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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 79.6
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1. Mishnah, Avot, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.14. He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2)."
2. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakaneh used to pray as he entered the Bet Hamidrash and as he left it a short prayer. They said to him: what is the reason for this prayer? He replied: When I enter I pray that that no mishap should occur through me, and when I leave I express thanks for my portion."
3. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
4. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 10.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 97.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
8. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41, 48, 348 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

9. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 92 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11. Palestinian Talmud, Moed Qatan, 3.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. השולח חבית של יין ביד כותי ושל ציר ושל מורייס ביד עובד כוכבים אם מכיר חותמו וסתמו מותר אם לאו אסור,אמר רבי זירא לא קשיא כאן בעיר כאן בדרך,מתקיף לה רבי ירמיה מידי הנך דעיר לא בדרך אתו אלא אמר רבי ירמיה בין הגיתות שנינו כיון דכולי עלמא אפכי מירתת אמר השתא אי חזי לי מפסדו לי,אתמר מפני מה אסרו שכר של עובדי כוכבים רמי בר חמא אמר רבי יצחק משום חתנות רב נחמן אמר משום גילוי,אגילוי דמאי אילימא גילוי דנזייתא אנן נמי מגלינן ואלא דחביתא אנן נמי מגלינן לא צריכא באתרא דמצלו מיא,אלא מעתה ישן תשתרי דא"ר ישן מותר אין מניחו ליישן החמיץ מותר אין מניחו להחמיץ גזירה ישן אטו חדש,רב פפא מפיקין ליה לאבבא דחנותא ושתי רב אחאי מייתו ליה לביתיה ושתי ותרוייהו משום חתנות רב אחאי עביד הרחקה יתירתא,רב שמואל בר ביסנא איקלע למרגואן אייתו ליה חמרא ולא אשתי אייתו ליה שיכרא ולא אשתי בשלמא חמרא משום שימצא שיכרא משום מאי משום שימצא דשימצא,אמר רב האי שיכרא דארמאה שרי וחייא ברי לא נישתי מיניה מה נפשך אי שרי לכולי עלמא שרי אי אסיר לכולי עלמא אסיר,אלא רב סבר משום גילויא ואזיל מרורא דכשותא וקלי ליה זיהריה ודלקי מלקי ליה טפי וחייא ברי הואיל ולקי לא נישתי מיניה,אמר שמואל כל השרצים יש להן ארס של נחש ממית של שרצים אינו ממית אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא ואימא לך מילתא מעלייתא דהוה אמר רב אבוך הכי אמר אבוך הני ארמאי זוקאני דהוו שתו גילויא ולא מתו איידי דאכלי שקצים ורמשים חביל גופייהו,אמר רב יוסף 31b. from the following ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who sends a barrel of wine in the hands of a Samaritan, ora barrel boffish bbrine ora barrel bof fish stew in the hands of a gentile, if he recognizes his seal and hismanner of bclosingthe barrel, it bis permitted; ifhe does bnotrecognize them, it bis prohibited.Apparently, a sealed barrel is permitted only when it is recognizable., bRabbi Zeira saidthat this is bnot difficult. Here,the first ibaraitais referring to barrels located bin a city; there,the second ibaraitais referring to barrels that the Samaritan carries bon the road.Sealed barrels are permitted in a city because the Samaritan is careful to ensure that gentiles do not touch them in front of anyone, so that he does not forfeit the business of Jews. While traveling he is not concerned, as he assumes that no one will discover that the gentile came into contact with the wine., bRabbi Yirmeya objects to this: Didn’t thesebarrels located bin the city come by the roadas well? bRather, Rabbi Yirmeya says: We learnedthe ibaraitathat permits sealed barrels only in reference to those that are located bbetween the winepresses. Since everyone is foundthere, the Samaritan bis apprehensive,as he bsaysto himself: bNow, ifsomeone bsees meallowing a gentile to handle the wine bthey will cause me to losemy profit, as Jews will not purchase it., bIt was stated: For whatreason did the Sages bprohibit the beer of gentiles? Rami bar Ḥama saysthat bRabbi Yitzḥak says:It is bdue tothe concern that Jews will befriend gentiles while drinking with them, which might lead to bmarriagewith gentiles. bRav Naḥman said:It is bdue tothe concern of bexposure. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to whatform bof exposureis there a concern? bIf we saythat the concern is with regard to bexposure of the vat, we too exposethe vat, and there is no reason to prohibit gentiles’ beer more than that of Jews. bAndif you say: bRather,the concern is for exposure bofthe bbarrel, we also exposebarrels. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto prohibit the beer bin a place where the waterused to brew it is allowed to bsettle. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so, agedbeer should bbe permitted, as RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:A substance that might contain exposed water but has bagedis bpermitted,since the poison bdoes not allow it to age,as it goes bad before it grows old. Similarly, if it bsouredit is bpermitted,because the poison impairs the taste but bdoes not allow it to sour.Why, then, is all beer prohibited? The Gemara answers: The Sages issued a rabbinic bdecreewith regard to bagedbeer bdue tothe concern with regard to bnewbeer.,§ The Gemara cites the opinions of various Sages with regard to beer. bRav Pappahad them bbring outthe bbeerbelonging to gentiles from the store bto the entrance of the store, and hewould bdrinkit outside the store. bRav Aḥaihad them bbringthe beer bto his house, and hewould bdrinkit there. bAnd bothof them drank the beer away from the presence of gentiles bdue toconcern about bmarriagewith gentiles. The Gemara notes that bRav Aḥai established an extreme preventive measurefor himself beyond what is required by ihalakha /i.,The Gemara relates that bRav Shmuel bar Bisna happenedto come bto Marguan,and bthey brought him wine but he did not drinkit. Next bthey brought him beer but he did not drinkit. The Gemara asks: bGranted,he did not drink the bwine due tothe btrace [ ishimtza /i]of libations, but bdue to whatreason did he refrain from drinking bbeer?It was bdue toconcern for bthe trace of a trace,i.e., he did not drink beer due to concern about drinking wine., bRav says: This Aramean beer is permitted, but my son Ḥiyya does not drink from it.The Gemara asks: bWhicheverway byoulook at this matter, Rav’s statement is difficult: bIfthe beer is bpermitted,then it is bpermitted to everyone,and there is no reason for his son to refrain from drinking it. And bifit is bprohibited,it is bprohibited to everyone,and why would Rav say it is permitted?,The Gemara explains: bRather, Rav holdsthat the prohibition is bdue to exposure, but the bitterness of the hopsin the beer bgoes and impairs thesnake’s bvenom,so that it is safe for an average person to drink. bButa person of bweakconstitution bis weakened furtherby the impaired venom, bandRav was saying: In the case of bmy son Ḥiyya, since he is weak, he does not drink from it. /b, bShmuel says: All creeping animals possess venom;that bof a snake kills,whereas the venom bofother bcreeping animals does not kill. Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of a lion! Come and I will say to you a superior matter that your father, Rav, said. Thisis what byour father said: These Arameansare bswollen [ izukanei /i] because they drink exposedliquids, bbut they did not diefrom doing so bsince they eat repugt creatures and creeping animals,which bheat their bodiesand thereby render them less susceptible to the venom., bRav Yosef says: /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84b. ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא,למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן,באורתא אמר להו אחיי ורעיי בואו בצפרא אמר להו זילו מפני ביטול תורה יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך כלית ממון של בית אבא אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא,סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו,יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא אתיא אמר לה זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם קרי אנפשיה (משלי לא, יד) היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא,אייתו לקמיה שתין מיני דמא טהרינהו הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק אמר להו אם כמותי הוא יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו ר' אלעזר על שמיה,תניא אמר רבי כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא בדרבנן דרתיחי עלי ולא מיעסקי בי שפיר אוגנין בעיליתאי ולא תידחלין מינאי א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אישתעיא לי אימיה דרבי יונתן דאישתעיא לה דביתהו דרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון לא פחות מתמני סרי ולא טפי מעשרין ותרין שנין אוגניתיה בעיליתא,כי הוה סליקנא מעיננא ליה במזייה כי הוה משתמטא ביניתא מיניה הוה אתי דמא יומא חד חזאי ריחשא דקא נפיק מאוניה חלש דעתאי איתחזי לי בחלמא אמר לי לא מידי הוא יומא חד שמעי בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ולא מחאי כדבעי לי,כי הוו אתו בי תרי לדינא הוו קיימי אבבא אמר מר מילתיה ומר מילתיה נפיק קלא מעיליתיה ואמר איש פלוני אתה חייב איש פלוני אתה זכאי יומא חד הוה קא מינציא דביתהו בהדי שבבתא אמרה לה תהא כבעלה שלא ניתן לקבורה אמרי רבנן כולי האי ודאי לאו אורח ארעא,איכא דאמרי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי איתחזאי להו בחלמא אמר להו פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואי אתם רוצים להביאה אצלי אזול רבנן לאעסוקי ביה לא שבקו בני עכבריא דכל שני דהוה ניים רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון בעיליתיה לא סליק חיה רעה למתייהו,יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה הוו טרידי שדרו רבנן לבני בירי ואסקוהו לערסיה ואמטיוה למערתא דאבוה אשכחוה לעכנא דהדרא לה למערתא אמרו לה עכנא עכנא פתחי פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו פתח להו,שלח רבי לדבר באשתו שלחה ליה כלי שנשתמש בו קודש ישתמש בו חול תמן אמרין באתר דמרי ביתא תלא זייניה כולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא שלח לה נהי דבתורה גדול ממני אבל במעשים טובים מי גדול ממני שלחה ליה בתורה מיהא גדול ממך לא ידענא במעשים ידענא דהא קביל עליה יסורי,בתורה מאי היא דכי הוו יתבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי יהושע בן קרחה אספסלי יתבי קמייהו רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון ורבי אארעא,מקשו ומפרקו אמרי מימיהן אנו שותים והם יושבים על גבי קרקע עבדו להו ספסלי אסקינהו,אמר להן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואתם מבקשים לאבדה הימני אחתוהו לרבי אמר להן רבי יהושע בן קרחה מי שיש לו אב יחיה ומי שאין לו אב ימות אחתוהו נמי לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון חלש דעתיה אמר קא חשביתו ליה כוותי,עד ההוא יומא כי הוה אמר רבי מילתא הוה מסייע ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מכאן ואילך כי הוה אמר רבי יש לי להשיב אמר ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון כך וכך יש לך להשיב זו היא תשובתך השתא היקפתנו תשובות חבילות שאין בהן ממש,חלש דעתיה דרבי אתא א"ל לאבוה אמר ליה בני אל ירע לך שהוא ארי בן ארי ואתה ארי בן שועל,והיינו דאמר רבי שלשה ענוותנין הן ואלו הן אבא 84b. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAndalthough his flesh did not putrefy, beven so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,still bdid not rely on hisown bopinion,as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. bHe accepted afflictions upon himselfas atonement for his possible sins. bAt nighthis attendants bwould spread out sixty feltbed coverings bfor him. In the morning,despite the bed coverings, bthey would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. /b, bThe following day,i.e., every morning, bhis wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [ ilifda /i]made from figs, band he would eat them and become healthy. His wife,concerned for his health, bwould not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push himbeyond his limits., bIn the evening, hewould bsay tohis pains: bMy brothers and my friends, come! In the morning hewould bsay to them: Goaway, bdue tothe bderelictionof bTorahstudy that you cause me. bOne day his wife heard himinviting his pains. bShe said to him: You are bringingthe pains bupon yourself. You have diminished the money ofmy bfather’s homedue to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. bShe rebelledagainst him and bwentback bto her father’s home,and he was left with no one to care for him.,Meanwhile, there were bthese sixty sailorswho bcame and enteredto visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bThey brought him sixty servants,each bbearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them.When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts., bOne day,the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to her daughter: Goand bcheck on your fatherand see bwhat he is doing now.The daughter bcameto her father, who bsaid to her: Goand btell your motherthat bours is greater than theirs,i.e., my current ficial status is greater than that of your father’s household. bHe readthe verse babout himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar”(Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. /b,The students bbrought sixtyquestionable bsamples of blood before himfor inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. bHe deemed themall britually pure,thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. bThe Rabbisof the academy bwere murmuring aboutRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, band saying:Can it benter your mindthat bthere is not one uncertainsample bamong them?He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha bisin accordance with bmyruling, blet allthe children born from these women bbe males. And if not, let there be one female among them.It turned out that ballof the children bwere males, andthey bwere called Elazar in his name. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi lamented and bsaidconcerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: bHow much procreationhas bthis evil woman prevented from the Jewish people.She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings., bAsRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at mefor arresting several thieves who are their relatives, bandtherefore bthey will not properly tend to myburial. When I die, blay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me,i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the atticfor bno less than eighteenyears bandfor bno more than twenty-two years. /b,His wife continued: bWhen I would go upto the attic bI would check his hair,and bwhen a hair would fall out fromhis head, bblood would comeand appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. bOne day I saw a worm emerging from his ear,and bI becamevery bdistressedthat perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband bappeared to me in a dreamand bsaid to me: It is no matterfor concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as bone day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have.Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure.,During this period, bwhen twopeople bwould come for adjudication ofa dispute, bthey would stand by the doorwayto the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bOnelitigant bwould state hisside of the bmatter, and the otherlitigant would state bhisside of the bmatter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent.The Gemara relates: bOne day, the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas quarreling with a neighbor.The neighbor bsaid to heras a curse: This woman bshould be like her husband, who was not buried.When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, bthe Rabbis said: This much,i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is bcertainly not proper conduct,and they decided to bury him., bThere arethose bwho saythat the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai,his father, bappeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son, band you do not wish to bring it to meby burying him next to me. Consequently, bthe Sages went to tend tohis burial. bThe residents of Akhbaria,the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, bdid not allowthem to do so, basthey realized that ball the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town.The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection., bOne day,which bwas Yom Kippur eve,everyone in the town bwas preoccupiedwith preparations for the Festival. bThe Rabbis senta message bto the residents ofthe adjacent town bof Biriinstructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, band they removed his bier and brought it to his father’sburial bcave. They found a serpent [ ile’akhna /i] thathad placed its tail in its mouth and completely bencircledthe entrance to bthe cave,denying them access. bThey said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It openedits mouth bfor themand uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father.,The Gemara continues: After this incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsenta messenger bto speak with the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. bShe senta message bto himin response: Shall ba vessel used bysomeone bsacred,i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bbe used bysomeone who is, relative to him, bprofane? There,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat she used the colloquial adage: bIn the locationwhere bthe master of the house hangs his sword,shall bthe contemptible shepherd hang his basket [ ikultei /i]?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsenta message back bto her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but washe bgreater than I in pious deeds? She senta message back bto him: Whetherhe was bgreater than you in Torah I do not know;but bI do knowthat he was greater than you binpious bdeeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Torahknowledge, bwhat isthe event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,the leading Sages of the generation, bwere sitting on benches [ iasafselei /i]teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould sit before them on the groundout of respect.,These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would braise difficulties and answerthem brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages bsaid: From their waters we drink,i.e., we are learning from them, band they arethe ones bsitting on the ground? Benches were prepared forRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band they were promotedto sit alongside the other Sages., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said tothe other Sages present: bI have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band you are seeking to take it from me?By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. bThey demoted RabbiYehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said tothe Sages: Should bone who has a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may blive, whilethe other bone, who does not have a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to bdie?Upon hearing his argument, the Sages balso demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. bHe became offendedand bsaidto them: bYou are equatingRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bto me,by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he.,As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up buntil that day, when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould state a matterof Torah, bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support himby citing proofs for his opinion. bFrom thispoint bforward, whenthey were discussing a subject and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: I havean argument bto respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, wouldpreempt him by bsaying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond,and bthis is the refutation of yourclaim. bNowthat you asked these questions, byou have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance,i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bbecame offended. He cameand btold his fatherwhat had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto him: bMy son, do not lethis actions boffendyou, bas he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox.Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah.,The Gemara concludes: bThisincident bisthe background to a statement bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There are threeprototypical bmodestpeople, band they are: Father,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יכול אפילו מעולה בדמים ת"ל רק,שמואל אייתי ליה אריסיה תמרי אכיל טעים בהו טעמא דחמרא א"ל מאי האי א"ל ביני גופני קיימי אמר מכחשי בחמרא כולי האי למחר אייתי לי מקורייהו:,רב חסדא חזא תאלי בי גופני אמר ליה לאריסיה עקרינהו גופני קני דקלי דקלי לא קני גופני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אע"פ שהוא נותן לו אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) ועתה השב אשת וגו' ומנין שאם לא מחל לו שהוא אכזרי שנאמר (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך וגו',האומר סמא את עיני קטע את ידי שבר את רגלי חייב ע"מ לפטור חייב,קרע את כסותי שבר את כדי חייב ע"מ לפטור פטור עשה כן לאיש פלוני על מנת לפטור חייב בין בגופו בין בממונו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר כל אלו שאמרו דמי בושתו אבל צערו אפי' הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) השב אשת האיש כי נביא הוא ויתפלל בעדך,דאשת נביא בעי אהדורי אשת אחר לא בעי אהדורי,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן השב אשת האיש מכל מקום ודקא אמרת (בראשית כ, ד) הגוי גם צדיק תהרוג הלא הוא אמר לי אחותי היא והיא גם היא אמרה אחי הוא נביא הוא וכבר לימד אכסנאי שבא לעיר על עסקי אכילה ושתיה שואלין אותו או על עסקי אשתו שואלין אותו אשתך היא אחותך היא,מכאן לבן נח שנהרג שהיה לו ללמוד ולא למד:,(בראשית כ, יח) כי עצר עצר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שתי עצירות הללו למה אחת באיש שכבת זרע שתים באשה שכבת זרע ולידה,במתניתא תנא שתים באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים שלשה באשה שכבת זרע וקטנים ולידה,רבינא אמר שלש באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים ופי טבעת ארבעה באשה שכבת זרע ולידה וקטנים ופי טבעת:,(בראשית כ, יח) בעד כל רחם אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אפילו תרנגולת של בית אבימלך לא הטילה ביצתה,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל המבקש רחמים על חבירו והוא צריך לאותו דבר הוא נענה תחילה א"ל דכתיב (איוב מב, י) וה' שב את שבות איוב בהתפללו בעד רעהו,אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך ואת אשתו ואמהותיו [וגו'] וכתיב (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה כאשר אמר וגו' כאשר אמר אברהם אל אבימלך,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בהדי הוצא לקי כרבא א"ל דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כט) למה תריבו אלי כלכם פשעתם בי נאם ה',אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם לשמור מצותי ותורותי,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב (בראשית מז, ב) ומקצה אחיו לקח חמשה אנשים מאן נינהו חמשה א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אותן שהוכפלו בשמות,יהודה נמי איכפולי מיכפל,אמר ליה למילתיה הוא דאיכפל דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות ויהי מתיו מספר וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שבא משה ובקש רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה,מיד שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא לא הוו קא מסקי למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה ידע מאי קאמרי רבנן ולמשקל ומיטרח בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה סליק ליה שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בתר עניא אזלא עניותא אמר ליה דתנן עשירים מביאין בכורים בקלתות של זהב ושל כסף ועניים בסלי נצרים של ערבה קלופה הסלים והבכורים נותנים לכהנים אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא 92a. One bmighthave thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree bevenif the barren tree is bgreater in monetaryvalue than the fruit-bearing tree. bThe verse states: “Only,”which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.,The Gemara relates: The bsharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates.Shmuel batethem, and btasted the taste of wine in them. He said tohis sharecropper: bWhat is this?The sharecropper bsaid to him:The date palms bstand among the grapevinesand therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel bsaid:Do bthey weaken the wine,i.e., the grapevines, bso muchthat it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? bTomorrow,cut down the date palms and bbring me from their marrowto eat.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav Ḥisda saw date palmsgrowing bamong grapevineson his estate. bHe said to his sharecropper: Uproot thedate palms, since one can bpurchase date palmswith bgrapevines,as grapevines are more valuable, while one bcannot purchase grapevineswith bdate palms. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bDespitethe fact bthatthe assailant who caused damage bgives tothe victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is bnot forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is statedthat God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: b“Now therefore restore the wifeof the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall live” (Genesis 20:7). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat ifthe victim bdoes not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: “And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech,and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17).,The mishna continues: With regard to bone who saysto another: bBlind my eye,or: bcut off my hand,or: bbreak my leg,and he does so, the one who performed these actions is bliableto pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is nevertheless bliable. /b,With regard to one who says to another: bTear my garment,or: bbreak my jug,and he does so, he is bliableto pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is bexemptfrom payment. If one says to another: bDo so,i.e., cause damage, bto so-and-so on the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, and he did so, he is bliable, whetherthe instructions were bwith regard tothe victim bhimself,or bwhetherthe instructions were bwith regard to his property. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: All thesesums bthatin the previous mishna bthey saidone is liable to pay for humiliating another are the bcompensation for his humiliation,for which there is a set amount. bButfor the victim’s bpaincaused by the assailant, beven ifthe assailant bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth(see Isaiah 60:7) bthat are in the world,which are of the best quality, his transgression bis not forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is stated: “Restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you”(Genesis 20:7).,Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here bthat the wife of a prophet needs to be returned,but bthe wife of anotherindividual bneed not be returned? /b,The Gemara answers. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:This is how the verse should be understood: b“Restore the wife of the man” in any case,since she is his wife. bAndwith regard to that bwhich you,Abimelech, bsaid: “Will you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?”(Genesis 20:4–5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that bhe is a prophet, and he already learnedhow to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to ba guest [ iakhsenai /i] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife?Does one ask a guest: bIs she your wife? Is she your sister?Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.,The Gemara remarks: bFrom hereit can be derived bthat a gentile is executedfor having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, bsince he should have learned and he did not learn. /b,Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. b“For the Lord had obstructed [ iatzor atzar /i]all the wombs of the house of Abimelech” (Genesis 20:18). bRabbi Elazar says: Whyare bthese two obstructions [ iatzor atzar /i]both stated? bOneis stated bwith regard to a man,that bsemenwill not be discharged, and btwoare stated bwith regard to a woman,that bsemenwill not be discharged from her, bandthat she will not give bbirth. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Twoare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen and urine,i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; bthreeare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth. /b, bRavina says: Threeare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen, and urine, andthe banal sphincter,i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. bFourare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, andthe banal sphincter. /b,The verse states: “For the Lord had obstructed ball the wombsof the house of Abimelech.” The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her eggduring that time.,§ The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asksfor bcompassionfrom Heaven bonbehalf of banother, and he requirescompassion from Heaven bconcerning that same matter, he is answered first?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source for this is bas it is written: “And the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends”(Job 42:10).,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Writings, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: b“And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants,and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17), band it is writtenimmediately following that: b“And the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had said”(Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: bAs Abraham said with regard to Abimelech.Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn,since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source is bas it is written: “Why will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 2:29). The term “you all” includes even those who have not sinned.,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Prophets, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: b“How long do you refuse [ ime’antem /i] to keep My commandments and My laws?”(Exodus 16:28). The term “you refuse [ ime’antem /i]” is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is writtenwith regard to Joseph: b“And from among his brothers he took five men,and presented them to Pharaoh” (Genesis 47:2). bWho are these fivemen? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: This is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Those whose names were repeatedin the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.,Rava said: bJudah alsohad his name brepeatedin the blessings, and he was strong.,Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: Hisname bwas repeated for hisown bmatter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa said: bAll those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercyon Judah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, whoserved as the bimpetus for Reuben that he should confesshis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same., bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ileshafa /i],and his skeleton became attached. The angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but bhestill bdid not know what the sages were saying, andhe was unable bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith the sages.Moses then prayed: b“May his hands fight on his behalf”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7)., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: Poverty follows the poor?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: As we learnedin a mishna ( iBikkurim3:8): bRichpeople would bbring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poorpeople would bring first fruits bin wicker basketsmade bof peeled willow,and bthey would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests.The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a mishna, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah:
17. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. band bridges and monumentsover graves bin which there is a residence, one extends the measureof that side of the city as though there were other structures bopposite themin the adjacent corner of the city. bAndprior to measuring the Shabbat limit, bone rendersthe city blike a square tablet so that it gains the corners,although there are actually no houses in those corners., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. bRav and Shmueldisagreed: bOne taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter iayin /i, band one taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter ialef /i.,The Gemara explains: bThe one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an ialefexplained the term in the sense of blimb[iever/b] by blimb.Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. bAnd the one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an iayinexplained the term in the sense of ba pregt woman[iubbera/b] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to bthe Machpelah Cave,in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:The cave consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other. And one said:It consists of ba room anda second bstory above it. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,this is understandable baccording to the one who saidthe cave consists of boneroom babove the other,as bthat isthe meaning of bMachpelah, double. However, according to the one who saidit consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other,in bwhatsense is it bMachpelah?Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense bthat it is doubled withthe Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there bin pairs.This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b“Mamreof bKiryat Ha’Arba,which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is bthe city of the four couplesburied there: bAdam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,and bJacob and Leah. /b,They disagreed about this verse as well: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1). bRav and Shmuelboth identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, bone said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel?It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: bAs he said [ iamar /i]the command band cast [ ihippil /i] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace,when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. bAnd one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ ihimrid /i]against bGod during his reign. /b,They also disagreed about this verse: b“There arose a new king over Egypt,who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:He was bactuallya bnewking, band one said:He was in fact the old king, but bhis decrees were new. /b,The Gemara explains. bThe one who saidhe was bactuallya bnewking based his opinion on the fact bthat it is writtenin the verse that he was bnew. And the one who said that his decrees were newderived his opinion bfromthe fact bthat it is not written: Andthe king bdied, andhis successor breigned,as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”?If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“Who knew not Joseph”?It means bthat heconducted himself blike one who did not know Joseph at all. /b,The Gemara cites a bmnemonicof key words from a series of traditions cited below: bEighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ iBeribbi /i], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna.In the phrase: bHow does one extend cities,the word ime’abberinis spelled bwith an ialef /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one,i.e., the nature and character of each student, band theextent of the bwisdom of each and every one?How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that bhe learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one,but bhe did not learnsubstantive btradition.And bif you wish, sayinstead: bFromthe students bthemselves he learnedmany things; bfromRabbi Oshaya bhimself he did not learnanything beyond that one matter. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to bsaythat he learned only one matter bin our Mishnafrom Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on ibaraitotand other sources., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidabout that period: bWhen we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya,it was so crowded with students that bwe would sit four in eachsquare bcubit.Similarly, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in eachsquare bcubit. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa saidabout his teacher: bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguishedwas as great bin his generation as Rabbi Meirwas bin his generation: Just aswith regard to bRabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinkingdue to the subtlety of his great mind, bsoit was with bRabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinking. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts,i.e., the wisdom, bofthe bearlySages were blike the doorway to the Entrance Hallof the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, bandthe hearts bofthe blaterSages bwere like the doorway to the Sanctuary,which was ten by twenty cubits. bAnd we,i.e., our hearts, bare likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,He explains: The term bearlySages is referring to bRabbi Akiva,and the term blaterSages is referring to his student, bRabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some saythat the term bearlySages refers to bRabbi Elazar ben Shamuaand that the term the blaterSages refers to bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, bAbaye said: And we,as far as our capabilities are concerned, bare like a peg in the wall with regard toTorah bstudy.Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. bRava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ ikira /i] with regard to logical reasoning.A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. bRav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness.Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which bRav Yehuda said that Rav said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who were particular in their speechand always made certain that it was both precise and refined, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara asks: bIsthis bmatter at all dependent onbeing bparticularwith one’s language? bRather,with regard to bthe people of Judea, who were precise in their language andwho bwould formulate mnemonicsfor their studies, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language andwho bwould not formulate mnemonics, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,Furthermore, with regard to bthe people of Judea,who bstudied from one teacher, their Torahknowledge bendured for them,as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher,but rather from several teachers, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them,as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., bRavina said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who wouldpublicly bdisclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( ige’onim /i), btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara relates that King bDavid would disclose the tractateto be studied in advance, whereas bSaul would not disclose the tractateto be studied. bWith regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad”(Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. bWith regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied, bit is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
19. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. לא היה קרב אמר לו מי הם הללו שמימיהם אנו שותים ושמותם אין אנו מזכירים אמר ליה בני אדם שבקשו לעקור כבודך וכבוד בית אביך,אמר ליה (קהלת ט, ו) גם אהבתם גם שנאתם גם קנאתם כבר אבדה אמר ליה (תהלים ט, ז) האויב תמו חרבות לנצח אמר ליה הני מלי היכא דאהנו מעשייהו רבנן לא אהנו מעשייהו הדר אתני ליה אמרו משום רבי מאיר אילו היה תמורה לא היה קרב אמר רבא אפילו רבי דענוותנא הוא תנא אמרו משום ר"מ אמר ר"מ לא אמר,אמר רבי יוחנן פליגו בה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבנן חד אמר סיני עדיף וחד אמר עוקר הרים עדיף,רב יוסף סיני רבה עוקר הרים שלחו לתמן איזה מהם קודם שלחו להו סיני עדיף דאמר מר הכל צריכין למרי חטיא ואפילו הכי לא קביל רב יוסף עליה מלך רבה עשרין ותרתי שנין והדר מלך רב יוסף וכל שני דמלך רבה רב יוסף אפילו אומנא לביתיה לא חליף,אביי ורבא ורבי זירא ורבה בר מתנה הוו יתבי והוו צריכי רישא אמרי כל דאמר מלתא ולא מפריך להוי רישא דכולהו איפריך דאביי לא איפריך חזייה רבה לאביי דגבה רישא א"ל נחמני פתח ואימא,איבעיא להו רבי זירא ורבה בר רב מתנה הי מנייהו עדיף רבי זירא חריף ומקשה ורבה בר רב מתנה מתון ומסיק מאי תיקו:, br br big strongהדרן עלך כהן משיח וסליקא לה מסכת הוריות /strong /big br br
20. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. דכתיב (הושע ו, ח) גלעד קרית פועלי און עקובה מדם מאי עקובה מדם א"ר אלעזר שהיו עוקבין להרוג נפשות,ומאי שנא מהאי גיסא ומהאי גיסא דמרחקי ומאי שנא מציעאי דמקרבי,אמר אביי בשכם נמי שכיחי רוצחים דכתיב (הושע ו, ט) וכחכי איש גדודים חבר כהנים דרך ירצחו שכמה וגו' מאי חבר כהנים א"ר אלעזר שהיו מתחברין להרוג נפשות ככהנים הללו שמתחברין לחלוק תרומות בבית הגרנות,ותו ליכא והא כתיב (במדבר לה, ו) ועליהם תתנו ארבעים ושתים עיר אמר אביי הללו קולטות בין לדעת בין שלא לדעת הללו לדעת קולטות שלא לדעת אינן קולטות,וחברון עיר מקלט הוא והכתיב (שופטים א, כ) ויתנו לכלב את חברון כאשר דבר משה אמר אביי פרוודהא דכתיב (יהושע כא, יב) ואת שדה העיר ואת חצריה נתנו לכלב בן יפנה,וקדש עיר מקלט הואי והכתיב (יהושע יט, לה) וערי מבצר הצדים צר וחמת רקת וכנרת [וגו'] וקדש ואדרעי ועין חצור ותניא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכים גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות אמר רב יוסף תרתי קדש הואי אמר רב אשי כגון סליקום ואקרא דסליקום,גופא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכין גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום מים ואם אין שם מים מביאין להם מים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום שווקים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום אוכלוסין נתמעטו אוכלוסיהן מוסיפין עליהן נתמעטו דיוריהן מביאין להם כהנים לוים וישראלים,ואין מוכרין בהן לא כלי זיין ולא כלי מצודה דברי רבי נחמיה וחכמים מתירין ושוין שאין פורסין בתוכן מצודות ואין מפשילין לתוכן חבלים כדי שלא תהא רגל גואל הדם מצויה שם,א"ר יצחק מאי קרא (דברים ד, מב) ונס אל אחת מן הערים האל וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא,תנא תלמיד שגלה מגלין רבו עמו שנאמר וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא אמר ר' זעירא מכאן שלא ישנה אדם לתלמיד שאינו הגון,א"ר יוחנן הרב שגלה מגלין ישיבתו עמו איני והא א"ר יוחנן מנין לדברי תורה שהן קולטין שנאמר (דברים ד, מג) את בצר במדבר וגו' [וכתיב בתריה] (דברים ד, מד) וזאת התורה,לא קשיא הא בעידנא דעסיק בה הא בעידנא דלא עסיק בה,ואי בעית אימא מאי קולטין ממלאך המות כי הא דרב חסדא הוה יתיב וגריס בבי רב ולא הוה קא יכול שליחא [דמלאכא דמותא] למיקרב לגביה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק ויתיב אארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתיק ויכיל ליה,א"ר תנחום בר חנילאי מפני מה זכה ראובן לימנות בהצלה תחלה מפני שהוא פתח בהצלה תחלה שנאמר (בראשית לז, כא) וישמע ראובן ויצילהו מידם,דרש רבי שמלאי מאי דכתיב (דברים ד, מא) אז יבדיל משה שלש ערים בעבר הירדן מזרחה [שמש] אמר לו הקב"ה למשה הזרח שמש לרוצחים איכא דאמרי א"ל הזרחת שמש לרוצחים,דרש רבי סימאי מאי דכתיב (קהלת ה, ט) אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף זה משה רבינו שהיה יודע שאין שלש ערים שבעבר הירדן קולטות עד שלא נבחרו שלש בארץ כנען ואמר מצוה שבאה לידי אקיימנה,ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה למי נאה ללמד בהמון מי שכל תבואה שלו והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה (ללמד) [למלל] גבורות ה' מי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,ורבנן ואיתימא רבה בר מרי אמר מי אוהב בהמון לו תבואה כל האוהב (למלמד) בהמון לו תבואה יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו ברבא בריה דרבה,(סימן אשי ללמוד רבינא ללמד),רב אשי אמר כל האוהב ללמוד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על צוארי שונאיהם של ת"ח שיושבין ועוסקין בתורה בד בבד ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין שנאמר ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען,רבינא אמר כל האוהב ללמד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דאמר רבי הרבה תורה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מהם ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ב) עומדות היו רגלינו בשעריך ירושלם מי גרם לרגלינו שיעמדו במלחמה שערי ירושלם שהיו עוסקים בתורה,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, א) שיר המעלות לדוד שמחתי באומרים לי בית ה' נלך אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע שמעתי בני אדם שהיו אומרים מתי ימות זקן זה ויבא שלמה בנו ויבנה בית הבחירה ונעלה לרגל ושמחתי אמר לו הקב"ה (תהלים פד, יא) כי טוב יום בחצריך מאלף טוב לי יום אחד שאתה עוסק בתורה לפני מאלף עולות שעתיד שלמה בנך להקריב לפני על גבי המזבח:,ומכוונות להם דרכים וכו': תניא ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר 10a. Therefore, a greater number of cities of refuge per capita were required there, bas it is written: “Gilead is a city of those who work iniquity; it is covered [ iakuba /i] with blood”(Hosea 6:8). bWhatis the meaning of: bCovered [ iakuba /i] with blood? Rabbi Elazar says:It means bthat they would set an ambush [ iokevin /i] to kill people. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is differentabout the cities of refuge closest to the border on bthissouthern bsideof the country band fromthe border on bthatnorthern bsideof the country, bthat are distancedone-quarter of the length of Eretz Yisrael from the border, band what is differentabout the city of refuge in the bmiddleof the country, bwhich isrelatively bcloseto any potential murderers? The maximum distance that one would need to travel to reach the middle city is one-half the distance from the northern and southern borders to their respective cities of refuge., bAbaye said: Murderers are also common in Shechem, as it is written: “And as troops of robbers wait for a man, so does the band of priests; they murder in the way toward Shechem,yes, they commit enormity” (Hosea 6:9). bWhatis the meaning of b“the band of priests”? Rabbi Elazar says:It means bthatthe people bwould band together to kill people, like those priests who band together to distribute iteruma /iamong themselves bin the granaries. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there no morecities of refuge beyond these six? bBut isn’t it written:“And the cities that you shall give to the Levites: The six cities of refuge you shall give for the murderer to flee there, band beyond them you shall give forty-two cities”(Numbers 35:6), indicating that the status of all the Levite cities is that of cities of refuge? bAbaye said:With regard to bthesesix cities designated specifically for this purpose, unintentional murderers in need of refuge are badmittedthere bwhetherthey entered the cities bdeliberately,aware that they are cities of refuge, or bwhetherthey entered binadvertently.By contrast, with regard to bthoseforty-two Levite cities, unintentional murderers are badmittedonly if they entered the cities bdeliberately,but if they entered the cities binadvertently,they are bnot admittedto the cities.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is Hebron a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And they gave Hebron to Caleb, as Moses had spoken”(Judges 1:20)? This indicates that Hebron belonged to Caleb from the tribe of Judah, and it was not a Levite city. bAbaye said: Its suburbs [ iparvadaha /i]were given to Caleb; the city itself was a city of priests, bas it is writtenin the context of the distribution of the Levite cities: “And they gave them Kiryat Arba…which is Hebron… band the field of the city and its courtyards they gave to Caleb, son of Jephunneh”(Joshua 21:11–12).,The Gemara further asks: bAnd is Kadesh a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And the fortified cities were Ziddim Zer, and Hammath, Rakkath, and Chinnereth…and Kedesh and Edrei and En Hazor”(Joshua 19:35–37), band it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthese citiesof refuge, bone does not establish themin bsmall settlements [ itirin /i] orin blarge cities; rather,one establishes them in bintermediate /b-sized btowns?Apparently, Kadesh was a large, fortified city. bRav Yosef said: There were twocities named bKedesh,and the one listed among the fortified cities in the book of Joshua is not the one that was a city of refuge. bRav Ashi said:The listing of Kadesh among the fortified cities is not difficult, as it is bsimilar tothe two adjacent yet separate cities of bSelikum and the fortification [ ive’akra /i] of Selikum.Likewise, there was the fortified city of Kadesh, mentioned in Joshua, and the city itself, which was an intermediate city that served as city of refuge.,§ The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself,and it cites the complete ibaraita /i: With regard to bthese citiesof refuge, bone does not establish themin bsmall settlements orin blarge cities; rather,one establishes them in bintermediate- /bsized btowns. And one establishes them only in a placewhere bwateris available, band if there is no wateravailable bthere,as there is no spring accessible from the city, bone brings them waterby digging a canal. bAnd one establishes them only in a placewhere there are bmarkets, and one establishes them only in a populated place,where there are many people who regularly frequent the town. If the bpopulationof the surrounding areas bdiminishes, one adds to it.If the number of bresidentsin the city of refuge itself bdiminishes, one bringsnew residents to the city, among them bpriests, Levites, and Israelites. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd one may not sell weapons or hunting toolsin the cities of refuge, to prevent the blood redeemer from gaining access to means that he could exploit to kill the unintentional murderer who fled to the city of refuge; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Neḥemya. And the Rabbis permitselling weapons and hunting tools. bAndRabbi Neḥemya and the Rabbis bagree that one may not spread nets inthe cities of refuge, bnor may they braid [ imafshilin /i] ropes inthose cities, bso that the foot of the blood redeemer will not be found there.If the blood redeemer were to enter the city of refuge to purchase nets or ropes, he is apt to encounter the murderer and kill him., bRabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the versefrom which these matters are derived? It is written: b“And he shall flee to one of these cities and live”(Deuteronomy 4:42), meaning: bPerform someactions bforthe unintentional murderer so bthatlife in the city of refuge bwill beconducive to bliving for him.All these steps are taken to facilitate that objective.,The Sages btaught:In the case of ba student who was exiled, his teacher is exiledto the city of refuge bwith him,so that the student can continue studying Torah with him there, bas it is stated:“And he shall flee to one of these cities band live,”from which it is derived: bPerform someactions bforthe unintentional murderer so bthatlife in the city bwill beconducive to bliving for him.Since Torah study is an integral component of his life, arrangements must be made to ensure continuity in that facet of his existence. bRabbi Zeira says: From hereone learns bthat a person should not teach a student who is not fit,as that may result in the teacher following the student into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the case of ba teacherof Torah bwho was exiled, his school is exiled with him.The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat a teacher of Torah is exiled? bBut doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥahimself bsay: From whereis it derived bthat matters of Torah provide refuge,i.e., that the blood redeemer may not harm one who is engaged in Torah? It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Bezer in the wilderness,in the flatlands, for the Reubenites; and Ramoth in Gilead, for the Gadites; and Golan in Bashan, for the Manassites” (Deuteronomy 4:43), in the list of cities of refuge designated by Moses, band it is written thereafter: “And this is the Torah”(Deuteronomy 4:44). Based on that juxtaposition it is derived that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthisstatement of Rabbi Yoḥa, that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge, is referring to Torah bat the time that one is engaged in itsstudy, and bthatstatement of Rabbi Yoḥa, that the teacher of Torah must take his school to the city of refuge, is referring to the teacher of Torah bat the time that he is not engaged in itsstudy. His mere presence in a city of refuge provides him with continuous protection., bAnd if you wish, say: Whatis the meaning of Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that matters of Torah bprovide refuge?It means protection, but not for an unintentional murderer from the blood redeemer; rather, it means protection bfrom the Angel of Death.This is basit was in bthisincident bwhere Rav Ḥisda was sitting and studying in the study hall of Rav and the agent of the Angel of Death was unable to approach himand take his life bbecause his mouth was not silent from his studyfor even a moment. The agent bascended and sat on the cedartree bof the study hall of Rav. The cedartree bbroke and Rav Ḥisda wasmomentarily bsilent,startled by the sudden noise, bandthe agent of the Angel of Death bovercame him.Apparently, matters of Torah provide protection from the Angel of Death only when one is actively engaged in their study.,§ bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: For whatreason bwas Reuben privileged to be enumerated first in the rescue,as the first city of refuge listed is Bezer (see Deuteronomy 4:43), which is located in the tribal portion of Reuben? It is bdue tothe fact bthat he began the rescueof Joseph bfirst, as it is stated: “And Reuben heard and delivered him from their hands”(Genesis 37:21)., bRabbi Simlai taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Then Moses separated three cities beyond the Jordan, to the east of the sun [ imizreḥa shamesh /i]”(Deuteronomy 4:41)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Shine the sun [ ihazraḥ shemesh /i] for murderers,i.e., provide them with the hope of rescue. bSome saythat God bsaid toMoses: In designating these cities of refuge byou have shined the sun for murderers. /b,On a related note, bRabbi Simai taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with increase”(Ecclesiastes 5:9)? b“He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver”; thisis a reference to bMoses our teacher,whose love of mitzvot was so great bthatalthough bhe knew thatan unintentional murderer bwould not be admitted to the three citiesof refuge bthat were inthe east bbank of the Jordan untilthe bthreecities of refuge bthatwere bin the land of Canaan were selected, andthat his designation of cities of refuge would have no practical ramifications in his lifetime, bhenevertheless bsaid:When there is ba mitzva that has come my way, I will fulfill it. /b,The next phrase in that verse: b“Nor he who loves abundance with increase,”is also interpreted as referring to Torah: bFor whom is it fitting to teach an abundanceof people? bOnefor bwhom allits bincrease belongs to him,i.e., one who knows all the content of the Torah is worthy of teaching it in public. bAnd that isidentical to that bwhich Rabbi Elazar says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can express the mighty acts of God, or make all His praise heard”(Psalms 106:2)? bFor whom is it fitting to express the mighty acts of God?It is bone who can make all His praise heard.One who knows only part of it is unfit to teach the multitudes., bAnd the Rabbissay, band some say Rabba bar Mari says,that the passage b“nor he who loves abundance with increase”means bwhoever lovesa Torah scholar bwho teaches inthe presence of ban abundanceof people, bto him shall be increase,i.e., sons who are Torah scholars. The Gemara relates: When they heard that interpretation, bthe Sages cast their eyes upon Rava, son of Rabba,who loved Torah scholars who disseminate Torah, and he was blessed with sons who were Torah scholars.,The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the ensuing interpretations of the second part of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): bAshi to study, Ravina to teach. /b, bRav Ashi says: Anyone who loves to study in abundance,i.e., with many colleagues, bto him shall be increase,i.e., he will succeed in his studies. bAnd that isparallel to that bwhich Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the ibaddim /i, iveno’alu /i”(Jeremiah 50:36)? It is fitting that ba swordbe placed bon the necks of the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars, bwho sit and engage inthe study of bthe Torah individually [ ibad bevad /i]. Moreover, they grow foolishthrough individual study, as bit is written here: iVeno’alu /i, and it is written there: “For we have been foolish [ ino’alnu /i]”(Numbers 12:11). bMoreover, theythereby bsin, as it is statedimmediately thereafter: b“And for we have sinned.” And if you wish, saythat bfrom hereit is derived that ino’alumeans sinned: b“The ministers of Zoan have sinned [ ino’alu /i]”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRavina saysthat there is a different interpretation of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): bAnyone who loves to teach in abundance,before the multitudes, bto him shall be increase,as his Torah knowledge is enhanced through those lectures. bAnd that isthe parallel to that bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Much Torah have I studied from my teachers, andI have learned bmore from my colleaguesthan bfrom them, andI have learned bmore from my studentsthan bfrom all of them. /b,Apropos the virtue of Torah study, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Our feet were standing in your gates, Jerusalem”(Psalms 122:2)? bWhat caused our feet to withstandthe enemies bin war?It is bthe gates of Jerusalem, where they were engaged in Torahstudy. He interprets the term “in your gates” to mean: Because of your gates, the place of justice and Torah., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “A song of the ascents to David: I rejoiced when they said to me, let us go to the house of God”(Psalms 122:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I heard people who were sayingin reference to me: bWhen will this old man die, and Solomon his son will comeand succeed him band build the Temple and we will ascendthere bfor the pilgrimage Festival?It was common knowledge that the Temple would be constructed by David’s successor. David continued: bAnddespite my pain that I am not privileged to build the Temple, bI rejoiced. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: “For better is one day in your courtyard than one thousand”(Psalms 84:11), meaning, bI prefer one dayduring bwhich you engage inthe study of bTorah before Me thanthe bone thousand burnt-offerings that your son Solomon is destined to sacrifice before Me upon the altar(see I Kings 3:4).,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd roads were aligned for themfrom this city to that city. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. bhehimself bshould stumbleby showing favoritism to Benjamin? bAs Rava bar Meḥaseyya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: Due tothe weight of btwo sela of fine wool that Jacobgave to Joseph, which he badded towhat he gave bJoseph beyondwhat he gave bthe rest of his brothers,as he made him his special coat, bthe story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt.How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: Hewas not showing favoritism. Rather, he bintimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the kingwearing bfive royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forthfrom the presence of the king bin royal apparel of sky blueand white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b“And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ itzavarei/b] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word itzavareiis plural, meaning necks: bHow many necks did Benjamin have,such that the verse should use the plural itzavareirather than the singular itzavar /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This intimates bthatJoseph bcried over the two Temples that were destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed.The same verse continues: b“And Benjamin wept on his neck”(Genesis 45:14); bhe cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b,The verse states: b“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin”(Genesis 45:12). bRabbi Elazar said:Joseph bsaid tohis brothers as follows: bJust as Icertainly bharbor noresentment bin my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was noteven bpresent when I was sold, so too, I harbor noresentment btoward you.The verse continues: b“That it is my mouth [ iki fi /i] that speaks to you”(Genesis 45:12), i.e., bAs my mouth [ ikefi /i] is, so is my heart. /b,The verse states: b“And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt”(Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: bWhat are “the good things of Egypt”that are mentioned but not specified here? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b“And his brothers even went and fell down before him”(Genesis 50:18). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph ba fox? What, was he inferior to his brotherssuch that in relation to them you call him a fox? bRather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows,not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b“And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed”(Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b“And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts”(Genesis 50:21). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart,and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: bIf ten lights could not put out one light,as all of you were unable to do me harm, bhow can one light put out ten lights? /b,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b“The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor”(Esther 8:16). bRav Yehuda said: “Light”; thisis referring to the bTorahthat they once again studied. bAnd similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). b“Gladness” [ isimḥa /i]; thisis referring to bthe Festivalsthat they once again observed. bAnd similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ ivesamakhta /i] on your Festival”(Deuteronomy 16:14). b“Joy” [ isasson /i]; thisis referring to bcircumcision,as they once again circumcised their sons. bAnd similarly it says: “I rejoice [ isas /i] at Your word”(Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b“Honor”; this isreferring to bphylacteries,which they once again donned. bAnd similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great said: Thisis referring to bthe phylacteries worn on the head.Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. bAnd Parshandatha… /band Vaizatha, bthe ten sons of Haman”(Esther 9:6–10). bRav Adda from Jaffa said:When reading the Megilla, the names of bthe ten sons of Haman andthe word b“ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reasonfor this? It is that btheir souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said:The letter ivavinthe name b“Vaizatha”is a lengthened ivavand bmust be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ iliberot /i]. What is the reasonfor this? To indicate that bthey were all hanged on one pole. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saidthat bRabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Allof bthe songsin the Bible bare writtenin the form of ba half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick,i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. bThis is the principle for all songs in the Bible exceptfor bthis song,referring to the list of Haman’s sons, bandthe song listing bthe kings of Canaanwho were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of ba half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick,i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. bWhat is the reasonthat these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? bSo that they should never rise from their downfall.Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b“And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slainand destroyed five hundred men bin Shushan the capital,and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). bRabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth,so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b“But when she came before the king, he said with a letter”(Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b“He said”? It should have said: “She said,”as it was Esther who changed the decree. bRabbi Yoḥa said: She said toAhasuerus: bLet it be said byword of bmouth,indicating that bthat which is written in the lettershould also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b“Words of peace and truth”(Esther 9:30), bRabbi Tanḥum said, and some saythat bRabbi Asisaid: This bteaches thata Megilla scroll brequires scoring,i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, bas the Torah itself,i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmedthese matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b“the decree of Esther” indeedconfirmed these matters of Purim, but b“the matters of the fasts”did bnot?But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? bRabbi Yoḥa said:These two verses, b“The matters of the fastsand their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,”should be read as one.,The verse states: b“For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren”(Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b“By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren.This bteaches that somemembers bof the Sanhedrin parted from him,because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., bRav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially,when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, bMordecai was mentioned after fourother people, bbut at the endhe was listed bafter five.This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: bAt first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Ezra 2:2); bbut in the endin a later list bit is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7)., bRav said, and some saythat bRav Shmuel bar Martasaid: bStudying Torah is greaterand more important bthan building the Temple.A proof of this is that bfor as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alivein Babylonia, bEzra,who was his disciple, bdid not leave him and go upto Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., bRabba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah isgreater and bmoreimportant bthan honoring one’s father and mother,and a proof of this is bthat for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eberand studied Torah there bhe was not punishedfor having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. bAs the Master said: /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
23. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106b. (יהושע יג, כב) הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק,א"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה א"ל מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב (תהלים נה, כד) אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע א"ל שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה,א"ל מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה,כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר ר' יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקב"ה ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה,(סימן גבור ורשע וצדיק חיל וסופר),א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ג) מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חוקי אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חוקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם (תהלים נ, טז) ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר ר' אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ,ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ח) ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (איוב כ, טו) חיל בלע ויקיאנו מבטנו יורישנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקב"ה לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקב"ה לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, יח) איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים איה סופר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שוקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה סופר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר,א"ר ארבע מאה בעיי' בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין,וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא,ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקב"