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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



851
Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.9


nanAnd Joseph saw her and his heart went out to her -- for Joseph was tender-hearted and compassionate and feared the Lord.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.14, 16.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.14. וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל וְהִנֵּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַמִּדְבָּר דַּק מְחֻסְפָּס דַּק כַּכְּפֹר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 16.31. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־שְׁמוֹ מָן וְהוּא כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן וְטַעְמוֹ כְּצַפִּיחִת בִּדְבָשׁ׃ 16.14. And when the layer of dew was gone up, behold upon the face of the wilderness a fine, scale-like thing, fine as the hoar-frost on the ground." 16.31. And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.8, 2.15, 2.19, 41.45, 41.50-41.52, 46.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 41.45. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.51. וַיִּקְרָא יוֹסֵף אֶת־שֵׁם הַבְּכוֹר מְנַשֶּׁה כִּי־נַשַּׁנִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־עֲמָלִי וְאֵת כָּל־בֵּית אָבִי׃ 41.52. וְאֵת שֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִי קָרָא אֶפְרָיִם כִּי־הִפְרַנִי אֱלֹהִים בְּאֶרֶץ עָנְיִי׃ 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 41.45. And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—" 41.50. And unto Joseph were born two sons before the year of famine came, whom Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On bore unto him." 41.51. And Joseph called the name of the first-born Manasseh: ‘for God hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father’s house.’" 41.52. And the name of the second called he Ephraim: ‘for God hath made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.’" 46.20. And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On bore unto him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.9. וּבְרֶדֶת הַטַּל עַל־הַמַּחֲנֶה לָיְלָה יֵרֵד הַמָּן עָלָיו׃ 11.9. And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 24.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.12. כִּי־תֹאמַר הֵן לֹא־יָדַעְנוּ זֶה הֲ‍לֹא־תֹכֵן לִבּוֹת הוּא־יָבִין וְנֹצֵר נַפְשְׁךָ הוּא יֵדָע וְהֵשִׁיב לְאָדָם כְּפָעֳלוֹ׃ 24.12. If thou sayest: ‘Behold, we knew not this’, Doth not He that weigheth the hearts consider it? And He that keepeth thy soul, doth not He know it? And shall not He render to every man according to his works?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.16. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 10.16. Not like these is the portion of Jacob; For He is the former of all things, And Israel is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name."
6. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38.2, 39.4-39.5, 45.3, 102.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

38.2. And when the Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the righteous, Whose elect works hang upon the Lord of Spirits, And light shall appear to the righteous and the elect who dwell on the earth,Where then will be the dwelling of the sinners,And where the resting-place of those who have denied the Lord of Spirits It had been good for them if they had not been born. 39.4. And there I saw another vision, the dwelling-places of the holy, And the resting-places of the righteous. 39.5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with His righteous angels, And their resting-places with the holy.And they petitioned and interceded and prayed for the children of men, And righteousness flowed before them as water,And mercy like dew upon the earth: Thus it is amongst them for ever and ever. 45.3. On that day Mine Elect One shall sit on the throne of glory And shall try their works, And their places of rest shall be innumerable.And their souls shall grow strong within them when they see Mine Elect Ones, And those who have called upon My glorious name: 102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.
7. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Testament of Levi, 18.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.9. And in his priesthood the Gentiles shall be multiplied in knowledge upon the earth, And enlightened through the grace of the Lord: In his priesthood shall sin come to an end, And the lawless shall cease to do evil. [And the just shall rest in him.]
9. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 176-186, 175 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

175. The most holy Moses, being a lover of virtue, and of honour, and, above all things, of the human race, expects all men everywhere to show themselves admirers of piety and of justice, proposing to them, as to conquerors, great rewards if they repent, namely, a participation in the best of all constitutions, and an enjoyment of all things, whether great or small, which are to be found in it.
11. Anon., 2 Baruch, 73.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. καὶ γινώσκετε, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι ἡ ἐπιδημία ἡ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης μικρά ἐστιν καὶ ὀλιγοχρόνιος, ἡ δὲ ἐπαγγελία τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνάπαυσις τῆς μελλούσης βασιλείας καὶ ζωῆς αἰωνίου.
13. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
14. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
15. New Testament, Galatians, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. Is the law thenagainst the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a lawgiven which could make alive, most assuredly righteousness would havebeen of the law.
16. New Testament, Hebrews, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. For he who has entered into his rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from his.
17. New Testament, Romans, 6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, John, 5.21, 6.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life.
19. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 1.14-1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel.
