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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 2.1-2.3


nanAnd the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying:


nanWrite the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.


nanFor on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.9, 31.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.22. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel." 31.22. So Moses wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.4, 1.27, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 63.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא [לוֹ] צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃ 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. ."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.1, 8.3, 31.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.1. וּבָאתֶם וַעֲמַדְתֶּם לְפָנַי בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו וַאֲמַרְתֶּם נִצַּלְנוּ לְמַעַן עֲשׂוֹת אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה׃ 7.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר הָיָה אֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ מֵאֵת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 8.3. וְנִבְחַר מָוֶת מֵחַיִּים לְכֹל הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בְּכָל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרִים אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 31.14. וְרִוֵּיתִי נֶפֶשׁ הַכֹּהֲנִים דָּשֶׁן וְעַמִּי אֶת־טוּבִי יִשְׂבָּעוּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.1. The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying:" 8.3. And death shall be chosen rather than life by all the residue that remain of this evil family, that remain in all the places whither I have driven them, saith the LORD of hosts." 31.14. And I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, And My people shall be satisfied with My goodness, Saith the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading."
9. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 5.5, 9.1, 21.10, 60.16-60.22, 82.9-82.20, 93.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy. 9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 60.16. And the spirit of the sea is masculine and strong, and according to the might of his strength he draws it back with a rein, and in like manner it is driven forward and disperses amid all the mountain 60.17. of the earth. And the spirit of the hoar-frost is his own angel, and the spirit of the hail is a good 60.18. angel. And the spirit of the snow has forsaken his chambers on account of his strength -There is a special spirit therein, and that which ascends from it is like smoke, and its name is frost. And the spirit of the mist is not united with them in their chambers, but it has a special chamber; for its course is glorious both in light and in darkness, and in winter and in summer, and in its chamber is an angel. 60.21. mist are connected, and the one gives to the other. And when the spirit of the rain goes forth from its chamber, the angels come and open the chamber and lead it out, and when it is diffused over the whole earth it unites with the water on the earth. And whensoever it unites with the water on 60.22. the earth . . . For the waters are for those who dwell on the earth; for they are nourishment for the earth from the Most High who is in heaven: therefore there is a measure for the rain 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them.
11. Anon., Jubilees, 1.5, 1.7, 1.14, 1.25-1.29, 2.2-2.33, 3.9, 3.12, 3.15, 4.2, 4.6, 4.18, 4.23, 5.6, 6.17-6.19, 6.22, 6.29-6.33, 6.35, 6.38, 10.7, 10.10-10.13, 10.23, 12.22, 12.25-12.27, 14.20, 15.25-15.27, 15.32-15.33, 16.1-16.4, 16.15-16.19, 16.28, 17.11, 18.9-18.11, 18.14, 19.3, 23.32, 30.12, 30.17-30.18, 30.20-30.21, 31.14, 32.21, 33.12, 33.18, 41.23-41.24, 48.4, 48.10-48.11, 48.13, 48.16, 48.18-48.19, 50.1-50.2, 50.4, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.7. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covet which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 1.25. And I shall not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God. 1.26. And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.4. --the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds 2.5. and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer 2.6. and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 2.7. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. 2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 2.15. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth 2.16. and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.15. if she beareth a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first week of days 4.2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 4.6. and the man who hath seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the other. 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 12.22. And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever That we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore. 12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth 14.20. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 16.1. And on the new moon of the fourth month we appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked with him 16.2. and we announced to him that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife. 16.3. And Sarah laughed, for she heard that we had spoken these words with Abraham 16.4. and we admonished her, and she became afraid, and denied that she had laughed on account of the words. 16.15. And in the middle of the fifth month he moved from thence, and dwelt at the Well of the Oath. 16.16. And in the middle of the sixth month the Lord visited Sarah and did unto her as He had spoken, and she conceived. 16.17. And she bare a son in the third month, and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the Lord had spoken to Abraham 16.18. on the festival of the first-fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born. brAnd Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day: 16.19. he was the first that was circumcised according to the covet which is ordained for ever. 16.28. and he was the first to celebrate the feast of tabernacles on the earth. brAnd during these seven days he brought each day to the altar a burnt-offering to the Lord 17.11. And Abraham rose up early in the morning and took bread and a bottle of water, and placed them on the shoulders of Hagar and the child, and sent her away. brAnd she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba 18.9. and stretched forth his hand to take the knife to slay Isaac his son. 19.3. and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he were not indigt in the words of his mouth; and he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed. 23.32. on account of the law and the covet; for they have forgotten commandment, and covet, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgments. 