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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11556
Anon., Gerim, 2.5
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8 results
1. Mishnah, Beitzah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. An egg laid on Yom Tov: Bet Shammai say: it may be eaten [on the same day]; But Bet Hillel say: it may not be eaten [until the day is over]. Bet Shammai say: [the quantity of] leaven is of the size of an olive and leavened bread is of the size of a date; But Bet Hillel say: both are of the size of an olive."
2. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. There is one who is [counted as] a firstborn [with respect to] inheritance but not with respect to redemption from a priest; a firstborn with respect to redemption from a priest but not a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance; a firstborn [with respect to both] inheritance and redemption from a priest; and a firstborn [in respect] to neither inheritance nor redemption from a priest. Which is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance but not to redemption from a priest? One which follows one which was not viable whose head came forth alive, or one born in the ninth month whose head came out dead, or when a woman aborts something that looks like an animal, beast or bird, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: [it is not considered an opening of the womb] until [the abortion] has the form of a human being. If [a woman] aborts a sandal or a placenta or a fetus having an articulated shape, or if an embryo came out by pieces, [the infant] which follows after them is a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. If one who never had children married a woman who had already given birth, even if she had given birth when she was a slave but is now free, or [had given birth] when she was a non-Jew but has since converted, if after coming to the Israelite she gave birth, [the infant] is considered a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [the infant] is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance and for redemption from a priest, as it says: “Whatever opens the womb in Israel” (Exodus 13:2), meaning only if it opens the womb in Israel. If one had children already and married a woman who had never given birth previously Or if she converted when pregt, or if she was freed when pregt, and she gave birth; If she and a priestess gave birth, she and a Levite’s daughter, she and a woman who had already given birth; And similarly [if a woman] who did not wait three months after her husband's death, married and gave birth and it is not known if the infant was born in the ninth month since the death of the first [husband] or in the seventh month since she married the second, it is a firstborn for redemption from a priest but not a first-born [with respect] to inheritance. Which is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest? If [a woman] miscarries a sac full of blood or full of water or full of pieces of flesh; or if [a woman] miscarries something with the shape of fish or locusts or reptiles, or creeping things, or if she discharges on the fortieth day [of conception], [the infant] which follows after [these discharges] is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest."
3. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Tosefta, Shekalim, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 18.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.5. עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ (בראשית ב, כד), תַּנְיָא גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּיר וְהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַאֲחוֹתוֹ בֵּין מִן הָאָב בֵּין מִן הָאֵם, יוֹצִיא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים מִן הָאֵם יוֹצִיא מִן הָאָב יְקַיֵּם, שֶׁאֵין אָב לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית כ, יב): וְגַם אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא וגו', אָמַר לָהֶן בְּשִׁיטָתָן הֵשִׁיבָן. אֲתֵיב לְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִמּוֹ. אֲתֵיב רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְהָכְתִיב (שמות ו, כ): וַיִּקַּח עַמְרָם אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד דֹּדָתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵעַתָּה אֲפִלּוּ כִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִים קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ וגו', הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בְּנֵי נֹחַ עַל הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת חַיָּבִין וְעַל הָאֲרוּסוֹת פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר זוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בַּשּׁוּק וּבָאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בְּעוּלַת בַּעַל, וְכִי נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִקְנוֹתָהּ בִּבְעִילָה, הָדָא אֲמַר בְּעִילָה בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ קוֹנֶה שֶׁלֹא כַּדָּת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מְגָרְשִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִשְׁתּוֹ מְגָרַשְׁתּוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ דּוֹפוֹרוֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁגֵּרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם וְנִתְגַיְּרוּ, אֵינִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (דברים כד, ד): לֹא יוּכַל בַּעֲלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שִׁלְחָהּ וגו', רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר בְּכָל סֵפֶר מַלְאָכִי כְּתִיב ה' צְבָאוֹת, וּבְכָאן כְּתִיב אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, טז): כִּי שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּבְיָכוֹל לֹא יָחוּל שְׁמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה, נִתְפַּחֲמוּ פְּנֵי הַנָּשִׁים מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָן וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים עֲמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבוֹכוֹת, הוּא שֶׁמַּלְאָכִי אוֹמֵר (מלאכי ב, יג): וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ, שְׁנִיָּה לְשִׁטִּים. (מלאכי ב, יג): כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת מִזְבַּח ה' בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאן קַבֵּל מֵהֶם, בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, מִשֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָטַלְתָּ יָפְיָהּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַתָּה מְשַׁלְּחָהּ, אֶתְמְהָא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרִין עַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמְרוּ בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי כָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא בַּעֲשֵׂה, וְלֹא בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אֶלָּא בְּמִיתָה, וְהֵיאַךְ עֲבִידָא (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים בָּשָׂר אֶחָד. 18.5. \"Therefore a man will abandon.\" It was taught: a convert that converted and was married to his sister, whether from the mother or the father - it is acceptable, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: from the mother it is acceptable, from the father, it must be established that he does not worship idols. A refutation arose: does it not say: \"And moreover, she is my sister, the daughter of my father...\" (Genesis 20:12)! He said to them: reply to them by their own reasoning. Rabbi Meir refuted: \"Therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" (Genesis 2:24). Rabbi Yocha said: they explained this verse \"therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" the one who supports his father, the one who supports his mother. Rabbi Abahu refuted: does it not say: \"And Amram took Yocheved his cousin\" (Exodus 6:20)! Rabbi Shimon the son of Rabbi Abahu said: from here would we learn that at the time of the children of Noah, Israel acted differently, before the giving of the Torah!? Rabbi Levi said: we explain the verse \"therefore a man will abandon...\" the one who is supported by his father, or by his mother. Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: the children of Noah, in matters of marriage are obligated, in matters of engagement are not. Rabbi Yonah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel said: if a whore is in the marketplace, and two men come to her, the first is exempt and the second is liable, because he was sleeping with a married woman. Did the first one intend to acquire her [as a wife]?! It is said: intercourse at the time of the children of Noah acquires, even not in the way of [later] Judaism. And how do we know that they did not divorce? Rabbi Yehuda in the name of Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Chanin in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: they did not divorce, or they both divorced each other. Rabbi Yocha said: his wife divorced him and gave him a bill of divorce. Rabbi Hiyya taught: an idol-worshipper that divorced his wife, and she went and married someone else, and then they both went and converted to Judaism, I do not apply to them the verse \"The first husband that sent her away cannot...\" (Deuteronomy 24:4). Rabbi Aha in the name of Rabbi Hanina bar Pappa said: in the whole book of Malachi it is written 'Hashem, Lord of Hosts' but here it is written 'the God of Israel' as it says: \"For I hate sending away, said Hashem, God of Israel\" (Malachi 2:16) - as if to say, God's name only rests on Israel. Rabbi Haggai said: When Israel was exiled, the women's faces were blackened from the sun, and they were left and the men went and married Amonite women. They went and circled the altar, crying, as Malachi says: \"And this do a second time\" (Malachi 2:13) - a second time in relation to Shittim. \"Cover with tears the altar of Hashem with wailing and sighing\" (ibid.), the Holy One Blessed be He said: who will accept these tears and wailing, since you stole and did violence to and took it's beauty from her, now you will send her away? And how do we know that they were fastidious about sexual impropriety like Israel? As it says: \"And he cleaved to his wife\" (Genesis 2:24) and not the wife of his friend, or another man, or an animal. Rabbi Shmuel and Rabbi Abahu and Rabbi Eleazar in the name of Rabbi Hanina said: a child of Noah who comes to his wife unnaturally is liable for the death penalty. Rabbi Assi said: every crime written about the children of Noah is not judged on the metric of positive and negative commandments; rather, they all require the death penalty. How do we know this? \"And he cleaved to his wife and they became as one flesh\" (ibid.)."
6. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. יכיר לחוד והכרת פנים לחוד,איתמר היו לו בנים בהיותו עובד כוכבים ונתגייר רבי יוחנן אומר אין לו בכור לנחלה ור"ש בן לקיש אומר יש לו בכור לנחלה רבי יוחנן אומר אין לו בכור לנחלה דהא הוה ליה ראשית אונו ור"ש בן לקיש אומר יש לו בכור לנחלה גר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי,ואזדו לטעמייהו דאיתמר היו לו בנים בהיותו עובד כוכבים ונתגייר ר' יוחנן אמר קיים פריה ורביה ור"ש בן לקיש אמר לא קיים ר' יוחנן אמר קיים (ישעיהו מה, יח) לא תוהו בראה לשבת יצרה ור"ש בן לקיש אמר לא קיים פריה ורביה גר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי,וצריכא דאי איתמר בהא קמייתא בהא קאמר רשב"ל משום דבהיותו עובד כוכבים לאו בני נחלה נינהו אבל בהא אימא מודה ליה לרבי יוחנן דלא תוהו בראה לשבת יצרה והא עבד ליה שבת,ואי איתמר בהא בהא קאמר רבי יוחנן אבל בהא אימא מודה ליה לר"ש בן לקיש צריכא,תנן מי שלא היו לו בנים ונשא אשה שכבר ילדה עודה שפחה ונשתחררה עודה עובדת כוכבים ונתגיירה ומשבאתה לישראל ילדה ולדה בכור לנחלה ואינו בכור לכהן,ילדה ממאן אילימא מישראל שלא היו לו בנים מאי איריא גיורת ושפחה אפילו בת ישראל נמי,אלא לאו מגר שהיו לו בנים ונתגייר וקתני בכור לנחלה,לא לעולם מישראל שלא היו לו בנים ואינו בכור לכהן איצטריכא ליה,לאפוקי מדרבי יוסי הגלילי דאמר בכור לנחלה ולכהן שנאמר (שמות יג, יב) פטר רחם בישראל עד שיפטרו רחם מישראל קמ"ל דלא,ת"ש היו לו בנים בהיותו עובד כוכבים ונתגייר יש לו בכור לנחלה אמר רבינא ואיתימא רב אחא הא ודאי רבי יוסי הגלילי הוא דאמר פטר רחם בישראל עד שיפטרו רחם מישראל ויליף איהו מינה דידה,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה לוייה שילדה בנה פטור מה' סלעים דאיעבר ממאן אילימא דאיעבר מכהן ומלוי מאי איריא לוייה אפילו ישראלית נמי,אלא דאיעבר מישראל (במדבר א, ב) למשפחותם לבית אבותם כתיב,אמר רב פפא דאיעבר מעובד כוכבים ולא תימא אליבא דמאן דאמר אין מזהמין את הולד אלא אפילו למאן דאמר מזהמין את הולד לוי פסול מיקרי,מר בריה דרב יוסף אמר משמיה דרבא לעולם דאיעבר מישראל ושאני התם דאמר קרא פטר רחם בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,תנן מי שהיו לו בנים ונשא אשה שלא ילדה נתגיירה מעוברת נשתחררה מעוברת,וילדה היא וכהנת היא ולויה היא ואשה שכבר ילדה וכן מי שלא שהתה אחרי בעלה ג' חדשים ונשאת וילדה ואין ידוע אם בן ט' לראשון אם בן ז' לאחרון בכור לכהן ואינו בכור לנחלה,מכלל דכהונה ולויה פטורין דאיעבר ממאן אילימא דאיעבר מכהן ולוי אי הכי מאי איריא כהנת ולויה אפי' בת ישראל נמי,אלא דאיעבר מעובד כוכבים כהנת פטורה והאמר רב פפא בדיק לן רבה כהנת שנתעברה מעובד כוכבים מהו ואמינא ליה לאו היינו דרב אדא בר אהבה דאמר לויה שילדה בנה פטור מחמש סלעים,ואמר לי הכי השתא בשלמא לויה בקדושתה קיימא דתניא לויה שנשבית או שנבעלה בעילת זנות נותנין לה מן המעשר ואוכלת,אלא כהנת כיון דאי בעיל לה הויא זרה,הניחא למר בריה דרב יוסף משמיה דרבא דאמר דאיעבר מישראל מוקי לה בדאיעבר מישראל אלא לרב פפא במאי מוקי לה,לעולם דאיעבר מכהן והיא בת ישראל ואמאי קרי לה כהנת דבנה כהן 47a. The requirement of b“He shall recognize”with regard to a firstborn for inheritance, band the recognition ofa husband’s bface,are bdiscretematters.,§ bIt was statedthat iamora’imengaged in a dispute concerning the case of a man who bhad children when hewas ba gentile and hesubsequently bconverted: Rabbi Yoḥa says he does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance,i.e., a son who is his firstborn after his conversion does not inherit a double portion; band Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance.The Gemara elaborates: bRabbi Yoḥa says: He does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, asthis man already bhad “the first of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), the Torah’s description of the firstborn in this context, before he converted. bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance,as the halakhic status of ba convert whojust bconvertedis blikethat of ba childjust bborn. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndthese iamora’im bfollow theirregular line of breasoning, as it was stated:If a man bhad children when hewas ba gentile and hesubsequently bconverted, Rabbi Yoḥa says: He hasalready bfulfilledthe mitzva to bbe fruitful and multiply, and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:He has bnot fulfilledthe mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. The Gemara clarifies: bRabbi Yoḥa says he has fulfilledthe aspect of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply expressed in the command: b“He did not create it to be a waste; He formed it to be inhabited”(Isaiah 45:18), i.e., to increase the inhabitation of the world. bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says he has not fulfilledthe mitzva to bbe fruitful and multiply,as the halakhic status of ba convert whojust bconvertedis blikethat of ba childjust bborn,and it is considered as though he did not have children.,The Gemara adds: bAndit is bnecessaryto state their opinions in both cases. bAs, if it were statedonly bin that firstcase with regard to inheritance, perhaps it is only bin thatcase that bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish sayshis opinion that the first son born after conversion inherits a double portion, bbecause in their gentile state they are not subject tothe ihalakhotof binheritance. But with regard to thatcase, the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, bsay he concedes to Rabbi Yoḥa thatsince the verse states: b“He did not create it to be a waste; He formed it to be inhabited,” and he hasindeed bperformedan action that enables the world to be further binhabited,he has therefore fulfilled the mitzva., bAndconversely, biftheir dispute bwere statedonly