20. New Testament, Matthew, 11.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls.
21. Anon., The Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
22. Anon., Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
23. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.16, 11.21, 11.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.16. After the great priest had prophesied in this manner, he, regaining his breath, made a conclusion of his words. Then I went amongst the rest of the company and followed the procession. Everyone of the people knew me and, pointing at me with their fingers, spoke in this way, “Behold him who was this day transformed into a man by the power of the sovereign goddess. Verily he is blessed and most blessed, who has merited such great grace from heaven both because of the innocence of his former life. He has been reborn in the service of the goddess. In the meantime, little by little we approached near to the sea cost, near that place where I lay the night before, still an ass. Thereafter the images and relics were disposed in order. The great priest was surrounded by various pictures according to the fashion of the Aegyptians. He dedicated and consecrated with certain prayers a fair ship made very cunningly, and purified it with a torch, an egg, and sulfur. The sail was of white linen cloth on which was written certain letters which testified that the navigation would be prosperous. The mast was of a great length, made of a pine tree, round and very excellent with a shining top. The cabin was covered over with coverings of gold, and the whole ship was made of citron tree, very fair. Then all the people, religious as well as profane, took a great number of baskets filled with odors and pleasant smells and threw them into the sea, mingled with milk, until the ship was filled with many gifts and prosperous devotions. Then, with a pleasant wind, the ship was launched out into the deep. But when they had lost the sight of the ship, every man carried again that he brought, and went toward the temple in like procession and order as they had come to the sea side. 11.21. This done, I retired to the service of the goddess in hope of greater benefits. I considered that I had received a sign and token whereby my courage increased more and more each day to take up the orders and sacraments of the temple. Thus I often communed with the priest, desiring him greatly to give me the degree of the religion. But he, a man of gravity and well-renowned in the order of priesthood, deferred my desire from day to day. He comforted me and gave me better hope, just like as parents who commonly bridle the desires of their children when they attempt or endeavor any unprofitable thing. He said that the day when any one would be admitted into their order is appointed by the goddess. He said that the priest who would minister the sacrifice is chosen by her providence, and the necessary charges of the ceremonies is allotted by her command. Regarding all these things he urged me to attend with marvelous patience, and he told me that I should beware either of too much haste or too great slackness. He said that there was like danger if, being called, I should delay or, not being called. I should be hasty. Moreover he said that there were none in his company either of so desperate a mind or who were so rash and hardy that they would attempt anything without the command of the goddess. If anyone were to do so, he should commit a deadly offence, considering how it was in the power of the goddess to condemn and save all persons. And if anyone should be at the point of death and on the path to damnation, so that he might be capable of receiving the secrets of the goddess, it was in her power by divine providence to reduce him to the path of health, as though by a certain kind of regeneration. Finally he said that I must attend the celestial precept, although it was evident and plain that the goddess had already vouchsafed to call and appoint me to her ministry. He urged me to refrain from profane and unlawful foods just like those priests who had already been received. This was so that I might come more apt and clean to the knowledge of the secrets of religion. 11.24. When morning came, and that the solemnities were finished, I came forth sanctified with twelve robes and in a religious habit. I am not forbidden to speak of this since many persons saw me at that time. There I was commanded to stand upon a seat of wood which stood in the middle of the temple before the image of the goddess. My vestment was of fine linen, covered and embroidered with flowers. I had a precious cloak upon my shoulders hung down to the ground. On it were depicted beasts wrought of diverse colors: Indian dragons and Hyperborean griffins which the other world engenders in the form of birds. The priests commonly call such a habit a celestial robe. In my right hand I carried a lit torch. There was a garland of flowers upon my head with palm leaves sprouting out on every side. I was adorned like un the sun and made in fashion of an image such that all the people came up to behold me. Then they began to solemnize the feast of the nativity and the new procession, with sumptuous banquets and delicacies. The third day was likewise celebrated with like ceremonies with a religious dinner, and with all the consummation of the order. After I had stayed there a good space, I conceived a marvelous pleasure and consolation in beholding the image of the goddess. She at length urged me to depart homeward. I rendered my thanks which, although not sufficient, yet they were according to my power. However, I could not be persuaded to depart before I had fallen prostrate before the face of the goddess and wiped her steps with my face. Then I began greatly to weep and sigh (so uch so that my words were interrupted) and, as though devouring my prayer, I began to speak in this way:
24. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.16.1, 5.30.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי יוחנן השכים ונפל פסוק לתוך פיו הרי זה נבואה קטנה תנו רבנן שלשה מלכים הם הרואה דוד בחלום יצפה לחסידות שלמה יצפה לחכמה אחאב ידאג מן הפורענות,ג' נביאים הם הרואה ספר מלכים יצפה לגדולה יחזקאל יצפה לחכמה ישעיה יצפה לנחמה ירמיה ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים גדולים הם הרואה ספר תהלים יצפה לחסידות משלי יצפה לחכמה איוב ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים קטנים הם הרואה שיר השירים בחלום יצפה לחסידות קהלת יצפה לחכמה קינות ידאג מן הפורענות הרואה מגלת אסתר נס נעשה לו,שלשה חכמים הם הרואה רבי בחלום יצפה לחכמה ראב"ע יצפה לעשירות רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה תלמידי חכמים הם הרואה בן עזאי בחלום יצפה לחסידות בן זומא יצפה לחכמה אחר ידאג מן הפורענות,כל מיני חיות יפות לחלום חוץ מן הפיל והקוף והקפוד והאמר מר הרואה פיל בחלום פלא נעשה לו לא קשיא הא דמסרג הא דלא מסרג,כל מיני מתכת יפין לחלום חוץ ממר פסל וקרדום והני מילי דחזנהו בקתייהו כל מיני פירות יפין לחלום חוץ מפגי תמרה כל מיני ירקות יפין לחלום חוץ מראשי לפתות והאמר רב לא איעתרי עד דחזאי ראשי לפתות כי חזא בכנייהו חזא כל מיני צבעונין יפין לחלום חוץ מן התכלת כל מיני עופות יפין לחלום חוץ מן קריא וקפופא וקורפראי:,[הגו"ף הגו"ף מעי"ן משיבי"ן ומרחיבי"ן סימן]:,ג' נכנסין לגוף ואין הגוף נהנה מהן גודגדניות וכפניות ופגי תמרה שלשה אין נכנסין לגוף והגוף נהנה מהן אלו הן רחיצה וסיכה ותשמיש שלשה מעין העולם הבא אלו הן שבת שמש ותשמיש,תשמיש דמאי אילימא תשמיש המטה הא מכחש כחיש אלא תשמיש נקבים,שלשה משיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן קול ומראה וריח שלשה מרחיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן דירה נאה ואשה נאה וכלים נאים:,[חמש"ה ושש"ה ועשר"ה סימן]: חמשה אחד מששים אלו הן אש דבש ושבת ושינה וחלום אש אחד מששים לגיהנם דבש אחד מששים למן שבת אחד מששים לעולם הבא שינה אחד מששים למיתה חלום אחד מששים לנבואה,ששה דברים סימן יפה לחולה אלו הן עטוש זיעה שלשול קרי ושינה וחלום עטוש דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עטישותיו תהל אור זיעה דכתיב (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפיך תאכל לחם שלשול דכתיב (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח ולא ימות לשחת קרי דכתיב (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים שינה דכתיב (איוב ג, יג) ישנתי אז ינוח לי חלום דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני והחייני,ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתו רפואה אלו הן כרוב ותרדין וסיסין יבשין וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד וי"א אף דגים קטנים ולא עוד אלא שדגים קטנים מפרין ומברין כל גופו של אדם,עשרה דברים מחזירין את החולה לחליו וחליו קשה אלו הן האוכל בשר שור בשר שמן בשר צלי בשר צפרים וביצה צלויה ותגלחת ושחלים והחלב והגבינה והמרחץ וי"א אף אגוזים וי"א אף קשואים,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קשואים מפני שהן קשים לגוף כחרבות איני והכתיב (בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים וא"ר יהודה אמר רב אלו אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסק משלחנם לא צנון ולא חזרת ולא קשואין לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים,לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי,ת"ר מת בבית שלום בבית אכל ושתה בבית סימן יפה לבית נטל כלים מן הבית סימן רע לבית תרגמא רב פפא במסאנא וסנדלא כל דשקיל שכבא מעלי בר ממסאנא וסנדלא כל דיהיב שכבא מעלי בר מעפרא וחרדלא:,מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת גלולים: תנו רבנן הרואה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת כוכבים אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו וכשם שנעקרה ממקום זה כן תעקר מכל מקומות ישראל והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך ובח"ל אין צריך לומר והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך מפני שרובה עובדי כוכבים רשב"א אומר אף בחוץ לארץ צריך לומר כן מפני שעתידים להתגייר שנאמר (צפניה ג, ט) אז אהפוך אל עמים שפה ברורה,דרש רב המנונא הרואה בבל הרשעה צריך לברך חמש ברכות ראה בבל אומר ברוך שהחריב בבל הרשעה ראה ביתו של נבוכדנצר אומר ברוך שהחריב ביתו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ראה גוב של אריות או כבשן האש אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה ראה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו ראה מקום שנוטלין ממנו עפר אומר ברוך אומר ועושה גוזר ומקיים,רבא כי הוה חזי חמרי דשקלי עפרא טריף להו ידא על גבייהו ואמר רהוטו צדיקי למעבד רעותא דמרייכו מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מטי לבבל הוה שקיל עפרא בסודריה ושדי לברא לקיים מה שנא' (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד אמר רב אשי אנא הא דרב המנונא לא שמיע לי אלא מדעתאי בריכתינהו לכולהו 57b. bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who awakenedin the morning and ba verseimmediately bfalls into his mouth,it is ba minor prophecy. The Sages taught: There are three kingswhose appearance in a dream is significant. bOne who sees David in a dream should expect piety;one who sees bSolomon should expect wisdom;and one who sees bAhab should be concerned about calamity. /b,There are also bthree books of Prophetswhose appearance in a dream is meaningful: bOne who sees the book of Kings should anticipate greatness,royalty; one who sees the book of bEzekiel should anticipate wisdom,as the configuration of the Divine Chariot is described therein; one who sees the book of bIsaiah should anticipate consolation;and one who sees the book of bJeremiah should be concerned about calamity,because Jeremiah prophesied extensively of impending calamity.,Similarly, there are bthree greatbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream has particular significance: bOne who sees the book of Psalms should anticipate piety;one who sees the book of bProverbs should anticipate wisdom;one who sees the book of bJob should be concerned about calamity. /b, bThere arealso bthree minorbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Song of Songs in a dream should anticipate piety,as it describes God’s love for Israel; one who sees bEcclesiastes should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bLamentations should be concerned about calamity;and bone who sees the scroll of Esther,it is a sign that ba miracle will be performed on his behalf. /b, bThere are three Sageswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees RabbiYehuda HaNasi bin a dream should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya should anticipate wealth,as he was particularly wealthy; and one who sees bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha should be concerned about calamity,as he was one of the ten martyrs executed by the Romans.,There are bthree Torah scholarswho, despite their greatness in Torah, were never given the title Rabbi, and whose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Ben Azzai in a dream should anticipate piety;one who sees bBen Zoma should anticipate wisdom;and one who sees iAḥer /i,Elisha ben Avuya, bshould be concerned about calamity,as he strayed from the path of righteousness.,The Gemara says: bAll types of animals are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for an elephant, a monkey and a long-tailed ape.