’s generation did not agree with his decision to intercalate the year on the thirtieth of Adar. Hezekiah bheldthat bwe do not say: Sincethat day bis fit to establish itas the New Moon is reason enough to refrain from intercalation of the year.,Stemming from the analysis of Hezekiah’s prayer, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who baseshis prayer or request bupon his own merit,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon the merit of others. And anyone whomodestly bbaseshis prayer or request bupon the merit of others,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon his own merit. /b,The Gemara cites proof from Moses. When he prayed to God for forgiveness after the incident of the Golden Calf, bhe basedhis request bupon the merit of others, as it is stated: “Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel your servants,to whom You swore upon Yourself, and told them: I will increase your descendants like the stars of the heavens, and all of this land of which I have spoken, I will give to your descendants and they will inherit it forever” (Exodus 32:13). Yet when this story is related, God’s forgiveness of Israel bis based upon Moses’ own merit, as it is stated: “And He said He would destroy them, had Moses, His chosen, not stood before Him in the breach to turn back His destructive fury, lest He should destroy them”(Psalms 106:23)., bHezekiah,however, bbasedhis request bupon his own merit, as it is written: “Please, remember that I walked before You”(Isaiah 38:3). When God answered his prayers, bit was based upon the merit of otherswith no mention made of Hezekiah’s own merit, bas it is stated: “And I will protect this city to save it, for My sake and for the sake of David, My servant”(II Kings 19:34). bAnd that is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levisaid. bAs Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Behold, for my peace I had great bitterness;but You have, in love to my soul, delivered it from the pit of corruption; for You have thrown all my sins behind Your back” (Isaiah 38:17)? This verse teaches that beven when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sent him peaceand told him that he would recover from his illness, bit was bitter for him,because God did not take his merit into consideration.,Having mentioned the chamber on the roof built for Elisha by the woman from Shunem, the Gemara now describes the entire event. The woman from Shunem suggested to her husband: b“Let us make, I pray thee, a small chamber on the roof,and let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there, and it will be, when he comes to us, that he will turn in there” (II Kings 4:10)., bRav and Shmuelargued over the meaning of small chamber. bOneof them bsaid: They had an uncovered second storyon their roof, bover which they built a ceiling;and boneof them bsaid: There was an enclosed veranda [ iakhsadra /i] and they divided it in half. /b,The Gemara comments: bGranted, according to the one who said that it was an enclosed verandawhich they divided in two, it makes sense bthatthe term bwall [ ikir /i] was written. However, according to the one who said that they had anopen bsecond story, what isthe meaning of bwall? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that they had an uncovered second story interprets ikirnot as wall but as ceiling meaning that they bbuilt a ceiling[ ikirui /i] over it.,On the other hand, bgranted, according to the one who said that they had anuncovered bsecond story,it makes sense bthatthe term bsecond story[ialiyat /i] was written. But according to the one who saidthat it was ban enclosed veranda, what isthe meaning of the term bsecond story? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that it was an enclosed veranda interprets ialiyatnot as second story, but bas the most outstanding [ ime’ula /i] of the rooms. /b,Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara analyzes the statement made by the woman from Shunem to her husband with regard to the provisions that they would place in the room for Elisha: b“And let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there.” /b, bAbaye, and some say Rabbi Yitzḥak, said:A great man bwho seeks to enjoythe contributions of those who seek to honor him bmay enjoythose gifts, bas Elishaenjoyed gifts given him by the woman from Shunem, among others. bAnd one who does not seek to enjoythese gifts bshould not enjoy them, aswas the practice of the prophet bSamuel from Rama,who would not accept gifts from anyone at all. From where do we know that this was Samuel’s custom? bAs it is stated: “And he returned to Rama, for there was his house,and there he judged Israel, and he built an altar to the Lord” (I Samuel 7:17). bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Every place whereSamuel bwent, his house was with him,so he would have everything that he needed and not be forced to benefit from public contributions. One may opt to conduct himself in accordance with either of these paths.,Regarding the woman from Shunem: b“And she said to her husband: Behold now, I perceive that he is a holy man of Godwho passes by us continually” (II Kings 4:9). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: From here,where the woman from Shunem perceived the prophet’s greatness before her husband did, derive bthat a woman recognizesthe character of her bguests more than a mandoes.,The Gemara notes that the woman from Shunem said that b“he is holy.