30.12. and they shall burn the woman with fire, because she hath dishonoured the name of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. 30.17. And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel and exhort them not to give their daughters to the Gentiles, and not to take for their sons any of the daughters of the Gentiles, for this is abominable before the Lord. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 30.20. for that were a reproach unto us." brAnd it is a reproach to Israel, to those who give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 30.21. And Israel will not be free from this uncleanness if it hath a wife of the daughters of the Gentiles, or hath given any of its daughters to a man who is of any of the Gentiles. brFor there will be plague upon plague, and curse upon curse, and every judgment and plague and curse will come (upon him): 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him. 33.12. And again, it is written a second time: "Cursed he be who lieth with the wife of his father, for he hath uncovered his father's shame"; and all the holy ones of the Lord said "So be it; so be it. 33.18. And for this law there is no consummation of days, and no atonement for it, but they must both be rooted out in the midst of the nation: on the day whereon they committed it they shall slay them. 41.23. And after that she bare two sons, Perez and Zerah, in the seventh year of this second week. brAnd thereupon the seven years of fruitfulness were accomplished, of which Joseph spake to Pharaoh. 41.24. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son 48.4. Did he not with all his power seek to slay thee and deliver the Egyptians out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent to execute judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians? 48.10. And everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants and before his people. 48.11. And everything took place according to thy words; ten great and terrible judgments came on the land of Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeance on it for Israel. 48.13. And the prince of the Mastêmâ stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought before thee. 48.16. And notwithstanding all (these) signs and wonders the prince of the Mastêmâ was not put to shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the hosts of the peoples of Egypt. 48.18. and the Lord brought them through the midst of the sea as if it were dry land. And all the peoples whom he brought to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them into the midst of the sea, into the depths of the aby 48.19. beneath the children of Israel, even as the people of Egypt had cast their children into the river. He took vengeance on,, of them, and one thousand strong and energetic men were destroyed on account of one suckling of the children of thy people which they had thrown into the river. 50.1. And after this law I made known to thee the days of the Sabbaths in the desert of Sin[ai], which is between Elim and Sinai. 50.2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years: 50.4. And the land also will keep its sabbaths while they dwell upon it, and they will know the jubilee year. 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.21, 12.14-12.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.7, 1.16, 3.9, 9.15-9.16, 10.11, 14.17, 16.11, 17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.21, 12.14-12.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q216, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13, 3.16, 3.20-3.21, 3.24, 4.5-4.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.52-3.90, 8.16, 9.21, 10.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering." 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia."
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. and the reason of this conduct is not merely that they have a virtuous and abstemious disposition by nature, but also that they have enjoyed a good education from their earliest youth, which has taught them to honour what belongs to man rather than what belongs to authority, which also taking up its settled abode in the soul, I may almost say reminds it every day of its humanity, drawing it down from lofty and arrogant thoughts, and reducing it within due bounds, and correcting whatever is unequal by the introduction of equality.
20. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 19.2, 28.3, 43.1-43.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.136 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.136. for these Arabians have done what both the Greeks and barbarians own to be an instance of the grossest wickedness, with regard to our ambassadors, which they have beheaded, while the Greeks declare that such ambassadors are sacred and inviolable. And for ourselves, we have learned from God the most excellent of our doctrines, and the most holy part of our law, by angels or ambassadors; for this name brings God to the knowledge of mankind, and is sufficient to reconcile enemies one to another.
22. New Testament, Acts, 7.38, 7.53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 7.53. You received the law as it was ordained by angels, and didn't keep it!
23. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 2.21. Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh.
24. New Testament, Galatians, 3.19-3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one.
25. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 2.3. how will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation -- which at the first having been spoken through the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard;
26. New Testament, Luke, 1.19, 1.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. The angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. 1.26. Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth
27. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 1.268 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. א"ר חנן אפי' בעל החלומות אומר לו לאדם למחר הוא מת אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנאמר (קהלת ה, ו) כי ברוב חלומות והבלים ודברים הרבה כי את האלהים ירא,מיד (ישעיהו לח, ב) ויסב חזקיהו פניו אל הקיר ויתפלל אל ה',מאי קיר אמר רשב"ל מקירות לבו שנא' (ירמיהו ד, יט) מעי מעי אוחילה קירות לבי וגו',ר' לוי אמר על עסקי הקיר אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ומה שונמית שלא עשתה אלא קיר אחת קטנה החיית את בנה אבי אבא שחפה את ההיכל כולו בכסף ובזהב על אחת כמה וכמה (ישעיהו לח, ג) זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך באמת ובלב שלם והטוב בעיניך עשיתי,מאי והטוב בעיניך עשיתי א"ר יהודה אמר רב שסמך גאולה לתפלה ר' לוי אמר שגנז ספר רפואות,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשה חזקיהו המלך על ג' הודו לו ועל ג' לא הודו לו,על ג' הודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו כתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו,ועל ג' לא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון ולא הודו לו קצץ דלתות היכל ושגרם למלך אשור ולא הודו לו עבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו,ומי