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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 85.1
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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.26, 49.9-49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.26. וַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי כִּי־עַל־כֵּן לֹא־נְתַתִּיהָ לְשֵׁלָה בְנִי וְלֹא־יָסַף עוֹד לְדַעְתָּה׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 38.26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said: ‘She is more righteous than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son.’ And he knew her again no more." 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
2. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.13. עָלָה הַפֹּרֵץ לִפְנֵיהֶם פָּרְצוּ וַיַּעֲבֹרוּ שַׁעַר וַיֵּצְאוּ בוֹ וַיַּעֲבֹר מַלְכָּם לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיהוָה בְּרֹאשָׁם׃ 2.13. The breaker is gone up before them; They have broken forth and passed on, By the gate, and are gone out thereat; And their king is passed on before them, And the LORD at the head of them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 66.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

66.7. בְּטֶרֶם תָּחִיל יָלָדָה בְּטֶרֶם יָבוֹא חֵבֶל לָהּ וְהִמְלִיטָה זָכָר׃ 66.7. Before she travailed, she brought forth; Before her pain came, She was delivered of a man-child."
4. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4, 3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 1.6, 2.4, 24.4, 35.2, 85.8-85.9, 98.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.6. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַח (דניאל ב, כב): הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא. הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא, זוֹ גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, יח): וְלֹא יָדַע כִּי רְפָאִים שָׁם, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה ל, לג): הֶעְמִיק הִרְחִב. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, זוֹ גַּן עֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ד, ו): לְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים לא, כא): תַּסְתִּירֵם בְּסֵתֶר פָּנֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): הוֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִים מֵה'. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): לַסְתִּר עֵצָה. (דניאל ב, כב): יָדַע מָה בַחֲשׁוֹכָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): וְהָיָה בְמַחְשָׁךְ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. (דניאל ב' כב): וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, יח): וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים כְּאוֹר נֹגַהּ, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים צז, יא): אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סָרוֹנְגַיָא, וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, א): קוּמִי אוֹרִי וגו'. בִּפְסִיקְתָּא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הוּא גָּלֵא עֲמִיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (ישעיה מ, כב): הַנּוֹטֶה כַדֹּק שָׁמַיִם. וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (איוב לז, ו): כִּי לַשֶּׁלֶג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ (איוב לח, לח): בְּצֶקֶת עָפָר לַמּוּצָק וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה. 2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 35.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וגו' לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם (בראשית ט, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן לְדֹרֹת כְּתִיב, פְּרַט לִשְׁנֵי דוֹרוֹת, לְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ וּלְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה מוֹצִיא דוֹרָן שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֵבִיא דוֹרוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי. אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי הֲווֹן יָתְבִין תָּנְיִן בַּחֲדָא, מְטוֹן שְׁמוּעָה מִן דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אָמְרֵי הָא מָרָא דִשְׁמַעְתָּא נֵיעוֹל וְנִישַׁיְילֵיה, עָל אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָן עִמָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ גְּדוֹל הַדּוֹר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ נִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֵן, אָמַר אִם נִרְאָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו לֵית הוּא כְּדַאי לְמֶחֱמֵי סְבַר אַפָּאי. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר, כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, בִּקְעָה בִּקְעָה אִימָלְאִי דִּינָרֵי זָהָב, וְנִתְמַלְּאָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אִי בָּעֵי אַבְרָהָם לְמִקְרָבֵי מִן גַּבֵּיהּ וְעַד גַּבִּי, וַאֲנָא מְקָרֵב מִגַּבִּי עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא, וְאִין לָא בָּעֵי יִצְטָרֵף אֲחִיָה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי עִמִּי וַאֲנַן מְקָרְבִין מִן אַבְרָהָם עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אֵין הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בְּפָחוֹת מִשְׁלשִׁים צַדִּיקִים כְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, אִי תְּלָתִין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי תְּרֵי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֶשְׂרִים אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֲשָׂרָה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם חֲמִשָּׁה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם תְּרֵין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי הֵן, וְאִם חַד הוּא אֲנָא הוּא. 85.8. וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה (בראשית לח, טו), אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר זַבְדָא צָרִיךְ אָדָם לְהִזָּהֵר עַצְמוֹ בַּאֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבִקְרוֹבוֹתָיו שֶׁלֹא יִכָּשֵׁל בְּאַחַת מֵהֶם, מִמִּי אַתָּה לָמֵד מִיהוּדָה, וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה וגו', לָמָּה (בראשית לח, טו): כִּי כִּסְתָה אֶת פָּנֶיהָ עַד שֶׁהִיא בְּבֵית חָמִיהָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה, לֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ כֵּיוָן שֶׁכִּסְּתָה פָנֶיהָ, אָמַר אִלּוּ הָיְתָה זוֹנָה הָיְתָה מְכַסָּה פָנֶיהָ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲבֹר וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַלְאָךְ שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַתַּאֲוָה, אָמַר לוֹ, יְהוּדָה, הֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ מֵהֵיכָן מְלָכִים עוֹמְדִים, מֵהֵיכָן גְּדוֹלִים עוֹמְדִים. (בראשית לח, טז): וַיֵּט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל הַדֶּרֶךְ, בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ שֶׁלֹא בְטוֹבָתוֹ. 85.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן וגו' (בראשית לח, יח), אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא נִצְנְצָה בָּהּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, חוֹתָמְךָ, זוֹ מַלְכוּת, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ח, ו): שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל לִבֶּךָ, (ירמיה כב, כד): כִּי אִם יִהְיֶה כָּנְיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה חוֹתָם עַל יַד יְמִינִי. וּפְתִילֶךָ, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁהֵן מְצֻיָּנִין בִּפְתִיל, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות לט, לא): פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת. וּמַטְּךָ, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, א): וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָּׁי, (תהלים קי, ב): מַטֵּה עֻזְךָ יִשְׁלַח ה' מִצִּיּוֹן. וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ וגו' וַתַּהַר לוֹ, גִּבּוֹרִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ וְצַדִּיקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. (בראשית לח, כ): וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה וגו', יְהוּדָה בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (משלי ח, ל לא): מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ, מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל עֵת, הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא מְשַׂחֶקֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִיהוּדָה אַתָּה רִמִּיתָ בְּאָבִיךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁתָּמָר מְרַמָּה בְּךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים. 98.8. לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זֶה מָכִיר וגו' וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו (בראשית מט, י), שֶׁבָּא וְנִתְחַבֵּט לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. וְלוֹ יִקְהַת עַמִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּא וּמַקְהֶה שִׁנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה וְרוֹדָה. וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרֵי הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶחָד מִימִין וְאֶחָד מִשְׂמֹאל. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, נִמְנוּ וְאָמְרוּ הִלֵּל מִשֶּׁל מִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְגִלַּת יֻחָסִים מָצְאוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּכְתִיב בָּהּ הִלֵּל מִדָּוִד. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִן דִּשְׁפַטְיָה בֶּן אֲבִיטָל. דְּבֵית כַּלְבָּא שָׂבוֹעַ מִדְּכָלֵב. דְּבֵית צִיצִית הַכַּסָּת, מִן דְּאַבְנֵר. דְּבֵית כּוֹבְשִׁין, מִן דְּאַחְאָב. דְּבֵית יָצְאָה, מִן דְּאָסָף. דְּבֵית יֵהוּא, מִן צִפּוֹרִין. דְּבֵית יַנַּאי, מִן דְּעֵלִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן דְּיוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מִדִּנְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 1.6. Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon opened with (Daniel 2:22): \"He reveals the deep and secret. He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him.