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t the Master say: A miracle will be performed for one who sees an elephant in a dream?The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that a vision of an elephant is a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is saddled,while bthisstatement that it is not a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is not saddled. /b,Similarly, the Gemara says: bAll types of metalutensils bare auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for a hoe, a chisel, and an axe,as these are instruments of destruction. The Gemara notes that bthis appliesspecifically bwhen they are seen on their handles.On a similar note, the Gemara says: bAll kinds of fruit are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for unripe dates. All kinds of vegetables are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for turnip heads.The Gemara challenges: bDidn’t Rav say: I did not become wealthy until I saw turnip headsin my dream? Apparently turnip heads are a good omen. The Gemara responds: bWhen Rav sawthem, bhe saw them on their stems;if one sees turnip heads already picked, it is a bad omen. Similarly, ball kinds of colors are auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for sky-blue [ itekhelet /i]. All kinds of birds are auspicioussigns in a dream bexcept for an eagle-owl, and an owl, and a ikurferai, /iall of which are nocturnal and have strange and frightening appearances.,The words: bThe body, the body, microcosm, ease,and bcomfortare bmnemonicsfor matters that the Gemara will discuss, each of which represents a list with shared qualities, similar to the lists cited above.,The Gemara says: bThreefood items benter the bodyyet bthe body does not benefit from them: Cherries, bad dates, and unripe dates.In contrast: bThreematters bdo not enter the bodyyet bthe body benefits from them, and they are: Washing, anointing, and usage [ itashmish /i],commonly used as a euphemism for conjugal relations. bThreematters bare microcosms of the World-to-Come, and they are: Sabbath, the sun and usage. /b,The Gemara asks: bUsage of whatbenefits the body and is a microcosm of the World-to-Come? bIf you saythat it refers to bconjugal relations, doesn’t that weakenthe body? bRather,it refers to busage of his orifices,relieving oneself., bThreematters bease one’s mind, and they are: Voice, sight, and smell,when they are pleasant and aesthetic. bThreematters bgive a person comfort, and they are: A beautiful abode, a beautiful wife, and beautiful vessels. /b,The numbers bfive, six, and ten are mnemonicsfor the categories to follow. The Gemara says: There are bfivematters in our world which are bone-sixtiethof their most extreme manifestations. bThey are: Fire, honey, Shabbat, sleep, and a dream.The Gemara elaborates: Our bfireis bone-sixtieth ofthe fire of bGehenna; honey is one-sixtieth of manna; Shabbat is one-sixtieth of the World-to-Come; sleep is one-sixtieth of death;and ba dream is one-sixtieth of prophecy. /b,Similarly: bSix matters are good omens for the sick: Sneezing, sweating, diarrhea, a seminal emission, sleep, and a dream.These are all alluded to in Scripture: bSneezing, as it is written: “His sneezes flash forth light”(Job 41:10), indicating that by means of a sneeze one comes to see the light of the world. bSweat, as it is written: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19). bDiarrhea, as it is written: “He that is bent down shall speedily be loosed; and he shall not go down dying into the pit”(Isaiah 51:14). bA seminal emission, as it is written: “That he might see his seed, prolong his days”(Isaiah 53:10). bSleep, as it is written: “I should have slept; then had I been at rest”(Job 3:13). bA dream, as it is written: “Wherefore You recover me [ ivataḥalimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16); ivataḥalimeniis interpreted as etymologically similar to iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly: bSix matters cure a sick person from his illness, and their cure isan effective bcure. They are: Cabbage, beets, dried foley,a medicinal plant, bthe stomach, the placenta, and the diaphragmof an animal. bSome saythat bsmall fishalso possess these qualities. bFurthermore, small fish cause one’s entire body to flourish and become healthy. /b,In contrast, bthere are ten matters thatcause a sick person who has recovered to suffer a brelapse of his illness, and his illness iseven more bsevere, and they are:Eating box meat,eating bfatty meatin general, eating broasted meat,eating bpoultry,eating ba roasted egg, shaving,eating bcress,drinking bmilk,eating bcheese, andbathing in a bbathhouse. And some sayeating bnuts, and some say eveneating bcucumbers. /b,It was btaughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishu’im /i]? Because they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to the body as swords.The Gemara asks: bIs that really so? Is it not written: “And the Lord said unto her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23) and the Gemara says: bDo not readit as igoyim /i, ratherread it as igayim /i, proud ones. And Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:This verse was fulfilled in bthesetwo great individuals who descended from Rebecca: bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,because of their wealth, bnever lacked for radish, lettuce or cucumbers, neither in summer nor in the rainy season.Apparently, cucumbers are good and are even a delicacy of kings.,The Gemara resolves: This is bnot difficult. Thisthat says they are harmful to the body refers bto large ones,while bthisthat says they were always served on the table of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus refers bto small ones. /b,With regard to dreams, bthe Sages taught:One who dreams that he sees ba corpse in his house,it is a sign of bpeace in his house.If the corpse bate and drank in the house, it is good omen for the house.If the corpse bremoved vessels from the house,it bis a bad omen for the house,as it suggests that the corpse is taking someone from the house with him. bRav Pappa explainedthis only if the dream was bwith regard to a shoe and a sandal,as that indicates that someone from the house is going to embark on a long journey. As the Sages said: bEverythingthat ba corpse takesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept a shoe and a sandal; everything that a corpse givesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept dust and mustard,which looks like dust, as they portend burial.,We learned in the mishna that one who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicatedshould recite the blessing: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. On this topic bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who seesthe idol called bMercury [ iMarkulis /i] recites: Blessed…who has shown patience to those who violate His will,as each day new rocks would be thrown upon the pile constructed in Mercury’ honor ( iTosafot /i). One who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicated should recite: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. And just as it was eradicated from this place, so too may it be eradicated from all places of Israel, and restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You. Outside of EretzYisrael, bone need not recite: And restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You, since it is predomitly populated by gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even outside of EretzYisrael bone is required to recite thatformula bbecausein the end of days all nations bwill convert, as it is stated: “For then will I turn to the peoples a pure language,that they may all call upon the Name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent” (Zephaniah 3:9).,The Gemara goes on to discuss special blessings instituted by the Sages to be recited upon seeing extraordinary sights. bRav Hamnuna taught: One who sees the wicked Babylonia must recite five blessings.The Gemara elaborates: br bOne who sawthe ruins of bBabylonia, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the wicked Babylonia.br bOne who sawthe ruins of bNebuchadnezzar’s house, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the house of wicked Nebuchadnezzar.br bOne who saw the lion’s deninto which Daniel was thrown (see Daniel ch. 6) bor the furnaceinto which Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bwere thrown(see Daniel ch. 3), brecites: Blessed…Who performed miracles for our ancestors in this place.br bOne who saw Mercury, recites: Blessed…Who has shown patience to those who violate His will.br bOne who saw a place from which earth is taken,as over the generations earth was taken from certain places and used as fertilizer or for construction in the surrounding areas, brecites: Blessed…Who speaks and acts, decrees and fulfills. /b,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rava would see donkeys carrying earthfrom Babylonia, bhe would slap their backs with his hand and sayto them: bRun, righteous ones, and fulfill the will of your Master. When Mar, son of Ravina, would arrive in Babylonia he would take earth in his kerchief and throw it outside, to fulfill that which is said: “And I will sweep it with the broom of destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). bRav Ashi said: I never heard thestatement of bRav Hamnuna,that one who sees Babylonia the wicked must recite five blessings. bHowever, based on my independent reasoning, I recited all of the blessings. /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. אינו מהם אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא מר לא בהסתר פנים איתיה ולא בוהיה לאכול איתיה אמר להו מי ידעיתו כמה משדרנא בצנעא בי שבור מלכא אפי' הכי יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו אדהכי שדור דבי שבור מלכא וגרבוהו אמר היינו דתניא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני,(דברים לא, יח) ואנכי הסתר אסתיר פני ביום ההוא אמר רבא אמר הקב"ה אף על פי שהסתרתי פני מהם בחלום אדבר בו רב יוסף אמר ידו נטויה עלינו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ובצל ידי כסיתיך,ר' יהושע בן חנניה הוה קאי בי קיסר אחוי ליה ההוא אפיקורוסא עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה אחוי ליה ידו נטויה עלינו אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע מאי אחוי לך עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה ואנא מחוינא ליה ידו נטויה עלינו,אמרו ליה לההוא מינא מאי אחויית ליה עמא דאהדרינהו מריה מיניה ומאי אחוי לך לא ידענא אמרו גברא דלא ידע מאי מחוו ליה במחוג יחוי קמי מלכא אפקוהו וקטלוהו,כי קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי יהושע בן חנניה אמרו ליה רבנן מאי תיהוי עלן מאפיקורוסין אמר להם (ירמיהו מט, ז) אבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתם כיון שאבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתן של אומות העולם,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית לג, יב) ויאמר נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך,רבי אילא הוה סליק בדרגא דבי רבה בר שילא שמעיה לינוקא דהוה קא קרי (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח ומגיד לאדם מה שיחו אמר עבד שרבו מגיד לו מה שיחו תקנה יש לו מאי מה שיחו אמר רב אפילו שיחה יתירה שבין איש לאשתו מגידים לו לאדם בשעת מיתה,איני והא רב כהנא הוה גני תותי פורייה דרב ושמעיה דסח וצחק ועשה צרכיו אמר דמי פומיה דרב כמאן דלא טעים ליה תבשילא אמר ליה כהנא פוק לאו אורח ארעא,לא קשיא כאן דצריך לרצויה הא דלא צריך לרצויה,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ואם לא תשמעוה במסתרים תבכה נפשי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מקום יש לו להקב"ה ומסתרים שמו מאי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מפני גאוותן של ישראל שניטלה מהם ונתנה לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני גאוותה של מלכות שמים,ומי איכא בכיה קמיה הקב"ה והאמר רב פפא אין עציבות לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (דברי הימים א טז, כז) הוד והדר לפניו עוז וחדוה במקומו לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי,ובבתי בראי לא והא כתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא אדני ה' צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה ולחגור שק שאני חרבן בית המקדש דאפילו מלאכי שלום בכו שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, ז) הן אראלם צעקו חוצה מלאכי שלום מר יבכיון:,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ודמע תדמע ותרד עיני דמעה כי נשבה עדר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שלש דמעות הללו למה אחת על מקדש ראשון ואחת על מקדש שני ואחת על ישראל שגלו ממקומן ואיכא דאמרי אחת על ביטול תורה,בשלמא למאן דאמר על ישראל שגלו היינו דכתיב כי נשבה עדר ה' אלא למאן דאמר על ביטול תורה מאי כי נשבה עדר ה' כיון שגלו ישראל ממקומן אין לך ביטול תורה גדול מזה,תנו רבנן שלשה הקב"ה בוכה עליהן בכל יום על שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק ועל שאי אפשר לעסוק בתורה ועוסק