לית ליה לחזקיהו (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם ראש חדשים זה ניסן ואין אחר ניסן,אלא טעה בדשמואל דאמר שמואל אין מעברין את השנה ביום שלשים של אדר הואיל וראוי לקובעו ניסן סבר הואיל וראוי לא אמרינן:,א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זמרא כל התולה בזכות עצמו תולין לו בזכות אחרים וכל התולה בזכות אחרים תולין לו בזכות עצמו,משה תלה בזכות אחרים שנא' (שמות לב, יג) זכור לאברהם ליצחק ולישראל עבדיך תלו לו בזכות עצמו שנאמר (תהלים קו, כג) ויאמר להשמידם לולי משה בחירו עמד בפרץ לפניו להשיב חמתו מהשחית,חזקיהו תלה בזכות עצמו דכתיב זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך תלו לו בזכות אחרים שנא' (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת להושיעה למעני ולמען דוד עבדי והיינו דריב"ל דאמר ריב"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, יז) הנה לשלום מר לי מר אפי' בשעה ששיגר לו הקב"ה שלום מר הוא לו:,(מלכים ב ד, י) נעשה נא עליית קיר קטנה,רב ושמואל חד אמר עלייה פרועה היתה וקירוה וחד אמר אכסדרה גדולה היתה וחלקוה לשנים,בשלמא למ"ד אכסדרה היינו דכתיב קיר אלא למ"ד עלייה מאי קיר,שקירוה,בשלמא למ"ד עלייה היינו דכתיב עליית אלא למ"ד אכסדרה מאי עליית,מעולה שבבתים.,ונשים לו שם מטה ושולחן וכסא ומנורה,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר' יצחק הרוצה להנות יהנה כאלישע ושאינו רוצה להנות אל יהנה כשמואל הרמתי שנאמר (שמואל א ז, יז) ותשובתו הרמתה כי שם ביתו וא"ר יוחנן שכל מקום שהלך שם ביתו עמו.,(מלכים ב ד, ט) ותאמר אל אישה הנה נא ידעתי כי איש אלהים קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מכאן שהאשה מכרת באורחין יותר מן האיש,קדוש הוא מנא ידעה רב ושמואל חד אמר שלא ראתה זבוב עובר על שולחנו וחד אמר סדין של פשתן הציעה על מטתו ולא ראתה קרי עליו,קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא הוא קדוש ומשרתו אינו קדוש (שנא') (מלכים ב ד, כז) ויגש גיחזי להדפה א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא שאחזה בהוד יפיה.,עובר עלינו תמיד א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב כל המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומהנהו מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מקריב תמידין.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י אל יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל שנא' (תהלים קל, א) ממעמקים קראתיך ה',תניא נמי הכי לא יעמוד אדם לא על גבי כסא ולא ע"ג שרפרף ולא במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל לפי שאין גבהות לפני המקום שנאמר ממעמקים קראתיך ה' וכתיב (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטוף.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י המתפלל צריך שיכוין את רגליו שנא' (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה,(א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן) וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יט, כו) לא תאכלו על הדם לא תאכלו קודם שתתפללו על דמכם,(א"ד) א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י כל האוכל ושותה ואח"כ מתפלל עליו הכתוב אומר (מלכים א יד, ט) ואותי השלכת אחרי גויך אל תקרי גויך אלא גאיך אמר הקב"ה לאחר שנתגאה זה קבל עליו מלכות שמים:,ר' יהושע אומר עד ג' שעות: אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי יהושע:,הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד:,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא ובלבד שלא יאמר יוצר אור,מיתיבי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שהוא קורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה תיובתא דרב חסדא תיובתא,איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא מאי לא הפסיד שלא הפסיד ברכות תניא נמי הכי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שקורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה,א"ר מני גדול הקורא ק"ש בעונתה יותר מהעוסק בתורה מדקתני הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה מכלל דקורא בעונתה עדיף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים בערב כל אדם יטה ויקרא ובבקר יעמוד שנאמר (דברים ו, ז) ובשכבך ובקומך,ובית הלל אומרים כל אדם קורא כדרכו שנאמר ובלכתך בדרך,אם כן למה נאמר ובשכבך ובקומך בשעה שבני אדם שוכבים ובשעה שבני אדם עומדים,א"ר טרפון אני הייתי בא בדרך והטתי לקרות כדברי ב"ש וסכנתי בעצמי מפני הלסטים,אמרו לו כדי היית לחוב בעצמך שעברת על דברי ב"ה: 10b. Similarly, bRabbi Ḥa said: Even if the master of dreams,in a true dream, an angel ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i) btells a person that tomorrow he will die, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is stated: “For in the multitude of dreams and vanities there are many words; but fear God”(Ecclesiastes 5:6). Although the dream may seem real to him, that is not necessarily the case, and one must place his trust in God.,Having heard Isaiah’s harsh prophecy, bimmediately “Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall and prayed to the Lord”(Isaiah 38:2).,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by the word b“wall [ ikir /i]”in this context? Why did Hezekiah turn his face to a wall? bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:This symbolically alludes to the fact that Hezekiah prayed to God bfrom the chambers [ ikirot /i] of his heart, as it is statedelsewhere: b“My anguish, my anguish, I am in pain. The chambers of my heart.My heart moans within me” (Jeremiah 4:19)., bRabbi Levi said:Hezekiah intended to evoke bmattersrelating bto a wall,and bhe said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, and if the woman from Shunem, who made only a single small wallon the roof for the prophet Elisha, and byou revived her son, all the more soshould you bring life to the descendant of bmy father’s father,King Solomon, bwho covered the entireTemple bSanctuary with silver and gold.In his prayer, Hezekiah said: “Please, Lord, bplease remember that I walked before You in truth, and with a complete heart, and what was good in Your eyes I did.And Hezekiah wept sore” (Isaiah 38:3).,The Gemara asks: To bwhatspecific action was he referring when he said: b“And what was good in your sight I did”?Various opinions are offered: Mentioning Hezekiah’s merits, bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav that he juxtaposed redemption and prayerat sunrise instead of sleeping late, as was the custom of most kings ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). bRabbi Levi said: He suppressed the Book of Remediesupon which everyone relied., bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed sixinnovative bactions. With regard to threethe Sages bagreed with him, and with regard to three they did not agree with him. /b, bWith regard to threeactions the Sages bagreed with him: br bHe suppressed the Book of Remedies, and they agreed with him. br bHe ground the copper snakethrough which miracles were performed for Israel (Numbers 21:9), destroying it because it had been used in idol worship (II Kings 18:4), band they agreed with him. br bHe dragged the bones of hisevil bfather,King Ahaz, bon a bed of ropes;meaning he did not accord his father a funeral fit for a king (II Chronicles 28:27), band they agreed with him. /b,Yet, bwith regard to threeother innovations, the Sages of his generation bdid not agree with him: br bHe stopped up the waters of the Gihon,the Pool of Siloam, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel (II Chronicles 32:30), band they did not agree with him. br bHe cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the king of Assyria(II Kings 18:16), band they did not agree with him. br bHe intercalated Nisan in Nisan,creating a leap year by adding an extra month during the month of Nisan. That intercalation must be performed before the end of Adar (II Chronicles 30:2).,With regard to his intercalation of Nisan, the Gemara asks: bDid Hezekiah notaccept the ihalakha /i: b“This month will be for you the first of the months;it shall be the first for you of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2)? By inference, bthisfirst month bis Nisan, and no othermonth bis Nisan.How could Hezekiah add an additional Nisan in violation of Torah law?,The Gemara answers that the scenario was different. bRather, Hezekiah erred with regard tothe halakhic opinion ascribed in later generations to bShmuel,as bShmuel said: One may not intercalate the year on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is fit to establish itas the New Moon of bNisan.On the thirtieth day of each month, those who witnessed the new moon would come and testify before the court, which, based on their testimony, would declare that day the first day of the next month. Therefore, one may not declare a leap year on the thirtieth day of Adar, as it could potentially become the first of Nisan. Therefore, the Sages of Hezekiah’s generation did not agree with his decision to intercalate the year on the thirtieth of Adar. Hezekiah bheldthat bwe do not say: Sincethat day bis fit to establish itas the New Moon is reason enough to refrain from intercalation of the year.,Stemming from the analysis of Hezekiah’s prayer, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who baseshis prayer or request bupon his own merit,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon the merit of others. And anyone whomodestly bbaseshis prayer or request bupon the merit of others,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon his own merit. /b,The Gemara cites proof from Moses. When he prayed to God for forgiveness after the incident of the Golden Calf, bhe basedhis request bupon the merit of others, as it is stated: “Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel your servants,to whom You swore upon Yourself, and told them: I will increase your descendants like the stars of the heavens, and all of this land of which I have spoken, I will give to your descendants and they will inherit it forever” (Exodus 32:13). Yet when this story is related, God’s forgiveness of Israel bis based upon Moses’ own merit, as it is stated: “And He said He would destroy them, had Moses, His chosen, not stood before Him in the breach to turn back His destructive fury, lest He should destroy them”(Psalms 106:23)., bHezekiah,however, bbasedhis request bupon his own merit, as it is written: “Please, remember that I walked before You”(Isaiah 38:3). When God answered his prayers, bit was based upon the merit of otherswith no mention made of Hezekiah’s own merit, bas it is stated: “And I will protect this city to save it, for My sake and for the sake of David, My servant”(II Kings 19:34). bAnd that is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levisaid. bAs Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Behold, for my peace I had great bitterness;but You have, in love to my soul, delivered it from the pit of corruption; for You have thrown all my sins behind Your back” (Isaiah 38:17)? This verse teaches that beven when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sent him peaceand told him that he would recover from his illness, bit was bitter for him,because God did not take his merit into consideration.,Having mentioned the chamber on the roof built for Elisha by the woman from Shunem, the Gemara now describes the entire event. The woman from Shunem suggested to her husband: b“Let us make, I pray thee, a small chamber on the roof,and let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there, and it will be, when he comes to us, that he will turn in there” (II Kings 4:10)., bRav and Shmuelargued over the meaning of small chamber. bOneof them bsaid: They had an uncovered second storyon their roof, bover which they built a ceiling;and boneof them bsaid: There was an enclosed veranda [ iakhsadra /i] and they divided it in half. /b,The Gemara comments: bGranted, according to the one who said that it was an enclosed verandawhich they divided in two, it makes sense bthatthe term bwall [ ikir /i] was written. However, according to the one who said that they had anopen bsecond story, what isthe meaning of bwall? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that they had an uncovered second story interprets ikirnot as wall but as ceiling meaning that they bbuilt a ceiling[ ikirui /i] over it.,On the other hand, bgranted, according to the one who said that they had anuncovered bsecond story,it makes sense bthatthe term bsecond story[ialiyat /i] was written. But according to the one who saidthat it was ban enclosed veranda, what isthe meaning of the term bsecond story? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that it was an enclosed veranda interprets ialiyatnot as second story, but bas the most outstanding [ ime’ula /i] of the rooms. /b,Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara analyzes the statement made by the woman from Shunem to her husband with regard to the provisions that they would place in the room for Elisha: b“And let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there.” /b, bAbaye, and some say Rabbi Yitzḥak, said:A great man bwho seeks to enjoythe contributions of those who seek to honor him bmay enjoythose gifts, bas Elishaenjoyed gifts given him by the woman from Shunem, among others. bAnd one who does not seek to enjoythese gifts bshould not enjoy them, aswas the practice of the prophet bSamuel from Rama,who would not accept gifts from anyone at all. From where do we know that this was Samuel’s custom? bAs it is stated: “And he returned to Rama, for there was his house,and there he judged Israel, and he built an altar to the Lord” (I Samuel 7:17). bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Every place whereSamuel bwent, his house was with him,so he would have everything that he needed and not be forced to benefit from public contributions. One may opt to conduct himself in accordance with either of these paths.,Regarding the woman from Shunem: b“And she said to her husband: Behold now, I perceive that he is a holy man of Godwho passes by us continually” (II Kings 4:9). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: From here,where the woman from Shunem perceived the prophet’s greatness before her husband did, derive bthat a woman recognizesthe character of her bguests more than a mandoes.,The Gemara notes that the woman from Shunem said that b“he is holy.