\" \"He reveals the deep\"--this is Hell, as it says (Proverbs 9:18): \"He does not know there are spirits there,\" and it says (Isaiah 30:33): \"deep and large\". \"And secret\"--this is Paradise, as it says (Isaiah 4:6): \"for a cover and refuge from storm and rain,\" and it says (Psalms 31:21): \"You hide them in the cover of Your presence.\" Alternatively, \"he reveals the deep and secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says (Isaiah 29:15): \"Woe to the ones who seek deep from God to make their counsel secret.\" \"And secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as the verse states. \"He knows what is in the dark\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says in Isaiah: \"Their acts are in the dark.\" \"The light dwells with Him\"--these are the acts of the righteous, as it is written (Proverbs 4:18): \"The path of the righteous is like the light at dawn,\" and it says (Psalms 97:11): \"Light is sown for the righteous.\" Rabbi Abba Srungia said: \"The light dwells with Him\"--this is the Messiah, as it says (Isaiah 60:1): \"Arise, shine, for your light has come.\" Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon said: From the beginning of the creation of the world, \"he revealed the dark and secret\". \"In the beginning God created the heavens,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Isaiah 40:22): \"He stretches out the heavens like a curtain.\" \"And the land,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Job 37:6): \"For He says to the snow: 'Fall on the earth.'\" and (Job 38:38) \"When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave together.\" \"And God said: 'Let there be light,'\" and it is not explained. Where is it explained? (Psalms 104:2) \"You cover Yourself with light like a garment.\"" 85.9. 'And he said what is the guarantee that I shall give etc.' - Rabbi Hunya said: The Ruach HaKodesh [prophetic spirit] glimmered within her, your seal is Royalty, as it is said (Song of Songs 8:6): \"Set me as a seal upon thy heart\". (Jeremiah 22:24) \"As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon My right hand\". \"And thy cord\", that is the Sanhedrin, who are found in the cord, as it is said (Exodus 39:31) \"A cord of blue\". \"And thy staff\", that is the Messiah, as it is said (Isaiah 11:1): \"And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse\". (Psalms 110:2) \"The rod of Thy strength the LORD will send out of Zion\". \"And he gave them to her etc\". \"And she conceived by him\", Heroes like so, and Righteous ones like so. \"And Judah sent etc.\" Yehuda Bar Nachman said in the name of Reish Lakish (Proverbs 8:31): \"Playing in His habitable earth\" (Proverbs 8:30) \"Playing always before Him\", the Torah, that delights his creations. The Holy One Blessed be He said to Judah: You lied to your father, with a goat kid, so too, Tamar lies to you with a goat kid. " 98.8. ... “…and to him will be a gathering of peoples.” (Genesis 49:10) This refers to Jerusalem, which in the future will blunt the teeth of the nations of the world, as it says “And it shall come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a stone of burden for all peoples…” (Zechariah 12:3)"
6. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. (ויקרא יח, ה) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם הא כל היושב ולא עבר עבירה נותנין לו שכר כעושה מצוה,ר"ש בר רבי אומר הרי הוא אומר (דברים יב, כג) רק חזק לבלתי אכול (את) הדם כי הדם הוא הנפש וגו' ומה אם הדם שנפשו של אדם קצה ממנו הפורש ממנו מקבל שכר גזל ועריות שנפשו של אדם מתאוה להן ומחמדתן הפורש מהן על אחת כמה וכמה שיזכה לו ולדורותיו ולדורות דורותיו עד סוף כל הדורות,ר' חנניא בן עקשיא אומר רצה הקב"ה לזכות את ישראל לפיכך הרבה להם תורה ומצות שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, כא) ה' חפץ למען צדקו יגדיל תורה ויאדיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר יוחנן חלוקין עליו חבריו על רבי חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמרי בי רב תנינן אין בין שבת ליום הכפורים אלא שזה זדונו בידי אדם וזה זדונו בהכרת ואם איתא אידי ואידי בידי אדם הוא,רב נחמן (בר יצחק) אומר הא מני רבי יצחק היא דאמר מלקות בחייבי כריתות ליכא דתניא רבי יצחק אומר חייבי כריתות בכלל היו ולמה יצאת כרת באחותו לדונו בכרת ולא במלקות,רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא רבנן זה עיקר זדונו בידי אדם וזה עיקר זדונו בידי שמים,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב הלכה כר' חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב יוסף מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אמר ליה אביי אלא הא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אלא קראי קא דרשינן ה"נ קראי קא דרשינן,גופא א"ר יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם [אלו הן] מקרא מגילה ושאילת שלום [בשם] והבאת מעשר,מקרא מגילה דכתיב (אסתר ט, כז) קימו וקבלו היהודים קיימו למעלה מה שקבלו למטה,ושאילת שלום דכתיב (רות ב, ד) והנה בועז בא מבית לחם ויאמר לקוצרים ה' עמכם ואומר (שופטים ו, יב) ה' עמך גבור החיל מאי ואומר וכי תימא בועז הוא דעביד מדעתיה ומשמיא לא אסכימו על ידו ת"ש ואומר ה' עמך גבור החיל,הבאת מעשר דכתיב (מלאכי ג, י) הביאו את כל המעשר אל בית האוצר ויהי טרף בביתי ובחנוני נא בזאת אמר ה' צבאות אם לא אפתח לכם את ארובות השמים והריקותי לכם ברכה עד בלי די מאי עד בלי די אמר רמי בר רב עד שיבלו שפתותיכם מלומר די,א"ר אלעזר בג' מקומות הופיע רוח הקודש בבית דינו של שם ובבית דינו של שמואל הרמתי ובבית דינו של שלמה בבית דינו של שם דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני מנא ידע דלמא כי היכי דאזל איהו לגבה אזל נמי אינש אחרינא [לגבה] יצאת בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים:,בבית דינו של שמואל דכתיב (שמואל א יב, ג) הנני ענו בי נגד ה' ונגד משיחו את שור מי לקחתי ויאמרו לא עשקתנו ולא רצותנו ויאמר עד ה' ועד משיחו כי לא מצאתם בידי מאומה ויאמר עד ויאמר ויאמרו מיבעי ליה יצאת בת קול ואמרה אני עד בדבר זה,בבית דינו של שלמה דכתיב (מלכים א ג, כז) ויען המלך ויאמר תנו לה את הילד החי והמת לא תמיתוהו (כי) היא אמו מנא ידע דלמא איערומא מיערמא יצאת בת קול ואמרה היא אמו,אמר רבא ממאי דלמא יהודה כיון דחשיב ירחי ויומי ואיתרמי דחזינן מחזקינן דלא חזינן לא מחזקינן,שמואל נמי כולהו ישראל קרי להו בלשון יחידי דכתיב (ישעיהו מה, יז) ישראל נושע בה',שלמה נמי מדהא קא מרחמתא והא לא קא מרחמתא אלא גמרא:,דרש רבי שמלאי שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות נאמרו לו למשה שלש מאות וששים וחמש לאוין כמנין ימות החמה ומאתים וארבעים ושמונה עשה כנגד איבריו של אדם אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה תורה בגימטריא 23b. b“That a person shall perform and live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). It is inferred bthatwith regard to bone who sits and did not perform a transgression,God bgives him a reward likethat received by one who bperforms a mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon bar RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaysthat as the verse bstates: “Only be steadfast to not eat the blood, as the blood is the soul”(Deuteronomy 12:23), it can be derived ia fortiori /i: bAnd ifwith regard to bthe blood, which a person’s soul loathes, one who abstains from itsconsumption breceives a rewardfor that action, as it is written in a subsequent verse: “You shall not eat it, so that it shall be good for you and for your children after you” (Deuteronomy 12:25); then concerning brobbery andintercourse with bforbidden relatives, which a person’s soul desires and covets, one who abstains from theirperformance and overcomes his inclination, ball the more so that he and his descendants and the descendants of his descendants until the end of all generations will merita reward., bRabbi Ḥaya ben Akashya says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to confer merit upon the Jewish people; therefore, He increased for them Torah and mitzvot,as each mitzva increases merit, bas it is stated: “It pleased the Lord for the sake of His righteousness to make the Torah great and glorious”(Isaiah 42:21). God sought to make the Torah great and glorious by means of the proliferation of mitzvot., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues are in disagreement with himand hold that lashes do not exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat this is so, as bthey sayin bthe school of Ravthat bwe learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla7b): bThe difference between Shabbat and Yom Kippurwith regard to the labor prohibited on those days bis only thatin bthiscase, Shabbat, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable bby human hands,as he is stoned by a court based on the testimony of witnesses who forewarned the transgressor, bandin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable at the hand of God, bwith ikaret /i. And ifthe statement of Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel bis so,in both bthiscase, Shabbat, band thatcase, Yom Kippur, the punishment would be bby human hands.Apparently, the itannaof the mishna, the Rabbis, disagrees with Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:There is no proof from here that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him, as in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thismishna taught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, who says: There are no lashes incases of bthose liableto receive ikaret /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yitzḥak says:All bthose liableto receive ikaret /iin cases of forbidden relations bwere included inthe principle: “For whoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the people who commit them shall be cut off from among their people” (Leviticus 18:29). bAnd why was ikaret /iin the case of relations with bone’s sister excludedfrom this verse and mentioned independently (Leviticus 20:17)? It is bto sentenceone who transgresses a prohibition punishable with ikaret btobe punished bwith ikaret /ialone, band not with lashes.Other Sages disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak (see 13b)., bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak and hold that there are lashes even in cases where there is liability for ikaret /i, there is no proof that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him. The mishna can be understood as follows: In bthiscase, Shabbat, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is bby human hands, andin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is ikaret /i, which is a punishment bat the hand of Heaven.If he was flogged, he is exempt from ikaret /i., bRav Adda bar Ahava saysthat bRav says: The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel,who ruled that lashes exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Yosef said: Who ascended on high and came and saidto you that one who is flogged is exempted from ikaret /i? That is not dependent upon the decision of an earthly court. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bButaccording to your reasoning, then with regard to bthat which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them,the same question applies: bWho ascended on high and came and saidto him that this is so? bRather,in arriving at Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s conclusion bwehomiletically binterpret verses. Here too,with regard to lashes and ikaret /i, bwehomiletically binterpret verses. /b,§ With regard to bthematter bitself, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them, and these are they: Reading the Scrollof Esther on Purim, band greetinganother bwith the name of God, and bringingthe first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem. From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed with them?, bReading the Scrollof Esther is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “The Jews confirmed, and they took upon themselves”(Esther 9:27). The verse could have simply said: They took upon themselves. From the formulation of the verse it is interpreted: bThey confirmed abovein Heaven that bwhich they took upon themselves belowon earth., bAnd greetinganother with the name of God is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And presently Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the harvesters: The Lord is with you, and they said to him: May the Lord bless you”(Ruth 2:4). bAnd it states:“And the angel of the Lord appeared to him and said to him: bThe Lord is with you, mighty man of valor”(Judges 6:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason that the Gemara cites the additional source about Gideon, introduced with the phrase: bAnd it states?Why was the proof from Boaz’s statement to the harvesters insufficient? The Gemara explains: bAnd if you would say: It is Boaz who didso bon his own, and from Heaven they did not agree with him; comeand bhearproof, band it says: “The Lord is with you, mighty man of valor.”The angel greeted Gideon with the name of God, indicating that there is agreement in Heaven that this is an acceptable form of greeting.,From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed to the bbringingof the first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “Bring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of hosts, if I will not open for you the windows of heaven and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ iad beli dai /i]”(Malachi 3:10). This indicates that the heavenly court agreed that the first tithe should be brought to the Temple treasury. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“ iad beli dai /i”? Rami bar Rav says:It means that the abundance will be so great bthat your lips will be worn out [ iyivlu /i], from saying enough [ idai /i]. /b,The Gemara cites a somewhat similar statement. bRabbi Elazar says: In three places the Divine Spirit appearedbefore all to affirm that the action taken was appropriate: bIn the court of Shem, in the court of Samuel the Ramathite, and in the court of Solomon.The Gemara elaborates: This occurred bin the court of Shem, as it is writtenin the context of the episode of Judah and Tamar: b“And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I [ imimmenni /i]”(Genesis 38:26). bHow didJudah bknowthat Tamar’s assertion that she was bearing his child was correct? bPerhaps, just as he went to herand hired her as a prostitute, banother person went to herand hired her bas well,and he is not the father. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bfrom Me [ imimmenni /i]that these bsecrets emerged.God affirmed that her assertion was correct and that it was His divine plan that Judah would father a child from Tamar.,Likewise, this occurred bin the court of Samuel, as it is written: “Here I am; testify against me before the Lord and before His anointed: Whose ox have I taken…And they said: You have neither defrauded us nor oppressed us…And he said to them: The Lord is witness against you, and His anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand. And he said: He is witness”(I Samuel 12:3–5). Based on the context, instead of the singular: b“And he said,”the plural: bAnd they said, should havebeen written, as the verse appears to be the reply of the Jewish people to Samuel’s challenge, attesting to the truth of his statement. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: I,God, bam witness to this matter. /b,This occurred bin the court of Solomon,when the Divine Spirit appeared in the dispute between two prostitutes over who was the mother of the surviving child, bas it is written: “And the king answered and said: Give her the living child, and do not slay him; she is his mother”(I Kings 3:27). bHow didSolomon bknowthat she was the mother? bPerhaps she was deviousand was not the mother of the surviving child at all. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: She is his mother. /b, bRava said: From wheredo you draw these conclusions? None of these proofs is absolute. bPerhapsin the case of bJudah, once he calculatedthe passage of the bmonths and the daysfrom when he engaged in intercourse with Tamar band it happenedto correspond with the duration of her pregcy, he realized that her assertion is correct. There is no room to suspect that another man was the father, as the principle is: Based on that bwhich we see, we establish presumptive status;based on that bwhich we do not see, we do not establish presumptive status. /b,With regard to bSamuel too,no proof may be cited from the use of the singular, as on occasion the bentire Jewish people is referred to in the singular, as it is written,e.g.: b“The Jewish people is saved by the Lord”(Isaiah 45:17).,With regard to bSolomon too,perhaps he reasoned that bdue tothe fact bthat thiswoman bis mercifuland seeks to spare the baby band thiswoman bis not merciful,it is evident that the former is its mother. bRather,Rava concludes: There is no proof from the verses that a Divine Spirit appeared in those circumstances; rather, there is ba traditionthat this is the case.,§ bRabbi Simlai taught:There were b613 mitzvot stated to Mosesin the Torah, consisting of b365 prohibitions corresponding to the number of daysin bthe solar year, and 248 positivemitzvot bcorresponding tothe number of ba person’s limbs. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the versethat alludes to this? It is written: b“Moses commanded to us the Torah, an inheritanceof the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 33:4). The word bTorah, interms of bits numerical value [ igimatriyya /i], /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. השתא [הא] אמרי לא צריכא לקדושי אלא מצאו את אלו ומנאום,ולא אלו בלבד אלא כל שתעלה לך מסורת בידך מאבותיך שמוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון כל המצות הללו נוהגין בה מפני שקדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה וקידשה לעתיד לבא קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל,תרי תנאי אליבא דר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ואיבעית אימא הא ר' אלעזר בר יוסי אמרה דתניא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אמר אשר לוא חומה (ויקרא כה, ל) אע"פ שאין לו עכשיו והיה לו קודם לכן:,ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רבי לוי ואיתימא רבי יונתן דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאנשי כנסת הגדולה כל מקום שנאמר ויהי אינו אלא לשון צער,ויהי בימי אחשורוש (אסתר א, א) הוה המן ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים (רות א, א) הוה רעב ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב (בראשית ו, א) וירא ה' כי רבה רעת האדם (בראשית ו, ה),ויהי בנסעם מקדם (בראשית יא, ב) הבה נבנה לנו עיר (בראשית יא, ד) ויהי בימי אמרפל (בראשית יד, א) עשו מלחמה (בראשית יד, ב) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו (יהושע ה, יג) וחרבו שלופה בידו ויהי ה' את יהושע (יהושע ו, כז) וימעלו בני ישראל (יהושע ז, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים (שמואל א א, א) כי את חנה אהב וה' סגר רחמה (שמואל א א, ה),ויהי (כי) זקן שמואל ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל [וה' עמו] (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי שאול עוין את דוד (שמואל א יח, ט) ויהי כי ישב המלך בביתו (שמואל ב ז, א) רק אתה לא תבנה הבית (מלכים א ח יט),והכתיב (ויקרא ט, א) ויהי ביום השמיני ותניא אותו היום היתה שמחה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא כיום שנבראו בו שמים וארץ כתיב הכא ויהי ביום השמיני וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ה) ויהי (בקר) יום אחד,הא שכיב נדב ואביהוא,והכתיב (מלכים א ו, א) ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה והכתיב (בראשית כט, י) ויהי כאשר ראה יעקב את רחל והכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד והאיכא שני והאיכא שלישי והאיכא טובא,אמר רב אשי כל ויהי איכא הכי ואיכא הכי ויהי בימי אינו אלא לשון צער,חמשה ויהי בימי הוו ויהי בימי אחשורוש ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים ויהי בימי אמרפל (ישעיהו ז, א) ויהי בימי אחז (ירמיהו א, ג) ויהי בימי יהויקים,(א"ר) לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו מאי קמ"ל,כי הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה ויחשבה לזונה,אלא משום דכסתה פניה בבית חמיה ולא הוה ידע לה זכתה ויצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים מלכים מדוד נביאים דא"ר לוי מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים היו וכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ,וא"ר לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה,תניא נמי הכי ארון שעשה משה יש לו עשר אמות לכל רוח וכתיב (מלכים א ו, כ) ולפני הדביר עשרים אמה אורך וכתיב כנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות וכנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות ארון גופיה היכא הוה קאי אלא לאו שמע מינה בנס היה עומד,ר' יונתן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו יד, כב) וקמתי עליהם וגו' והכרתי לבבל שם ושאר ונין ונכד נאם ה' שם זה הכתב שאר זה לשון נין זה מלכות ונכד זו ושתי,רבי שמואל בר נחמני פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו נה, יג) תחת הנעצוץ יעלה ברוש ותחת הסרפד יעלה הדס,תחת הנעצוץ תחת המן הרשע שעשה עצמו ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו ז, יט) ובכל הנעצוצים ובכל הנהלולים,יעלה ברוש זה מרדכי שנקרא ראש לכל הבשמים שנאמר (שמות ל, כג) ואתה קח לך בשמים ראש מר דרור ומתרגמינן מרי דכי,תחת הסרפד תחת ושתי הרשעה בת בנו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ששרף רפידת בית ה' דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, י) רפידתו זהב,יעלה הדס זו אסתר הצדקת שנקראת הדסה שנאמר (אסתר ב, ז) ויהי אומן את הדסה והיה לה' לשם זו מקרא מגילה לאות עולם לא יכרת אלו ימי פורים,ר' יהושע בן לוי פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (דברים כח, סג) והיה כאשר שש ה' עליכם להיטיב אתכם כן ישיש להרע אתכם,ומי חדי הקב"ה במפלתן של רשעים והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כ, כא) בצאת לפני החלוץ ואומרים הודו לה' כי לעולם חסדו וא"ר יוחנן מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בהודאה זו לפי שאין הקב"ה שמח במפלתן של רשעים,ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (שמות יד, כ) ולא קרב זה אל זה כל הלילה בקשו מלאכי השרת לומר שירה אמר הקב"ה מעשה ידי טובעין בים ואתם אומרים שירה,אמר רבי אלעזר הוא אינו שש אבל אחרים משיש ודיקא נמי דכתיב כן ישיש ולא כתיב ישוש ש"מ,רבי אבא בר כהנא פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (קהלת ב, כו) לאדם שטוב לפניו נתן חכמה ודעת ושמחה זה מרדכי הצדיק ולחוטא נתן ענין לאסוף ולכנוס זה המן לתת לטוב לפני האלהים זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב ותשם אסתר את מרדכי על בית המן,רבה בר עופרן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ירמיהו מט, לח) ושמתי כסאי בעילם והאבדתי משם מלך ושרים מלך זו ושתי ושרים זה המן ועשרת בניו,רב דימי בר יצחק פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא 10b. bNow, didn’t they saylater in the same ibaraitathat bit is not necessary to consecratethem? bRather,this is what the ibaraitameans to say: It is due to the fact that when the exiles ascended from Babylonia bthey discovered these and enumerated them. /b,The ibaraitacontinues. bAnd not only these, butin banycity with regard to bwhich you receive a tradition from your ancestors that it was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, all these mitzvot are observed in it, due tothe fact bthat the initial consecration sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bfor its time and sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bforever.This is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between one statement bof Rabbi Yishmael andanother statement bof Rabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara answers: This is a dispute between btwolater itanna’im /i,who hold baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei.Each transmitted Rabbi Yishmael’s opinion in a different manner. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that one of the traditions is mistaken, as with regard to bthisstatement, bRabbi Elazar bar Yosei said it, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saidthat the verse states: b“Which has [ ilo /i] a wall”(Leviticus 25:30). The word ilois written with an ialef /i, meaning no, that it does not have a wall, but its vocalization is in the sense of its homonym, ilowith a ivav /i, meaning that it has a wall. This indicates that beven though it does not presently havea wall, as it was destroyed, bbut it had a wall previously,it retains its status as a walled city. It is Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, who maintains that the first consecration sanctified Jerusalem forever.,§ The Gemara returns to the primary topic of this chapter, the book of Esther. The Gemara cites various aggadic interpretations of the verses of the Megilla. The opening verse of the Megilla states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRabbi Levi said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yonatanwho said: bThis matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom the members of the Great Assembly. Anywhere thatthe word ivayhiis stated, it isan ominous btermindicating bnothing otherthan impending bgrief,as if the word were a contraction of the words ivaiand ihi /i, meaning woe and mourning.,The Gemara cites several proofs corroborating this interpretation. b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”led to grief, as there bwas Haman. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days when the judges ruled”(Ruth 1:1) introduces a period when there bwas famine. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i], when men began to multiply”(Genesis 6:1) is immediately followed by the verse: b“And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth”(Genesis 6:5)., b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] as they journeyed from the east”(Genesis 11:2) is followed by: b“Come, let us build us a city”(Genesis 11:4), which led to the sin of the Tower of Babel. The Gemara cites further examples: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1), about whom it is stated: b“These made war”(Genesis 14:2). Another verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho”(Joshua 5:13), it was there that he saw an angel b“with his sword drawn in his hand”as a warning. It is written: b“And the Lord was [ ivayhi /i] with Joshua”(Joshua 6:27), and immediately afterward: b“But the children of Israel committed a trespass”(Joshua 7:1). It states: b“And it came to pass that there was a certain man of Ramathaim”(I Samuel 1:1), and it mentions shortly afterward Hannah’s inability to conceive: b“For he loved Hannah, but the Lord had closed up her womb”(I Samuel 1:5).,Similarly, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Samuel was old”(I Samuel 8:1), and then it is written: b“And his sons did not walk in his ways”(I Samuel 8:3). Also, it states: b“And it came to pass that David was successful in all his ways, and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14), and only a few verses prior it is written: b“And Saul viewed David with suspicion”(I Samuel 18:9). In another instance, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when the king dwelt in his house”(II Samuel 7:1). Here King David mentioned his desire to build a temple for God, but it is written elsewhere that he was told: b“Yet you shall not build the house”(II Chronicles 6:9).,After citing several verses where ivayhiportends grief, the Gemara mentions a number of verses that seem to indicate otherwise. bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1), which was the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle? bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to that day: bOn that day there was joy before the Holy One, Blessed be He, similar tothe joy that existed on the bday on which the heavens and earth were created.The Gemara cites a verbal analogy in support of this statement. bIt is written here,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day,” and it is written there,in the Creation story: b“And it was [ ivayhi /i]evening, and it was bmorning, one day”(Genesis 1:5). This indicates that there was joy on the eighth day, when the Tabernacle was dedicated, similar to the joy that existed on the day the world was created. Apparently, the term ivayhiis not necessarily a portent of grief.,The Gemara answers: This verse does not contradict the principle. On the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle, a calamity also befell the people, bas Nadav and Avihu died. /b,The Gemara cites additional verses where ivayhiis not indicative of impending grief: bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the four hundred and eightieth year”(I Kings 6:1), which discusses the joyous occasion of the building of the Temple? bAndfurthermore, bisn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] when Jacob saw Rachel”(Genesis 29:10), which was a momentous occasion? bAnd isn’t it written: “And it was [ ivayhi /i] evening, and it was [ ivayhi /i] morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5)? bAnd isn’t there the secondday of Creation, band isn’t there the thirdday, where the term ivayhiis used? bAnd aren’t there manyverses in the Bible in which the term ivayhiappears and no grief ensues? Apparently, the proposed principle is incorrect.,Rather, bRav Ashi said:With regard to beveryinstance of ivayhi /ialone, bthere aresome that mean bthis,grief, band there aresome that mean bthat,joy. However, wherever the phrase b“and it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i]”is