Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



644
Anon., Jubilees, 1.19


nanAnd they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1, 3.11, 8.5 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.28, 4.31, 8.5, 9.25-9.29, 32.8-32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.28. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁם אֱלֹהִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאוּן וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּן וְלֹא יְרִיחֻן׃ 4.31. כִּי אֵל רַחוּם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַשְׁחִיתֶךָ וְלֹא יִשְׁכַּח אֶת־בְּרִית אֲבֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לָהֶם׃ 8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 9.25. וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת אַרְבָּעִים הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־אַרְבָּעִים הַלַּיְלָה אֲשֶׁר הִתְנַפָּלְתִּי כִּי־אָמַר יְהוָה לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם׃ 9.26. וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ בְּגָדְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 9.28. פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָנוּ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לַהֲבִיאָם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם וּמִשִּׂנְאָתוֹ אוֹתָם הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲמִתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 9.29. וְהֵם עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ בְּכֹחֲךָ הַגָּדֹל וּבִזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 4.28. And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men’s hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell." 4.31. for the LORD thy God is a merciful God; He will not fail thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget the covet of thy fathers which He swore unto them." 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 9.25. So I fell down before the LORD the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; because the LORD had said He would destroy you." 9.26. And I prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘O Lord GOD, destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou hast redeemed through Thy greatness, that Thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 9.28. lest the land whence Thou broughtest us out say: Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which He promised unto them, and because He hated them, He hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness." 9.29. Yet they are Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou didst bring out by Thy great power and by Thy outstretched arm.’" 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22, 24.12-24.18, 32.1, 32.11-32.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה־שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם׃ 24.13. וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ מְשָׁרְתוֹ וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.14. וְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אָמַר שְׁבוּ־לָנוּ בָזֶה עַד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁוּב אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִנֵּה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עִמָּכֶם מִי־בַעַל דְּבָרִים יִגַּשׁ אֲלֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 32.1. וְעַתָּה הַנִּיחָה לִּי וְיִחַר־אַפִּי בָהֶם וַאֲכַלֵּם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל׃ 32.1. וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי־בֹשֵׁשׁ מֹשֶׁה לָרֶדֶת מִן־הָהָר וַיִּקָּהֵל הָעָם עַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו קוּם עֲשֵׂה־לָנוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ כִּי־זֶה מֹשֶׁה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָדַעְנוּ מֶה־הָיָה לוֹ׃ 32.11. וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָה יְהוָה יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹחַ גָּדוֹל וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 32.12. לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר בְּרָעָה הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲרֹג אֹתָם בֶּהָרִים וּלְכַלֹּתָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה שׁוּב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפֶּךָ וְהִנָּחֵם עַל־הָרָעָה לְעַמֶּךָ׃ 32.13. זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְכָל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם וְנָחֲלוּ לְעֹלָם׃ 32.14. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 24.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Come up to Me into the mount and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law and the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayest teach them.’" 24.13. And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister; and Moses went up into the mount of God." 24.14. And unto the elders he said: ‘Tarry ye here for us, until we come back unto you; and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whosoever hath a cause, let him come near unto them.’" 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 32.1. And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him: ‘Up, make us a god who shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him.’" 32.11. And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said: ‘LORD, why doth Thy wrath wax hot against Thy people, that Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?" 32.12. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying: For evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from Thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against Thy people." 32.13. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Thy servants, to whom Thou didst swear by Thine own self, and saidst unto them: I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.’" 32.14. And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 6.11-6.12, 29.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 6.11. וַתִּשָּׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָס׃ 6.12. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 29.35. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֹּאמֶר הַפַּעַם אוֹדֶה אֶת־יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן קָרְאָה שְׁמוֹ יְהוּדָה וַתַּעֲמֹד מִלֶּדֶת׃ 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 6.11. And the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence." 6.12. And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. ." 29.35. And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she said: ‘This time will I praise the LORD.’ Therefore she called his name Judah; and she left off bearing."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24, 23.15-23.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 23.15. וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה׃ 23.16. עַד מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 23.15. And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;" 23.16. even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 51.12-51.14, 118.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

51.12. לֵב טָהוֹר בְּרָא־לִי אֱלֹהִים וְרוּחַ נָכוֹן חַדֵּשׁ בְּקִרְבִּי׃ 51.13. אַל־תַּשְׁלִיכֵנִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְרוּחַ קָדְשְׁךָ אַל־תִּקַּח מִמֶּנִּי׃ 51.14. הָשִׁיבָה לִּי שְׂשׂוֹן יִשְׁעֶךָ וְרוּחַ נְדִיבָה תִסְמְכֵנִי׃ 118.26. בָּרוּךְ הַבָּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה בֵּרַכְנוּכֶם מִבֵּית יְהוָה׃ 51.12. Create me a clean heart, O God; and renew a stedfast spirit within me." 51.13. Cast me not away from Thy presence; and take not Thy holy spirit from me." 51.14. Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation; and let a willing spirit uphold me." 118.26. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the LORD; We bless you out of the house of the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.13-7.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.15. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 7.16. וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 7.15. but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee." 7.16. And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever."
8. Septuagint, Isaiah, 64.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.25-36.27, 37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.25. וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם מִכֹּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 36.25. And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you." 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.4. וַיָּקָם עַל־מַעֲלֵה הַלְוִיִּם יֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי קַדְמִיאֵל שְׁבַנְיָה בֻּנִּי שֵׁרֵבְיָה בָּנִי כְנָנִי וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 9.4. Then stood up upon the platform of the Levites, Jeshua, and Bani, Kadmiel, Shebaniah, Bunni, Sherebiah, Bani, and Chei, and cried with a loud voice unto the LORD their God."
11. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1, 3.11, 8.5 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee.
12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 84, 63 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

63. In those days shall the mighty and the kings who possess the earth implore (Him) to grant them a little respite from His angels of punishment to whom they were delivered, that they might fall,down and worship before the Lord of Spirits, and confess their sins before Him. And they shall bless and glorify the Lord of Spirits, and say:,Blessed is the Lord of Spirits and the Lord of kings, And the Lord of the mighty and the Lord of the rich, And the Lord of glory and the Lord of wisdom,,And splendid in every secret thing is Thy power from generation to generation, And Thy glory for ever and ever:Deep are all Thy secrets and innumerable, And Thy righteousness is beyond reckoning.,We have now learnt that we should glorify And bless the Lord of kings and Him who is king over all kings.'",And they shall say: ' Would that we had rest to glorify and give thanks And confess our faith before His glory !",And now we long for a little rest but find it not: We follow hard upon and obtain (it) not:And light has vanished from before us, And darkness is our dwelling-place for ever and ever:,For we have not believed before Him Nor glorified the name of the Lord of Spirits, [nor glorified our Lord]But our hope was in the sceptre of our kingdom, And in our glory.,And in the day of our suffering and tribulation He saves us not, And we find no respite for confessionThat our Lord is true in all His works, and in His judgements and His justice, And His judgements have no respect of persons.And we pass away from before His face on account of our works, And all our sins are reckoned up in righteousness.',Now they shall say unto themselves: ' Our souls are full of unrighteous gain, but it does not prevent us from descending from the midst thereof into the burden of Sheol.',And after that their faces shall be filled with darkness And shame before that Son of Man, And they shall be driven from his presence, And the sword shall abide before his face in their midst.,Thus spake the Lord of Spirits: ' This is the ordice and judgement with respect to the mighty and the kings and the exalted and those who possess the earth before the Lord of Spirits.'
13. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1-1.18, 1.20-1.29, 2.2, 2.19, 3.8-3.11, 4.28, 5.13, 6.1-6.38, 10.1-10.13, 10.15-10.17, 11.17, 12.19-12.22, 15.1, 15.3, 15.7-15.34, 16.17-16.18, 21.1, 21.3, 21.6, 21.10, 21.12-21.18, 21.21, 21.23, 22.5, 22.7-22.30, 23.11-23.32, 30.11-30.12, 31.13-31.20, 32.1-32.15, 32.20-32.29, 33.13-33.18, 34.18-34.19, 41.23-41.27, 49.1-49.2, 49.7-49.8, 49.11, 49.22-49.23, 50.4, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 1.2. Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them. 1.3. And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it six days. brAnd He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud 1.4. and the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the Mount. 1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.6. of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. 1.7. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covet which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. 1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.9. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: "Unto your seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey 1.10. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: 1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 1.12. and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. 1.13. And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordices and My commandments, and the festivals of My covet 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 1.15. And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts. 1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also 1.17. and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes. 1.18. And I shall hide My face from them, and I shall deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I shall remove them from the midst of the land, and I shall scatter them amongst the Gentiles. 1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 1.21. and I shall gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that I shall be found of them 1.22. when they seek Me with all their heart and with all their soul. brAnd I shall disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I shall remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul 1.23. and they will be for a blessing and not for a curse, and they will be the head and not the tail. 1.24. And I shall build My sanctuary in their midst, and I shall dwell with them, and I shall be their God and they will be My people in truth and righteousness. 1.25. And I shall not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God. 1.26. And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 4.28. And he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the daughters of men; 5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove 6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.23. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.25. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah-twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years:... 6.26. and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.9. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore. 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.15. And one of us He commanded that we should teach Noah all their medicines; for He knew that they would not walk in uprightness, nor strive in righteousness. 10.16. And we did according to all His words: all the maligt evil ones we bound in the place of condemnation, and a tenth part of them we left that they might be subject before Satan on the earth. 10.17. And we explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, together with their seductions, how he might heal them with herbs of the earth. 11.17. And the prince Mastêmâ sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. 12.19. Why do I search (them) out? If He desireth, He causeth it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desireth, He withholdeth it, And all things are in His hand. 12.20. And he prayed that night and said "My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. And Thou hast created all things, And all things that are are the work of Thy hands. 12.21. Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have sway over the thoughts of men's hearts, And let them not lead me astray from Thee, my God. 12.22. And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever That we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore. 15.1. And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. 15.3. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: "I am God Almighty; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covet between 15.7. Neither will thy name any more be called Abram, But thy name from henceforth, even for ever, shall be Abraham. For the father of many nations have I made thee. 15.8. And I shall make thee very great, And I shall make thee into nations, And kings will come forth from thee. 15.9. And I shall establish My covet between Me and thee, and thy seed after thee, throughout their generations, for an eternal covet, so that I may be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. 15.10. (And I shall give to thee and to thy seed after thee) the land where thou hast been a sojourner, the land of Canaan, that thou mayst possess it for ever, and I shall be their God. 15.11. And the Lord said unto Abraham: "And as for thee, do thou keep My Covet, thou and thy seed after thee 15.12. and circumcise ye every male among you, and circumcise your foreskins, and it will be a token of an eternal covet between Me and you. 15.13. And the child on the eighth day ye will circumcise, every male throughout your generations, him that is born in the house, or whom ye have bought with money from any stranger, whom ye have acquired 15.14. who is not of thy seed. brHe that is born in thy house will surely be circumcised, and those whom thou hast bought with money will be circumcised, and My covet will be in your flesh for an eternal ordice. 15.15. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul will be cut off from his people, for he hath broken My covet. 15.16. And God said unto Abraham: "As for Sarai thy wife, her name will no more be called Sarai, but Sarah will be her name. 15.17. And I shall bless her, and give thee a son by her, and I shall bless him, and he will become a nation, and kings of nations will proceed from him. 15.18. And Abraham fell on his face, and rejoiced, and said in his heart: "Shall a son be born to him that is a hundred years old, and shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bring forth? 15.19. And Abraham said unto God: "O that Ishmael might live before thee! 15.20. And God said: "Yea, and Sarah also will bear thee a son, and thou wilt call his name Isaac, and I shall establish My covet with him, an everlasting covet, and for his seed after him. 15.21. And as for Ishmael also have I heard thee, and behold I shall bless him, and make him great, and multiply him exceedingly, and he will beget twelve princes, and I shall make him a great nation. 15.22. But My covet shall I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to thee, in these days, in the next year. 15.23. And He left off speaking with him, and God went up from Abraham. 15.24. And Abraham did according as God had said unto him, and he took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and whom he had bought with his money, every male in his house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. 15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 15.28. And every one that is born, the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised on the eighth day, belongeth not to the children of the covet which the Lord made with Abraham, but to the children of destruction; 15.29. nor is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain from the earth, and to be rooted out of the earth, for he hath broken the covet of the Lord our God. 15.30. For all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification have been so created from the day of their creation, and before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath sanctified Israel, that they should be with Him and with His holy angels. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 15.34. And He sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the children of men ; 16.17. And she bare a son in the third month, and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the Lord had spoken to Abraham 16.18. on the festival of the first-fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born. brAnd Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day: 21.1. And in the sixth year of the seventh week of this jubilee Abraham called Isaac his son, and commanded him, saying: 21.3. And behold, I am one hundred and seventy-five years old, and throughout all the days of my life I have remembered the Lord, and sought with all my heart to do His will, and to walk uprightly in all His ways. 21.6. And do thou, my son, observe His commandments and His ordices and His judgments, and walk not after the abominations and after the graven images and after the molten images. brAnd eat no blood at all of animals or cattle, or of any bird which flieth in the heaven. 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.12. And eat its meat on that day and on the second day, and let not the sun on the second day go down upon it till it is eaten 21.13. and let nothing be left over for the third day; for it is not acceptable [for it is not approved] and let it no longer be eaten 21.14. and all who eat thereof will bring sin upon themselves; for thus I have found it written in the books of my forefathers, and in the words of Enoch, and in the words of Noah. 21.15. And on all thy oblations thou shalt strew salt, and let not the salt of the covet be lacking in all thy oblations before the Lord. 21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam. 21.17. And of these kinds of wood lay upon the altar under the sacrifice, such as have been tested as to their appearance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or dark wood 21.18. (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it as before. 21.21. And at all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself with water before thou approachest to offer on the altar, and wash thy hands and thy feet before thou drawest near to the altar; 21.23. be on thy guard, my son, against blood, be on thy guard exceedingly; cover it with dust. brAnd do not eat any blood, for it is the soul; eat no blood whatever. 22.5. and Isaac offered a sacrifice for a burnt-offering, and presented it on the altar of his father which he had made in Hebron. brAnd he offered a thank-offering and made a feast of joy before Ishmael, his brother: 22.7. And Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham a best thank-offering, that he might eat and drink. 22.8. And he ate and drank, and blessed the Most High God, Who hath created heaven and earth, Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, And given them to the children of men That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator. 22.9. And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day: 22.10. behold, I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, and all my days have been unto me peace. 22.11. The sword of the adversary hath not overcome me in all that Thou hast given me and my children all the days of my life until this day. 22.12. My God, may Thy mercy and Thy peace be upon Thy servant, and upon the seed of his sons, that they may be to Thee a chosen nation and an inheritance from amongst all the nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the days of the generations of the earth, unto all the ages. 22.13. And he called Jacob and said My son Jacob, may the God of all bless thee and strengthen thee to do righteousness, and His will before Him 22.14. and may He choose thee and thy seed that ye may become a people for His inheritance according to His will alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, draw near and kiss me. 22.15. And he drew near and kissed him, and he said: "Blessed be my son Jacob And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages: May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness; And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of the whole earth; 22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 22.17. Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation. 22.18. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever. 22.19. And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and impurity, That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) transgressions; (and) thy sins of ignorance. 22.20. And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, brAnd may He renew His covet with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages 22.21. And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in truth and righteousness throughout all the days of the earth. 22.22. And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words, And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy father: 22.23. Separate thyself from the nations, And eat not with them: And do not according to their works, And become not their associate; For their works are unclean, And all their ways are a pollution and an abomination and uncleanness. 22.24. They offer their sacrifices to the dead And they worship evil spirits, And they eat over the graves 22.25. And all their works are vanity and nothingness. brThey have no heart to understand And their eyes do not see what their works are, And how they err in saying to a piece of wood: 'Thou art my God,' And to a stone: 'Thou art my Lord and thou art my deliverer.' [And they have no heart.] 22.26. And as for thee, my son Jacob, May the Most High God help thee And the God of heaven bless thee And remove thee from their uncleanness and from all their error. 22.27. Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan; For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. 22.28. For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred, And all his seed will be destroyed from off the earth and all the residue thereof, And none springing from him will be saved on the day of judgment. 22.29. And as for all the worshippers of idols and the profane (b) There will be no hope for them in the land of the living; 22.30. (e) And there will be no remembrance of them on the earth; (c) For they will descend into Sheol 23.11. and they wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of Keturah in their places, and the days of weeping for Abraham were ended. 23.12. And he lived three jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred and seventy-five years, and completed the days of his life, being old and full of days. 23.13. For the days of the forefathers, of their life, were nineteen jubilees; and after the Flood they began to grow less than nineteen jubilees 23.14. and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways 23.15. with the exception of Abraham. brFor Abraham was perfect in all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing in righteousness all the days of his life; 23.16. and behold, he did not complete four jubilees in his life, when he had grown old by reason of the wickedness and was full of his days. 23.17. And all the generations which will arise from this time until the day of the great judgment will grow old quickly, before they complete two jubilees 23.18. and their knowledge will forsake them by reason of their old age [and all their knowledge will vanish away]. 23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long 23.20. and the greater part of his days are pain and sorrow and tribulation, and there is no peace: 23.21. For calamity followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such as these, one with another 23.22. illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains. 23.23. And all these will come on an evil generation, which transgresseth on the earth: their works are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and abominations. 23.24. Then they will say: "The days of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, and were good; but, behold, the days of our life, if a man hath lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years, and those evil 23.25. and there is no peace in the days of this evil generation. 23.26. And in that generation the sons will convict their fathers and their elders of sin and unrighteousness, and of the words of their mouth 23.27. and the great wickednesses which they perpetrate, and concerning their forsaking the covet which the Lord made between them and Him, that they should observe and do all His commandments and His ordices and all His laws, without departing either to the right hand or to the left. 23.28. For all have done evil, and every mouth speaketh iniquity and all their works are an uncleanness and an abomination, and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness and destruction. 23.29. Behold the earth will be destroyed on account of all their works, and there will be no seed of the vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether faithless 23.30. and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. 23.31. And they will strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince 23.32. on account of the law and the covet; for they have forgotten commandment, and covet, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgments. 30.11. And if there is any man who wisheth in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones; for he hath wrought shame in Israel; 30.12. and they shall burn the woman with fire, because she hath dishonoured the name of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. 31.13. and he took the hand of his father, and stooping down he kissed him, and Isaac clung to the neck of Jacob his son, and wept upon his neck. 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 31.15. And he said unto him that they were truly his sons: "And thou hast truly seen that they are truly my sons. 31.16. And they came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and embraced them both together. 31.17. And the spirit of prophecy came down into his mouth, and he took Levi by his right hand and Judah by his left. 31.18. And he turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said unto him:, 'May the God of all, the very Lord of all the ages, bless thee and thy children throughout all the ages. 31.19. And may the Lord give to thee and to thy seed greatness and great glory, and cause thee and thy seed, from among all flesh, to approach Him to serve in His sanctuary as the angels of the presence and as the holy ones. 31.20. (Even) as they, will the seed of thy sons be for glory and greatness and holiness 32.1. And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and made him the priest of the Most High God,him and his sons for ever; 32.2. and he awoke from his sleep and blessed the Lord. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats; 32.10. and thus he did daily for seven days. brAnd he and all his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy there during seven day 32.11. and blessing and thanking the Lord, who had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had given him his vow. 32.12. And he tithed all the clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he gave (not) to Levi his son, and he gave him all the souls of the men 32.13. And Levi discharged the priestly office at Bethel before Jacob his father in preference to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there 32.14. and Jacob gave his vow: thus he tithed again the tithe to the Lord and sanctified it, and it became holy unto Him. 32.15. And for this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables as a law for the tithing again the tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year 32.20. And all the tithes of the oxen and sheep shall be holy unto the Lord, and shall belong to His priests, which they will eat before Him from year to year; for thus is it ordained and engraven regarding the tithe on the heavenly tables. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him. 32.22. And the Lord appeared to him by night and blessed him and said unto him: "Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall they name thy name. 32.23. And He said unto him again: "I am the Lord who created the heaven and the earth, and I shall increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings will come forth from thee, and they will judge everywhere wherever the foot of the sons of men hath trodden. 32.24. Ana I shall give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, and they will judge all the nations according to their desires, and after that they will get possession of the whole earth and inherit it for ever. 32.25. And He finished speaking with him, and He went up from him, and Jacob looked till He had ascended into heaven. 32.26. And he saw in a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written therein which would befall him and his sons through-out all the ages. 32.27. And he showed him all that was written on the tablets, and said unto him: "Do not build this place, and do not make it an eternal sanctuary, and do not dwell here; for this is not the place. 32.28. Go to the house of Abraham thy father and dwell with Isaac thy father until the day of the death of thy father. 32.29. For in Egypt thou wilt die in peace, and in this land thou wilt be buried with honour in the sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and Isaac. 33.13. And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel that they observe this word; for it (entaileth) a punishment of death; and it is unclean, and there is no atonement for ever to atone for the man who hath committed this, but he is to be put to death and slain, and stoned with stones, and rooted out from the midst of the people of our God. 33.14. For to no man who doeth so in Israel is it permitted to remain alive a single day on the earth, for he is abominable and unclean. 33.15. And let them not say: to Reuben was granted life and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's concubine, and to her also though she had a husband, and her husband Jacob, his father, was still alive. 33.16. For until that time there had not been revealed the ordice and judgment and law in its completeness for all 33.17. but in thy days (it hath been revealed) as a law of seasons and of days, and an everlasting law for the everlasting generations. 33.18. And for this law there is no consummation of days, and no atonement for it, but they must both be rooted out in the midst of the nation: on the day whereon they committed it they shall slay them. 34.18. And his sons and his daughter rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted for his son. 34.19. And on that day Bilhah heard that Joseph had perished, and she died mourning him, and she was living in Qafrâtêf 41.23. And after that she bare two sons, Perez and Zerah, in the seventh year of this second week. brAnd thereupon the seven years of fruitfulness were accomplished, of which Joseph spake to Pharaoh. 41.24. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son 41.25. and he began to lament and to supplicate before the Lord because of his transgression.<>br>And we told him in a dream that it was forgiven him because he supplicated earnestly, and lamented, and did not again commit it. 41.26. And he received forgiveness because he turned from his sin and from his ignorance, for he transgressed greatly before our God; 41.27. and every one that acteth thus, every one who lieth with his mother-in-law, let them burn him with fire that he may burn therein 49.1. Remember the commandment which the Lord commanded thee concerning the passover, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season on the fourteenth of the first month 49.2. that thou shouldst kill it before it is evening, and that they should eat it by night on the evening of the fifteenth from the time of the setting of the sun. 49.7. and the plague came not upon them to destroy from amongst them any soul either of cattle, or man, or dog. 49.8. And the plague was very grievous in Egypt, and there was no house in Egypt where there was not one dead, and weeping and lamentation. 49.11. For it is an eternal ordice, and engraven on the heavenly tables regarding all the children of Israel that they should observe it every year on its day once a year, throughout all their generations; and there is no limit of days, for this is ordained for ever. 49.22. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe the passover throughout their days, every year, once a year on the day of its fixed time, and it will come for a memorial well pleasing before the Lord, and no plague will come upon them to slay or to smite 49.23. in that year in which they celebrate the passover in its season in every respect according to His command. brAnd they shall not eat it outside the sanctuary of the Lord 50.4. And the land also will keep its sabbaths while they dwell upon it, and they will know the jubilee year. 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.13, 1.15, 5.7-5.8, 8.16-8.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 16.2-16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 16.2-16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.32, 15.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.32. After the feast called Pentecost, they hastened against Gorgias, the governor of Idumea.' 15.34. And they all, looking to heaven, blessed the Lord who had manifested himself, saying, 'Blessed is he who has kept his own place undefiled.'
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.17. He appointed a ruler for every nation,but Israel is the Lords own portion.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

70. There have now been two gifts of God already mentioned: the hope of a life devoted to contemplation, and an improvement in good things in respect both of quantity and of magnitude. The third gift is blessing, without which it is not possible that the graces already mentioned can be confirmed; for the scriptures say, "And I will bless thee;" that is to say, I will give thee a word which shall be praised; for the portion eu (in eulogeµsoµ, I will bless), is always applicable to virtue. And of speech, one kind is like a spring and another kind is like a stream;
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 135 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.6-3.7, 3.11-3.13, 3.16, 3.83-3.88, 3.308, 3.310, 4.194 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. for they ran all of them to him, and begged of him; the women begged for their infants, and the men for the women, that he would not overlook them, but procure some way or other for their deliverance. He therefore betook himself to prayer to God, that he would change the water from its present badness, and make it fit for drinking. 3.6. So Moses offered sacrifices of thanksgiving to God, and built an altar, which he named The Lord the Conqueror. He also foretold that the Amalekites should utterly be destroyed; and that hereafter none of them should remain, because they fought against the Hebrews, and this when they were in the wilderness, and in their distress also. Moreover, he refreshed the army with feasting. 3.7. And when God had granted him that favor, he took the top of a stick that lay down at his feet, and divided it in the middle, and made the section lengthways. He then let it down into the well, and persuaded the Hebrews that God had hearkened to his prayers, and had promised to render the water such as they desired it to be, in case they would be subservient to him in what he should enjoin them to do, and this not after a remiss or negligent manner. 3.7. Make use of the method I suggest to you, as to human affairs; and take a review of the army, and appoint chosen rulers over tens of thousands, and then over thousands; then divide them into five hundreds, and again into hundreds, and into fifties; 3.11. The trees were too weak to bear fruit, for want of being sufficiently cherished and enlivened by the water. So they laid the blame on their conductor, and made heavy complaints against him; and said that this their miserable state, and the experience they had of adversity, were owing to him; for that they had then journeyed an entire thirty days, and had spent all the provisions they had brought with them; and meeting with no relief, they were in a very desponding condition. 3.11. Cords were also put through the rings, and were tied at their farther ends to brass nails of a cubit long, which, at every pillar, were driven into the floor, and would keep the tabernacle from being shaken by the violence of winds; but a curtain of fine soft linen went round all the pillars, and hung down in a flowing and loose manner from their chapiters, and enclosed the whole space, and seemed not at all unlike to a wall about it. 3.12. And by fixing their attention upon nothing but their present misfortunes, they were hindered from remembering what deliverances they had received from God, and those by the virtue and wisdom of Moses also; so they were very angry at their conductor, and were zealous in their attempt to stone him, as the direct occasion of their present miseries. 3.12. Now every one of the pillars had rings of gold affixed to their fronts outward, as if they had taken root in the pillars, and stood one row over against another round about, through which were inserted bars gilt over with gold, each of them five cubits long, and these bound together the pillars, the head of one bar running into another, after the nature of one tenon inserted into another; 3.13. 4. But as for Moses himself, while the multitude were irritated and bitterly set against him, he cheerfully relied upon God, and upon his consciousness of the care he had taken of these his own people; and he came into the midst of them, even while they clamored against him, and had stones in their hands in order to despatch him. Now he was of an agreeable presence, and very able to persuade the people by his speeches; 3.13. But the ten other curtains were four cubits in breadth, and twenty-eight in length; and had golden clasps, in order to join the one curtain to the other, which was done so exactly that they seemed to be one entire curtain. These were spread over the temple, and covered all the top and parts of the walls, on the sides and behind, so far as within one cubit of the ground. 3.16. He told them, it appeared they were not really good men, either in patience, or in remembering what had been successfully done for them, sometimes by condemning God and his commands, when by those commands they left the land of Egypt; and sometimes by behaving themselves ill towards him who was the servant of God, and this when he had never deceived them, either in what he said, or had ordered them to do by God’s command. 3.16. To the bottom of which garment are hung fringes, in color like pomegranates, with golden bells by a curious and beautiful contrivance; so that between two bells hangs a pomegranate, and between two pomegranates a bell. 3.83. 3. When they were under these apprehensions, Moses appeared as joyful and greatly exalted. When they saw him, they were freed from their fear, and admitted of more comfortable hopes as to what was to come. The air also was become clear and pure of its former disorders, upon the appearance of Moses; 3.84. whereupon he called together the people to a congregation, in order to their hearing what God would say to them: and when they were gathered together, he stood on an eminence whence they might all hear him, and said, “God has received me graciously, O Hebrews, as he has formerly done; and has suggested a happy method of living for you, and an order of political government, and is now present in the camp: 3.85. I therefore charge you, for his sake and the sake of his works, and what we have done by his means, that you do not put a low value on what I am going to say, because the commands have been given by me that now deliver them to you, nor because it is the tongue of a man that delivers them to you; but if you have a due regard to the great importance of the things themselves, you will understand the greatness of Him whose institutions they are, and who has not disdained to communicate them to me for our common advantage; 3.86. for it is not to be supposed that the author of these institutions is barely Moses, the son of Amram and Jochebed, but He who obliged the Nile to run bloody for your sakes, and tamed the haughtiness of the Egyptians by various sorts of judgments; he who provided a way through the sea for us; he who contrived a method of sending us food from heaven, when we were distressed for want of it; he who made the water to issue out of a rock, when we had very little of it before; 3.87. he by whose means Adam was made to partake of the fruits both of the land and of the sea; he by whose means Noah escaped the deluge; he by whose means our forefather Abraham, of a wandering pilgrim, was made the heir of the land of Canaan; he by whose means Isaac was born of parents that were very old; he by whose means Jacob was adorned with twelve virtuous sons; he by whose means Joseph became a potent lord over the Egyptians; he it is who conveys these instructions to you by me as his interpreter. 3.88. And let them be to you venerable, and contended for more earnestly by you than your own children and your own wives; for if you will follow them, you will lead a happy life you will enjoy the land fruitful, the sea calm, and the fruit of the womb born complete, as nature requires; you will be also terrible to your enemies for I have been admitted into the presence of God and been made a hearer of his incorruptible voice so great is his concern for your nation, and its duration.” 3.308. 4. But of the spies, there were Joshua the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, and Caleb of the tribe of Judah, that were afraid of the consequence, and came into the midst of them, and stilled the multitude, and desired them to be of good courage; and neither to condemn God, as having told them lies, nor to hearken to those who had affrighted them, by telling them what was not true concerning the Canaanites, but to those that encouraged them to hope for good success; and that they should gain possession of the happiness promised them 4.194. 3. When he had spoken thus, he gave them the laws and the constitution of government written in a book. Upon which the people fell into tears, and appeared already touched with the sense that they should have a great want of their conductor, because they remembered what a number of dangers he had passed through, and what care he had taken of their preservation: they desponded about what would come upon them after he was dead, and thought they should never have another governor like him; and feared that God would then take less care of them when Moses was gone, who used to intercede for them.
22. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah."
23. New Testament, Acts, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place.
24. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.22. let's draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and having our body washed with pure water
25. New Testament, Luke, 11.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples.
26. New Testament, Mark, 12.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.40. those who devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation.
27. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5-6.13, 25.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;
28. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.4-10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
30. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. (ישעיהו מה, ז) יוצר אור ובורא חשך,לימא יוצר אור ובורא נוגה,כדכתיב קאמרינן,אלא מעתה (ישעיהו מה, ז) עושה שלום ובורא רע מי קא אמרינן כדכתיב אלא כתיב רע וקרינן הכל לישנא מעליא הכא נמי לימא נוגה לישנא מעליא,אלא אמר רבא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום,בשלמא מדת לילה ביום כדאמרינן יוצר אור ובורא חשך אלא מדת יום בלילה היכי משכחת לה,אמר אביי גולל אור מפני חשך וחשך מפני אור,ואידך מאי היא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אהבה רבה וכן אורי ליה רבי אלעזר לר' פדת בריה אהבה רבה,תניא נמי הכי אין אומרים אהבת עולם אלא אהבה רבה ורבנן אמרי אהבת עולם וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו לא, ג) ואהבת עולם אהבתיך על כן משכתיך חסד,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל השכים לשנות עד שלא קרא ק"ש צריך לברך משקרא ק"ש א"צ לברך שכבר נפטר באהבה רבה,אמר רב הונא למקרא צריך לברך ולמדרש א"צ לברך,ור' אלעזר אמר למקרא ולמדרש צריך לברך למשנה א"צ לברך,ור' יוחנן אמר אף למשנה נמי צריך לברך [אבל לתלמוד א"צ לברך],ורבא אמר אף לתלמוד צריך (לחזור ו) לברך,דאמר רב חייא בר אשי זימנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב לתנויי פרקין בספרא דבי רב הוה מקדים וקא משי ידיה ובריך ומתני לן פרקין.,מאי מברך א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לעסוק בדברי תורה,ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי הערב נא ה' אלהינו את דברי תורתך בפינו ובפיפיות עמך בית ישראל ונהיה אנחנו וצאצאינו וצאצאי עמך בית ישראל כלנו יודעי שמך ועוסקי תורתך ברוך אתה ה' המלמד תורה לעמו ישראל,ורב המנונא אמר אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו ברוך אתה ה' נותן התורה אמר רב המנונא זו היא מעולה שבברכות,הלכך לימרינהו לכולהו:,תנן התם אמר להם הממונה ברכו ברכה אחת והם ברכו וקראו עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר וברכו את העם ג' ברכות אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא,מאי ברכה אחת כי הא דרבי אבא ור' יוסי בר אבא אקלעו לההוא אתרא בעו מנייהו מאי ברכה אחת לא הוה בידייהו ואתו שיילוהו לרב מתנה לא הוה בידיה אתו שיילוהו לרב יהודה אמר להו הכי אמר שמואל אהבה רבה,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש יוצר אור כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי זריקא לאו בפירוש אתמר אלא מכללא אתמר דאמר ר' זריקא א"ר אמי אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש זאת אומרת ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו,אי אמרת בשלמא יוצר אור הוו אמרי היינו דברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלא קא אמרי אהבה רבה 11b. b“Who forms light and creates darkness,Who makes peace and creates evil, I am the Lord Who does all these things” (Isaiah 45:7).,With regard to this formula of the blessing, the Gemara asks: bLet him saythe following formula instead: bWho forms light and creates brightness,so as not to mention darkness, which has negative connotations.,The Gemara answers: bWe saythe blessing basthe verse bis writtenin the Bible and do not alter the formula that appears in the verse.,The Gemara strongly objects: bBut if so,what about the continuation of the verse: b“Who makes peace and creates evil”? Do we saythis blessing bas it is writtenin the Bible? bRather, it is written evil and we euphemistically recitethe blessing ball thingsto avoid mention of evil. bHere, too, let us euphemistically say brightnessinstead of darkness., bRather, Rava said:The reason we recite: “Who creates darkness” is bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night during the day,and thereby unify day and night as different parts of a single entity.,The Gemara continues and asks: bGranted, the attribute of nightis mentioned bduring the day, as we say: Who forms light and creates darkness, but where do you find the attribute of daymentioned bat night?In the blessing over the radiant lights recited at night there is no mention of “Who forms light.”, bAbaye said:Nevertheless, the attribute of day is mentioned at night in the words: bRolling away light before the darkness and darkness before the light. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what isthe formula of bthe otherblessing recited before iShema /i? bRav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: An abounding love [ iahava rabba /i]. And Rabbi Elazar instructed his son, Rabbi Pedat,to balsosay: bAn abounding love. /b, bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite: An eternal love [ iahavat olam /i]; rather,one recites: bAn abounding love. And the Rabbis saythat one recites: bAn eternal love, and so it says: “And an eternal love I have loved you, therefore I have drawn you with kindness”(Jeremiah 31:2).,The blessing: An abounding love, is about God’s love for us and includes praise for His giving us the Torah. Therefore, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who arose to study, until he recites iShemahe must recite aspecial bblessingover the Torah. bIf healready brecited iShemahe need not recitethat bblessing, as he has exemptedhimself bbyreciting the blessing of: bAn abounding love,which includes the components of the blessing over the Torah.,Having mentioned the blessing recited over Torah, the Gemara focuses on a dispute over what constitutes Torah in terms of requiring a blessing. bRav Huna said: Forthe study of bBible, one must recite a blessing,as it is the word of God, band forhalakhic bmidrash,the derivation of ihalakhotfrom verses, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: For Bible and midrash,which includes ihalakhotderived from verses themselves, bone must recite a blessing; for Mishna,which is only comprised of halakhic rulings issued by the Sages, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even for Mishna,which includes final, binding halakhic rulings, bone must recite a blessing as well, but for Talmud,which comprises a study of the Mishna and the rationales for its rulings, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rava said: Even for Talmud,which is the means to analyze the significance of the ihalakhot /i, and is the only form of Torah study that leads one to its true meaning, bone must recite a blessing. /b,This statement is supported by the practical ihalakhaderived from observation of Rav’s practice. His student, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, said: Many times I stood before Rav to study our chapter in the iSifra /i,also known as iTorat Kohanim /i, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, bof the school of Rav,and I saw that Rav bwould first wash his hands,then brecite a blessing,and only then bhe would teach us our chapter.This demonstrates that even before their study of iTorat Kohanim /i, which, due to Rav’s explanation of the reasons behind the ihalakhot /i, was the equivalent of studying Talmud, one must recite a blessing.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatformula of bblessings does he recite?There is a dispute over the formula of the blessings as well. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The formula of this blessing is like the standard formula for blessings recited over other mitzvot: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, bWho sanctified us with his mitzvot and commanded us to engage in matters of Torah. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa concludesthe blessing by adding bthe following: Lord our God, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths and in the mouths of Your people, the house of Israel, so that we and our descendants and the descendants of Your people, the house of Israel, may be those who know Your name and engage in Your Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. /b, bAnd Rav Hamnuna saidan additional formula: bWho has chosen us from all the peoples and given us His Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Giver of the Torah.With regard to this formula, bRav Hamnuna said: Thisconcise blessing bis the most outstanding of all the blessingsover the Torah, as it combines thanks to God for giving us the Torah as well as acclaim for the Torah and for Israel.,Since several formulas for the blessing over Torah were suggested, each with its own distinct advantage, the Gemara concludes: bTherefore, let us recite them allas blessings over the Torah.,The Gemara returns to dealing with the blessings that accompany iShema /i, and describes the practice in the Temple. bWe learned there,in a mishna in tractate iTamid /i: In the morning bthedeputy High Priest bappointedto oversee activity in the Temple, bsaid tothe priests who were members of the priestly watch [ imishmar /i] on duty that week: bRecite a single blessing.The members of the priestly watch brecited a blessing, and read the Ten Commandments, iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoaand iVaYomer /i,the standard recitation of iShema /i. Additionally, bthey blessed the peoplewith bthree blessings.These blessings were: bTrue and Firm,the blessing of redemption recited after iShema /i; iAvoda /i,service, the special blessing recited over God’s acceptance of the sacrifices with favor, similar to the blessing of Temple Service recited in the iAmidaprayer; band the priestly benediction,recited in the form of a prayer without the outstretched hands that usually accompany that blessing ( iTosafot /i). bAnd on Shabbat one blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch,as the watch serving in the Temple was replaced on Shabbat.,Certain details in this mishna are not sufficiently clear. First, bwhat is the single blessingthat the deputy High Priest instructed the guards to recite? The Gemara relates: It is blikethe incident bwhere Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yosei bar Abba happened tovisit ba certainunnamed bplace,and the people there basked them: What is the single blessingmentioned in the mishna? They bdid not havean answer breadily available.So bthey came and asked Rav Mattana, and hetoo bdid not havean answer breadily available. They came and asked Rav Yehuda,and bhe told them: Shmuel said as follows: An abounding loveis the single blessing recited by the priestly watch., bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saida different answer: This single blessing is: bWho creates light.That was how Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement was received in Babylonia, yet bwhen Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat this ihalakhawas not a direct quote of a statement by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bThat which Rabbi Zerika said was not stated explicitlyby Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, but brather it was inferred fromanother statement. bAs Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:From the expression: Recite a single blessing, in the mishna in tractate iTamid /i, bit followsthat failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother.This means that if only one of the blessings was recited, the obligation to recite that blessing was fulfilled, as the two blessings are not mutually dependent.,The conclusion was drawn from Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement that he held that the single blessing recited was: Who creates light. The considerations that led the Sages to that conclusion were: bGranted, if you say that they would recite: Who creates light,then the conclusion of Reish Lakish, that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not prevent onefrom reciting the bother,is understandable, as they recited: Who creates light, band did not recite: An abounding love,and they nonetheless fulfilled their obligation.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ראש חדש אב שחל להיות בשבת מפטירין (ישעיהו א, יד) חדשיכם ומועדיכם שנאה נפשי היו עלי לטורח מאי היו עלי לטורח אמר הקב"ה לא דיין להם לישראל שחוטאין לפני אלא שמטריחין אותי לידע איזו גזירה קשה אביא עליהם,בתשעה באב גופיה מאי מפטרינן אמר רב (ישעיהו א, כא) איכה היתה לזונה מקרא מאי תניא אחרים אומרים (ויקרא כו, יד) ואם לא תשמעו לי ר' נתן בר יוסף אומר (במדבר יד, יא) עד אנה ינאצוני העם הזה ויש אומרים (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת אמר אביי האידנא נהוג עלמא למיקרי (דברים ד, כה) כי תוליד בנים ומפטירין (ירמיהו ח, יג) אסוף אסיפם:,[במעמדות] במעשה בראשית וכו': מנהני מילי א"ר אמי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חוקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי,וכתיב (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע שמא ח"ו ישראל חוטאים לפניך ואתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה אמר לו לאו,אמר לפניו רבש"ע במה אדע אמר לו קחה לי עגלה משולשת וגו' אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות כל זמן שקוראין בהן מעלה אני עליהן כאילו מקריבין לפני קרבן ומוחל אני על כל עונותיהם:,בתעניות ברכות וקללות ואין מפסיקין בקללות: מה"מ אמר ר' חייא בר גמדא אמר רבי אסי דאמר קרא (משלי ג, יא) מוסר ה' בני אל תמאס,ריש לקיש אמר לפי שאין אומרים ברכה על הפורענות אלא היכי עביד תנא כשהוא מתחיל מתחיל בפסוק שלפניהם וכשהוא מסיים מסיים בפסוק שלאחריהן,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בקללות שבתורת כהנים אבל קללות שבמשנה תורה פוסק מאי טעמא הללו בלשון רבים אמורות ומשה מפי הגבורה אמרן והללו בלשון יחיד אמורות ומשה מפי עצמו אמרן,לוי בר בוטי הוה קרי וקא מגמגם קמיה דרב הונא בארורי אמר לו אכנפשך לא שנו אלא קללות שבתורת כהנים אבל שבמשנה תורה פוסק,תניא ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר עזרא תיקן להן לישראל שיהו קורין קללות שבתורת כהנים קודם עצרת ושבמשנה תורה קודם ר"ה מאי טעמא אמר אביי ואיתימא ריש לקיש כדי שתכלה השנה וקללותיה,בשלמא שבמשנה תורה איכא כדי שתכלה שנה וקללותיה אלא שבתורת כהנים אטו עצרת ראש השנה היא אין עצרת נמי ראש השנה היא דתנן ובעצרת על פירות האילן,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אם יאמרו לך זקנים סתור וילדים בנה סתור ואל תבנה מפני שסתירת זקנים בנין ובנין נערים סתירה וסימן לדבר (מלכים א יב, כא) רחבעם בן שלמה,ת"ר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה במנחה שם קורין בשני בשני שם קורין בחמישי בחמישי שם קורין לשבת הבאה דברי ר' מאיר ר' יהודה אומר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה,אמר רבי זירא הלכה מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה ולימא הלכה כרבי יהודה 31b. When the bNew Moon of Av occurs on Shabbat, they read as the ihaftara /ithe portion that includes the verse b“Your New Moons and your Festivals, My soul hated; they were a burden to Me”(Isaiah 1:14). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: b“They were a burden to Me”?The Gemara explains: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: It is not enough for the Jewish people that they sin before Me, butin addition, bthey burden Me to reconsider what harsh decree I shall bring upon them,for they are petitioning Me to annul those decrees.,The Gemara asks: bOnthe bNinth of Av itself, what do we read as the ihaftara /i? Rav said:The portion containing the verse b“Howdid the faithful city bbecome a harlot?”(Isaiah 1:21). The Gemara asks: bWhat Torah portiondo they read? bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bothers say:They read the portion containing the verse b“But if you will not hearken to me”(Leviticus 26:14). bRabbi Natan bar Yosef said:They read the portion containing the verse: b“How long will this people provoke me?”(Numbers 14:11). bAnd some say:They read the portion containing the verse: b“How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?”(Numbers 14:27). The Gemara comments that bAbaye said: Nowadays, everyone is accustomed to readthe portion of b“When you shall beget children”(Deuteronomy 4:25–40), band they read as the ihaftara /ithe portion of b“I will utterly consume them”(Jeremiah 8:13–9:23).,§ The mishna states: bIn thenon-priestly bwatchesthey read bthe act of Creation.The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived, i.e., why do they read the account of Creation? bRabbi Ami said:To allude to the fact that bwere it not forthe non-priestly bwatches, heaven and earth would not endure, as it is stated: “Were it not for My covet day and night, I would not have set the statutes of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). God’s covet is referring to the offerings sacrificed in the Temple, which sustain the world., bAndwith regard to Abraham bit is written: “And he said, O Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAbraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, perhaps, Heaven forbid, the Jewish people will sin before You, and You will do to them asYou did to the bgeneration of the Flood and asYou did to the bgeneration of the Dispersion,i.e., You will completely destroy them? God bsaid to him: No,I will not do that.,Abraham then bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe: “By what shall I know this?”God bsaid to him: “Take Me a heifer of three years old”(Genesis 15:9). With this, God intimated to Abraham that even if his descendants will sin, they will be able to achieve atonement through sacrificing offerings. Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,this bworks out well when the Temple is standingand offerings can be brought to achieve atonement, but bwhen the Temple will nolonger bbe standing, what will become of them?God bsaid to him: I have already established for them the order of offerings,i.e., the verses of the Torah pertaining to the ihalakhotof the offerings. bWhenever they read thoseportions, bI will deem it as if they sacrificed an offering before Me, and I will pardon them for all of their iniquities. /b,§ The mishna states: bOn fast daysthe congregation reads the portion of bblessings and curses(Leviticus, chapter 16), band one may not interruptthe reading of the bcursesby having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? Why does one not interrupt the reading of the curses? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saidthat bRabbi Asi said: For the verse states: “My son, do not despise the chastening of the Lord,nor be weary of His correction” (Proverbs 3:11). If one makes a break in the middle of the curses, it appears as if he loathes rebuke., bReish Lakish saida different answer: It is bbecause one does not say a blessing over a calamity.If a second person were to begin to read in the middle of the portion of the curses, the blessing upon his reading would be considered a blessing over a calamity. bRather,what bdoes one do?It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen one beginsthe reading, bone begins with the verse beforethe curses, band when one concludesthe reading, bone concludes with the verse after them.In this way, neither the blessing before the reading nor after it relates directly to verses of calamity., bAbaye said: They taughtthis bonly with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus, but with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, one may interruptthem by having two different people read them. bWhat is the reasonfor this distinction? bThesecurses in Leviticus bare stated in the plural, and Moses pronounced them from the mouth of the Almighty.As such, they are more severe. However, bthesecurses in Deuteronomy bare stated in the singular, and Moses said them on his own,like the rest of the book of Deuteronomy. They are therefore less harsh and may be interrupted.,It was related that bLevi bar Buti wasonce breading theportion of the bcurses before Rav Huna, and he was stammeringin his reading, as it was difficult for him to utter such harsh pronouncements. Rav Huna bsaid to him: If you wish,you may stop where you are and a different reader will continue, for bthey taughtone may not have two people read the curses bonly with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus. But with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, one may interruptthem by having two different people read them., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Ezra enacted for the Jewish people that they should readthe portion of bthe curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus before iShavuotandthe portion of the curses bthat arerecorded bin Deuteronomy before Rosh HaShana.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bReish Lakishwho said: bIn order that the year may concludetogether with bits curses,and the new year may begin without the ominous reading of the curses.,The Gemara asks: bGranted,with regard to the curses bthat arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, there isrelevance to the reason: bIn order that the year may concludetogether with bits curses,for Rosh HaShana is clearly the beginning of a new year. bHowever,with regard to the curses bthat arerecorded bin Leviticus,what relevance does that reason have? bIs that to say iShavuotis a new year?The Gemara answers: bYes,indeed, iShavuotis also a new year, as we learnedin a mishna ( iRosh HaShana16a): bAnd on iShavuot /i,divine judgment is made bconcerning the fruit of the trees,which indicates that iShavuotalso has the status of a new year., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If old men say to you: Demolish, and childrensay to you: bBuild,then bdemolish and do not build, because the demolishing of old men isultimately as constructive as bbuilding,despite the fact that it appears destructive, band the building of children isas destructive as bdemolishing. An indication of this matteris bRehoboam, son of Solomon.He ignored the advice of the Elders and did not lower himself before his people, which ultimately led to the people rebelling against him., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe placein the Torah bwherethe congregation bconcludesthe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. Where they conclude bin the afternoonservice on Shabbat, from bthere theycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning. Where they conclude bon Monday,from bthere theycontinue to bread on Thursdaymorning. Where they conclude bon Thursday,from bthere theycontinue to bread on the coming Shabbat.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe placein the Torah bwhere they concludethe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. bAndfrom that same place btheycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning, band on Thursdaymorning, band on the coming Shabbat. /b,The Gemara notes that bRabbi Zeira said: The ihalakha /iis that with regard to bthe place where they concludethe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. bAndfrom that same place btheycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning, band on Thursdaymorning, band on the coming Shabbat.The Gemara asks: If so, blet himsimply bsay: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.Why did he have to explicitly state the whole ihalakha /i?
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. וקטליאות נזמים וטבעות מעבירין ממנה כדי לנוולה ואחר כך מביא חבל מצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה,וכל הרוצה לראות בא לראות חוץ מעבדיה ושפחותיה מפני שלבה גס בהן וכל הנשים מותרות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר גמדא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אתיא תורה תורה כתיב הכא (במדבר ה, ל) ועשה לה הכהן את כל התורה וכתיב התם (דברים יז, יא) על פי התורה אשר יורוך מה להלן בשבעים ואחד אף כאן בשבעים ואחד,ומאיימין עליה וכו' ורמינהו כדרך שמאיימין עליה שלא תשתה כך מאיימין עליה שתשתה אומרים לה בתי אם ברור לך הדבר שטהורה את עמדי על בורייך ושתי לפי שאין מים המרים דומין אלא לסם יבש שמונח על בשר חי אם יש שם מכה מחלחל ויורד אין שם מכה אינו מועיל כלום,לא קשיא כאן קודם שנמחקה מגילה כאן לאחר שנמחקה מגילה,ואומר לפניה וכו' ת"ר אומר לפניה דברים של הגדה ומעשים שאירעו בכתובים הראשונים כגון (איוב טו, יח) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם,יהודה הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ראובן הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ומה שכרן מה שכרן כדקא אמרינן אלא מה שכרן בעולם הזה (איוב טו, יט) להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר זר בתוכם,בשלמא ביהודה אשכחן דאודי דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני אלא ראובן מנלן דאודי,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו. של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי גרם לראובן שהודה יהודה וזאת ליהודה,מיד (דברים לג, ז) שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא ולא הוה קא מעיילין ליה למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו ולא הוה קא ידע משקל ומטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה קא סלקא ליה שמעתא אליבא דהילכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,בשלמא יהודה דאודי כי היכי דלא תישרף תמר אלא ראובן למה ליה דאודי והאמר רב ששת חציף עלי (בר ישראל) דמפריט חטאיה כי היכי דלא ליחשדו אחוהי,אם אמרה טמאה אני וכו' שמעת מינה כותבין שובר,אמר אביי תני מקרעת א"ל רבא והא שוברת קתני אלא אמר רבא במקום שאין כותבין כתובה עסקינן,ואם אמרה טהורה אני מעלין אותה לשערי מזרח מעלין אותה 7b. bor chokers [ ikatliyot /i],or bnose rings, orfinger brings, they removed them from her in order to render her unattractive. And afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropefashioned from palm fibers, band he would tie it above her breasts. /b, bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may come to watch, except for her slaves and maidservants,who are not permitted to watch bbecause her heart is emboldened by them,as seeing one’s slaves reinforces one’s feeling of pride, and their presence may cause her to maintain her innocence. bAnd all of the women are permitted to watch her, as it is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks concerning the ihalakhathat the isotais brought before the Sanhedrin: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the words b“ itora /i”and b“ itora /i.”It bis written here,with regard to a isota /i: b“And the priest shall execute upon her all this law [ itora /i]”(Numbers 5:30), bandit bis written there,with regard to a rebellious Elder, who must go to the place chosen by God and follow the ruling of the Sanhedrin: b“According to the law [ itora /i] that they shall teach you”(Deuteronomy 17:11). bJust as therethe verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges, bso too here,with regard to a isota /i, the verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd they threaten herin order that she admit her sin, to obviate the need to erase God’s name. bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraitain the iTosefta(1:6): bIn the same manner that they threaten her so that she will not drink, so too, they threaten her so that she will drink,as bthey say to her: My daughter, if the matter is clear to you that you are pure, arise forthe sake of byour clearposition band drink.If you are innocent you have nothing to fear, bbecause the bitter water is similar only to a dry poison placed on the flesh. If there is a woundthere, the poison will bpenetrate and enterthe blood stream, but if bthere is no wound there, it does not have any effect.This teaches that the woman is warned not to drink if she is guilty, but if she is not guilty she is encouraged to drink. There is no mention of the latter in the mishna.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe mishna is referring to bbefore the scroll was erased,and at that point the woman is warned only not to drink if she is guilty, so that the name of God will not be erased. bTherethe ibaraitais referring to bafter the scroll was erased.Then she is warned that if she is innocent she should drink because if she now refuses to drink, it will turn out that the scroll was erased for no purpose.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe judge bsays in her presencematters that are not worthy of being heard by her and all her father’s family in order to encourage her to admit her sin. The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat details what was said. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The judge bsays in her presence words of homileticalinterpretation bandmentions bincidents that happenedto previous generations that are recorded bin the earlyprophetic bwritings. For example,they expound the following verse: b“That wise men told and did not hide from their fathers”(Job 15:18); this teaches that even during the time of the forefathers, there were people who admitted their sins despite the shame they incurred.,For example, bJudah admittedthat he sinned with Tamar band was not embarrassedto do so, and bwhat was his end? He inherited the life of the World-to-Come. Reuben admittedthat he lay with his father’s concubine Bilhah band was not embarrassed,and bwhat was his end? Hetoo binherited the life of the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bAnd what is their reward?The Gemara interjects: bWhat is their reward?Their reward was clearly bas we say,that they inherited the life of the World-to-Come. The Gemara clarifies: bRather,the second question was: bWhat is their reward in this world?The Gemara answers by citing the next verse in the book of Job: b“To them alone the land was given, and no stranger passed among them”(Job 15:19). Judah was given the kingship, and Reuben inherited a portion of land in the Transjordan before the other tribes.,The Gemara questions the source for Reuben’s admission. bGranted, with regard to Judah we have founda source bthat he admittedhis sin with Tamar, bas it is written: “And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I”(Genesis 38:26). Judah admitted that he was the one who had impregnated Tamar. bBut from where do wederive bthat Reuben admittedhis sin?,The Gemara answers: It is bas Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward, in the following verse, it is stated: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa says: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses arose and asked for compassion onJudah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he admithis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same. Moses continues in the next verse: b“And this for Judah,”as if to say: Is this Judah’s reward for serving as an example of confessing to one’s sins, that his bones roll around?, bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ishafa /i],and his skeleton was reassembled. bButthe angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, bbut hestill bdid not knowhow bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith theheavenly bsages.Moses then prayed: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The Gemara discusses the propriety of admitting one’s sins in public. bGranted,with regard to bJudah,it was proper bthat he admittedhis sin in public, as he did so bin order that Tamar not be burnedinnocently. bBut why did Reuben admithis sin in public? bBut didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Iconsider one bwho specifies his sinsin public to be bbrazen,as one who does so indicates that he is not embarrassed by his actions? The Gemara answers: The reason he admitted his sin in public was bin order that his brothers should not be suspectedof having committed the deed.,§ The mishna teaches: bIfafter the judge’s warning bshe says: I am defiled,she writes a receipt for her marriage contract. The Gemara comments: bYoucan blearn from thismishna bthat one writes a receiptto serve as proof that a debt has been paid rather than tearing the promissory note. This matter is the subject of a dispute between the itanna’imin tractate iBava Batra(170b)., bAbaye said: Teachin the mishna differently. Rather than understanding that she writes a receipt, explain it to mean: bShe tearsher marriage contract. bRava said to him: Butthe mishna bteachesexplicitly that bshe writes a receipt. Rather,to explain the mishna, bRava said: We are dealing with a place inwhich bthey do not write a marriage contract,as they rely on the rabbinical ordice that all wives are entitled to the sum of a standard marriage contract upon divorce or being widowed, even if no marriage contract has been written. Because there is no marriage contract to tear, a receipt is written so that the man can prove that he no longer has a monetary obligation. However, generally, it is possible that the document would be torn, and no proof can be adduced from this mishna.,§ The mishna teaches: bBut ifafter the warning bshemaintains her innocence and bsays: I am pure, theywould bbring her up to the Eastern Gate.The Gemara asks: Would bthey bring her up? /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. היינו מטופל ואין לו היינו ביתו ריקם אמר רב חסדא זהו שביתו ריקם מן העבירה: ופרקו נאה אמר אביי זה שלא יצא (לו) שם רע בילדותו,(ירמיהו יב, ח) היתה לי נחלתי כאריה ביער נתנה עלי בקולה על כן שנאתיה מאי נתנה עלי בקולה אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רבי חמא אמר רבי אלעזר זה שליח צבור (היורד לפני התיבה שאינו הגון):,ואומר לפניהם עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש: הני שש שבע הוויין כדתנן על השביעית הוא אומר ברוך מרחם על הארץ אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי שביעית שביעית לארוכה,כדתניא בגואל ישראל מאריך ובחותמה הוא אומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו בני אהרן הריעו וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו:,במה דברים אמורים בגבולין אבל במקדש אינו כן לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש,שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ה) קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם עד העולם ויברכו שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה יכול על כל ברכות כולן לא תהא אלא תהלה אחת ת"ל ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה תן לו תהלה,ואלא במקדש מהו אומר ברוך ה' אלהים אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו הכהנים בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל זוכר הנשכחות והם עונים אחריו בשכמל"ו וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו הכהנים בני אהרן הריעו וכו' וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שגומר את כולן,וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר לפני חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית,ואית דאמרי כדתניא אומר לפניהן עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש ואותן שש היכן אומרן בין גואל לרופא חולי ומאריך בגאולה והן עונין אחריו אמן על כל ברכה וברכה וכך היו נוהגין בגבולין,אבל במקדש היו אומרים ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל ולא היו עונין אחריו אמן וכל כך למה לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש שנאמר קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם ועד העולם ויברכו (את) שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה וברכה תן לו תהלה:,תנו רבנן על הראשונות הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר תקעו כהנים תקעו וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה (והן תוקעין ומריעין ותוקעין) ועל השניה הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,וחזן הכנסת אומר הריעו בני אהרן הריעו ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה והם מריעין ותוקעין ומריעין וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שיגמור את הברכות כולן וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר אצל חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית:,ר' יהודה אומר לא היה צריך לומר זכרונות כו': א"ר אדא דמן יפו מאי טעמא דר' יהודה לפי שאין אומרים זכרונות ושופרות 16b. The Gemara asks a question concerning the explanation of Rabbi Yehuda: One who has bdependentchildren band does not haveanything with which to support them bisapparently bthe same asone whose bhouse is empty.Why does Rabbi Yehuda list both descriptions? bRav Ḥisda said: Thisexpression means bthat his house is empty of transgression. AndRabbi Yehuda further said that the prayer leader must be one bwhose youth was becoming.In explanation of this phrase, bAbaye said: Thisis bone who did not have a bad reputationat any time bduring his youth. /b,The Gemara cites a verse in relation to the prayer leader: b“My heritage has become to me as a lion in the forest. She has uttered her voice against me; therefore I have hated her”(Jeremiah 12:8). bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“She has uttered her voice against me”? Mar Zutra bar Toviyya saidthat bRav said, and some say Rabbi Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: This is an unworthy prayer leader who descends before the ark.When this person calls out to God, He thinks, so to speak: I hate the sound of his prayer.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe prayer leader brecites twenty-four blessings before them:The beighteenblessings bofthe beveryday iAmidaprayer, bto which he adds another sixblessings. The Gemara asks: Are bthese sixblessings? In fact, bthey are seven, as we learnedin a mishna: bFor the seventh he recites,Blessed are You, Lord, bWho has mercy on the Land. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of the bseventhblessing? This is referring to the bseventh for length,i.e., there were actually six new blessings, but as the prayer leader lengthens the sixth weekday blessing it is considered an additional blessing., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bInthe blessing of: bRedeemer of Israel,the prayer leader blengthensthe blessing, band for its conclusion he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessedare You, Lord, bRedeemer of Israel. Andthe community banswers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blowa long, unwavering sound, bsons of Aaron, blow. /b, bAndthe prayer leader bresumes and recitesthe second blessing, concluding: bHe Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessedare You, Lord, bWho remembers the forgotten. Andthe community banswers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blasta wavering sound, bsons of Aaron, blast. And similarly,this is the procedure bfor each and everyadditional bblessing: After oneblessing bhe says: Blowa long, unwavering sound, band afterthe next bone he says: Blasta wavering sound.,The Gemara asks: bIn whatcase bis this statement said?This method applies bin the outlying areas,i.e., everywhere except in the Temple. bHowever, in the Templeitself this bis notthe correct procedure, bas one does not answer amen in the Temple.Instead, one responds with a long blessing. The Gemara inquires: bAnd from whereis it derived bthat one does not answer amen in the Temple? /b,The Gemara answers: bAs it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise”(Nehemiah 9:5). One bmighthave thought that bfor all blessings there should be only one praise,i.e., all blessings are answered with amen. Therefore, bthe verse states: “That is exalted above all [ ial kol /i] blessing and praise,”which indicates that bfor every [ ial kol /i] blessing,you should bgive itits own bpraise. /b, bButif so, bin the Temple, whatwould the prayer leader brecite?He would conclude the blessing: bBlessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessedare You, Lord, bRedeemer of Israel. Andinstead of amen, bthey answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blow, priests, sons of Aaron, blow. /b, bAndthe prayer leader bresumes and recitesthe second blessing, concluding: bHe Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, Who remembers the forgotten. Andthe community banswers after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blast, priests, sons of Aaron, blast, etc. And similarly,this is the procedure bfor each and everyadditional bblessing: After oneblessing bhe says: Blowa long, unwavering sound, band afterthe next bone he says: Blasta wavering sound, buntil he concludes allthe blessings.,§ The Gemara relates: bAnd this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established inthe city of bTzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon inthe city of bSikhni. And whenthis bmatter came before the Sages, they said: They would actin accordance with bthis custom only at the Eastern Gateof the Temple band on the Temple Mount,but not outside the Temple., bAndsome bsaythat they acted bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAnd he recites twenty-four blessings before them:The beighteenblessings bofthe beveryday iAmidaprayer, bto which he adds another sixblessings. bAnd thoseextra bsix, where does he recite them? Betweenthe blessings: bRedeemerof Israel, band: Healer of the sick. And he lengthensthe earlier prayer bof redemption, andthe congregation banswers amen after him, for each and every blessing. And this was the custom in the outlying areas,outside the Temple., bHowever, in the Temple they would recite: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessedare You, Lord, bRedeemer of Israel, and they would not answer amen after him. And whydid the practice differ bso much? Because one does not answer amen in the Temple. And from whereis it derived bthat one does not answer amen in the Temple? As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious Name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise”(Nehemiah 9:5). As stated above, this verse indicates that bfor every blessing,you should bgive itits own bpraise. /b, bThe Sages taught: Inconcluding bthe firstblessing bhe recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessedare You, Lord, bRedeemer of Israel, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says: Blow, priests, blow. And he resumesthe blessings band recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blowa long, unwavering sound, band blasta wavering sound, band blow. And for the secondblessing bhe recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting, who remembers the forgotten, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. /b, bAnd the sexton says: Blast, sons of Aaron, blast. And he recites: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow, and blast, and blow. And similarly, for each and every blessing: After one he says: Blow, and afterthe next bone he says: Blast, until he concludes all of them. And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon in Sikhni. And whenthis bmatter came before the Sages, they said: They would actin accordance with bthis custom only at the Eastern Gate and on the Temple Mount. /b,§ The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader bdid not need to recitethe bRemembrancesand iShofarotpassages. Instead, he recited verses dealing with famine and suffering. bRabbi Adda from Jaffa said: What is Rabbi Yehuda’s reason?Rabbi Yehuda maintains bthat one recites Remembrances and iShofarot/b
34. Quran, Quran, 11.42, 11.44, 11.48-11.49, 11.54, 11.59, 11.61-11.81, 21.30-21.47, 21.51-21.67, 21.71, 21.73-21.74, 21.78-21.81, 21.85, 21.87, 21.91, 33.40 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

11.42. وَهِيَ تَجْرِي بِهِمْ فِي مَوْجٍ كَالْجِبَالِ وَنَادَى نُوحٌ ابْنَهُ وَكَانَ فِي مَعْزِلٍ يَا بُنَيَّ ارْكَبْ مَعَنَا وَلَا تَكُنْ مَعَ الْكَافِرِينَ 11.44. وَقِيلَ يَا أَرْضُ ابْلَعِي مَاءَكِ وَيَا سَمَاءُ أَقْلِعِي وَغِيضَ الْمَاءُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَاسْتَوَتْ عَلَى الْجُودِيِّ وَقِيلَ بُعْدًا لِلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ 11.48. قِيلَ يَا نُوحُ اهْبِطْ بِسَلَامٍ مِنَّا وَبَرَكَاتٍ عَلَيْكَ وَعَلَى أُمَمٍ مِمَّنْ مَعَكَ وَأُمَمٌ سَنُمَتِّعُهُمْ ثُمَّ يَمَسُّهُمْ مِنَّا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ 11.49. تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنْبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَ مَا كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُهَا أَنْتَ وَلَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْ قَبْلِ هَذَا فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ الْعَاقِبَةَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ 11.54. إِنْ نَقُولُ إِلَّا اعْتَرَاكَ بَعْضُ آلِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ قَالَ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ وَاشْهَدُوا أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ 11.59. وَتِلْكَ عَادٌ جَحَدُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَعَصَوْا رُسُلَهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَمْرَ كُلِّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ 11.61. وَإِلَى ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرُهُ هُوَ أَنْشَأَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ وَاسْتَعْمَرَكُمْ فِيهَا فَاسْتَغْفِرُوهُ ثُمَّ تُوبُوا إِلَيْهِ إِنَّ رَبِّي قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ 11.62. قَالُوا يَا صَالِحُ قَدْ كُنْتَ فِينَا مَرْجُوًّا قَبْلَ هَذَا أَتَنْهَانَا أَنْ نَعْبُدَ مَا يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا وَإِنَّنَا لَفِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا تَدْعُونَا إِلَيْهِ مُرِيبٍ 11.63. قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّي وَآتَانِي مِنْهُ رَحْمَةً فَمَنْ يَنْصُرُنِي مِنَ اللَّهِ إِنْ عَصَيْتُهُ فَمَا تَزِيدُونَنِي غَيْرَ تَخْسِيرٍ 11.64. وَيَا قَوْمِ هَذِهِ نَاقَةُ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ آيَةً فَذَرُوهَا تَأْكُلْ فِي أَرْضِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوءٍ فَيَأْخُذَكُمْ عَذَابٌ قَرِيبٌ 11.65. فَعَقَرُوهَا فَقَالَ تَمَتَّعُوا فِي دَارِكُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ وَعْدٌ غَيْرُ مَكْذُوبٍ 11.66. فَلَمَّا جَاءَ أَمْرُنَا نَجَّيْنَا صَالِحًا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنَّا وَمِنْ خِزْيِ يَوْمِئِذٍ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ الْقَوِيُّ الْعَزِيزُ 11.67. وَأَخَذَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا الصَّيْحَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دِيَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ 11.68. كَأَنْ لَمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا أَلَا إِنَّ ثَمُودَ كَفَرُوا رَبَّهُمْ أَلَا بُعْدًا لِثَمُودَ 11.69. وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِالْبُشْرَى قَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ سَلَامٌ فَمَا لَبِثَ أَنْ جَاءَ بِعِجْلٍ حَنِيذٍ 11.71. وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِنْ وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوبَ 11.72. قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتَى أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوزٌ وَهَذَا بَعْلِي شَيْخًا إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيبٌ 11.73. قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ 11.74. فَلَمَّا ذَهَبَ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الرَّوْعُ وَجَاءَتْهُ الْبُشْرَى يُجَادِلُنَا فِي قَوْمِ لُوطٍ 11.75. إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَحَلِيمٌ أَوَّاهٌ مُنِيبٌ 11.76. يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ أَعْرِضْ عَنْ هَذَا إِنَّهُ قَدْ جَاءَ أَمْرُ رَبِّكَ وَإِنَّهُمْ آتِيهِمْ عَذَابٌ غَيْرُ مَرْدُودٍ 11.77. وَلَمَّا جَاءَتْ رُسُلُنَا لُوطًا سِيءَ بِهِمْ وَضَاقَ بِهِمْ ذَرْعًا وَقَالَ هَذَا يَوْمٌ عَصِيبٌ 11.78. وَجَاءَهُ قَوْمُهُ يُهْرَعُونَ إِلَيْهِ وَمِنْ قَبْلُ كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ هَؤُلَاءِ بَنَاتِي هُنَّ أَطْهَرُ لَكُمْ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُخْزُونِ فِي ضَيْفِي أَلَيْسَ مِنْكُمْ رَجُلٌ رَشِيدٌ 11.79. قَالُوا لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا لَنَا فِي بَنَاتِكَ مِنْ حَقٍّ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَعْلَمُ مَا نُرِيدُ 11.81. قَالُوا يَا لُوطُ إِنَّا رُسُلُ رَبِّكَ لَنْ يَصِلُوا إِلَيْكَ فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَكَ إِنَّهُ مُصِيبُهَا مَا أَصَابَهُمْ إِنَّ مَوْعِدَهُمُ الصُّبْحُ أَلَيْسَ الصُّبْحُ بِقَرِيبٍ 21.31. وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ 21.32. وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا مَحْفُوظًا وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ 21.33. وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ 21.34. وَمَا جَعَلْنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ الْخُلْدَ أَفَإِنْ مِتَّ فَهُمُ الْخَالِدُونَ 21.35. كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ وَنَبْلُوكُمْ بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً وَإِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ 21.36. وَإِذَا رَآكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ يَتَّخِذُونَكَ إِلَّا هُزُوًا أَهَذَا الَّذِي يَذْكُرُ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَهُمْ بِذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَنِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ 21.37. خُلِقَ الْإِنْسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ سَأُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِي فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونِ 21.38. وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَذَا الْوَعْدُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ 21.39. لَوْ يَعْلَمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا حِينَ لَا يَكُفُّونَ عَنْ وُجُوهِهِمُ النَّارَ وَلَا عَنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ 21.41. وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ 21.42. قُلْ مَنْ يَكْلَؤُكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَنِ بَلْ هُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ رَبِّهِمْ مُعْرِضُونَ 21.43. أَمْ لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ تَمْنَعُهُمْ مِنْ دُونِنَا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ نَصْرَ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ مِنَّا يُصْحَبُونَ 21.44. بَلْ مَتَّعْنَا هَؤُلَاءِ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّى طَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنْقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا أَفَهُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ 21.45. قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُنْذِرُكُمْ بِالْوَحْيِ وَلَا يَسْمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا مَا يُنْذَرُونَ 21.46. وَلَئِنْ مَسَّتْهُمْ نَفْحَةٌ مِنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّكَ لَيَقُولُنَّ يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ 21.47. وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا وَإِنْ كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا وَكَفَى بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ 21.51. وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ رُشْدَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا بِهِ عَالِمِينَ 21.52. إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنْتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ 21.53. قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ 21.54. قَالَ لَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ أَنْتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ 21.55. قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا بِالْحَقِّ أَمْ أَنْتَ مِنَ اللَّاعِبِينَ 21.56. قَالَ بَلْ رَبُّكُمْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الَّذِي فَطَرَهُنَّ وَأَنَا عَلَى ذَلِكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ 21.57. وَتَاللَّهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُمْ بَعْدَ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا مُدْبِرِينَ 21.58. فَجَعَلَهُمْ جُذَاذًا إِلَّا كَبِيرًا لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ 21.59. قَالُوا مَنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ 21.61. قَالُوا فَأْتُوا بِهِ عَلَى أَعْيُنِ النَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْهَدُونَ 21.62. قَالُوا أَأَنْتَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ 21.63. قَالَ بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هَذَا فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِنْ كَانُوا يَنْطِقُونَ 21.64. فَرَجَعُوا إِلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ فَقَالُوا إِنَّكُمْ أَنْتُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ 21.65. ثُمَّ نُكِسُوا عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا هَؤُلَاءِ يَنْطِقُونَ 21.66. قَالَ أَفَتَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمْ 21.67. أُفٍّ لَكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ 21.71. وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَلُوطًا إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا لِلْعَالَمِينَ 21.73. وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ 21.74. وَلُوطًا آتَيْنَاهُ حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تَعْمَلُ الْخَبَائِثَ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمَ سَوْءٍ فَاسِقِينَ 21.78. وَدَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمَانِ فِي الْحَرْثِ إِذْ نَفَشَتْ فِيهِ غَنَمُ الْقَوْمِ وَكُنَّا لِحُكْمِهِمْ شَاهِدِينَ 21.79. فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ وَكُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ 21.81. وَلِسُلَيْمَانَ الرِّيحَ عَاصِفَةً تَجْرِي بِأَمْرِهِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا وَكُنَّا بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَالِمِينَ 21.85. وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِدْرِيسَ وَذَا الْكِفْلِ كُلٌّ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ 21.87. وَذَا النُّونِ إِذْ ذَهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ نَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ فَنَادَى فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ 21.91. وَالَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ رُوحِنَا وَجَعَلْنَاهَا وَابْنَهَا آيَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ
35. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 11.17



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 77
amoraim, babylonian, increasing palestinian influences Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
anderson, gary a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
angel Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 77
angels, angel of the presence Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
angels Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
atonement, old nan
atonement, sanctions of nan
authority, conferring strategies xviii Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
authority, divine Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
authority, interpretive strategies Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
authority, scripture Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
belial Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 35, 36, 37
beliar Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 269
blessings Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 85, 86, 87, 88, 97, 114
cainan Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
child, childhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 85, 86, 87, 88
circumcision, eighth–day Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 77
commandment Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218, 225
covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101
creation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
dead sea scrolls Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218, 225
death Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
demons Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 269
deuteronomistic tradition Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 86
divine, torah/law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
egypt(ian) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218
enoch, traditions Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
evil spirits Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 34, 37
exile, babylonian Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
exile Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 86, 87
exorcisms Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 34
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88, 114
flesh Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
flood Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
foreign marriage Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
geez Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
glory, of god Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218
god, yhwh Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88, 97
griffith, sidney h. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
halakhah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101
heavenly tablets Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
hebrews, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
henshke, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
hillers, delbert r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
hultgren, stephen Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101
hypocrites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
innovation (bida), prophecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
israel, israelites Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus, view of, as gods emissary Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
john the baptist Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
josephus, portrayal of role of god Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
jubilees, and covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101
jubilees, and quran Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
jubilees, literary unit Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 269
jubilees Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
judaism, rabbinic judaism/rabbinic literature Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
law of nature Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
licht, jacob Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
lords prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
luke, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
matthew, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
metaphor, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88
milik, j. t. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
moses Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
mroczek, eva Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
muhammad Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
najman, hindy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100, 101
nathans promise Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 88
orality Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
pharisees/pharisaism Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218, 225
prayer, and benediction Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 593
prayer, definition of Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33
prayer, of abraham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33, 34
prayer, of moses Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
prayer, of noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33, 34, 37
prayer, requests of god Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 593
prayer/praying, intercession Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
priestly writer Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 77
prophecy, in quran Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
prophet(ess)/prophecy/prophetic Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
pseudepigraphy Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
qimron, elisha Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
qumran Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 114; Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 593; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 34
quran, and jubilees Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
quran, as rewritten scripture Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
quran Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
sabbath Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 114
salvation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
second temple, era Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33
shavuot, ritual Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 33, 37
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 593
shem Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
sin Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218
sinai, tradition Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
sinai Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
sinai narratives Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 86
slaves, food allowance Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 593
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 85, 86, 87, 88, 97
soul; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218
spirit, characterizations as, angelic or daemonic beings Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 218
spirit, characterizations as, wind Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
spirit, effects of, breath of life' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 225
stegemann, hartmut Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
tablets, heavenly tablets Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
tablets, stone tablets Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
torah, blessing of (ברכת התורה) Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
torah, conceptualization of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
torah, mosaic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
torah, two torot, double torah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
torah, written torah/oral torah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74
tzoref, shani Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
van ruiten, jacques Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
vanderkam, james c. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
watchers Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 37
weber, max, weeks, festival of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
werman, cana Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 101
wieder, naphtali Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 100
worship, terms denoting worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
writing, authoritative Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
writing, pre-sinaitic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
writing, primordial Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
writing, sacred Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 64
writing Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 74