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where did she knowthat he was holy? bRav and Shmueldisagreed over this. bOneof them bsaid: She never saw a fly pass over his table; and the other said: She spread awhite blinen sheet on his bed,and despite that even the smallest stain is visible on white linen, and nocturnal seminal emissions are not uncommon, bshe never sawthe residue of ba seminal emission on it. /b,With regard to the verse: b“He is holy,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The woman from Shunem intimated that: bHe is holy,but bhis attendant,Geihazi, bis not holy,as she saw no indication of holiness in him ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). Here too, she correctly perceived the character of her guest, bas it islater bstated: “And Geihazi approached her to push her away [ ilehodfa /i]”(II Kings 4:27). And bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: He grabbed her by the majesty of her beauty [ ihod yofya /i],meaning that when he pushed her he grabbed her breasts in a licentious manner.,With regard to the phrasing of the verse: “He is a holy man of God bwho passes by us continually,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov:From this verse we derive that bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home and lets him enjoy his possessions, the verse ascribes to himcredit bas if he is sacrificing the daily [ itamid /i] offering,as the verse states: “Passes by us continually [ itamid /i].”,With regard to the ihalakhotof prayer, bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: A person should not stand in a high place and pray; rather,he should stand bin a low place and pray, as it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths”(Psalms 130:1)., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should neither stand upon a chair nor upon a stool, nor in a high place and pray. Rather,one should stand bin a low place and pray, for there is no haughtiness before God. As it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths” and it is written: “A prayer for the impoverished, when he is faintand pours out his complaint before God” (Psalms 102:1). It is appropriate to feel impoverished when praying and make one’s requests humbly., bAnd Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: When praying, one should align his feetnext to each other, as a single foot, in order to model oneself after the angels, with regard to whom bit is stated: “And their feet were a straight foot”(Ezekiel 1:7)., bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said and Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “You shall not eat with the blood”(Leviticus 19:26)? bYou may not eat before you pray for your blood.One may not eat before he prays., bOthers saythat bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: One who eats and drinks and later prays, about him the verse statesthe rebuke of the prophet in the name of God: b“And Me you have cast behind your back”(I Kings 14:9). One who sees to his own bodily needs by eating and drinking before prayer casts God aside, according his arrogance and ego priority over God (Maharsha). Indeed, bdo not read your back [ igavekha /i]; rather, your pride [ ige’ekha /i]. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: After thisone bhas become arrogantand engaged in satisfying his own needs, bheonly then baccepted upon himself the kingdom of Heaven. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One may recite the morning iShema buntil three hoursof the day. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bone who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing;although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of iShemaat its appointed time, bhe isnevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.,With regard to this ruling, bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said:This only applies bprovided one does not recite: Who forms light [ iyotzer or /i],or the rest of the blessings recited along with iShema /i, as they pertain only to the fulfillment of the mitzva of reciting of the morning iShema /i; after the third hour, they are inappropriate.,The Gemara braises an objection toRav Ḥisda’s statement from a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and oneblessing bthereafter. /bThis directly contradicts Rav Ḥisda’s statement, and the Gemara notes: Indeed, bthe refutationof the statement bof Rav Ḥisda is aconclusive brefutation,and Rav Ḥisda’s opinion is rejected in favor of that of the ibaraita /i., bSome say that Rav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva saidthe opposite: bWhat isthe meaning of: bLoses nothing,in the mishna? This means that one who recites iShemaafter the third hour bdoes not losethe opportunity to recite bthe blessingsand is permitted to recite them although the time for the recitation of iShemahas passed. bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads the Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and one thereafter. /b,With regard to our mishna, bRabbi Mani said: Greater is one who recites iShemaat itsappropriate btime than one who engages in Torahstudy. A proof is cited based on bwhat was taughtin the mishna: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing and isconsidered blike one who reads the Torah.This is proven bby inference,since bone who recites iShema bat itsappointed btime is greaterthan one who does not, and one who does not is equal to one who reads the Torah, when one recites iShemaat its appointed time he fulfills two mitzvot, that of Torah study and that of the recitation of iShema /i., strongMISHNA: /strong Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disputed the proper way to recite iShema /i. bBeit Shammai say:One should recite iShemain the manner indicated in the text of iShemaitself. Therefore, bin the evening every person must reclineon his side and recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: “When you lie down,” band in the morning he must standand recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: When you rise, bas it is stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise.” /b, bAnd Beit Hillel say: Every person recites iShema bas he is,and he may do so in whatever position is most comfortable for him, both day and night, bas it is stated: “And when you walk along the way,”when one is neither standing nor reclining ( iMe’iri /i)., bIf so,according to Beit Hillel, bwhy was it stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise”?This is merely to denote time; bat the time when people lie down and the time when people rise. /b,With regard to this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Tarfon said:Once, bI was coming on the roadwhen I stopped and breclined to recite iShema bin accordance with the statement of Beit Shammai.Although Rabbi Tarfon was a disciple of Beit Hillel, he thought that fulfilling the mitzva in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai would be a more meticulous fulfillment of the mitzva, acceptable to all opinions. Yet in so doing, bI endangered myself due to the highwaymen [ ilistim /i]who accost travelers.,The Sages bsaid to him: You deservedto be in a position where you were bliableto pay bwith your life, as you transgressed the statement of Beit Hillel.This statement will be explained in the Gemara.