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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 98.8


לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זֶה מָכִיר וגו' וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו <>(בראשית מט, י)<>, שֶׁבָּא וְנִתְחַבֵּט לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. וְלוֹ יִקְהַת עַמִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּא וּמַקְהֶה שִׁנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה וְרוֹדָה. וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרֵי הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶחָד מִימִין וְאֶחָד מִשְׂמֹאל. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, נִמְנוּ וְאָמְרוּ הִלֵּל מִשֶּׁל מִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְגִלַּת יֻחָסִים מָצְאוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּכְתִיב בָּהּ הִלֵּל מִדָּוִד. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִן דִּשְׁפַטְיָה בֶּן אֲבִיטָל. דְּבֵית כַּלְבָּא שָׂבוֹעַ מִדְּכָלֵב. דְּבֵית צִיצִית הַכַּסָּת, מִן דְּאַבְנֵר. דְּבֵית כּוֹבְשִׁין, מִן דְּאַחְאָב. דְּבֵית יָצְאָה, מִן דְּאָסָף. דְּבֵית יֵהוּא, מִן צִפּוֹרִין. דְּבֵית יַנַּאי, מִן דְּעֵלִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן דְּיוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מִדִּנְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא.... “…and to him will be a gathering of peoples.” (Genesis 49:10) This refers to Jerusalem, which in the future will blunt the teeth of the nations of the world, as it says “And it shall come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a stone of burden for all peoples…” (Zechariah 12:3)"


לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זֶה מָכִיר וגו' וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו (בראשית מט, י), שֶׁבָּא וְנִתְחַבֵּט לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. וְלוֹ יִקְהַת עַמִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּא וּמַקְהֶה שִׁנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה וְרוֹדָה. וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרֵי הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶחָד מִימִין וְאֶחָד מִשְׂמֹאל. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, נִמְנוּ וְאָמְרוּ הִלֵּל מִשֶּׁל מִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְגִלַּת יֻחָסִים מָצְאוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּכְתִיב בָּהּ הִלֵּל מִדָּוִד. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִן דִּשְׁפַטְיָה בֶּן אֲבִיטָל. דְּבֵית כַּלְבָּא שָׂבוֹעַ מִדְּכָלֵב. דְּבֵית צִיצִית הַכַּסָּת, מִן דְּאַבְנֵר. דְּבֵית כּוֹבְשִׁין, מִן דְּאַחְאָב. דְּבֵית יָצְאָה, מִן דְּאָסָף. דְּבֵית יֵהוּא, מִן צִפּוֹרִין. דְּבֵית יַנַּאי, מִן דְּעֵלִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן דְּיוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מִדִּנְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא.... “…and to him will be a gathering of peoples.” (Genesis 49:10) This refers to Jerusalem, which in the future will blunt the teeth of the nations of the world, as it says “And it shall come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a stone of burden for all peoples…” (Zechariah 12:3)"


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.9-49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
2. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4, 3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 12.10-12.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.11. And again thus sayith Isaiah; The Lord said unto my Christ the Lord, of whose right hand I laid hold, that the nations should give ear before Him, and I will break down the strength of kings. See how David calleth Him Lord, and calleth Him not Son.
4. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 1.6, 2.4, 24.4, 35.2, 85.1, 85.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.6. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַח (דניאל ב, כב): הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא. הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא, זוֹ גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, יח): וְלֹא יָדַע כִּי רְפָאִים שָׁם, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה ל, לג): הֶעְמִיק הִרְחִב. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, זוֹ גַּן עֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ד, ו): לְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים לא, כא): תַּסְתִּירֵם בְּסֵתֶר פָּנֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): הוֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִים מֵה'. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): לַסְתִּר עֵצָה. (דניאל ב, כב): יָדַע מָה בַחֲשׁוֹכָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): וְהָיָה בְמַחְשָׁךְ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. (דניאל ב' כב): וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, יח): וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים כְּאוֹר נֹגַהּ, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים צז, יא): אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סָרוֹנְגַיָא, וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, א): קוּמִי אוֹרִי וגו'. בִּפְסִיקְתָּא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הוּא גָּלֵא עֲמִיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (ישעיה מ, כב): הַנּוֹטֶה כַדֹּק שָׁמַיִם. וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (איוב לז, ו): כִּי לַשֶּׁלֶג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ (איוב לח, לח): בְּצֶקֶת עָפָר לַמּוּצָק וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה. 2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 35.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וגו' לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם (בראשית ט, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן לְדֹרֹת כְּתִיב, פְּרַט לִשְׁנֵי דוֹרוֹת, לְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ וּלְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה מוֹצִיא דוֹרָן שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֵבִיא דוֹרוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי. אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי הֲווֹן יָתְבִין תָּנְיִן בַּחֲדָא, מְטוֹן שְׁמוּעָה מִן דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אָמְרֵי הָא מָרָא דִשְׁמַעְתָּא נֵיעוֹל וְנִישַׁיְילֵיה, עָל אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָן עִמָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ גְּדוֹל הַדּוֹר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ נִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֵן, אָמַר אִם נִרְאָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו לֵית הוּא כְּדַאי לְמֶחֱמֵי סְבַר אַפָּאי. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר, כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, בִּקְעָה בִּקְעָה אִימָלְאִי דִּינָרֵי זָהָב, וְנִתְמַלְּאָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אִי בָּעֵי אַבְרָהָם לְמִקְרָבֵי מִן גַּבֵּיהּ וְעַד גַּבִּי, וַאֲנָא מְקָרֵב מִגַּבִּי עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא, וְאִין לָא בָּעֵי יִצְטָרֵף אֲחִיָה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי עִמִּי וַאֲנַן מְקָרְבִין מִן אַבְרָהָם עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אֵין הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בְּפָחוֹת מִשְׁלשִׁים צַדִּיקִים כְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, אִי תְּלָתִין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי תְּרֵי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֶשְׂרִים אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֲשָׂרָה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם חֲמִשָּׁה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם תְּרֵין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי הֵן, וְאִם חַד הוּא אֲנָא הוּא. 85.