ועל פרנס המתגאה על הצבור,רבי הוה נקיט ספר קינות וקא קרי בגויה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (איכה ב, א) השליך משמים ארץ נפל מן ידיה אמר מאיגרא רם לבירא עמיקתא,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא כי מטו לההוא מתא אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא נזיל וניקביל אפיה אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא ומאור עינים הוא אמר ליה ר' חייא לרבי תיב את לא תזלזל בנשיאותך איזיל אנא ואקביל אפיה,תקפיה ואזל בהדיה כי הוו מיפטרי מיניה אמר להו אתם הקבלתם פנים הנראים ואינן רואין תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נראין אמר ליה איכו השתא מנעתן מהאי בירכתא,אמרו ליה ממאן שמיעא לך מפרקיה דרבי יעקב שמיע לי דרבי יעקב איש כפר חיטייא הוה מקביל אפיה דרביה כל יומא כי קש א"ל לא נצטער מר דלא יכיל מר,אמר ליה מי זוטר מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (תהלים מט, י) ויחי עוד לנצח לא יראה השחת כי יראה חכמים ימותו ומה הרואה חכמים במיתתן יחיה בחייהן על אחת כמה וכמה,רב אידי אבוה דרבי יעקב בר אידי הוה רגיל דהוה אזיל תלתא ירחי באורחא וחד יומא בבי רב והוו קרו ליה רבנן בר בי רב דחד יומא חלש דעתיה קרי אנפשיה (איוב יב, ד) שחוק לרעהו אהיה וגו' א"ל ר' יוחנן במטותא מינך לא תעניש להו רבנן,נפק ר' יוחנן לבי מדרשא ודרש (ישעיהו נח, ב) ואותי יום יום ידרשון ודעת דרכי יחפצון וכי ביום דורשין אותו ובלילה אין דורשין אותו אלא לומר לך כל העוסק בתורה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עסק כל השנה כולה,וכן במדת פורענות דכתיב (במדבר יד, לד) במספר הימים אשר תרתם את הארץ וכי ארבעים שנה חטאו והלא ארבעים יום חטאו אלא לומר לך כל העובר עבירה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עבר כל השנה כולה:,אי זהו קטן כל שאינו יכול לרכוב על כתפו של אביו: מתקיף לה רבי זירא 5b. bis not fromamong bthem. The Sages said to Rava: Master, you are not subject toHis bhidingof the bface,as your prayers are heard, band you are not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,”as the authorities take nothing from you. bHe said to them: Do you know how manygifts bI send in private to the house of King Shapur?Although it might seem that the monarchy does not take anything from me, in actuality I am forced to give many bribes. bEven so, the Sages looked uponRava with suspicion. bIn the meantime,messengers bfrom the house of King Shapur sentfor him band imprisoned himto extort more money from him. Rava bsaid: This is as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Wherever the Sages looked uponsomeone, it resulted in beither death or poverty. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And I will hide my face in that day”(Deuteronomy 31:18), bRava saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Even though I hid my face from themand My Divine Presence is not revealed, nevertheless: b“I speak with him in a dream”(Numbers 12:6). bRav Yosef said: His hand is outstretched,guarding bover us, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of my hand”(Isaiah 51:16).,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was standing inthe bhouse of the Caesar. A certain heretic,who was also present, bgestured to him,indicating that his was bthe nation whose Master,God, bturned His faceaway bfrom it.Rabbi Yehoshua bgestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over usin protection. bThe Caesar said to Rabbi Yehoshua: What did he gesture to you,and how did you respond? He replied: He indicated that mine is bthe nation whose Master turned His face from it, and I gestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over us. /b,The members of the Caesar’s household bsaid to that heretic: What did you gesture to him?He said to them: I gestured that his is bthe nation whose Master has turnedHis face bfrom it.They asked: bAnd what did he gesture to you?He said to them: bI don’t know;I did not understand. bThey said:How can ba man who does not know whatothers bgesture to himdare to bgesture in the presence of the king? They took him out and killed him. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was dying, the Sages said to him: What will become of us, fromthe threat of bthe heretics,when there is no scholar like you who can refute them? bHe said to themthat the verse states: “Is wisdom no more in Teiman? bHas counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished?”(Jeremiah 49:7). He explained: bSince counsel has perished from the prudent,from the Jewish people, the bwisdom of the nations of the world has vanishedas well, and there will be no superior scholars among them., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the same idea can be derived bfrom here: “And he said: Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go corresponding to you”(Genesis 33:12). Just as the Jewish people rise and fall, so too, the nations of the world simultaneously rise and fall, and they will never have an advantage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila,a children’s teacher. bHe heard a child who was readinga verse out loud: b“For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech”(Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila bsaid:With regard to ba servant whose master declares to him what is hisproper bspeech, is there a remedy for him?The Gemara asks. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wifebefore engaging in relations bis declared to a person at the time of death,and he will have to account for it.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it prohibited for a man to speak in this manner with his wife? bWasn’t Rav Kahana lying beneath Rav’s bed, and he heardRav bchatting and laughingwith his wife, band performing his needs,i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana bsaidout loud: bThe mouth of Rav is likeone who bhas never eaten a cooked dish,i.e., his behavior is lustful. Rav bsaid to him: Kahana, leave, asthis is bnot proper conduct.This shows that Rav himself engaged in frivolous talk before relations.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where this type of speech is permitted, it is referring to a situation bwhere he must appeasehis wife before relations, and therefore this speech is appropriate. However, bthisstatement, that it is prohibited, is referring to a situation bwhere he doesn’t need to appease her.In these circumstances, it is prohibited to engage in excessively lighthearted chatter with one’s wife.,The verse states: b“But if you will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret [ ibemistarim /i] for your pride”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has a placewhere He cries, band its name is Mistarim. Whatis the meaning of b“for your pride”? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said:God cries bdue to the pride of the Jewish people, which was taken from them and given tothe gentile bnations. Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:He cries bdue to the pride of the kingdom of Heaven,which was removed from the world.,The Gemara asks: bBut is there crying before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There is no sadness before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place”(I Chronicles 16:27)? The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that God cries, is referring to bthe innermost chambers,where He can cry in secret, whereas bthisstatement, that He does not cry, is referring to bthe outer chambers. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’tGod cry bin the outer chambers? Isn’t it written: “And on that day the Lord, the God of hosts, called to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth”(Isaiah 22:12)? The Gemara responds: bThe destruction of the Temple is different, as even the angels of peace cried, as it is stated: “Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the angels of peace weep bitterly”(Isaiah 33:7).,The verse continues: b“And my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRabbi Elazar said: Why these threereferences to btearsin the verse? bOneis bfor the First Temple; oneis bfor the Second Temple; and oneis bfor the Jewish people who were exiled from their place. And there arethose bwho say:The last boneis bforthe unavoidable bderelictionof the study of bTorahin the wake of the exile.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the last tear is bfor the Jewish people who were exiled, this is as it is written: “Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive.” However, according to the one who saidthat this tear is bfor the derelictionof the study of bTorah, whatis the meaning of: b“Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”?The Gemara answers: bSince the Jewish people were exiled from their place, there is no greaterinvoluntary bderelictionof the study of bTorah thanthat which was caused by bthis. /b, bThe Sages taughtthat there are bthreetypes of people bfor whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, cries every day: Forone bwho is able to engage in Torahstudy band does not engagein it; band forone bwho is unable to engage in Torahstudy and nevertheless he endeavors and bengagesin it; band for a leader who lords over the community. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas holdingthe bbook of Lamentations and was reading from it. When he reached the verse: “He has cast down from heaven to earththe beauty of Israel” (Lamentations 2:1), in his distress the book bfell from his hand. He said: From a high roof to a deep pit,i.e., it is terrible to tumble from the sky to the ground.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyya were walking along the road. When they arrived at a certain city, they said: Is there a Torah scholar here whom wecan bgo and greet?The people of the city bsaid: There is a Torah scholar here but he is blind. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bYou sithere; bdo not demean yourdignified status as iNasi /ito visit someone beneath your stature. bI will go and greet him. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bgrabbed him and went with himanyway, and together they greeted the blind scholar. bWhen they were leaving him, he said to them: You greetedone who is bseen and does not see; may you be worthy to greetthe One Who bsees and is not seen.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabbi Ḥiyya: bNow, ifI had listened to you and not gone to greet him, byou would have prevented me from receiving this blessing. /b, bThey said tothe blind scholar: bFrom whom did you hearthat we are worthy of this blessing? He said to them: bI heardit bfrom the instruction of Rabbi Ya’akov, as Rabbi Ya’akov of the village of Ḥitiyya would greet his teacher every day. WhenRabbi Ya’akov bgrew elderly,his teacher bsaid to him: Do not despair, my Master, that my Master is unableto make the effort to greet me. It is better that you should not visit me.,Rabbi Ya’akov bsaid to him: Is ita bminormatter, bthat which is written about the Sages: “That he should still live always, that he should not see the pit. For he sees that wise men die”(Psalms 49:10–11)? In this regard an ia fortiorireference applies: bJust as one who sees Sages in their death will live, all the more soone who sees them bin their lifetime.From here the blind scholar learned the importance of greeting Torah scholars, which is why he blessed the Sages who came to greet him.,The Gemara relates: bRav Idi, father of Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, would regularly travel three months on the roadto reach the study hall bandas he would immediately travel back again to arrive home for the festival of iSukkot /i, he spent only bone day in the school of Rav. And the Sages woulddisparagingly bcall him: A studentof Torah bfor one day. He was offendedand breadthe following verse babout himself: “I am as one that is a laughingstock to his neighbor,a man who calls upon God, and He answers him” (Job 12:4). bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Please do not punish the Sages,i.e., do not take offense and be harsh with them, as this will cause them to be punished by God., bRabbi Yoḥa leftRav Idi and went bto the study hall and taught: “Yet they seek Me daily, and delight to know My ways”(Isaiah 58:2). bBut isit possible that only bduring the day they seek Him and at night they do not seek Him?What is the meaning of daily? bRather,this verse comes bto say to youthat with regard to banyone who engages in Torahstudy beven one day a year, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he engagedin Torah study bthe entire year. /b, bAnd the sameapplies bto the attribute of punishment, as it is written: “After the number of the days in which you spied out the land,even forty days, for every day a year, shall you bear your iniquities” (Numbers 14:34). bBut did they sinfor bforty years? Didn’t they sinfor only bforty days? Rather,this comes bto say to youthat banyone who transgresses a sin even one day a year, the verse ascribes himliability bas though he transgressed the entire year. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWho is a minorwho is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple? bAnychild bwho is unable to ride on his father’s shouldersand ascend from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount. bRabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: /b