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. ואוכלין מתחת הנשרים בשבת ונותנין פאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר ששה דברים עשה חזקיה המלך על שלשה הודו לו ועל שלשה לא הודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו כיתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו,ועל שלשה לא הודו לו קיצץ דלתות של היכל ושיגרן למלך אשור ולא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון העליון ולא הודו לו עיבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו:,מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכו': היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה מייתי אסא דרא ושיכרא דדפנא וקימחא דשערי דרמי במנא דלא חלפי עליה ארבעין יומין ומרתחי להו ושדו להו לדיקלא בליביה וכל דקאי בארבע אמות דידיה אי לא עבדי ליה הכי צאוי לאלתר רב אחא בריה דרבא אמר מנחי כופרא דיכרא לנוקבתא:,וכורכין את שמע: היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה אומרים (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין רבא אמר מפסיקין היו אלא שהיו אומרים היום על לבבך דמשמע היום על לבבך ולא מחר על לבבך: ת"ר כיצד היו כורכין את שמע אומרים שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר מפסיקין היו אלא שלא היו אומרים ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,ואנן מאי טעמא אמרינן ליה כדדריש ר' שמעון בן לקיש,דאמר רשב"ל (בראשית מט, א) ויקרא יעקב אל בניו ויאמר האספו ואגידה לכם ביקש יעקב לגלות לבניו קץ הימין ונסתלקה ממנו שכינה אמר שמא חס ושלום יש במטתי פסול כאברהם שיצא ממנו ישמעאל ואבי יצחק שיצא ממנו עשו אמרו לו בניו שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אמרו כשם שאין בלבך אלא אחד כך אין בלבנו אלא אחד באותה שעה פתח יעקב אבינו ואמר ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,אמרי רבנן היכי נעביד נאמרוהו לא אמרו משה רבינו לא נאמרוהו אמרו יעקב התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בחשאי אמר רבי יצחק אמרי דבי רבי אמי משל לבת מלך שהריחה ציקי קדירה אם תאמר יש לה גנאי לא תאמר יש לה צער התחילו עבדיה להביא בחשאי,אמר רבי אבהו התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בקול רם מפני תרעומת המינין ובנהרדעא דליכא מינין עד השתא אמרי לה בחשאי:,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשו אנשי יריחו שלשה ברצון חכמים ושלשה שלא ברצון חכמים ואלו ברצון חכמים מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין לפני העומר ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים גודשין לפני העומר ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ובפרדסותיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשני בצורת בשבתות וימים טובים ומתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה דברי רבי מאיר,אמר לו רבי יהודה אם ברצון חכמים היו עושין יהו כל אדם עושין כן אלא אלו ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים היו עושין על שלשה מיחו בידם ועל שלשה לא מיחו בידם,ואלו שלא מיחו בידם מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין וגודשין לפני העומר ואלו שמיחו בידם מתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ופרדסיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשבתות וימים טובים בשני בצורת נותנין פיאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים,וסבר רבי יהודה קצירה שלא ברצון חכמים היא והתנן אנשי יריחו קוצרין לפני העומר ברצון חכמים וגודשין לפני העומר שלא ברצון חכמים ולא מיחו בידם חכמים 56a. bandthey would beatfallen fruit bfrom beneathpalm btrees that shed fruitthat had fallen bon Shabbat; and theywould bdesignatethe produce in the bcornerfor the poor in a field of bvegetables,which is exempt from this obligation even by rabbinic law. bAnd the Sages reprimandedthe people of Jericho for doing these three things., strongGEMARA: /strong Apropos the people of Jericho, who were reprimanded for some of their actions and not reprimanded for others, the Gemara cites a similar ibaraita /i. bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed six actions. With regard to threeof them, the Sages of his generation bconceded to him; and with regard to threeof them, the Sages bdid not concede to him.Due to King Hezekiah’s father’s wickedness, bhe dragged the bones of his fatherAhaz bon a bier of ropesand did not afford him the respect due to a king, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He ground the copper snakethat Moses fashioned in the desert because Israel worshipped it, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He suppressed the Book of Cures, and they conceded to him. /b, bAnd with regard to threeactions, the Sages bdid not concede to him. He cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the King of Assyria, and they did not concede to himbecause he thereby demeaned the Temple. bHe sealed the waters of the upper Gihonstream, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel, band they did not concede to him,because he harmed the local populace in the process and should have relied upon God ( iMe’iri /i). bHe intercalatedthe year, delaying the advent of the month bof Nisan during Nisan, and they did not concede to him.The Gemara explains that he declared the first of Nisan to be the thirtieth of Adar and only then intercalated the year (see II Chronicles 30:2).,We learned in the mishna: bTheywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan. The Gemara asks: bHow did they performthis grafting? bRabbi Yehuda said: They brought fresh myrtle, strong beermade bfrom thefruit of the blaurel tree, and barley flour that was cast into a vessel, and forty days has not passedsince it was ground. bThey boiled themtogether band pouredthe mixture binto the core of the palm tree.And for banytree bstanding within four cubits of thattree, bif they did not perform thistreatment with it, bit would immediately witherbecause the tree that received the treatment would grow faster at the expense of the surrounding trees. bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said: They placed a branch of a male palm tree on the female,and by doing so the female tree would yield fruit.,We learned in the mishna that the residents of Jericho would bbundle iShema /i.The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they bundled iShema /i? bHow did they doso? bRabbi Yehuda saidthat bthey recited: “Hear Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is One /b” (Deuteronomy 6:4), band they would not pausebetween words. bRava said: Theywould bpausebetween words, bbutinstead of reciting this verse in the proper manner: “That which I command you today, shall be on your heart” (Deuteronomy 6:5), pausing after the word today; bthey would say: Today shall be on your heart,inferring: bToday it will be on your heart, and tomorrow it will not be on your heart. The Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bHow would they bundle iShema /i? They recited: “Hear Israel, the Lord is our God the Lord is One,” without pausing;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: They paused, but they would not recite: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reason that we recitethat