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו (בראשית לח, א), (מלאכי ב, יא): בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה וגו', אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּפַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה שְׁקַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה, וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, יְהוּדָה נַעֲשָׂה חֻלִּין, (מלאכי ב, יא): כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ ה' אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא, (מיכה א, טו): עֹד הַיֹּרֵשׁ אָבִיא לָךְ יוֹשֶׁבֶת מָרֵשָׁה עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, מַלְכָּן וּקְדוֹשָׁן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא כְּבוֹדָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לח, א): וַיֵּט עַד אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן פָּתַח (ירמיה כט, יא): כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת הַמַּחֲשָׁבֹת, שְׁבָטִים הָיוּ עֲסוּקִין בִּמְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף, וְיוֹסֵף הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, רְאוּבֵן הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וְיַעֲקֹב הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וִיהוּדָה הָיָה עָסוּק לִקַּח לוֹ אִשָּׁה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה עוֹסֵק בּוֹרֵא אוֹרוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה. (ישעיה סו, ז): בְּטֶרֶם תָּחִיל יָלָדָה, קֹדֶם שֶׁלֹא נוֹלַד מְשַׁעְבֵּד הָרִאשׁוֹן נוֹלַד גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, מַה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן, וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל מִצְרַיִם. 85.1. סוּמְכוּס אוֹמֵר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין הָעֻבָּר נִכָּר בִּמְעֵי הָאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, מֵהָכָא (בראשית לח, כד): וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים, רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לֹא סוֹף שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא רֻבּוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן וְרֻבּוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרוֹן וְאֶמְצָעִי שָׁלֵם, וְלֹא סוֹף דָּבָר שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים. (בראשית לח, כד): וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מְטַפַּחַת עַל כְּרֵסָהּ וְאוֹמֶרֶת מְלָכִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת, גּוֹאֲלִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת. (בראשית לח, כד): הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְשָׁאָה תַּלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, תָּמָר בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם הָיְתָה, דִּכְתִיב (ויקרא כא, ט): וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן, לְפִיכָךְ הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף. 85.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן וגו' (בראשית לח, יח), אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא נִצְנְצָה בָּהּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, חוֹתָמְךָ, זוֹ מַלְכוּת, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ח, ו): שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל לִבֶּךָ, (ירמיה כב, כד): כִּי אִם יִהְיֶה כָּנְיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה חוֹתָם עַל יַד יְמִינִי. וּפְתִילֶךָ, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁהֵן מְצֻיָּנִין בִּפְתִיל, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות לט, לא): פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת. וּמַטְּךָ, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, א): וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָּׁי, (תהלים קי, ב): מַטֵּה עֻזְךָ יִשְׁלַח ה' מִצִּיּוֹן. וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ וגו' וַתַּהַר לוֹ, גִּבּוֹרִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ וְצַדִּיקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. (בראשית לח, כ): וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה וגו', יְהוּדָה בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (משלי ח, ל לא): מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ, מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל עֵת, הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא מְשַׂחֶקֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִיהוּדָה אַתָּה רִמִּיתָ בְּאָבִיךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁתָּמָר מְרַמָּה בְּךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 1.6. Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon opened with (Daniel 2:22): \"He reveals the deep and secret. He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him.\" \"He reveals the deep\"--this is Hell, as it says (Proverbs 9:18): \"He does not know there are spirits there,\" and it says (Isaiah 30:33): \"deep and large\". \"And secret\"--this is Paradise, as it says (Isaiah 4:6): \"for a cover and refuge from storm and rain,\" and it says (Psalms 31:21): \"You hide them in the cover of Your presence.\" Alternatively, \"he reveals the deep and secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says (Isaiah 29:15): \"Woe to the ones who seek deep from God to make their counsel secret.\" \"And secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as the verse states. \"He knows what is in the dark\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says in Isaiah: \"Their acts are in the dark.\" \"The light dwells with Him\"--these are the acts of the righteous, as it is written (Proverbs 4:18): \"The path of the righteous is like the light at dawn,\" and it says (Psalms 97:11): \"Light is sown for the righteous.\" Rabbi Abba Srungia said: \"The light dwells with Him\"--this is the Messiah, as it says (Isaiah 60:1): \"Arise, shine, for your light has come.\" Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon said: From the beginning of the creation of the world, \"he revealed the dark and secret\". \"In the beginning God created the heavens,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Isaiah 40:22): \"He stretches out the heavens like a curtain.\" \"And the land,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Job 37:6): \"For He says to the snow: 'Fall on the earth.'\" and (Job 38:38) \"When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave together.\" \"And God said: 'Let there be light,'\" and it is not explained. Where is it explained? (Psalms 104:2) \"You cover Yourself with light like a garment.\"" 85.9. 'And he said what is the guarantee that I shall give etc.' - Rabbi Hunya said: The Ruach HaKodesh [prophetic spirit] glimmered within her, your seal is Royalty, as it is said (Song of Songs 8:6): \"Set me as a seal upon thy heart\". (Jeremiah 22:24) \"As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon My right hand\". \"And thy cord\", that is the Sanhedrin, who are found in the cord, as it is said (Exodus 39:31) \"A cord of blue\". \"And thy staff\", that is the Messiah, as it is said (Isaiah 11:1): \"And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse\". (Psalms 110:2) \"The rod of Thy strength the LORD will send out of Zion\". \"And he gave them to her etc\". \"And she conceived by him\", Heroes like so, and Righteous ones like so. \"And Judah sent etc.\" Yehuda Bar Nachman said in the name of Reish Lakish (Proverbs 8:31): \"Playing in His habitable earth\" (Proverbs 8:30) \"Playing always before Him\", the Torah, that delights his creations. The Holy One Blessed be He said to Judah: You lied to your father, with a goat kid, so too, Tamar lies to you with a goat kid. "
5. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

97. Other predictions of the cross of Christ Justin: For it was not without design that the prophet Moses, when Hur and Aaron upheld his hands, remained in this form until evening. For indeed the Lord remained upon the tree almost until evening, and they buried Him at eventide; then on the third day He rose again. This was declared by David thus: 'With my voice I cried to the Lord, and He heard me out of His holy hill. I laid me down, and slept; I awoke, for the Lord sustained me.' And Isaiah likewise mentions concerning Him the manner in which He would die, thus: 'I have spread out My hands unto a people disobedient, and gainsaying, that walk in a way which is not good.' And that He would rise again, Isaiah himself said: 'His burial has been taken away from the midst, and I will give the rich for His death.' Isaiah 53:9 And again, in other words, David in the twenty-first Psalm thus refers to the suffering and to the cross in a parable of mystery: 'They pierced my hands and my feet; they counted all my bones. They considered and gazed on me; they parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my vesture.' For when they crucified Him, driving in the nails, they pierced His hands and feet; and those who crucified Him parted His garments among themselves, each casting lots for what he chose to have, and receiving according to the decision of the lot. And this very Psalm you maintain does not refer to Christ; for you are in all respects blind, and do not understand that no one in your nation who has been called King or Christ has ever had his hands or feet pierced while alive, or has died in this mysterious fashion— to wit, by the cross — save this Jesus alone.
6. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, 12.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, 4.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Tertullian, On The Games, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3. Fortified by this knowledge against heathen views, let us rather turn to the unworthy reasonings of our own people; for the faith of some, either too simple or too scrupulous, demands direct authority from Scripture for giving up the shows, and holds out that the matter is a doubtful one, because such abstinence is not clearly and in words imposed upon God's servants. Well, we never find it expressed with the same precision, You shall not enter circus or theatre, you shall not look on combat or show; as it is plainly laid down, You shall not kill; you shall not worship an idol; you shall not commit adultery or fraud. Exodus 20:14 But we find that that first word of David bears on this very sort of thing: Blessed, he says, is the man who has not gone into the assembly of the impious, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of scorners. Though he seems to have predicted beforehand of that just man, that he took no part in the meetings and deliberations of the Jews, taking counsel about the slaying of our Lord, yet divine Scripture has ever far-reaching applications: after the immediate sense has been exhausted, in all directions it fortifies the practice of the religious life, so that here also you have an utterance which is not far from a plain interdicting of the shows. If he called those few Jews an assembly of the wicked, how much more will he so designate so vast a gathering of heathens! Are the heathens less impious, less sinners, less enemies of Christ, than the Jews were then? And see, too, how other things agree. For at the shows they also stand in the way. For they call the spaces between the seats going round the amphitheatre, and the passages which separate the people running down, ways. The place in the curve where the matrons sit is called a chair. Therefore, on the contrary, it holds, unblessed is he who has entered any council of wicked men, and has stood in any way of sinners, and has sat in any chair of scorners. We may understand a thing as spoken generally, even when it requires a certain special interpretation to be given to it. For some things spoken with a special reference contain in them general truth. When God admonishes the Israelites of their duty, or sharply reproves them, He has surely a reference to all men; when He threatens destruction to Egypt and Ethiopia, He surely pre-condemns every sinning nation, whatever. If, reasoning from species to genus, every nation that sins against them is an Egypt and Ethiopia; so also, reasoning from genus to species, with reference to the origin of shows, every show is an assembly of the wicked.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. מה להלן שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו אף נשיא שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו,בעא מיניה רבי מרבי חייא כגון אני מהו בשעיר אמר ליה הרי צרתך בבבל איתיביה מלכי ישראל ומלכי בית דוד אלו מביאים לעצמם ואלו מביאים לעצמם אמר ליה התם לא כייפי אהדדי הכא אנן כייפינן להו לדידהו,רב ספרא מתני הכי בעא מיניה רבי מרבי חייא כגון אני מהו בשעיר א"ל התם שבט הכא מחוקק ותניא (בראשית מט, י) לא יסור שבט מיהודה זה ראש גולה שבבבל שרודה את ישראל במקל (בראשית מט, י) ומחוקק מבין רגליו אלו בני בניו של הלל שמלמדים תורה לישראל ברבים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואיזהו המשיח המשוח בשמן המשחה לא המרובה בבגדים אין בין כהן המשוח בשמן המשחה למרובה בגדים אלא פר הבא על כל המצות,ואין בין כהן משמש לכהן שעבר אלא פר יוה"כ ועשירית האיפה,זה וזה שוים בעבודת יוה"כ ומצווים על הבתולה ואסורים על האלמנה ואינם מטמאים בקרוביהם ולא פורעים ולא פורמים ומחזירין הרוצח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר היו שולקים בו את העיקרים דברי רבי יהודה רבי יוסי אומר והלא לסוך את העקרים אינו סופק אלא שורין את העקרים במים ומציף עליו שמן וקולט את הריח וקפחו,אמר לו רבי יהודה וכי נס אחד נעשה בשמן המשחה והלא תחלתו שנים עשר לוגין וממנו היה נמשח משכן וכליו אהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים וכולו קיים לעתיד לבוא שנאמר (שמות ל, לא) שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם,תניא אידך (ויקרא ח, י) ויקח משה את שמן המשחה וימשח [את] המשכן [ואת] כל אשר בו רבי יהודה אומר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר כמה נסים נעשו בו מתחלה ועד סוף תחלתו לא היה אלא שנים עשר לוגין ראה כמה יורה בולעת וכמה עקרים בולעים וכמה האור שורף ובו נמשח משכן וכליו ואהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים,ואפילו כהן גדול בן