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where did she knowthat he was holy? bRav and Shmueldisagreed over this. bOneof them bsaid: She never saw a fly pass over his table; and the other said: She spread awhite blinen sheet on his bed,and despite that even the smallest stain is visible on white linen, and nocturnal seminal emissions are not uncommon, bshe never sawthe residue of ba seminal emission on it. /b,With regard to the verse: b“He is holy,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The woman from Shunem intimated that: bHe is holy,but bhis attendant,Geihazi, bis not holy,as she saw no indication of holiness in him ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). Here too, she correctly perceived the character of her guest, bas it islater bstated: “And Geihazi approached her to push her away [ ilehodfa /i]”(II Kings 4:27). And bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: He grabbed her by the majesty of her beauty [ ihod yofya /i],meaning that when he pushed her he grabbed her breasts in a licentious manner.,With regard to the phrasing of the verse: “He is a holy man of God bwho passes by us continually,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov:From this verse we derive that bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home and lets him enjoy his possessions, the verse ascribes to himcredit bas if he is sacrificing the daily [ itamid /i] offering,as the verse states: “Passes by us continually [ itamid /i].”,With regard to the ihalakhotof prayer, bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: A person should not stand in a high place and pray; rather,he should stand bin a low place and pray, as it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths”(Psalms 130:1)., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should neither stand upon a chair nor upon a stool, nor in a high place and pray. Rather,one should stand bin a low place and pray, for there is no haughtiness before God. As it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths” and it is written: “A prayer for the impoverished, when he is faintand pours out his complaint before God” (Psalms 102:1). It is appropriate to feel impoverished when praying and make one’s requests humbly., bAnd Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: When praying, one should align his feetnext to each other, as a single foot, in order to model oneself after the angels, with regard to whom bit is stated: “And their feet were a straight foot”(Ezekiel 1:7)., bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said and Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “You shall not eat with the blood”(Leviticus 19:26)? bYou may not eat before you pray for your blood.One may not eat before he prays., bOthers saythat bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: One who eats and drinks and later prays, about him the verse statesthe rebuke of the prophet in the name of God: b“And Me you have cast behind your back”(I Kings 14:9). One who sees to his own bodily needs by eating and drinking before prayer casts God aside, according his arrogance and ego priority over God (Maharsha). Indeed, bdo not read your back [ igavekha /i]; rather, your pride [ ige’ekha /i]. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: After thisone bhas become arrogantand engaged in satisfying his own needs, bheonly then baccepted upon himself the kingdom of Heaven. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One may recite the morning iShema buntil three hoursof the day. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bone who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing;although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of iShemaat its appointed time, bhe isnevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.,With regard to this ruling, bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said:This only applies bprovided one does not recite: Who forms light [ iyotzer or /i],or the rest of the blessings recited along with iShema /i, as they pertain only to the fulfillment of the mitzva of reciting of the morning iShema /i; after the third hour, they are inappropriate.,The Gemara braises an objection toRav Ḥisda’s statement from a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and oneblessing bthereafter. /bThis directly contradicts Rav Ḥisda’s statement, and the Gemara notes: Indeed, bthe refutationof the statement bof Rav Ḥisda is aconclusive brefutation,and Rav Ḥisda’s opinion is rejected in favor of that of the ibaraita /i., bSome say that Rav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva saidthe opposite: bWhat isthe meaning of: bLoses nothing,in the mishna? This means that one who recites iShemaafter the third hour bdoes not losethe opportunity to recite bthe blessingsand is permitted to recite them although the time for the recitation of iShemahas passed. bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads the Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and one thereafter. /b,With regard to our mishna, bRabbi Mani said: Greater is one who recites iShemaat itsappropriate btime than one who engages in Torahstudy. A proof is cited based on bwhat was taughtin the mishna: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing and isconsidered blike one who reads the Torah.This is proven bby inference,since bone who recites iShema bat itsappointed btime is greaterthan one who does not, and one who does not is equal to one who reads the Torah, when one recites iShemaat its appointed time he fulfills two mitzvot, that of Torah study and that of the recitation of iShema /i., strongMISHNA: /strong Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disputed the proper way to recite iShema /i. bBeit Shammai say:One should recite iShemain the manner indicated in the text of iShemaitself. Therefore, bin the evening every person must reclineon his side and recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: “When you lie down,” band in the morning he must standand recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: When you rise, bas it is stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise.” /b, bAnd Beit Hillel say: Every person recites iShema bas he is,and he may do so in whatever position is most comfortable for him, both day and night, bas it is stated: “And when you walk along the way,”when one is neither standing nor reclining ( iMe’iri /i)., bIf so,according to Beit Hillel, bwhy was it stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise”?This is merely to denote time; bat the time when people lie down and the time when people rise. /b,With regard to this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Tarfon said:Once, bI was coming on the roadwhen I stopped and breclined to recite iShema bin accordance with the statement of Beit Shammai.Although Rabbi Tarfon was a disciple of Beit Hillel, he thought that fulfilling the mitzva in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai would be a more meticulous fulfillment of the mitzva, acceptable to all opinions. Yet in so doing, bI endangered myself due to the highwaymen [ ilistim /i]who accost travelers.,The Sages bsaid to him: You deservedto be in a position where you were bliableto pay bwith your life, as you transgressed the statement of Beit Hillel.This statement will be explained in the Gemara.
37. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. הא בדברי תורה הא במשא ומתן בדברי תורה הוו במשא ומתן לא הוו.,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך בדרך ור' אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה לי פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא כך שניתי לכם ולא במרכבה ביחיד אלא א"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו רבי תרשיני לומר לפניך דבר אחד שלמדתני אמר לו אמור,מיד ירד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מעל החמור ונתעטף וישב על האבן תחת הזית אמר לו רבי מפני מה ירדת מעל החמור אמר אפשר אתה דורש במעשה מרכבה ושכינה עמנו ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו ואני ארכב על החמור מיד פתח ר"א בן ערך במעשה המרכבה ודרש וירדה אש מן השמים וסיבבה כל האילנות שבשדה פתחו כולן ואמרו שירה,מה שירה אמרו (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות עץ פרי וכל ארזים הללויה נענה מלאך מן האש ואמר הן הן מעשה המרכבה עמד רבן יוחנן ב"ז ונשקו על ראשו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולחקור ולדרוש במעשה מרכבה יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש אתה נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך אברהם אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך,וכשנאמרו הדברים לפני ר' יהושע היה הוא ורבי יוסי הכהן מהלכים בדרך אמרו אף אנו נדרוש במעשה מרכבה פתח רבי יהושע ודרש ואותו היום תקופת תמוז היה נתקשרו שמים בעבים ונראה כמין קשת בענן והיו מלאכי השרת מתקבצין ובאין לשמוע כבני אדם שמתקבצין ובאין לראות במזמוטי חתן וכלה,הלך רבי יוסי הכהן וסיפר דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ואשרי יולדתכם אשרי עיני שכך ראו ואף אני ואתם בחלומי מסובין היינו על הר סיני ונתנה עלינו בת קול מן השמים עלו לכאן עלו לכאן טרקלין גדולים ומצעות נאות מוצעות לכם אתם ותלמידיכם ותלמידי תלמידיכם מזומנין לכת שלישית,איני והתניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה הרצאות הן ר' יהושע הרצה דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ר"ע הרצה לפני ר' יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני ר"ע ואילו ר"א בן ערך לא קא חשיב דארצי וארצו קמיה קחשיב דארצי ולא ארצו קמיה לא קא חשיב והא חנניא בן חכינאי דלא ארצו קמיה וקא חשיב דארצי מיהא קמיה מאן דארצי.,ת"ר ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס ואלו הן בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבא אמר להם ר"ע כשאתם מגיעין אצל אבני שיש טהור אל תאמרו מים מים משום שנאמר (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני,בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים קטז, טו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה, טז) דבש מצאת אכול דייך פן תשבענו והקאתו אחר קיצץ בנטיעות רבי עקיבא יצא בשלום,שאלו את בן זומא מהו לסרוסי כלבא אמר להם (ויקרא כב, כד) ובארצכם לא תעשו כל שבארצכם לא תעשו שאלו את בן זומא בתולה שעיברה מהו לכ"ג מי חיישינן לדשמואל דאמר שמואל 14b. bThiscase is referring bto words of Torah,while bthatcase is referring bto commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they weretrustworthy; bwith regard to commerce, they were not. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, andhis student, bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him:Have bI not taught you: And one may notexpound the Design of the Divine Chariot bto an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord?Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me.In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. bHe said to him: Speak. /b, bImmediately, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrappedhis head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, band sat on a stone under an olive tree.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said:Is it bpossible thatwhile byou are expounding the Design of theDivine bChariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh beganto discuss bthe Design of theDivine bChariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and allthe trees bbegan reciting song. /b, bWhat song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord”(Psalms 148:7–14). bAn angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of theDivine bChariot,just as you expounded. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai stood and kissedRabbi Elazar ben Arakh bon his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a sonlike you, bwho knowshow bto understand, investigate, and expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. There are some who expoundthe Torah’s verses bwell but do not fulfillits imperatives bwell,and there are some bwho fulfillits imperatives bwell but do not expoundits verses bwell,whereas byou expoundits verses bwell and fulfillits imperatives bwell. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. /b,The Gemara relates: bAnd whenthese bmatters,this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, bwere recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice,when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the bheavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. /b, bRabbi Yosei the Priest went and recitedthese bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,who bsaidto him: bHappy areall of byou, and happy arethe mothers bwho gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this,students such as these. bAs for you and I,I saw bin my dreamthat bwe were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here,for blarge halls[iteraklin/b] band pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited tothe bthird group,those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence.,The Gemara poses a question: bIs that so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures.In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: bRabbi Yehoshua lecturedon these bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua;and bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not includedin the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥa. The Gemara explains: Those bwho lectured and werealso blectured to were included;but those bwho lectured and were not lectured to were not included.