passage: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, even though it does not appear in the Torah? The Gemara answers: We recite it bin accordance withthat bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish interpreted homiletically. /b, bAs Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat it is written: b“And Jacob called his sons and said, Gather around and I will tell youwhat will occur to you in the end of days” (Genesis 49:1). bJacob wanted to reveal to his sonswhen the complete redemption would arrive at bthe end of days(see Daniel 12:13), bbut the Divine Presence abandoned him,rendering him unable to prophesy. bHe said: Perhapsthe Divine Presence has abandoned me because, bHeaven forfend, one of my descendants is unfit, aswas the case with my grandfather bAbraham, from whom Ishmael emerged, andlike bmy father Isaac, from whom Esau emerged. His sons said to him: Hear Israel,our father, bthe Lord is our God, the Lord is One. They said: Just as there is only oneGod bin your heart, so too, there is only one in our hearts. At that moment Jacob our father saidin praise: bBlessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever,as all his children were righteous., bThe Rabbis said: What should we do? Shall we recitethis verse? But bMoses our teacher did not say itin the Torah as part of iShema /i. bShall we not recite it?But bJacob said it.In order to resolve this dilemma bthey established thatthis passage bshould be recited surreptitiously. Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bthe school of Rabbi Ami said:This is banalogous to the daughter of a king who smelledthe fragrance of the dried bspicesstuck to the bottom of bthe potand craved to eat them. What can she do? bIf she tellsher servants to give it to her, bshe will be disgraced,as the dried spices are a contemptible food. However, if bshe does not sayshe wants to eat them, bshe willendure bsuffering. Her servants began to bringthem to her bsurreptitiously.One should conduct himself in that manner in similar cases of uncertainty., bRabbi Abbahu said:The Sages binstituted thatthe people bshould recite it aloud due to the grievance of the heretics.It was instituted to prevent the heretics from claiming that the Jews are surreptitiously reciting inappropriate statements. The Gemara adds: bIn Neharde’a, where there are no heretics, they recite it surreptitiously even now. /b, bThe Sages taughta related matter in the iTosefta /i: bThe people of Jericho performed six actions, threein keeping bwith the will of the Sages and three against the will of the Sages. And theseare what they did in keeping bwith the will of the Sages: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan; band theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvestgrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did bagainst the will of the Sages: Theywould bpilethe harvest bbefore the iomer /i; and theywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and their orchards to feed fallenfruit bto the poor during drought years,so that the poor could take the fruit that had fallen bon Shabbat and Festivals; and theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bRabbi Yehuda said to him:It is inaccurate to formulate it in that manner, as bif they actedin keeping bwith the will of the Sages, all people would do so,not only the residents of Jericho. bRather,formulate it in this manner: Both bthesethree acts band thosethree bwere performed against the will of the Sages. With regard to threethe Sages breprimanded them; and with regard to threethe Sages bdid not reprimand them.Since one could contend that the latter are permitted and the people of Jericho had already performed them, the Sages chose not to reprimand them., bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages bdid not reprimand them: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire day; and theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvest and pilegrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages breprimanded them: Theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees; btheywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and orchards on Shabbat and Festivals, in order to feed the poor fallen fruit during drought years; and theywould bdesignatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a field of bvegetables. And the Sages reprimanded themfor those actions.,The Gemara asks: bAnddoes bRabbi Yehuda maintainthat this bharvestperformed by the residents of Jericho bwas against the will of the Sages? Didn’t we learnin a mishna: bThe people of Jerichowould bharvest before the iomer /i,in keeping bwith the will of the Sages, and theywould bpilethe grain bbefore the iomer /i, against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not reprimand them? /b
30. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

31. Anon., 2 Enoch, 19

32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.1, 14.22-14.25, 14.42-14.47

4.1. Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered 14.22. If then I have found favor before thee, send the Holy Spirit into me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in thy law, that men may be able to find the path, and that those who wish to live in the last days may live. 14.23. He answered me and said, "Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. 14.24. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel -- these five, because they are trained to write rapidly; 14.25. and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding, which shall not be put out until what you are about to write is finished. 14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night. 14.43. As for me, I spoke in the daytime and was not silent at night. 14.44. So during the forty days ninety-four books were written. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 enoch Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
abraham Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 56, 58
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, humanity, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
angel/s, of presence Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 58
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 51, 52, 56, 57, 58
angelic singing Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
angels, angel of the presence Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125
angels, angelic dictation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
angels, at mt. sinai Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
angels, holy ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
angels, involvement in creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
angels, prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
angels Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
asleep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
astray Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
authority, conferring strategies xviii Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