כהן גדול טעון משיחה ואין מושחים מלך בן מלך ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקתו של אדוניה ואת יואש מפני עתליה ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ואותו שמן קיים לעתיד לבוא שנאמר שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם זה בגימטריא שנים עשר לוגין הוו,אמר מר ואפילו כהן גדול בן כהן גדול טעון משיחה מנלן דכתיב (ויקרא ו, טו) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו נימא קרא והכהן מתחתיו מבניו מאי המשיח קמ"ל דמבניו דכהן גדול אי הוי משיח הוי כהן גדול ואי לא לא הוי כהן גדול,אמר מר ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך מנלן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב דכתיב (דברים יז, כ) למען יאריך ימים על ממלכתו וגו' ירושה היא לכם ומנלן דכי איכא מחלוקת בעי משיחה ולאו כל דבעי מלכא מורית מלכותא לבניה אמר רב פפא אמר קרא הוא ובניו בקרב ישראל בזמן ששלום בישראל קרינא ביה הוא ובניו ואפילו בלא משיחה,תנא אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקתו של יורם ותיפוק ליה משום דראשון הוא חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני מלכי בית דוד משוחין מלכי ישראל אין משוחין מנלן אמר רבא אמר קרא (שמואל א טז, יב) קום משחהו כי זה וגו' זה טעון משיחה ואין אחר טעון משיחה,אמר מר אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקתו של יורם ומשום מחלוקתו של יורם בן אחאב נמעול בשמן כדאמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא ה"נ באפרסמא דכיא,ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומי קשיש מיניה והכתיב (דברי הימים א ג, טו) ובני יאשיהו הבכור יוחנן השני יהויקים השלישי צדקיהו הרביעי שלום וא"ר יוחנן הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו הוא יוחנן הוא יהואחז לעולם יהויקים קשיש ומאי בכור בכור למלכות,ומי מלכי זוטרי מקמי קשישי והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור יהורם ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה יהויקים לאו ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,אמר מר הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו הוא יוחנן הוא יהואחז והא חד חד קא חשיב דכתי' (דברי הימים א ג, טו) השלישי הרביעי מאי שלישי שלישי לבנים ומאי רביעי רביעי למלכות דמעיקרא מלך יהואחז ולבסוף יהויקים ולבסוף יכניה ולבסוף צדקיהו,ת"ר הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו ולמה נקרא שמו שלום שהיה משולם במעשיו איכא דאמרי שלום ששלמה מלכות בית דוד בימיו ומה שמו מתניה שמו שנאמר (מלכים ב כד, יז) וימלך מלך בבל את מתניה דודו תחתיו ויסב את שמו צדקיהו א"ל יה יצדיק עליך את הדין אם תמרוד בי (שנאמר (מלכים ב כה, ז) ויביאהו בבלה) וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לו, יג) וגם במלך נבוכדנצר מרד אשר השביעו באלהים 11b. bJust as there,in the passage with regard to the king, the reference is to one bover whom there is only the Lord his God, so too,with regard to ba inasi /i,the reference is to one bover whom there is only the Lord his God. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya:In a case bwhere Iperform an unwitting transgression, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i: Would I be liable to atone bwith a goatas a sin-offering because I am the iNasi /i, or is my atonement with a ewe or a female goat, like a commoner, because I am not the king? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: Your rival,the Exilarch bin Babylonia,is as great as you; therefore, you are not akin to a king. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi braised an objection toRabbi Ḥiyya from a ibaraita /i: If bkings ofthe kingdom of bIsrael and kings of the house of Davidperform an unwitting transgression, bthese bringa sin-offering bfor themselvesas kings, band those bringa sin-offering bfor themselvesas kings. This indicates that even if a king has a counterpart who is as powerful as he is, he brings a male goat as his sin-offering. Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bThere,the kings bwere not subject to each other’s authority. Here,in Eretz Yisrael, bwe are subject to their authority,as the authority of the Exilarch is greater than the authority of the iNasi /i., bRav Safra taughtthe exchange in bthismanner: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya:In a case bwhere Iperform an unwitting transgression, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i: Would I be liable to atone bwith a male goatas a sin-offering because I am the iNasi /i, or is my atonement with a ewe or a female goat, like a commoner, because I am not the king? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: There,the Exilarch has authority that is represented by ba scepter; here,in Eretz Yisrael, we have lesser authority, which is represented by ba staff. And it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“The scepter shall not depart from Judah”(Genesis 49:10); bthisis a reference to bthe Exilarch in Babylonia, who reigns over the Jewish people with a rod,as he is authorized by the gentile monarchy to impose his will. b“Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet”(Genesis 49:10); bthese are the descendants of Hillel, whoserve in the role of the iNasiand bteach Torah to the Jewish people in public,but who are not authorized by the government to impose their will., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd who is the anointedpriest? It is the High Priest bwho is anointed with the anointing oil, not theHigh Priest consecrated by donning bmultiple garments,i.e., one who served after the anointing oil had been sequestered, toward the end of the First Temple period. bThe difference betweena High bPriest anointed with the anointing oil andone consecrated by donning bmultiple garmentsunique to the High Priest bis onlythat the latter does not bring the bbull that comes forthe transgression of bany of the mitzvot. /b, bAnd the difference betweena High bPriestcurrently bservingin that capacity band a formerHigh bPriestwho had temporarily filled that position while the High Priest was unfit for service bis onlywith regard to the bbullbrought by the High Priest on bYom Kippur and the tenth of an ephahmeal-offering brought by the High Priest daily. Each of these offerings is brought only by the current High Priest, and not by a former High Priest.,Both bthisHigh Priest currently serving band thatformer High Priest bare equal with regard toperforming the rest of bthe Yom Kippur service, and they areboth bcommanded with regard tomarrying ba virgin(see Leviticus 21:13), bandit is bprohibitedfor both btomarry ba widow(see Leviticus 21:14), band they may not render themselves impurewith impurity imparted by a corpse even binthe event that one of btheir relativesdies (see Leviticus 21:11), band they may not growtheir hair blong and they may not rendtheir garments as expressions of mourning (see Leviticus 21:10), bandwhen they die bthey restore theunwitting bmurdererto his home from the city of refuge (see Numbers 35:25)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:To blend bthe anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, they would boil inthe oil bthe rootsof the spices in the quantities enumerated in the verse; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: But isn’tthat amount of oil binsufficienteven bto smear on the rootsof those spices, as the oil would be absorbed into the roots? How then could the roots be boiled in the oil? bRather, they soak the roots in water.Once the roots are waterlogged, they do not absorb the oil. The fragrance of the spices gradually rises band they float oil onthe water bandthe oil babsorbs the fragrance. Andat that point, bone removedthe oil b[ ivekippeḥo /i]from the water, and that was the anointing oil., bRabbi Yehuda said to him: And wasit merely bone miraclethat was bperformed with regard to the anointing oil? But wasn’t it initiallyonly btwelve ilog /i, and from it the Tabernacle, and its vessels, Aaron, and his sonswere banointedfor the bentire seven days of inauguration, and all of itremains bin existence for the future, as it is stated: “This shall be a sacred anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations”(Exodus 30:31)? Since the entire existence of the anointing oil is predicated on miracles, it is no wonder that its preparation also involved a miracle., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the Tabernacle and all that was in itand sanctified them” (Leviticus 8:10). bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, how many miracles were performed in itsregard continuously, bfrom beginning to end? Initially it was only twelve ilog /i. Consider how muchoil ba pot absorbs, and how muchoil is babsorbed by the roots, and how muchoil bthe fire burns, andyet bthe Tabernacle, and its vessels, Aaron, and his sonswere banointed with itfor the bentire seven days of inauguration, and High Priests and kings were anointed with itthroughout the generations.,Apropos the anointing oil, the ibaraitacontinues: bAnd even a High Priest, son of a High Priest, requires anointing, but one does not anoint a king, son of a king. And if you say: For whatreason bdid they anoint King Solomon(see I Kings, chapter 1), who was the son of a king? It was bdue to the challenge of Adonijah,who sought to succeed their father David as king. bAndthey anointed bJoash due to Athaliah(see II Kings, chapter 11). bAndthey anointed bJehoahaz due to Jehoiakim, who was two years older than hewas (see II Kings 23:30). In all these cases, it was necessary to underscore that these men were crowned king. bAnd that oil remains in existence for the future, as it is stated: “This [ izeh /i] shall be a sacred anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations”(Exodus 30:31). bThe numerical value of izehis twelve ilog /i,indicating that this amount of oil remains intact despite its use.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: And even a High Priest, son of a High Priest, requires anointing.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons”(Leviticus 6:15). bLet the verse sayonly: bThe priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons. Whatis the reason that it says: b“The anointedpriest”? The Torah bteaches us thateven bfrom among the sons of a High Priest, if he is anointedwith oil bhe is a High Priest, and if not, he is not a High Priest. /b, bThe Master said: But one does not anoint a king, son of a king.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov saidthat it is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “So that he may prolong his days in his kingdom,he and his sons, in the midst of Israel” (Deuteronomy 17:20). His children are mentioned in the verse in order to teach them: The kingdom bis an inheritance for you.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat when there is a disputewith regard to succession, the king brequires anointing, andit is bnotthat bwhenever the king wisheshe can bbequeath the kingdom to his sonwithout anointing him? bRav Pappa saidthat bthe verse states: “He and his sons, in the midst of Israel.” When there is peace in Israel we read concerning him: “He and his sons,” even without anointing;but when there is dispute, anointing is required.,It is btaught: Even Jehu, son of Nimshi,king of Israel, bwas anointed only due to the challenge of Joram(see II Kings 9:1–14). The Sages challenge: bAnd let him derivethat Jehu was anointed bdue tothe fact bthat hewas the bfirstof his dynasty and was not the son of a king. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete and thisis what bit is teaching: Kings of the house of David are anointed; kings of Israel are not anointed.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava saidthat bthe verse states: “Arise, anoint him, for thisis he” (I Samuel 16:12), from which it is derived: bThisking, David, brequires anointing, but anotherking bdoes not require anointing. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: Even Jehu, son of Nimshi,king of Israel, bwas anointed only due to the challenge of Joram.The Gemara asks: bAnd due to the challenge of Joram, son of Ahab, shall we misuse consecrated anointing oiland anoint a king of Israel, who does not require anointing? The Gemara answers that it is blikethat bwhich Rav Pappa saidin another context: They anointed him bwith pure balsamoil, not with anointing oil. bSo too,with regard to Jehu, they anointed him bwith pure balsamoil, not with anointing oil.,The ibaraitateaches: bAndthey anointed bJehoahaz due to Jehoiakim, who was two years older than hewas. The Gemara asks: bAnd wasJehoiakim bolder thanJehoahaz? bBut isn’t it written: “And the sons of Josiah: The firstborn Joha, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum”(I Chronicles 3:15), band Rabbi Yoḥa says: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah;these are two names for one person. Likewise, bhe is Joha, he is Jehoahaz,who is mentioned in the book of Kings. Since Jehoahaz was the eldest, why was it necessary to anoint him? The Gemara answers: bActually, Jehoiakimwas bolderthan Jehoahaz. bAnd whatis the meaning of the term b“firstborn”written with regard to Jehoahaz? It means that his status was like that of ba firstbornin terms of ascent bto the kingship. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd do youngersons brule before eldersons? bBut isn’t it written: “And the kingdom he gave to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn”(II Chronicles 21:3). The Gemara answers: bJehoram was a surrogate for his ancestorsas he was suited to serve as king, so since he was firstborn, he ascended to the throne. bJehoiakim was not a surrogate for his ancestors;he was not suited to serve as king. Therefore, his brother ascended to the throne before him., bThe Master said: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah; he is Joha, he is Jehoahaz.The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’tthe verse benumerate them individually, as it is written: “The thirdZedekiah, bthe fourthShallum,” indicating that they are two people? The Gemara answers: bWhatis the meaning of bthird?It means the bthird among the sons. And whatis the meaning of bfourth?It means the bfourthto ascend bto the kingship.How so? bInitially, Jehoahaz reigned, and ultimately,after him, bJehoiakim, and ultimately,after him, bJeconiah,son of Jehoiakim, band ultimately,after him, bZedekiah,who was fourth to the kingship., bThe Sages taught: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah. And why was he called Shallum?It is bdue tothe fact bthat he was perfect [ imeshullam /i] is his actions. Some say:He was called bShallum because the kingdom of the house of David was concluded [ isheshalema /i] during his days. And whatwas bhisactual bname? Mattaniahwas bhis name, as it is stated: “And the king of Babylon crowned Mattaniah his uncle in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah”(II Kings 24:17). Why did Nebuchadnezzar call him Zedekiah? bHe said to him: God will justify the judgment against you if you rebel against me; and it is written: “And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had imposed upon him an oath by God”(II Chronicles 36:13).
11. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the itannataught us a ihalakha bwith regard to all of them,not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: bButwith regard to a sailor bit saidthat the set interval for conjugal relations is bsix months;why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that bone who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket.On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., bRabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driverwho is already married wants to bbecome a camel driver, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? bHe answered him: A woman prefers a ikav /i,i.e., modest means, bwith conjugal relations to ten ikavwith abstinence.Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For bsailors,the set interval for conjugal relations is bonce every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona saidthat bRav said:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava saidthat bRav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leavetheir homes bto study Torahfor as long as btwo or three years without permissionfrom their wives. bRava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’sopinion band performed an actionlike this bthemselves,but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is basit is related babout Rav Reḥumi, who would commonlystudy bbefore Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to comeback bto his home everyyear on the beve of Yom Kippur. One day he wasparticularly bengrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. bHis wife was expecting himthat day and continually said to herself: bNow he is coming, now he is coming.But in the end, bhe did not come. She was distressedby this and ba tear fell from her eye.At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi bwas sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died.This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ bWhenis btheideal btime for Torah scholarsto fulfill their conjugal obligations? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The appropriate time for them is bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve,i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b“that brings forth its fruit in its season”(Psalms 1:3): bRav Yehuda said, and some saythat it was bRav Huna, and some saythat it was bRav Naḥman: Thisis referring to one bwho engages in marital relations,bringing forth his fruit, bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b,It is related further that bYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyyaand bson-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and everyShabbat eve bat twilight he would come to his house. When he would come,Rabbi Yannai bwould see a pillar of fire preceding himdue to his sanctity. bOne day he was engrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. bWhen Rabbi Yannai did not see that signpreceding him, bhe said tothe family: bTurn his bed over,as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that bif Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set intervalfor conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said bbecame “like an error that proceeds from a ruler”(Ecclesiastes 10:5), bandYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, bdied. /b,It is related further that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barranged for his sonto marry a daughter of bthe household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualificationin these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? bThey sat and looked into the families’ancestry and found that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas descended from Shefatya ben Avital,the wife of David, whereas bRabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b, bHe went and arranged for his sonto marry a daughter bof the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for himthat they would support him for btwelve years to go to study in the study hall.It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. bThey passedthe girl bin front ofthe groom and when he saw her bhe said: Let it bejust bsix years. They passed her in front of himagain and bhe said to them: I will marry hernow band then goto study. bHe wasthen bashamedto see bhis father,as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and bsaid to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception,meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that binitially it is written: “You bring them and plant themin the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. bAnd ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them”(Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding bhe went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile,as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Whatshould we bdo? If he will divorce her,people bwill say: This poor woman waitedand hoped bfor naught. If he will marry another womanto beget children, people bwill say: This one,who bears him children, bis his wife and that one,who lives with him, bis his mistress.Therefore, her husband bpleadedwith God bto have mercy on her and she was cured. /b, bRabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Wait for me until Ican bcome with you,after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, bhe did not waitand bwent and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b, bHe wentand bsat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter,meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. bHe followed herto his house. bHis wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw himand recognized him, band her heart flutteredwith agitation and bshe passed awayfrom the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b, bRabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house, bhe said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai,who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, bdid. He went and sat in the study hallin his hometown, band senta message bto his housethat he had arrived. While he was sitting there bhis son Rabbi Oshaya,whom he did not recognize, bcame and sat before him.Rabbi Oshaya basked himquestions about ihalakha /i, andRabbi Ḥama bsaw that the ihalakhotofRabbi Oshaya bwere incisive,i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama bwas distressed and said: If I had been hereand had taught my son bI would have had a child like this. /b,Rabbi Ḥama bwent in to his houseand bhis son went inwith him. Rabbi Ḥama then bstood up before himto honor a Torah scholar, since bhe thoughtthat bhe wanted to ask him a matter of ihalakha /i. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son?The Gemara comments: bRami bar Ḥama readthe verse babout him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). bThisis referring to bRabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa,as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua,one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The bdaughterof Ben Kalba Savua bsaw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hallto learn Torah? bHe said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent himoff to study. bHer father heardthis and became angry. bHe removed her from his houseand took a bvowprohibiting her from bbenefiting from his property.Rabbi Akiva bwentand bsat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house bhe brought twelve thousand studentswith him, and as he approached bhe heard an old man saying tohis wife: bFor how long /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בני שמואל חטאו אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי (כי זקן שמואל ובניו לא הלכו) בדרכיו בדרכיו הוא דלא הלכו מיחטא נמי לא חטאו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל א ח, ג) ויטו אחרי הבצע שלא עשו כמעשה אביהם שהיה שמואל הצדיק מחזר בכל מקומות ישראל ודן אותם בעריהם שנאמר (שמואל א ז, טז) והלך מדי שנה בשנה וסבב בית אל והגלגל והמצפה ושפט את ישראל והם לא עשו כן אלא ישבו בעריהם כדי להרבות שכר לחזניהן ולסופריהן,כתנאי ויטו אחרי הבצע ר' מאיר אומר חלקם שאלו בפיהם רבי יהודה אומר מלאי הטילו על בעלי בתים ר' עקיבא אומר קופה יתירה של מעשר נטלו בזרוע ר' יוסי אומר מתנות נטלו בזרוע:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל האומר דוד חטא אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל וה' עמו וגו' אפשר חטא בא לידו ושכינה עמו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל ב יב, ט) מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,אמר רב רבי דאתי מדוד מהפך ודריש בזכותיה דדוד מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע רבי אומר משונה רעה זו מכל רעות שבתורה שכל רעות שבתורה כתיב בהו ויעש וכאן כתיב לעשות שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) את אוריה החתי הכית בחרב שהיה לך לדונו בסנהדרין ולא דנת ואת אשתו לקחת לך לאשה ליקוחין יש לך בה,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל היוצא למלחמת בית דוד כותב גט כריתות לאשתו שנאמר (שמואל א יז, יח) ואת עשרת חריצי החלב האלה תביא לשר האלף ואת אחיך תפקוד לשלום ואת ערובתם תקח,מאי ערובתם תני רב יוסף דברים המעורבים בינו לבינה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) ואותו הרגת בחרב בני עמון מה חרב בני עמון אי אתה נענש עליו אף אוריה החתי אי אתה נענש עליו,מאי טעמא מורד במלכות הוה דאמר ליה (שמואל ב יא, יא) ואדוני יואב ועבדי אדוני על פני השדה חונים,אמר רב כי מעיינת ביה בדוד לא משכחת ביה בר מדאוריה דכתיב (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אביי קשישא רמי דרב אדרב מי אמר רב הכי והאמר רב קיבל דוד לשון הרע קשיא,גופא רב אמר קיבל דוד לשון הרע דכתיב (שמואל ב ט, ד) ויאמר לו המלך איפוא הוא ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה הוא בית מכיר בן עמיאל (בלא) דבר וכתיב וישלח המלך ויקחהו מבית מכיר בן עמיאל (מלא) דבר,מכדי חזייה דשקרא הוא כי הדר אלשין עילויה מ"ט קיבלה מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך (אל ציבא איה) בן אדוניך ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה (הוא) יושב בירושלים וגו' ומנא לן דקיבל מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך הנה לך כל אשר למפיבושת ויאמר ציבא השתחויתי אמצא חן (בעיני) המלך,ושמואל אמר לא קיבל דוד לשון הרע דברים הניכרים חזא ביה דכתיב (שמואל ב יט, כה) ומפיבושת בן שאול ירד (לפני) המלך ולא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו ואת בגדיו לא כיבס וגו' וכתיב ויהי כי בא ירושלים לקראת המלך ויאמר לו המלך למה לא הלכת עמי מפיבושת ויאמר אדוני המלך עבדי רמני כי אמר עבדך אחבשה לי החמור וארכב עליה ואלך את המלך כי פסח 56a. bthat the sons of Samuel sinned is nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, when Samuel was oldthat he made his sons judges over Israel… bAnd his sons walked not in his waysbut sought after unjust gain, and took bribes, and perverted justice” (I Samuel 8:1–3). By inference: bIn his ways they did not walk,however, bthey did not sin either.They were not the equals of their father, but they were not sinners., bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And they sought after unjust gain,”indicating that they were sinners? It means bthat they did not conductthemselves bin accordance with the actions of their father. As Samuel the righteous would travel to all placeswhere the people of bIsraelwere located bandsit in bjudgment in their towns, as it is stated: “And he went from year to year in circuit from Beth-El, and Gilgal, and Mitzpa, and judged Israelin all those places” (I Samuel 7:16). bAnd,however, bthey did not do soand travel from place to place. bRather, they sat in theirown bcities in order to enhance the feescollected bby their attendants and scribes.Therefore, the verse ascribes to them liability as if they sinned by seeking ill-gotten gains and bribes.,The Gemara notes that this matter is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.As it was taught in a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“And they sought after unjust gain.” Rabbi Meir says:This means that bthey vocally demanded their portionsof the tithe due them as Levites, abusing their position to the detriment of other Levites. bRabbi Yehuda says: They imposedupon local bhomeownersto sell their bmerchandiseand support them. bRabbi Akiva says: They took an extra basket of tithes,beyond that which was their due, bby force. Rabbi Yosei says: They tookonly bthe giftsdue them; however, they took them bby force.They acted improperly, as a Levite is required to wait until he is given his gifts and may not take them., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that David sinnedwith Bathsheba bis nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And David succeeded in all his ways; and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14). bIs it possible that sin came to his hand andnevertheless bthe Divine Presence was with him? /b, bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the rebuke of the prophet Nathan: b“Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do that which is evilin My sight? Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword, and his wife you have taken to be your wife, and him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon” (II Samuel 12:9), indicating that David sinned? The Gemara answers: David bsought to doevil and have relations with Bathsheba while she was still married to Uriah bbut did not doso., bRav said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwho descends fromthe house of bDavid, seeks to teachthe verse bin favor of David.With regard to that which is written: b“Why have you despised the commandment of the Lord to do evil,” RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: This evilmentioned with regard to David bis different from allother bevils in the Torah; as with regard to allother bevils in the Torah, it is written: And he didevil, band here it is written: To do evil.This unique phrase indicates that David bsought to doevil bbut did notactually bdoso. His intentions were improper; however, his actions were proper.,That which is written: b“Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword,”means bthat you could have judged him before the Sanhedrinas one guilty of treason against the throne, band you did not judgehim in that manner. Instead, you had him executed in a manner that deviated from the generally accepted principles of judgment. With regard to that which is written: b“And his wife you have taken to be your wife”;it means that byou haverights of bmarriage with her,as by law Bathsheba was already divorced from Uriah., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who goes to a warwaged by the royal bhouse of David writes aconditional bbill of divorce to his wife.That was done to prevent a situation in which the soldier’s wife would be unable to remarry because the soldier did not return from battle and there were no witnesses to his fate. The conditional bill of divorce accorded her the status of a divorcee and freed her to remarry. bAs it is stated: “And carry these ten cheeses to the captain of their thousand, and to your brothers bring greetings and take their pledge [ iarubatam /i] /b” (I Samuel 17:18)., bWhat isthe meaning of iarubatam /i? Rav Yosef taught:It refers to bmatters that are shared [ ihame’oravim /i] between him,the husband, band her,the wife, i.e., marriage. The verse should be read: Take the bill of divorce that determines the status of the relationship between husband and wife. As, apparently, it was customary for men at war to send their wives a conditional divorce, since Uriah later died, Bathsheba retroactively assumed divorced status from the time that he set out to war. She was not forbidden to David.,With regard to that which is written: b“And him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon,”it means: bJust as you are not punished forsoldiers killed by bthe sword of the children of Ammonin the course of the war, bso too you are not punished forthe death of bUriah the Hittite. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat David was not liable for the death of Uriah? Because Uriah bwas a traitor against the throne. As he said toDavid: b“And my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are encamped in the open fields”(II Samuel 11:11). In the presence of the king, one may not refer to another as his lord. Doing so is treason., bRav said: When you analyzethe matter of bDavid, nosin that he committed bis found in hislifetime, bexcept for thatinvolving bUriah. As it is written /b: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from any thing that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5)., bAbaye the Elder raised a contradiction betweenone statement bof Rav andanother statement bof Rav: Did Ravactually bsay this? Didn’t Rav say: David accepted aslanderous breport?Just as it is prohibited to relate a slanderous report, it is similarly prohibited to accept it. This contradiction remains unresolved, and it is bdifficult. /b,The Gemara now examines bthe matter itselfwith regard to Rav’s statement cited in the course of the previous discussion. bRav said: David accepted a slanderous report, as it is writtenwith regard to David’s search for a surviving son of Jonathan: b“And the king said to him,to Ziba, Saul’s slave: bWhere is he? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is in the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, in Lo-Devar [ ibelo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:4). Ziba indicated to David that Jonathan’s son was inconsequential, lacking any matter [ ilo devar /i] of Torah. bAnd it is written: “Then KingDavid bsent, and fetched him out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, from Lo-Devar [ imilo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:5). That verse can be read that after sending for him, David found him filled with matters [ imelo devar /i] of Torah., bNow, afterDavid bsaw thatZiba bwas a liar, whenZiba bonce again slanderedJonathan’s son, Mephibosheth, bwhy did David accepthis report? bAs it is writtenthat when David fled from Absalom, he met Ziba: b“And the king said: And where is your master’s son? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is staying in Jerusalem,as he said: Today shall the house of Israel restore to me the kingdom of my father” (II Samuel 16:3). bAnd from where do wederive bthat David acceptedZiba’s slanderous report? bAs it is written: “Then said the kingto Ziba: bBehold, all that belongs to Mephibosheth is yours. And Ziba said: I humbly beseech you that I may find favor in your sight,my lord, bO king /b” (II Samuel 16:4)., bAnd Shmuel said: David did not acceptZiba’s bslanderous reportwithout substantiation. Rather, bhehimself bsaw conspicuous matters inMephibosheth that indicated that Ziba was right. bAs it is written: “And Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, came down to meet the king, and he had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothesfrom the day the king departed until the day he came back in peace” (II Samuel 19:25). David thought that he was mourning the fact that he had returned in peace. bAnd it is written: “And it came to pass, when he came to Jerusalem to meet the king, and the king said to him: Why did you not go with me, Mephibosheth? And he answered: My lord, O king, my servant deceived me; for your servant said: I will saddle me a donkey, and I will ride on it, and go to the king; because lame is /b
13. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.12, 3.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
cyrus Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 295
david, davidic origin / descent Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295
david Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295, 296
dead sea scrolls Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
deutero-isaiah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 295
diaspora, jewish / diaspora judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
exilarch Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291
exile, babylonian Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
hillel Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94
jesus Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295, 296
judaism, rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295, 296
matrilineal Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291
messiah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295, 296
neusner, jacob Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94
patriarch Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291
persecution Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291
priest, priesthood Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
rabbis / rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 291, 295, 296
temple, eschatological temple Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
temple, temple destruction Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
temple Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
torah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 296
– davidic Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
– king messiah' Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
– messiah descended from Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102