bwith regard to thismitzva to be fruitful and multiply, perhaps it is only bin thiscase that bRabbi Yoḥa sayshis opinion, due to the verse: “He formed it to be inhabited.” bBut with regard to thatcase of inheritance, bsay he concedes to Rabbi Shimon ben Lakishthat sons born when one was a gentile are disregarded. Consequently, it is bnecessaryto teach their opinions in both disputes.,The Gemara raises a difficulty concerning the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa: bWe learnedin the mishna: bOne who did not have sons and he married a woman who had already given birth;or if he married a woman who gave birth when bshe was stilla Canaanite bmaidservant and she wasthen bemancipated;or one who gave birth when bshe was still a gentile and shethen bconverted, and whenthe maidservant or the gentile bcame tojoin bthe Jewish people she gave birthto a male, that boffspring is a firstborn with regard to inheritance but is not a firstborn with regard toredemption from ba priest. /b,The Gemara analyzes the mishna: This maidservant or convert, whose child that was born when she came to join the Jewish people is a firstborn for inheritance, bfrom whom,i.e., from what type of father, bdid she bearhim? bIf we sayshe bore him bfrom a Jew who did notpreviously bhave sons,the initial subject of this clause of the mishna, bwhydoes it make reference bspecificallyto ba gentile or a maidservant,indicating that this son is a firstborn for inheritance because the ones born when she was not Jewish are disregarded? The ihalakhawould be the same bevenwith regard to ba Jewish womanwho had already given birth., bRather, isthe mishna bnotreferring to two distinct cases? The first concerns a man who already had children before converting, and then marries a Jew who has already given birth to children, while the second involves a woman who had children when she was a maidservant or a gentile, and when she became Jewish she bore a child bfromone like her, ba convert who had sonswhen he was a gentile bandthen bconverted. Andthe mishna bteachesthat this son bis a firstborn with regard to inheritance,which apparently contradicts the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara answers: bNo; actually,her child was born bfrom a Jew who did not have sons, andthe reason the mishna makes reference specifically to a gentile or a maidservant is not due to the case of inheritance. Rather, it bwas necessary forthe clause: But bis not a firstborn with regard toredemption from ba priest. /b,This statement serves bto excludethe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, who says:That son bis a firstborn with regard to inheritance and with regard toredemption from ba priest, as it is stated:“Whatever bopens the womb amongthe children of bIsrael”(Exodus 13:2), i.e., one is not considered a firstborn bunless he opens the wombof a woman bfrom the Jewish people,and therefore the children that she bore before she converted are not considered to have opened her womb. Therefore, the first itannaof the mishna bteaches us thathe is bnota firstborn with regard to redemption, as his mother’s womb was already opened when she was a gentile.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof against Rabbi Yoḥa from a ibaraita /i: bIfa man bhad sons when he was a gentile and he converted,and then fathered more sons, bhe has a firstborn with regard to inheritance. Ravina says, and some sayit is bRav Aḥawho says: bThisruling bis certainlyin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei HaGelili, who saysthat the phrase in the verse “whatever bopens the womb amongthe children of bIsrael”means it is not a firstborn bunless it opens the wombof a woman bfrom the Jewish people. Andhe bderives his ihalakha /i, that of a gentile who converted, bfrom her ihalakha /i, that of a female convert, that one does not take into account the children born before they converted. Rabbi Yoḥa may hold in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.,§ bRav Adda bar Ahava says:With regard to the daughter of ba Levite who gave birthto a firstborn boy, bher son is exempt fromthe obligation to give bfive isela /icoins to the priest for his redemption, as the child is considered to be the son of a Levite and Levites are exempt from this obligation. The Gemara asks: bFrom whom did she become pregt? If we say that she became pregt from a priest or a Levite, whydoes Rav Adda bar Ahava refer bspecificallyto the daughter of ba Levite?The ihalakhawould be the same bevenfor ban Israelite womanwho became pregt from a priest or a Levite., bRather,Rav Adda bar Ahava must be referring to a case bwherethe daughter of a Levite bbecame pregt from an Israelite.But if so, why is the son’s status determined by his mother’s status in this instance? After all, bit is written: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses”(Numbers 1:2), which indicates that the lineage of a Jewish family follows the father rather than the mother., bRav Pappa says:This is referring to the daughter of a Levite bwho became pregt from a gentile.In such a case, the son’s status is determined by that of the mother, and therefore the son is exempt from the redemption of the firstborn. bAnd do not saythis is the ihalakhaonly baccording to the one who saysthat in such a situation bone does not disqualify the childat all due to his gentile father, and he is of fit lineage. bRather, even according to the one who saysthat bone does