authority, interpretive strategies Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125
authority, prophetic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
authority, scribal Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
authority, scriptural Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
authority, scripture Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 125
bible, hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 88
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90
books, oral origins of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
calendar in 1 enoch, at qumran Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
calendar in 1 enoch Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
canon, as authoritative scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 88
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
community, with angels Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
cosmic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90; Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
darkness, light Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
day, of the new creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
dead sea scrolls, sciences, knowledge of in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
decalogue Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 150
divine, torah/law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 125
dualism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
emulation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
ethereal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
ethiopic, manuscript Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 57
ethiopic Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 56, 57, 58
ezra Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
gabriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
hayward, robert Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
healing and medicines, and second temple judaism Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
healing and medicines, demons, as cause of sickness Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
healing and medicines, scroll fragments found Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
heavenly, retinue Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
heavenly tablets Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
hebrew bible/old testament, as authoritative scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 88
hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 88
hezekiah, king Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
hymn Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 51
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125
isaac Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 56
josephus, jubilees, book of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
kottek, s. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
law, and the testimony Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
law, mosaic (law of moses) Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 125
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125
light, sons of Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
liturgy, prayer Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
mankind Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
manuscript/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 56, 57
mastema ix Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 58
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
moses Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62, 125; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 57, 58
narrative, orality, ideological formulations of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
noah Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 52
poor Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
prayer, liturgy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120
pseudepigraphy Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
qumran and esoteric and exoteric wisdom, and legal realism Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
raphael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
realism, legal, at qumran Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
revelation, angelic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 125
revelation, sinaitic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
righteous, the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
righteousness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
sabbath Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90; Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 120; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
sarah (sarai, wife of abraham) viii Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 56
schiffman, lawrence Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
schwartz, daniel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
scribes, in second temple period Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
scribes, priestly Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
sin, human Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
sinai, mount Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
solomon, king, and exorcism/demonology Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
solomon, king, and healing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
solomon, king, book of remedies Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
solomon, king, demons, power over Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
solomon, king, ring of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
solomon, king Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90
sons of light Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
temple, the Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 332
temple scroll Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 88
text-interpretive, transmission of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
torah, mosaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 125
tradition, ethiopian Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 57, 58
tradition, oral Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
uriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800, 919
van ruiten, jacques' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 104
visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 106
wealth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 800
well-known Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 237
worship Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
writing, authoritative Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
writing, functions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
writing, oral dimensions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 24
writing, primordial Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62
writing, sacred Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 62