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’tthere bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, andyet bhe is included?The Gemara answers: Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai bactually lectured before one who lecturedin front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list.,§ bThe Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [ ipardes /i],i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, band they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; iAḥer /i,the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; band Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva,the senior among them, bsaid to them: When,upon your arrival in the upper worlds, byou reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water,although they appear to be water, bbecause it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7).,The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: bBen Azzai glimpsedat the Divine Presence band died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones”(Psalms 116:15). bBen Zoma glimpsedat the Divine Presence band was harmed,i.e., he lost his mind. bAnd with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it”(Proverbs 25:16). iAḥerchopped down the shootsof saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. bRabbi Akiva came out safely. /b,The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: bThey asked ben Zoma: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bcastrating a dog?The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. bHe said to them:The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor bshall you do so in your land”(Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to banyanimal bthat is in your land, you shall not dosuch a thing. bTheyalso basked ben Zoma:A woman considered bto be a virgin who became pregt, what isthe ihalakha /i? bA High Priestmay marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: bAre we concerned forthe opinion of bShmuel? Shmuel says: /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. הכא נמי איכא נצויי אביו ונצויי רבו:,פוחח פורס על שמע וכו': בעא מיניה עולא בר רב מאביי קטן פוחח מהו שיקרא בתורה,אמר ליה ותיבעי לך ערום ערום מאי טעמא לא משום כבוד צבור הכא נמי משום כבוד צבור:,סומא פורס על שמע וכו': תניא אמרו לו לרבי יהודה הרבה צפו לדרוש במרכבה ולא ראו אותה מימיהם,ור' יהודה התם באבנתא דליבא תליא מילתא והא קא מיכוין וידע הכא משום הנאה הוא והא לית ליה הנאה,ורבנן אית ליה הנאה כרבי יוסי דתניא א"ר יוסי כל ימי הייתי מצטער על מקרא זה (דברים כח, כט) והיית ממשש בצהרים כאשר ימשש העור באפלה וכי מה אכפת ליה לעור בין אפילה לאורה,עד שבא מעשה לידי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך באישון לילה ואפלה וראיתי סומא שהיה מהלך בדרך ואבוקה בידו אמרתי לו בני אבוקה זו למה לך אמר לי כל זמן שאבוקה בידי בני אדם רואין אותי ומצילין אותי מן הפחתין ומן הקוצין ומן הברקנין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן שיש בידיו מומין לא ישא את כפיו ר' יהודה אומר אף מי שהיו ידיו צבועות סטיס לא ישא את כפיו מפני שהעם מסתכלין בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא מומין שאמרו בפניו ידיו ורגליו אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו עקומות עקושות לא ישא את כפיו,אמר רב אסי חיפני (ובשיני) לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי אין מורידין לפני התיבה לא אנשי בית שאן ולא אנשי בית חיפה ולא אנשי טבעונין מפני שקורין לאלפין עיינין ולעיינין אלפין,אמר ליה רבי חייא לר' שמעון בר רבי אלמלי אתה לוי פסול אתה מן הדוכן משום דעבי קלך אתא אמר ליה לאבוה אמר ליה זיל אימא ליה כשאתה מגיע אצל (ישעיהו ח, יז) וחכיתי לה' לא נמצאת מחרף ומגדף,אמר רב הונא זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרב הונא והוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר,א"ר יוחנן סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרבי יוחנן דהוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר:,ר"י אומר מי שהיו ידיו צבועות לא ישא את כפיו: תנא אם רוב אנשי העיר מלאכתן בכך מותר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר איני עובר לפני התיבה בצבועין אף בלבנים לא יעבור בסנדל איני עובר אף יחף לא יעבור,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה נתנה על מצחו או על פס ידו הרי זו דרך המינות ציפן זהב ונתנה על בית אונקלי שלו ה"ז דרך החיצונים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט חיישינן שמא מינות נזרקה בו:,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה: לימא תנינא להא דתנו רבנן תפלין מרובעות הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר רבא בתפרן ובאלכסונן,אמר רב פפא מתניתין דעבידא כי אמגוזא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר 24b. bHere, also,according to Rabba bar Shimi, bit isto prevent bhis father or teacherfrom bquarreling. /b,§ We learned in the mishna: bOne whose limbs are exposed [ ipoḥe’aḥ /i] may recite theintroductory prayers and bblessingbefore iShema /iand translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah. bUlla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Abaye: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether ba minor whose limbs are exposedmay bread from the Torah?Can it be argued that a minor’s bare limbs do not fall under the category of nakedness, and therefore it is permitted for him to read the Torah despite the fact that parts of his body are exposed?,Abaye bsaid to him: Andaccording to this reasoning, braise the dilemmawith regard to a minor who is totally bnaked. What is the reason thata minor who is bnaked may notread the Torah? It is bdue to respect for the public. Here, too,a ipoḥe’aḥmay not read from the Torah bdue to respect for the public. /b,The mishna continues: One who is bblind may recite theintroductory prayers and bblessingbefore iShema /i,and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries in his life may not recite the first of the blessings before iShema /i, which is the blessing over the luminaries. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bthey said to Rabbi Yehuda: Many have seenenough with their mind bto expound upon theDivine bChariot, although they have neveractually bseen it.Similarly, even one who has never seen the luminaries may recite the blessing., bAndhow does bRabbi Yehudacounter this argument? He can say that bthere,with regard to the Chariot, bthe matter depends upon the heart’s comprehension, and one can concentratehis mind band understandthe Chariot even if he has never actually seen it. But bhere,with regard to the luminaries, the blessing is recited bdue to the benefitone derives from them, bandone who is blind bdoes not deriveany bbenefitfrom them, and therefore he may not recite a blessing over them., bAnd the Rabbismaintain that even a blind man bderives benefitfrom the luminaries, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: All of my life I was troubled by this verse,which I did not understand: b“And you shall grope at noon as the blind man gropes in the darkness”(Deuteronomy 28:29). I was perplexed: bWhatdoes it bmatter to a blindperson bwhetherit is bdark or light?He cannot see in any event, so why does the verse speak