disqualify the childdue to the gentile father, nevertheless, one also follows the mother band he istherefore bcalled a Leviteof bflawedlineage, and is exempt from redemption., bMar, son of Rav Yosef, saysa different explanation, bin the name of Rava: Actually,Rav Adda bar Ahava is referring to a case bwherethe daughter of a Levite bbecame pregt from an Israelite. Andalthough the son’s status is usually determined by that of the father, bthere,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn, bit is different, as the verse states:“Whatever bopens the wombamong the children of Israel” (Exodus 13:2). This teaches that bthe Merciful One rendersthe obligation bdependent upon the opening of the womb,and since this firstborn came from the womb of a daughter of a Levite, and not a Levite, the obligation of redemption does not apply.,The Gemara raises a difficulty concerning the opinion of Rav Pappa: bWe learnedin the mishna: bOne who had sons and married a woman who had not given birth;or a woman who bconverted whileshe was bpregt,or a Canaanite maidservant who bwas emancipated whileshe was bpregtand she gave birth to a son, he is a firstborn with regard to redemption from a priest but he is not a firstborn with regard to inheritance., bAndlikewise, if an Israelite woman bandthe daughter or wife of ba priest,neither of whom had given birth yet, or an Israelite woman bandthe daughter or wife of ba Levite,or an Israelite woman band a woman who had already given birth, gave birth,and it is uncertain which son was born to which mother; band likewisea woman bwho did not wait three months afterthe death of bher husband and she married and gave birth, and it is unknown whetherthe child was born after bnine monthsand is bthe son of the firsthusband, or bwhetherhe was born after bseven monthsand is bthe son of the latterhusband, in all these cases the child is ba firstborn with regard toredemption from ba priest but is not a firstborn with regard to inheritance. /b,The Gemara explains the difficulty: From the ruling in the case of one whose child became confused with that of a daughter of a priest or a Levite, bby inferenceone can derive bthatthe daughter of ba priest andthe daughter of ba Leviteare bexemptfrom redemption.Now, bfrom whom did she become pregt? If we say that she became pregt from a priest or a Levite, if so, why specificallymention the daughter of ba priest andthe daughter of ba Levite?The same ihalakhawould apply bevenin the case of ban Israelite womanwho became pregt from a priest or a Levite, as the son is exempt from redemption because he is also a priest or a Levite., bRather,if the case is bwherethe daughter of a priest or the daughter of a Levite bbecame pregt from a gentile,then is the son of bthe daughter of a priest exempt? But didn’t Rav Pappa say: Rabba tested uson the following matter: With regard to the daughter of ba priest who became pregt from a gentile, what isthe ihalakha /i? bAnd we said to him: Isn’t thisthe case discussed bby Rav Adda bar Ahava, who says:With regard to the daughter of ba Levite who gave birthto a firstborn boy, bher son is exempt fromthe obligation to give bfive isela /icoins? This ruling was interpreted as referring to one who became pregt from a gentile.,Rav Pappa continues: bAndRabba bsaid to me: How canthese cases bbe compared? Granted,if the daughter of ba Levitehas a child from a gentile, he is considered a Levite with regard to redemption since his mother bretains her sanctity. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba Levite woman who was captured,leading to a concern that one of her captors might have engaged in sexual intercourse with her, boreven bifa Levite woman definitely bengaged in licentious sexual intercourse,one nevertheless bgives herfirst btithe and she may eatit., bButwith regard to the daughter of ba priest, since ifa gentile bengages in intercourse with her she becomeslike ba non-priestand may no longer partake of iteruma /i, her son from a gentile should be considered like an Israelite and be obligated in the redemption of a firstborn. If so, in what case does the mishna exempt the son of a daughter of a priest or a daughter of a Levite from redemption?,The Gemara notes: bThis works out well according tothe opinion of bMar, son of Rav Yosef,citing bin the name of Rava, who saysthat Rav Adda bar Ahava, who deems the son of a Levite woman exempt from the obligation of redemption, was referring to a case bwhereshe bbecame pregt from an Israelite.This is because he can binterpretthe mishna basreferring btothe daughter of a priest or the daughter of a Levite bwho became pregt from an Israelite. But according tothe opinion of bRav Pappa,who maintains that the son of a priest’s or Levite’s daughter who became pregt from an Israelite is subject to the obligation of redemption from a priest, bwith regard to whatcase does he binterpretthe mishna?,The Gemara answers: bActually,the mishna is not referring to the daughter of a priest but to a woman bwho became pregt from a priest.Therefore, her son is exempt from redemption, bandyet bsheherself is ban Israelite woman. And why doesthe mishna bcall herthe daughter of ba priest [ ikohenet /i]? Because her son is a priest. /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. ר' אליעזר אומר אביה אביה ממש אמה אמה ממש ר"ע אומר אביה ואמה זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ב, כז) אומרים לעץ אבי אתה וגו',ירח ימים ירח שלשים יום ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר תשעים יום ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן שלשים,מתקיף לה רבינא אימא ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן כי הני קשיא,ת"ר מקיימין עבדים שאינם מלין דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר אין מקיימין אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל הרי הוא אומר (שמות כג, יב) וינפש בן אמתך א"ל בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו הכתוב מדבר,דכ"ע מיהת וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל כתיב מאי משמע דתניא וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בעבד ערל או אינו אלא בעבד מהול כשהוא אומר (דברים ה, יג) למען ינוח עבדך ואמתך כמוך הרי עבד מהול אמור הא מה אני מקיים וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל,והגר זה גר תושב אתה אומר זה גר תושב או אינו אלא גר צדק כשהוא אומר וגרך אשר בשעריך הרי גר צדק אמור הא מה אני מקיים והגר זה גר תושב,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד י"ב חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים,אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כר' עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא ר' עקיבא הני מילי היכא דלא פסקא למילתיה אבל היכא דפסקא למילתיה פסקא,אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא אמר לי אי הכי כי אמר ליה ר"ע בלוקח עבד בין השמשות לישני ליה הא חדא מתרי טעמי קאמר,שלח רבין משמיה דרבי אילעאי וכל רבותי אמרו לי משמו איזהו עבד ערל שמותר לקיימו זה שלקחו רבו על מנת שלא למולו אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כרבי עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא רבי עקיבא ה"מ היכא דלא אתני בהדיה אבל היכא דאתני אתני,אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא וא"ל אי הכי כי קאמר ליה רבי עקיבא בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו לישני ליה הא,וליטעמיך לישני ליה הך אלא חד מתרי ותלת טעמי קאמר,יתיב רבי חנינא בר פפי ורבי אמי ור' יצחק נפחא אקילעא דרבי יצחק נפחא ויתבי וקאמרי עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל ולא רצו עבדיה למול וגלגלו עמהם עד שנים עשר חדש וחזרו ומכרום לעובדי כוכבים,כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד שנים עשר חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אין משהין אותו בארץ ישראל מפני הפסד טהרות ובעיר הסמוכה לספר אין משהין אותו כל עיקר שמא ישמע דבר וילך ויאמר לחברו עובד כוכבים,תניא רבי חנניא בנו של רבן גמליאל אומר מפני מה גרים בזמן הזה מעונין ויסורין באין עליהן מפני שלא קיימו שבע מצות בני נח רבי יוסי אומר גר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי אלא מפני מה מעונין לפי שאין בקיאין בדקדוקי מצות כישראל אבא חנן אומר משום ר' אלעזר לפי שאין עושין מאהבה אלא מיראה,אחרים אומרים מפני ששהו עצמם להכנס תחת כנפי השכינה אמר ר' אבהו ואיתימא ר' חנינא מאי קראה (רות ב, יב) ישלם ה' פעלך ותהי משכורתך שלמה מעם ה' אלהי ישראל אשר באת לחסות וגומר: 48b. bRabbi Eliezer says: “Her father”means bher actual fatherand b“her mother”means bher actual mother. Rabbi Akiva says: Her father and her mother; thisis referring to the bidolatrous deitythat she had worshiped but will no longer be able to worship, band so it says: “They say to a tree: You are my father,and to a stone: You have given birth to us” (Jeremiah 2:27).,The verses states: b“A month of daysand after that you may come to her” (Deuteronomy 21:13). This means ba thirty-day month. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:She must wait bninety days.This is derived as follows: The phrase b“a month”connotes bthirtydays; the word b“days”adds another bthirtydays; bandthe words b“after that”indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, i.e., a further bthirtydays., bRavina strongly objects to this:If the words “after that” indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, then one should bsay:The phrase b“a month”connotes bthirtydays; the word b“days”adds another bthirtydays; bandthen the words b“after that”add another period which is bequal tothe total sum of all bthosedays she has already waited, i.e., an additional sixty days. The Gemara concedes: Indeed, this is bdifficult. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may maintain slaves that are not circumcisedunder one’s control; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: One may not maintainsuch slaves, even for a moment. bRabbi Yishmael said to him: But it sayswith regard to Shabbat: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”(Exodus 23:12). The verse prohibits a Jewish master from allowing his slave to perform labor on Shabbat. The Gemara will explain that this is referring to an uncircumcised slave. It is therefore apparent that it is permitted to keep such a slave. Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: The verse speaks of one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat bandtherefore bdoes not have the opportunity to circumcise himbefore the onset of Shabbat.,The Gemara notes: bIn any event,in the opinion bof everyonethe verse: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed,” is written with regard to an uncircumcised slave. From whereis this binferred? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”; the verse speaks of an uncircumcised slave.Do byou sayit speaks bof an uncircumcised slave, orperhaps bit isspeaking bonly of a circumcised slave? When it sayselsewhere: “And the seventh day is a Shabbat to the Lord your God, you shall not do any labor, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your slave, and your maidservant… bso that your slave and your maidservant may rest like you”(Deuteronomy 5:13), ba circumcised slave isalready bmentioned; how,then, bdo I upholdthe verse b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”?It must refer bto an uncircumcised slave. /b,The verse continues: b“And the stranger [ iger /i]”(Exodus 23:12). bThisis referring to ba gentile who observes certain mitzvot [ iger toshav /i].Do byou saythat bthis is a iger toshav /i, orperhaps bit is only a righteous convert [ iger tzedek /i],who is a Jew in every sense? bWhen it sayselsewhere: b“And your stranger [ iger /i] that is within your gates”(Deuteronomy 5:13), ba righteous convert isalready bmentioned. How,then, bdo I upholdthe verse b“And the stranger [ iger /i]”?It must be that bthis is a iger toshav /i. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:In the case of bone who purchases a slave from a gentile andthe slave bdoes not wish to be circumcised, he abides with him up to twelve months.If, after this period, bhe willstill bnot be circumcised, he then sells himon bto gentiles. /b, bThe Sages said this ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand asked: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It seems bthat it is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, as, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintainan uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa bsaid to them: Youcan beven saythat it is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,since perhaps bthat ihalakhaof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bappliesonly bwherethe slave bdid not make hisrefusal to be circumcised bexplicit; however, where he did make hisrefusal to be circumcised bexplicit,since bhe has made it explicit,it is prohibited to maintain him, as Rabbi Akiva rules., bRav Kahana said: I saidthis ihalakhabefore Rav Zevid from Neharde’a. He said to me: If so,that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may temporarily maintain a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised, then bwhen Rabbi Akiva said toRabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave bis referring to one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat, blet himinstead banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthiscase of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva bsaidonly bone out of twopossible breasonswhy it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave., bRavin senta message citing a ihalakha bin the name of Rabbi Ilai: And all of my teachers said to me in his name: What isthe case of ban uncircumcised slave whom it is permitted to maintain? This is one whose master purchased him on condition not to circumcise him. The Sages said this ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand asked: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It seems bthat it is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, as, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintainan uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa bsaid to them: Youcan beven sayit is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,since perhaps bthatruling of Rabbi Akiva bappliesonly bwherethe master bdid not make a condition with regard tothe slave that he would not be circumcised; bhowever, where he did makesuch ba condition,since bhe made a condition,even Rabbi Akiva would concede it is permitted to maintain him., bRav Kahana said: I saidthis ihalakhabefore Rav Zevid from Neharde’a and he said to me: If so,that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may maintain a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised, then bwhen Rabbi Akiva said toRabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave bis referring to one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat bandtherefore bdoes not have the opportunity to circumcise himbefore the onset of Shabbat, blet himinstead banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthiscase of a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised.,The Gemara responds: bButeven baccording to your reasoningthat Rabbi Akiva disagrees, since you do agree with Rav Pappa’s resolution of Rabbi Akiva’s opinion with the ihalakhaof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, bletRabbi Akiva banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthatcase of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva bsaidonly bone out of two or threepossible breasonsthat it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, and Rabbi Ami, and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa were sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa. They were sitting and saying: There was one city in Eretz Yisrael whose slaves did not wish to be circumcised.Their masters babided with them until twelve monthshad passed band then sold them to gentiles. In accordance with whoseopinion did they act?, bIt is in accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who purchases a slave from a gentile andthe slave bdoes not wish to be circumcised,the master babides with himfor bup to twelve months.If, after this period, the slave bwillstill bnot be circumcised,the master bthen sells him to gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not allow him to remain in Eretz Yisrael due to the loss of ritually pure itemshe could cause. As long as the slave remains uncircumcised, he is considered to be a gentile; therefore, by rabbinic decree, ritually pure items that he touches are considered to be impure. bAnd in a city that is near to the border he may not be allowed to remain at all, lest he hear somesecret bmatterconcerning security band go and sayit over bto his fellow gentilein an enemy country. However, once he has been circumcised and accepted the yoke of mitzvot, this concern no longer exists.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Ḥaya, son of Rabban Gamliel, says: For whatreason bare converts at the present time tormented and hardships come upon them?It is bbecausewhen they were gentiles bthey did not observe the seven Noahide mitzvot. Rabbi Yosei says:They would not be punished for their deeds prior to their conversion because ba convert whojust bconverted is like a childjust bbornin that he retains no connection to his past life. bRather, for whatreason bare they tormented?It is bbecause they are notas bwell-versed in the intricacies of the mitzvot asa born bJew,and consequently they often inadvertently transgress mitzvot. bAbba Ḥa says in the name of Rabbi Elazar:It is bbecause they observemitzvot bnot out of loveof God, bbut only out of fearof the punishments for failing to observe them., bOthers say:It is bbecause they waited before entering under the wings of the Divine Presence,i.e., they are punished for not converting sooner than they did. bRabbi Abbahu said, and some sayit was bRabbi Ḥaninawho said: bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that one should convert at the earliest opportunity? Boaz said to Ruth: b“The Lord shall recompense your work, and your reward shall be complete from the Lord, the God of Israel,under whose wings byou have come to take refuge”(Ruth 2:12).
8. Anon., Gerim, 1.1-1.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
a convert is like a newborn infant (phrase, bavli) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 276
abba hanan Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 276
amorarim, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 172
amorarim, palestinian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 172
anonymous strata of the talmud, anonymous addition Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 8
aramaic, grammatical suffix Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 96
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), fifth (protocol of the conversion procedure) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 190, 276
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), second (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), sixth (suffering of converts) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190, 276
babylonian mini-tractate of conversion (immersion and conversion), third (acceptance of someone who claims to be a convert) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 190
baraita (baraitot), babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 172
circumcision, banning of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
circumcision, baraita (second) (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
circumcision, with immersion Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
commandments, noahide Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 276
commandments, observance of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172
conversion, mini-tractate on (bt yevamot, annotated texts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 276
conversion, mini-tractate on (bt yevamot, literary structure of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
conversion Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 96, 97
conversion procedure, fifth baraita (protocol of the conversion procedure in the bavli) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42, 190, 276
dominantization Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
eleazar Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172
eliezer ben yaakov Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 276
gerim Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
governing voice, talmud Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172
hananiah son of rabban shimeon ben gamliel Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 276
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 190
immersion, baraita (second) (circumcision without immersion) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
incest, prohibitions Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
meimra (meimrot), babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 8
meimra (meimrot) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
noahide laws Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
proselytes' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
rabbi yehudah ha-nasi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 276
samaritans (kutim) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 8
shekhinah Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 276; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
slaves Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 8
statutory language Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 190
sugiah (sugiot), parallel in both talmuds Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
talmud bavli, different layers of the Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 42
talmud yerushalmi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 8
yosi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 172, 276