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.35, 7.36, 7.38, 7.85, 7.91, 7.95, 7.99, 8.52

4.35. Did not the souls of the righteous in their chambers ask about these matters, saying, `How long are we to remain here? And when will come the harvest of our reward? 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.38. Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments!' Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment -- 7.85. The fifth way, they shall see how the habitations of the others are guarded by angels in profound quiet. 7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.99. This is the order of the souls of the righteous, as henceforth is announced; and the aforesaid are the ways of torment which those who would not give heed shall suffer hereafter. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand.
28. Anon., 4 Baruch, 5

29. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 1.5, 1.7-1.8, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7, 7.1, 7.4-7.6, 8.5-8.8, 8.10-8.11, 9.1, 10.12, 11.4-11.5, 11.7-11.14, 11.16, 12.5, 15.4-15.5, 15.7, 16.14, 16.16, 18.11, 19.5, 20.7, 21.13-21.19, 21.21, 22.3-22.10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253
alien/foreigner, jewish attitudes toward Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
anthropos (heavenly) Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
aseneth Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33, 34, 46, 52
baptism, john the baptist Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
baptism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
behaviour Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
belief and faith Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
biography/biographical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
christ Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
conversion, ritual Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
conversion Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33, 34
creation Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33
death Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33
egyptians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
emic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
endogamy Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
ephraim Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 359
etic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
food Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 52
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 35
gospel/gospels Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 52
honey (comb) Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 52
idol-food Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 35
idolatry, action Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 35
idolatry, in joseph and aseneth Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
idols, lifeless Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 35
idols, manmade Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 35
immortality Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
incorruptibility Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
initiation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
intensification Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
intermarriage, in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
jacob Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357, 363
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and intermarriage in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
jews Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
joseph Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 34
joseph (son of jacob) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357, 359, 363
joseph and aseneth Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
judaism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
kingdom of god/heaven Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, mocked in tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
manasseh Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 359
manna Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 52
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
mockery/irony/parody, by tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
mystery cult Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
new Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33, 46
paul the apostle Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
pentephres (potiphera) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357
priest Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 34
rachel Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357
rebecca Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357
religion, religious Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
repentance Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
rest (eschatological) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253
restoration, intrareligious Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
restoration Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253
sarah' Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 357
self Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
sin Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
spirit, spirit Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 33, 46
spirit/spiritual Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344
substance Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 52
tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
truth Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
turning/change Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
vice Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 248
virginity Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 34
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 127
worship Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 344; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 34