about a blind man in the darkness?,I continued to ponder the matter buntilthe following bincident occurred to me. I was once walking in the absolute darkness of the night, and I saw a blind man who was walking onhis bway with a torch in his hands. I said to him: My son, why do youneed bthis torchif you are blind? bHe said to me: As long as I have a torch in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles.Even a blind man derives at least indirect benefit from the light, and therefore he may recite the blessing over the heavenly luminaries., strongMISHNA: /strong bA priest who has blemishes on his hands may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. Because of his blemish, people will look at his hands, and it is prohibited to look at the hands of the priests during the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even one whose hands were colored with isatis /i,a blue dye, bmay not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction bbecause the congregation will look at him. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe blemishes thatthe Sages bsaiddisqualify a priest from reciting the Priestly Benediction include any blemishes found bon his face, hands, and feet,but not blemishes that are not visible to others. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:If bhis hands are spottedwith white blotches, bhe may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara notes that bthis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a priest’s bhands are spotted, he may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, if his hands are bcurvedinward bor bentsideways, bhe may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction.,Apropos the previous discussion, bRav Asi said:A priest bfrom Haifa or Beit She’an may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction, as he does not know how to properly pronounce the guttural letters. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not allow the people of Beit She’an, nor the people of Beit Haifa, nor the people of Tivonin to pass before the arkin order to lead the service bbecause they pronounce ialefas iayinand iayinas ialef /i,and they thereby distort the meaning of the prayers.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ḥiyyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bIf you were a Levite, you would be disqualified fromsinging on bthe platformin the Temple courtyard bbecause your voice is thick.offended by this remark, Rabbi Shimon bwent and told his father,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what Rabbi Ḥiyya had said. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Goand bsay to him: When youstudy and breachthe verse: b“And I will wait upon [ iveḥikkiti /i] the Lord”(Isaiah 8:17), bwill you not be a maligner and a blasphemer?Rabbi Ḥiyya, who was from Babylonia, was unable to differentiate between the letters iḥetand iheh /i, and he would therefore pronounce the word iveḥikkitias ivehikkiti /i, which means: And I will strike., bRav Huna said:A priest bwhose eyesconstantly brunwith tears bmay not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: bWasn’t there a certainpriest with this condition bin the neighborhood of Rav Huna, and he would spread his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: bThatpriest bwas a familiarfigure bin his town.Since the other residents were accustomed to seeing him, he would not draw their attention during the Priestly Benediction. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne whose eyes run should not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction, bbut if he is a familiarfigure bin his town, he is permittedto do so., bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction because people will gaze at him. The Gemara asks: bWasn’t there a certainpriest who was blind in one eye bin the neighborhood of Rabbi Yoḥa, and he would lift his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: bThatpriest bwas a familiarfigure bin his town,and therefore he would not attract attention during the Priestly Benediction. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who is blind in one eye may not lift his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction, bbut if he is a familiarfigure bin his town, he is permittedto do so.,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda said: One whose hands are colored should not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf most of the townspeople are engaged in this occupation,dyeing, bhe is permittedto recite the Priestly Benediction, as the congregation will not pay attention to his stained hands., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who says: I will not pass before the arkto lead the prayer service bin coloredgarments, bmay not passbefore the ark to lead the prayer service beven in whitegarments. There is concern that one who insists on wearing clothing of a specific color during his prayers is a heretic and therefore unfit to lead the service. Similarly, if one says: bI will not passbefore the ark bwearing sandals, he may not passbefore it beven barefoot,as he is not acting in accordance with the teachings of the Sages., bOne who constructs his phylacteriesin ba roundshape exposes himself to bdangerduring times of persecution, when foreign governments impose a ban on the mitzva of phylacteries, bandyet he does bnotfulfill the bmitzvato don phylacteries, as phylacteries must be square. bIf one placedthe phylacteries worn on the head bon his forehead,and not in its proper place above his hairline, borif he placed the phylacteries worn on the arm bon his palm,and not on his biceps, bthis is the way of the heretics,i.e., those who reject the tradition of the Sages with regard to the proper placement of the phylacteries. If bone platedhis phylacteries bwith gold or placedthe phylacteries worn on the arm bonthe outside of bhis sleeve [ iunkeli /i], this is the way of the outsiders,i.e., those who do not take part in the traditions of the Jewish people., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhat is the reasonthat one who wishes to pray only with white clothes or barefoot is not permitted to lead the prayer? bWe are concerned that perhaps he has been imbued with heresy,as these are the practices of idolaters. He is therefore barred from leading the service.,We learned in the mishna: bOne who constructs his phylacteriesin ba roundshape exposes himself to bdanger anddoes bnotfulfill the bmitzvato don phylacteries. The Gemara comments: bLet us saythat bwealready blearnedin this mishna bthat which the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The requirement that bphylacteriesmust be bsquare is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. And Rava saidabout this: Square means balong their seams and their diagonals [ ialakhso /i],i.e., they must be perfectly square. It would seem that all this was already stated in the mishna, which says that round phylacteries are disqualified., bRav Pappa said:It is possible to understand that bthe mishnais referring to phylacteries bthat one constructedto be round blike a nut,i.e., in the shape of a ball. However, the mishna does not indicate that the phylacteries must be square, as it does not address the case of phylacteries that are rounded but not a true sphere., strongMISHNA: /strong If bone saysin his prayers:
39. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. ואוכלין מתחת הנשרים בשבת ונותנין פאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר ששה דברים עשה חזקיה המלך על שלשה הודו לו ועל שלשה לא הודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו כיתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו,ועל שלשה לא הודו לו קיצץ דלתות של היכל ושיגרן למלך אשור ולא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון העליון ולא הודו לו עיבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו:,מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכו': היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה מייתי אסא דרא ושיכרא דדפנא וקימחא דשערי דרמי במנא דלא חלפי עליה ארבעין יומין ומרתחי להו ושדו להו לדיקלא בליביה וכל דקאי בארבע אמות דידיה אי לא עבדי ליה הכי צאוי לאלתר רב אחא בריה דרבא אמר מנחי כופרא דיכרא לנוקבתא:,וכורכין את שמע: היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה אומרים (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין רבא אמר מפסיקין היו אלא שהיו אומרים היום על לבבך דמשמע היום על לבבך ולא מחר על לבבך: ת"ר כיצד היו כורכין את שמע אומרים שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר מפסיקין היו אלא שלא היו אומרים ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,ואנן מאי טעמא אמרינן ליה כדדריש ר' שמעון בן לקיש,דאמר רשב"ל (בראשית מט, א) ויקרא יעקב אל בניו ויאמר האספו ואגידה לכם ביקש יעקב לגלות לבניו קץ הימין ונסתלקה ממנו שכינה אמר שמא חס ושלום יש במטתי פסול כאברהם שיצא ממנו ישמעאל ואבי יצחק שיצא ממנו עשו אמרו לו בניו שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אמרו כשם שאין בלבך אלא אחד כך אין בלבנו אלא אחד באותה שעה פתח יעקב אבינו ואמר ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,אמרי רבנן היכי נעביד נאמרוהו לא אמרו משה רבינו לא נאמרוהו אמרו יעקב התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בחשאי אמר רבי יצחק אמרי דבי רבי אמי משל לבת מלך שהריחה ציקי קדירה אם תאמר יש לה גנאי לא תאמר יש לה צער התחילו עבדיה להביא בחשאי,אמר רבי אבהו התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בקול רם מפני תרעומת המינין ובנהרדעא דליכא מינין עד השתא אמרי לה בחשאי:,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשו אנשי יריחו שלשה ברצון חכמים ושלשה שלא ברצון חכמים ואלו ברצון חכמים מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין לפני העומר ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים גודשין לפני העומר ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ובפרדסותיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשני בצורת בשבתות וימים טובים ומתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה דברי רבי מאיר,אמר לו רבי יהודה אם ברצון חכמים היו עושין יהו כל אדם עושין כן אלא אלו ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים היו עושין על שלשה מיחו בידם ועל שלשה לא מיחו בידם,ואלו שלא מיחו בידם מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין וגודשין לפני העומר ואלו שמיחו בידם מתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ופרדסיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשבתות וימים טובים בשני בצורת נותנין פיאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים,וסבר רבי יהודה קצירה שלא ברצון חכמים היא והתנן אנשי יריחו קוצרין לפני העומר ברצון חכמים וגודשין לפני העומר שלא ברצון חכמים ולא מיחו בידם חכמים 56a. bandthey would beatfallen fruit bfrom beneathpalm btrees that shed fruitthat had fallen bon Shabbat; and theywould bdesignatethe produce in the bcornerfor the poor in a field of bvegetables,which is exempt from this obligation even by rabbinic law. bAnd the Sages reprimandedthe people of Jericho for doing these three things., strongGEMARA: /strong Apropos the people of Jericho, who were reprimanded for some of their actions and not reprimanded for others, the Gemara cites a similar ibaraita /i. bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed six actions. With regard to threeof them, the Sages of his generation bconceded to him; and with regard to threeof them, the Sages bdid not concede to him.Due to King Hezekiah’s father’s wickedness, bhe dragged the bones of his fatherAhaz bon a bier of ropesand did not afford him the respect due to a king, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He ground the copper snakethat Moses fashioned in the desert because Israel worshipped it, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He suppressed the Book of Cures, and they conceded to him. /b, bAnd with regard to threeactions, the Sages bdid not concede to him. He cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the King of Assyria, and they did not concede to himbecause he thereby demeaned the Temple. bHe sealed the waters of the upper Gihonstream, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel, band they did not concede to him,because he harmed the local populace in the process and should have relied upon God ( iMe’iri /i). bHe intercalatedthe year, delaying the advent of the month bof Nisan during Nisan, and they did not concede to him.The Gemara explains that he declared the first of Nisan to be the thirtieth of Adar and only then intercalated the year (see II Chronicles 30:2).,We learned in the mishna: bTheywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan. The Gemara asks: bHow did they performthis grafting? bRabbi Yehuda said: They brought fresh myrtle, strong beermade bfrom thefruit of the blaurel tree, and barley flour that was cast into a vessel, and forty days has not passedsince it was ground. bThey boiled themtogether band pouredthe mixture binto the core of the palm tree.And for banytree bstanding within four cubits of thattree, bif they did not perform thistreatment with it, bit would immediately witherbecause the tree that received the treatment would grow faster at the expense of the surrounding trees. bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said: They placed a branch of a male palm tree on the female,and by doing so the female tree would yield fruit.,We learned in the mishna that the residents of Jericho would bbundle iShema /i.The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they bundled iShema /i? bHow did they doso? bRabbi Yehuda saidthat bthey recited: “Hear Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is One /b” (Deuteronomy 6:4), band they would not pausebetween words. bRava said: Theywould bpausebetween words, bbutinstead of reciting this verse in the proper manner: “That which I command you today, shall be on your heart” (Deuteronomy 6:5), pausing after the word today; bthey would say: Today shall be on your heart,inferring: bToday it will be on your heart, and tomorrow it will not be on your heart. The Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bHow would they bundle iShema /i? They recited: “Hear Israel, the Lord is our God the Lord is One,” without pausing;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: They paused, but they would not recite: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reason that we recitethat passage: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, even though it does not appear in the Torah? The Gemara answers: We recite it bin accordance withthat bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish interpreted homiletically. /b, bAs Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat it is written: b“And Jacob called his sons and said, Gather around and I will tell youwhat will occur to you in the end of days” (Genesis 49:1). bJacob wanted to reveal to his sonswhen the complete redemption would arrive at bthe end of days(see Daniel 12:13), bbut the Divine Presence abandoned him,rendering him unable to prophesy. bHe said: Perhapsthe Divine Presence has abandoned me because, bHeaven forfend, one of my descendants is unfit, aswas the case with my grandfather bAbraham, from whom Ishmael emerged, andlike bmy father Isaac, from whom Esau emerged. His sons said to him: Hear Israel,our father, bthe Lord is our God, the Lord is One. They said: Just as there is only oneGod bin your heart, so too, there is only one in our hearts. At that moment Jacob our father saidin praise: bBlessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever,as all his children were righteous., bThe Rabbis said: What should we do? Shall we recitethis verse? But bMoses our teacher did not say itin the Torah as part of iShema /i. bShall we not recite it?But bJacob said it.In order to resolve this dilemma bthey established thatthis passage bshould be recited surreptitiously. Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bthe school of Rabbi Ami said:This is banalogous to the daughter of a king who smelledthe fragrance of the dried bspicesstuck to the bottom of bthe potand craved to eat them. What can she do? bIf she tellsher servants to give it to her, bshe will be disgraced,as the dried spices are a contemptible food. However, if bshe does not sayshe wants to eat them, bshe willendure bsuffering. Her servants began to bringthem to her bsurreptitiously.One should conduct himself in that manner in similar cases of uncertainty., bRabbi Abbahu said:The Sages binstituted thatthe people bshould recite it aloud due to the grievance of the heretics.It was instituted to prevent the heretics from claiming that the Jews are surreptitiously reciting inappropriate statements. The Gemara adds: bIn Neharde’a, where there are no heretics, they recite it surreptitiously even now. /b, bThe Sages taughta related matter in the iTosefta /i: bThe people of Jericho performed six actions, threein keeping bwith the will of the Sages and three against the will of the Sages. And theseare what they did in keeping bwith the will of the Sages: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan; band theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvestgrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did bagainst the will of the Sages: Theywould bpilethe harvest bbefore the iomer /i; and theywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and their orchards to feed fallenfruit bto the poor during drought years,so that the poor could take the fruit that had fallen bon Shabbat and Festivals; and theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bRabbi Yehuda said to him:It is inaccurate to formulate it in that manner, as bif they actedin keeping bwith the will of the Sages, all people would do so,not only the residents of Jericho. bRather,formulate it in this manner: Both bthesethree acts band thosethree bwere performed against the will of the Sages. With regard to threethe Sages breprimanded them; and with regard to threethe Sages bdid not reprimand them.Since one could contend that the latter are permitted and the people of Jericho had already performed them, the Sages chose not to reprimand them., bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages bdid not reprimand them: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire day; and theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvest and pilegrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages breprimanded them: Theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees; btheywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and orchards on Shabbat and Festivals, in order to feed the poor fallen fruit during drought years; and theywould bdesignatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a field of bvegetables. And the Sages reprimanded themfor those actions.,The Gemara asks: bAnddoes bRabbi Yehuda maintainthat this bharvestperformed by the residents of Jericho bwas against the will of the Sages? Didn’t we learnin a mishna: bThe people of Jerichowould bharvest before the iomer /i,in keeping bwith the will of the Sages, and theywould bpilethe grain bbefore the iomer /i, against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not reprimand them? /b
40. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

41. Anon., 2 Enoch, 20.1, 24.1-24.3

42. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.1, 4.21

4.1. Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered 4.21. For as the land is assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who dwell upon earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens.
43. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 17



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 318; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
afterlife Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 102
akiva Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
anaphora Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
angel/angelic passim see also archangel,entourage Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
angel/angelic passim see also archangel,humanity,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 49, 50, 51, 159
angelic singing Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120
angelology Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
angels Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 91, 92; Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33; Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 88; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
anthropology Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
apocalyptic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
apocalypticism,apocalypse Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
aramaic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
arcadia Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
archangel/s,seven archangels Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 50
archangel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
art,priests Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
art,qumran Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
astray Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
authority Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
babylonian talmud Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
ben azzai,shimon Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
ben zoma,shimon Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
benefaction Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
blessing Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
blessings Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
body,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
book of jubilees Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97
calendars,solar Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177
canaanites van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 142
cherubim Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918, 919
child,childhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 85
christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
christian/s,theology Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
christian/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
church/es,father Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
cloud Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
cold Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
community,with angels Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 120
confession,eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
cosmic Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
cosmos Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
covenant,covenantal,creation,beginning of,narrative of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
creation Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 90, 91, 92; Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33; Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120; Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177, 180, 318; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
curses Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
daniel,danielic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
darkness,light Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120
darkness Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
dating systems Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177
david Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 318
dead sea scrolls,sciences,knowledge of in Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
desire Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
dualism Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
dust Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
emulation Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 120
enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 50, 159
eschatology,eschatological,belonging to the end-of-days,messianic age Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
eschatology Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 318; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
ethereal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
ethiopian,christianity Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
ethiopian,commentary traditions Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
ethiopian,hermeneutics Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
ethiopian Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
ethiopic Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 49
extant Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
ezekiel Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
festivals Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177
fire Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
firmament Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
flesh Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
gabriel,archangel Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
gabriel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
glory,divine Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
god,presence of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
god,yhwh Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 97
god Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
hagigah,tractate in mishna,tosefta and talmud Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
harmony of the spheres Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
head Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
healing and medicines,and second temple judaism Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
healing and medicines,demons,as cause of sickness Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
healing and medicines,exorcism as healing art Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
healing and medicines,scroll fragments found Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
heat Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
heaven Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
heavenly,retinue Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
heavenly host,angels,angelic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
heavenly visions Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
hellenism Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
hezekiah,king Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
holiness Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
humanity Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
hymn Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 51
hymn to the creator Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
interpretation,biblical Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
isaac van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 142
israel,israelites Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 93
jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
joshua Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
jubilees Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
knowledge Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
kottek,s. Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
language,secret Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
levi,levites Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 93
light,sons of Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
light Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 318
literature Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
liturgy,prayer Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120
liturgy Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
mankind Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
marriage van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 142
mary,st. Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
mastema Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 102
merkava xiii–xvi,xix Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
messianic redemption/salvation,triumph Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
michael Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
modernity Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
moon Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
moses Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
music Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
mystery,mysterious,heavenly secrets vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
mystery Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
nebuchadnezzar Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
numerology Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
passover/pesaḥ Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177
pesher Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
philosophy,jewish' Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 156
poetry Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
prayer,liturgy Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 119, 120
priesthood,priests,angelic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
qumran,angels Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
qumran,liturgy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
qumran,priesthood Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
qumran,songs Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
raphael Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
realness Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
revelation,the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
revelation Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
revelation vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
righteous,the Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
righteousness Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
sabbath Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 90, 91, 92; Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 120; Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 177, 180
satan,mastema Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 102
second temple period,jewry,tradition Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
sectarianism Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
seraphim Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 159
shekhina,ritual Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
sinai,qumran literature Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51
singing Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
sins,transgressions,sinners,forgiveness of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
solomon,king,and exorcism/demonology Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
solomon,king,and healing Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
solomon,king,book of remedies Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
solomon,king,demons,power over Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
solomon,king,ring of Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
solomon,king Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
son,sonship Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97
song of the three young men Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
sons of light Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
spirit Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918, 919
sun Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
tablets of destiny/heavenly tablets Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 102
temple,the Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
thanksgiving Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 184
throne,enthroned Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
throne,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
throne Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 33
time,protological Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 318
tower Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
unclean spirits Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 212
uriel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
vision Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 93
vision of merkava Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28
well-known Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 237
wind Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
worship,heavenly Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 918
worship Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 919
yohanan ben zakkai Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 28