used in the Bible, bit is nothing otherthan ba term ofimpending bgrief. /b,The Gemara states that bthere are fiveinstances of ivayhi bimei /iin the Bible. b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahasuerus”; “And it came to pass in the days [ ivayhi bimei /i] when the judges ruled”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Amraphel”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahaz”(Isaiah 7:1); b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Jehoiakim”(Jeremiah 1:3). In all those incidents, grief ensued.,§ Apropos the tradition cited by Rabbi Levi above, the Gemara cites additional traditions that he transmitted. bRabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers.The Gemara questions: bWhatnovel element bis thisstatement bteaching us? /b,The Gemara responds: It is bin accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Any bride who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophetswill bemerge from her. From where do wederive this? bFrom Tamar, as it is written: “When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute; for she had covered her face”(Genesis 38:15). Can it be that bbecauseTamar bcovered her face he thought her to be a prostitute?On the contrary, a harlot tends to uncover her face., bRather, because she covered her face in the house of her father-in-law and he was not familiar with herappearance, Judah didn’t recognize Tamar, thought she was a harlot, and sought to have sexual relations with her. Ultimately, bshe merited that kings and prophets emerged from her. Kingsemerged from her bthrough David,who was a descendant of Tamar’s son, Peretz. However, there is no explicit mention that she was the forebear of bprophets.This is derived from that bwhich Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors. Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers, and it is written: “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz”(Isaiah 1:1). Amoz was a member of the Davidic dynasty, and his son, the prophet Isaiah, was also a descendant of Tamar., bAnd Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: The place of the Arkof the Covet bis notincluded bin the measurementof the Holy of Holies in which it rested.,The Gemara comments: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Ark crafted by Moses had ten cubitsof empty space bon each side. And it is writtenin the description of Solomon’s Temple: b“And before the Sanctuary, which was twenty cubits in length,and twenty cubits in breadth” (I Kings 6:20). The place “before the Sanctuary” is referring to the Holy of Holies. It was twenty by twenty cubits. If there were ten cubits of empty space on either side of the Ark, apparently the Ark itself occupied no space. bAnd it is written: And the wing of one of the cherubs was ten cubits and the wing of the other cherub was ten cubits;the wings of the cherubs occupied the entire area. If so, bwhere was the Ark itself standing? Rather,must one bnot conclude from itthat the Ark bstood by means of a miracleand occupied no space?,§ The Gemara cites prologues utilized by various Sages to introduce study of the Megilla: bRabbi Yonatan introduced this passage,the book of Esther, bwith an introduction from here: “For I will rise up against them,says the Lord of hosts, band cut off from Babylonia name, and remt, and offspring [ inin /i], and posterity, says the Lord”(Isaiah 14:22). This verse may be interpreted homiletically: b“Name,” this isthe bwritingof ancient Babylonia that will disappear from the world. b“Remt,” this isthe blanguageof ancient Babylonia. b“offspring,” this istheir bkingdom. And “posterity,” this is Vashti,who according to tradition was Nebuchadnezzar’s granddaughter, and the book of Esther relates how she too was removed from the throne., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Instead of the thorn shall the cypress come up, and instead of the nettle shall the myrtle come up;and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off” (Isaiah 55:13). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interpreted the verse homiletically as referring to the righteous individuals who superseded the wicked ones in the book of Esther., b“Instead of the thorn”;this means binstead of the wicked Haman.He is referred to as a thorn bbecause he turned himself into an object of idol worship,as he decreed that all must prostrate themselves before him. The Gemara cites proof that the term thorn is used in connection with idol worship, bas it is written: “And upon all thorns, and upon all brambles”(Isaiah 7:19), which is understood to be a reference to idol worship.,The next section of the verse discusses what will replace the thorns, i.e., Haman: b“Shall the cypress [ iberosh /i] come up”; this is Mordecai.Why is he called a cypress [ iberosh /i]? bBecause he was called the chief[irosh/b] bof all the spices, as it is stated: “Take you also to yourself the chief spices, of pure myrrh [ imar deror /i]”(Exodus 30:23), band we translate“pure myrrh,” into Aramaic as imari dakhei /i.Mordecai was like imari dakhi /i, the chief [ irosh /i] of spices, and therefore he is called iberosh /i.,The verse continues: “And binstead of the nettle [ isirpad /i],”this means binstead of the wicked Vashti.Why is she called a nettle [ isirpad /i]? Because she was bthe daughter of the son of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who burned the ceiling [ isaraf refidat /i] of the House of God, as it is written: “Its top [ irefidato /i] of gold”(Song of Songs 3:10).,The next section of the verse states: b“Shall the myrtle [ ihadas /i] come up”; this is the righteous Esther, who was called Hadassahin the Megilla, bas it is stated: “And he had brought up Hadassah;that is, Esther” (Esther 2:7). The concluding section of the verse states: b“And it shall be to the Lord for a name”; this is the reading of the Megilla. “For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off”; these are the days of Purim. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And it shall come to pass, that as the Lord rejoiced over you to do you good,and to multiply you; so the Lord will rejoice over you to cause you to perish, and to destroy you” (Deuteronomy 28:63). The verse indicates that just as the Lord rejoiced in the good he did on behalf of Israel, so too, the Lord bwill rejoice to cause you harm. /b,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bDoes the Holy One, Blessed be He,in fact brejoice over the downfall of the wicked? But it is written: “As they went out before the army, and say: Give thanks to the Lord, for His kindness endures forever”(II Chronicles 20:21), band Rabbi Yoḥa said: For whatreason were the words: b“for He is good” not stated in thisstatement of bthanksgiving,as the classic formulation is: “Give thanks to the Lord; for He is good; for His kindness endures forever” (I Chronicles 16:34)? bBecause the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked.Since this song was sung in the aftermath of a military victory, which involved the downfall of the wicked, the name of God was not mentioned for the good., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And the one came not near the other all the night”(Exodus 14:20)? bThe ministering angels wanted to singtheir bsong,for the angels would sing songs to each other, as it states: “And they called out to each other and said” (Isaiah 6:3), but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The work of My hands,the Egyptians, are bdrowning at sea, and youwish to bsay songs?This indicates that God does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked., bRabbi Elazar saidthat this is how the matter is to be understood: Indeed, God Himself bdoes not rejoiceover the downfall of the wicked, bbut He causes others to rejoice.The Gemara comments: One can blearn fromthe language of the verse bas well, as it is written: “Sothe Lord bwill rejoice [ iken yasis /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:63). bAnd it is not written iyasus /i,the grammatical form of the verb meaning: He will rejoice. Rather, it is written iyasis /i. The grammatical form of this verb indicates that one causes another to rejoice. Consequently, these words are understood to mean that God will cause others to rejoice. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn fromit that this is the case., bRabbi Abba bar Kahana introduced this passage with an introduction from here.The verse states with regard to God’s reward to the righteous: b“He gives to a man that is good in His sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). The Gemara explains that bthisverse bisreferring to bthe righteous Mordecai.With regard to the next part of the verse: b“But to the sinner He gives the task of gathering and heaping up,” this isreferring to bHaman.The conclusion of the verse states: b“That he may give it to one who is good before God”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). bThis is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman”(Esther 8:2)., bRabba bar oferan introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And I will set my throne in Elam, and destroy from there the king and the princes, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 49:38). b“The king”who was destroyed; bthis isreferring to bVashti. “And the princes”; this isreferring to bHaman and his ten sons. /b, bRav Dimi bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

102a. ואף אחיה השילוני טעה וחתם דהא יהוא צדיקא רבה הוה שנאמר (מלכים ב י, ל) ויאמר ה' אל יהוא יען אשר הטיבות לעשות הישר בעיני ככל אשר בלבבי עשית לבית אחאב בני רביעים ישבו לך על כסא ישראל וכתיב (מלכים ב י, לא) ויהוא לא שמר ללכת בתורת ה' אלהי ישראל בכל לבבו לא סר מעל חטאת ירבעם אשר החטיא את ישראל,מאי גרמא ליה אמר אביי ברית כרותה לשפתים שנאמר (מלכים ב י, יח) אחאב עבד הבעל מעט יהוא יעבדנו הרבה רבא אמר חותמו של אחיה השילוני ראה וטעה,דכתיב (הושע ה, ב) ושחטה שטים העמיקו ואני מוסר לכולם אמר רבי יוחנן אמר הקב"ה הם העמיקו משלי אני אמרתי כל שאינו עולה לרגל עובר בעשה והם אמרו כל העולה לרגל ידקר בחרב,(מלכים א יא, כט) ויהי בעת ההיא וירבעם יצא מירושלם וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות,(ירמיהו נא, יח) בעת פקודתם יאבדו תנא משום רבי יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות (ישעיהו מט, ח) בעת רצון עניתיך תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לטובה (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות (בראשית לח, א) ויהי בעת ההיא וירד יהודה מאת אחיו תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות,(מלכים א יב, א) וילך רחבעם שכם כי שכם בא כל ישראל להמליך אותו תנא משום ר' יוסי מקום מזומן לפורענות בשכם עינו את דינה בשכם מכרו אחיו את יוסף בשכם נחלקה מלכות בית דוד,(מלכים א יא, כט) וירבעם יצא מירושלים אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא שיצא מפיתקה של ירושלים,(מלכים א יא, כט) וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה ושניהם לבדם בשדה מאי בשלמה חדשה אמר רב נחמן כשלמה חדשה מה שלמה חדשה אין בה שום דופי אף תורתו של ירבעם לא היה בה שום דופי ד"א שלמה חדשה שחידשו דברים שלא שמעה אזן מעולם,מאי ושניהם לבדם בשדה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שכל תלמידי חכמים דומין לפניהם כעשבי השדה ואיכא דאמר שכל טעמי תורה מגולין להם כשדה,(מיכה א, יד) לכן תתני שלוחים על מורשת גת בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא יצאה בת קול ואמרה להן מי שהרג את הפלשתי והוריש אתכם גת תתנו שילוחים לבניו בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל,אמר רב חיננא בר פפא כל הנהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה כאילו גוזל להקב"ה וכנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי כח, כד) גוזל אביו ואמו ואומר אין פושע חבר הוא לאיש משחית ואין אביו אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לב, ו) הלא הוא אביך קנך ואין אמו אלא כנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך,מאי חבר הוא לאיש משחית חבר הוא לירבעם בן נבט שהשחית ישראל לאביהם שבשמים,(מלכים ב יז, כא) וידח ירבעם (בן נבט) את ישראל מאחרי ה' והחטיאם חטאה גדולה אמר רבי חנין כשתי מקלות המתיזות זו את זו,(דברים א, א) ודי זהב אמרו דבי ר' ינאי אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להן לישראל עד שיאמרו דיי גרם להם לעשות להם אלהי זהב משל אין ארי דורס ונוהם מתוך קופה של תבן אלא מתוך קופה של בשר,אמר ר' אושעיא עד ירבעם היו ישראל יונקים מעגל אחד מכאן ואילך משנים ושלשה עגלים אמר ר' יצחק אין לך כל פורענות ופורענות שבאה לעולם שאין בה אחד מעשרים וארבעה בהכרע ליטרא של עגל הראשון שנאמר (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם,אמר רבי חנינא לאחר עשרים וארבעה דורות נגבה פסוק זה שנאמר (יחזקאל ט, א) ויקרא באזני קול גדול לאמר קרבו פקדות העיר ואיש כלי משחתו בידו,(מלכים א יג, לג) אחר הדבר הזה לא שב ירבעם מדרכו הרעה מאי אחר אמר ר' אבא אחר שתפשו הקב"ה לירבעם בבגדו ואמר לו חזור בך ואני ואתה ובן ישי נטייל בגן עדן אמר לו מי בראש בן ישי בראש אי הכי לא בעינא,ר' אבהו הוה רגיל דהוה קא דריש בשלשה מלכים חלש קביל עליה דלא דריש כיון 102a. bAnd even Ahijah the Shilonite erredin this matter band signedthat he would accept all of Jeroboam’s pronouncements. And generations later this caused Jehu to sin. The Gemara explains: bAs Jehu was an extremely righteous person. As it is stated: “And the Lord said to Jehu: Because you have done well, to perform what is right in My eyes, and have done to the house of Ahab according to all that was in My heart, your children of the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel”(II Kings 10:30). bAnd it is written: “But Jehu took no care to walk in the Torah of the Lord, God of Israel, with all his heart; he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam, who made Israel sin”(II Kings 10:31)., bWhat causedJehu to do so? bAbaye says: A covet is made with the lips, as it is statedthat Jehu said cunningly in an attempt to entrap the priests of the Baal: b“Ahab worshipped Baal a little, but Jehu shall serve him much”(II Kings 10:18). Although it was not his intention, once the statement escaped his lips he began following the path to its fulfillment. bRava says: He saw the seal of Ahijah the Shiloniteon the coronation document of Jeroboam band he erredand believed that it was permitted to act as Jeroboam did.,The Gemara continues its discussion of Jeroboam. With regard to that bwhich is written: “And the apostates are deep in slaughter and I am rejected by them all”(Hosea 5:2), bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Theyissued decrees that are bmore profoundand more extreme bthan my own. I said: Anyone who does not ascendto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival violates a positive mitzva, and they said: Anyone who ascendsto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival will be stabbed with the sword.In that way, Jeroboam successfully prevented the residents of the kingdom of Israel from ascending to Jerusalem.,The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Jeroboam left Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new garment,and the two were alone in the field” (I Kings 11:29). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“At the time of their punishment, they shall perish”(Jeremiah 51:18). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at the time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“In an acceptable time have I answered you”(Isaiah 49:8). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “in an acceptable time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for good.The verse states: b“On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “on the day when I punish” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Judah descended from his brothers”(Genesis 38:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“And Rehoboam went to Shechem; for all Israel came to Shechem, to make him king”(I Kings 12:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:Shechem is ba place ordained for calamity. In Shechem, they tormentedand raped bDinah, inthe outskirts of bShechem the brothers sold Joseph, in Shechem the kingdom of the house of David was divided. /b,With regard to the verse which states: b“And Jeroboam left Jerusalem”(I Kings 11:29), bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:It means bthat he left the destiny of Jerusalem,meaning he removed himself from the category of the residents of Jerusalem, never to return.,The verse states: b“And the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new [ iḥadasha /i] garment, and the two were alone in the field.” Whatis taught by the phrase b“in a new garment”? Rav Naḥman says:It was blike a new garment; just as a new garment has no imperfection, so too, the Torahstudies bof Jeroboamat that time bhad no imperfection. Alternatively, “a new garment”teaches bthat they introduced [ isheḥideshu /i] matters thatno bear had ever heard. /b, bWhatis taught by the phrase b“and the two were alone in the field”? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It teaches bthat allthe bTorah scholarsof that generation bseemed,relative bto them, like grass of the field,as they were wiser than all of them. bAnd there arethose bwho say:It teaches bthat all the rationales of the Torah were revealed to them like a fieldthat is exposed for all to see.,The verse states: b“Therefore shall you give parting gifts to Moresheth Gath; the houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel”(Micah 1:14). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:When they crowned Jeroboam, ba Divine Voice emerged and said tothe subjects of the kingdom of Israel: bHe who killed the Philistine and bequeathedthe city of bGath to you,i.e., King David, bwill you give parting gifts to his sonsand revolt against them? Ultimately, bthe houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel,as the kings of Israel will also be forsaken by their subjects., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:With regard to banyone who derives benefit from this world withoutreciting ba blessing, it is as though he stole from the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a corrupter”(Proverbs 28:24). bAndthe term b“his father”is referring to bnone other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you,Who made you and established you?” (Deuteronomy 32:6). bAndthe term b“his mother”is referring to bnone other than the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother”(Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mother indicates that the mother represents the congregation of Israel, and the Torah of the mother is the tradition of the Jewish people., bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“He is the companion of a corrupter”?It means that bhe is a companion of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, who corruptedthe people of bIsrael before their Father in Heavenby sinning and by causing others to sin.,With regard to the verse: b“And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord, and caused them to sin a great sin”(II Kings 17:21), bRabbi Ḥanin says:This is blike two sticksthat when they collide bcause each other to carom,as due to the strife, Jeroboam caused the subjects of the kingdom of Israel to grow distant from God.,§ Apropos the calves of Jeroboam, the Gemara discusses the Golden Calf discussed in the Torah. The verse states: b“And Di Zahav”(Deuteronomy 1:1). bThe school of Rabbi Yannai said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, because of the gold and silver that You lavished upon the Jewish peopleduring the exodus from Egypt buntil they said enough [ idai /i],this wealth bcaused the Jewish people to fashion for themselves gods of gold.The combination of wealth and leisure left them open to a transgression of that sort. There is ba parablefor this: bA lion does not maul and roar over a basket of strawfrom which he derives no pleasure; brather,he mauls and roars bover a basket of meat,as he roars only when satiated. In other words, the guilt is not exclusively theirs., bRabbi Oshaya says: Until Jeroboam, Israel was suckling,i.e., suffering the consequences, bfromworshipping bone calfthat they fashioned in the wilderness. bFrom thatpoint bforward,they were suckling bfrom two and three calves,as Jeroboam added the calves in Bethel and Dan. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: You have no punishment that comes to the world in which there is not one twenty-fourth of the surplus of a ilitraof the first calf.When weighing a substance, there would often be a disparity of up to one twenty-fourth of its weight. The point is that a minuscule portion of the sin of the Golden Calf is added to every punishment imposed upon the Jewish people, bas it is stated: “On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34), indicating that atonement for that sin is incomplete, and the Jewish people will continue to suffer for it., bRabbi Ḥanina says: After twenty-four generationselapsed from the sin of the Golden Calf, the debt referred to in bthis verse was collected, as it is stated: “And he cried in my ears with a loud voice, saying: Those who have charge over the city draw near, every man with his deadly weapon in his hand”(Ezekiel 9:1). This prophecy occurred twenty-four generations after the sin of the Golden Calf.,The verse states: b“And after this matter, Jeroboam returned not from his evil way”(I Kings 13:33). To bwhatevent is the verse alluding, when it states: b“Afterthis matter”? bRabbi Abba says:It is bafter the Holy One, Blessed be He, grabbed Jeroboam by his garment,i.e., he sent prophets and implored him, band said to him: Repent, and you and I andthe bson of Yishai will strolltogether bin the Garden of Eden.Jeroboam bsaid to Him: Whowill walk bin the lead?God bsaid toJeroboam: The bson of Yishaiwill walk bin the lead.Jeroboam said: bIf so, I do not wishto repent.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Abbahu was accustomed to lectureat great length babout the three kingsenumerated in the mishna, who have no share in the World-to-Come. bHe fell ill, and he undertook that he would not lectureabout those kings. bOnce /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. אלא ויקריא מלמד שהקריא אברהם אבינו לשמו של הקב"ה בפה כל עובר ושב כיצד לאחר שאכלו ושתו עמדו לברכו אמר להם וכי משלי אכלתם משל אלהי עולם אכלתם הודו ושבחו וברכו למי שאמר והיה העולם,(בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה חשבה לזונה,א"ר אלעזר שכסתה פניה בבית חמיה דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר נביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ מלכים מדוד ואמר רבי לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו,(בראשית לח, כה) היא מוצאת היא מיתוצאת מיבעי ליה א"ר אלעזר לאחר שנמצאו סימניה בא סמאל וריחקן בא גבריאל וקירבן,היינו דכתיב (תהלים נו, א) למנצח על יונת אלם רחוקים לדוד מכתם א"ר יוחנן משעה שנתרחקו סימניה נעשית כיונה אילמת לדוד מכתם שיצא ממנה דוד שהיה מך ותם לכל דבר אחר מכתם שהיתה מכתו תמה שנולד כשהוא מהול דבר אחר מכתם כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו ללמוד תורה כך בגדולתו,(בראשית לח, כה) והיא שלחה אל חמיה לאמר לאיש אשר אלה לו אנכי הרה ותימא ליה מימר אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא ואמרי לה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי נוח לו לאדם שיפיל עצמו לתוך כבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים מנלן מתמר,(בראשית לח, כה) הכר נא א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא בהכר בישר לאביו בהכר בישרוהו בהכר בישר (בראשית לז, לב) הכר נא הכתנת בנך היא בהכר בישרוהו הכר נא למי,נא אין נא אלא לשון בקשה אמרה ליה בבקשה ממך הכר פני בוראך ואל תעלים עיניך ממני,(בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני היינו דאמר רב חנין בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא יוסף שקדש ש"ש בסתר זכה והוסיפו לו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה דכתיב (תהלים פא, ו) עדות ביהוסף שמו,יהודה שקדש ש"ש בפרהסיא זכה ונקרא כולו על שמו של הקב"ה כיון שהודה ואמר צדקה ממני יצתה בת קול ואמרה אתה הצלת תמר ושני בניה מן האור חייך שאני מציל בזכותך ג' מבניך מן האור מאן נינהו חנניה מישאל ועזריה,צדקה ממני מנא ידע יצתה בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים,(בראשית לח, כו) ולא יסף עוד לדעתה אמר שמואל סבא חמוה דרב שמואל בר אמי משמיה דרב שמואל בר אמי כיון שידעה שוב לא פסק ממנה כתיב הכא ולא יסף עוד לדעתה וכתיב התם (דברים ה, יט) קול גדול ולא יסף,אבשלום נתגאה בשערו וכו' ת"ר אבשלום בשערו מרד שנאמר (שמואל ב יד, כה) וכאבשלום לא היה איש יפה וגו' ובגלחו את ראשו (וגו') והיה מקץ ימים לימים אשר יגלח כי כבד עליו וגלחו ושקל את שער ראשו מאתים שקלים באבן המלך תנא אבן שאנשי טבריא ואנשי ציפורי שוקלים בה,לפיכך נתלה בשערו שנאמר (שמואל ב יח, ט) ויקרא אבשלום לפני עבדי דוד ואבשלום רוכב על הפרד ויבא הפרד תחת שובך האלה הגדולה ויאחז ראשו באלה ויותן בין השמים ובין הארץ והפרד אשר תחתיו עבר [שקל ספסירא בעא למיפסקיה] תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל באותה שעה נבקע שאול מתחתיו,(שמואל ב יט, א) וירגז המלך ויעל על עליית השער ויבך וכה אמר בלכתו בני אבשלום בני בני [אבשלום] מי יתן מותי אני תחתיך אבשלום בני בני והמלך לאט את פניו ויזעק המלך קול גדול בני אבשלום אבשלום בני בני הני תמניא בני למה שבעה דאסקיה משבעה מדורי גיהנם ואידך איכא דאמרי דקריב רישיה לגבי גופיה ואיכא דאמרי דאייתיה לעלמא דאתי,(שמואל ב יח, יח) ואבשלום לקח ויצב לו בחייו מאי לקח אמר ריש לקיש שלקח מקח רע לעצמו את מצבת אשר בעמק המלך וגו' א"ר חנינא בר פפא בעצה עמוקה של מלכו של עולם 10b. but bratheras ivayyakri /i, and he causedothers bto call.This bteaches that Abraham our forefather caused the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to be calledout bin the mouth of all passersby. How so? Afterthe guests of Abraham bate and drank, they arose to bless him. He said to them: But did you eat fromwhat is bmine?Rather, byou ate fromthe food of bthe God of the world.Therefore, byoushould bthank and praise and bless the One Who spoke and the world wascreated. In this way, Abraham caused everyone to call out to God.,The Gemara continues its discussion of the incident of Judah and Tamar. It is written: b“When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute, for she had covered her face”(Genesis 38:15). The Gemara asks: bBecause she had covered her face he thought her to be a prostitute?Prostitutes usually uncover their faces in order to attract men., bRabbi Elazar says:The verse means bthatTamar bcovered her face in the home of her father-in-law,Judah. Therefore, he did not recognize her when her face was uncovered. bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Any daughter-in-law who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophets emerge from her. From where do wederive this? bFrom Tamar. Prophetsemerged from her, bas it is written: “The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz”(Isaiah 1:1). bKingsemerged from her, as seen bfrom David. And Rabbi Levi says: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers.This indi-cates that Isaiah was also from the house of David and therefore a descendant of Tamar.,The verse describes Tamar’s court hearing: b“When she was brought forth [ imutzet /i],she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man whose these are, am I with child” (Genesis 38:25). The Gemara comments: bIt should havestated: bWhen she was imitutzet /i.The word imutzetalso carries the implication of being found. What then, is taught by the use of that term? bRabbi Elazar says: After her signs,which she was using to prove that she was impregnated by Judah, bwere brought out,the evil angel bSamael came and distanced themfrom each other in an attempt to prevent Judah’s admission and Tamar’s survival, which would enable the birth of King David. The angel bGabrielthen bcame and movedthe signs bcloseragain. Therefore, the word imutzetis used, as it alludes to the signs being found again.,The Gemara comments: bThis is as it is written: “For the leader, upon iyonat eilem reḥokim /i, a psalm [ imikhtam /i] of David”(Psalms 56:1). bRabbi Yoḥa saysthe verse means: bFrom the moment that her signs were distanced [ ireḥokim /i], she became like a mute dove [ iyona illemet /i].And the phrase b“a psalm [ imikhtam /i] of David”means: The one bfrom whom David emerged, as he was modest [ imakh /i] and flawless [ itam /i] with everyone. Alternatively, imikhtam /iindicates bthat imakkato /i,the place on his body that would have required wounding [ imakka /i], bwas complete [ itama /i],i.e., bthatDavid bwas born circumcised. Alternatively, imikhtam /iindicates that bjust as in his youthDavid bmade himself small in front of one who was greater than himin order bto learn Torahfrom that person, bso too, when he became greatand was crowned king, he still behaved in this manner, so that his modesty, imakh /i, was complete, itam /i, all of his life.,The verse concerning Tamar then states: b“She sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man whose these are, am I with child”(Genesis 38:25). The Gemara comments: bAnd let her say to himexplicitly that she was impregnated by him. bRav Zutra bar Tuviyya saysthat bRav says, and some say Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saysthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida says, and some saythat bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is more amenable for a person to throw himself into a fiery furnaceif faced with the choice of publicly embarrassing another or remaining silent even if it leads to being burned, band not humiliate another in public. From where do wederive this? bFrom Tamar,as she was prepared to be burned if Judah did not confess, rather than humiliate him in public.,The verse continues: “And she said: bDiscern, please,whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff” (Genesis 38:25). bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Withuse of the word bdiscernJudah binformed his fatherthat Joseph was lost, and also bwithuse of the word bdiscern they informedJudah about the signs. The Gemara explains: bWiththe word bdiscern he informedJacob his father when he brought him the coat of Joseph and said to his father: “And they sent the coat of many colors, and they brought it to their father; and said: This have we found. bDiscern now whether it is your son’s coator not” (Genesis 37:32). bWiththe word bdiscern they informed him:“And she said: bDiscern, please, whose arethese.”,It states: “Discern, bplease [ ina /i].”The word ina /iis bnothing otherthan ba language of request.The Gemara explains: bShe said to him: I request of you: Discern the image of your Creatorin every person, band do not avert your eyes from me. /b,The verse states: b“And Judah acknowledged them, and said: She is more righteous than I;forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son” (Genesis 38:26). bThis isthe same bas Rav Ḥanin bar Bizna saysthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in privateby not committing adultery with the wife of Potiphar, bmerited that one letter from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, was added to hisname, bas it is written: “He appointed it in Joseph [ ibihosef] for a testimony in his name,when He went forth against the land of Egypt” (Psalms 81:6). In this verse the name Joseph is written with an additional letter iheh /i, found in the ineffable name of God.,He continues: bJudah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public, merited that his entirename bis called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He,for all the letters of the ineffable name of God are included within the name of Judah, with the addition of the letter idalet /i. bWhen he confessed and said: “She is more righteous than I,” a Divine Voice went forth and said: You saved Tamar and her two childrenin her womb bfrombeing burned by bthe fire.By byour life,i.e., bin your merit, I will save three of your children from the fire.And bwho are they? Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah(see Daniel, chapter 3).,Judah said: b“She is more righteous than I [ imimmenni /i].”The word “ imimmenni /i” can also be understood as “from me,” with Judah thereby admitting that he is the father. The Gemara asks: bFrom where did he knowthat it was in fact from him that Tamar was pregt? The Gemara answers: bA Divine Voice went forth and said: From Me these hiddenmatters bemerged,and this woman will be the mother of royalty, which requires that Judah be the father.,The same verse continues: b“And he knew her [ ileda’atah /i] again no more [ ivelo yasaf],”seemingly indicating that Judah did not engage in sexual intercourse with Tamar again. bShmuel the Elder, father-in-law of Rav Shmuel bar Ami, says in the name of Rav Shmuel bar Ami:The verse actually means that bonce he knewof bherthat her intentions were for the sake of Heaven, bhe did not desist fromengaging in sexual intercourse with bher again,as bit is written here: “ iVelo yasaf od leda’atah /i,” and it is written thereat the giving of the Torah: “These words the Lord spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, bwith a great voice and it went on no more [ ivelo yasaf]”(Deuteronomy 5:18), which is interpreted to mean: A great voice that did not cease.,§ The mishna teaches: bAbsalom wasexcessively bproud of his hair,and therefore he was hung by his hair. bThe Sages taught( iTosefta3:16): bAbsalom rebelledand sinned bdue to his hair, as it is stated:“Now in all Israel bthere was noneto be so much praised bas Absalom for his beauty;from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him. bAnd when he shaved his head, as it was at every year’s end that he shaved it; because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he shaved it, and he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred shekels, by the king’s stone”(II Samuel 14:25–26). What is the king’s stone? The Sages btaught: A stone with which the people of Tiberias and the people of Tzippori weighitems.,The ibaraitacontinues: And since he was proud of his hair, btherefore, he was hung by his hair, as it is statedin the verse describing the battle between the forces of David and Absalom: b“And Absalom chanced to meet the servants of David. And Absalom was riding upon his mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great terebinth, and his head caught hold of the terebinth, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was under him went on”(II Samuel 18:9). After he was spotted by the opposing troops, Absalom btook a sword [ isafseira /i] and wanted to cut his hairto save himself. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: At that moment,the gates of bthe netherworld opened beneath himand he was afraid to fall into it, so he did not cut his hair, and he was killed by the opposing troops.,It is written with regard to David’s reaction after he learns of the death of Absalom: b“And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept; and as he went about he said: O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died in your place, O Absalom, my son, my son”(II Samuel 19:1), and a few verses later it adds: b“And the king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice: O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son”(II Samuel 19:5). The Gemara asks: bWhyare there bthese eightmentions of b“my son”by David, i.e., to what do they correspond? The Gemara answers: bSeventimes he said “my son,” by bwhich he raised him up from the seven chambers of Gehenna. Andas for bthe other,eighth, time, bsome say thatDavid bbroughtthe bheadof Absalom bclose toAbsalom’s bbody, and some say thatwith this eighth mention David bbroughtAbsalom bto the World-to-Come. /b,It is written there: b“Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himselfthe pillar, which is in the king’s valley; for he said: I have no son to keep my name in remembrance” (II Samuel 18:18). The Gemara asks: bWhat didAbsalom btake? Reish Lakish says: He engaged in a bad transaction for himselfby accepting bad advice for which he was punished. The verse continues: b“The pillar, which is in the king’s valley [ ibe’emek hammelekh /i].” Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:This alludes to the pillar that is bin the deep [ iamukka /i] counsel of the King [ imelekh /i] of the universe,as God had already decreed in the aftermath of the incident with Bathsheba that this would occur.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
angel, fallen/evil Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236, 237
blood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
canaan/canaanite Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236, 237
dead sea scrolls Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
death Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232
esau Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 232
female modesty Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232, 237
gabriel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236, 237
heavens Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
hebrew bible Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
inspiration Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232
israel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236
jacob Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 232
jacob of serugh Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
joseph Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
judah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 232, 236, 237
messiah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232, 236, 237
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
monarchy Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236
perez Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236
pharaoh Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
pray, prayer Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
priest, priesthood Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
priest/priesthood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
prophet/prophecy Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 232
prostitute Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
punishment Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236
rebekah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232
righteous/ness Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232, 236
sammael Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
sarah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232
sexual relations Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 236, 237
shem Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 232, 237
sinai Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 237
tamar Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228, 232, 236, 237
zerah' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 228
zerah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 236
– davidic Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
– king messiah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
– messiah descended from Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102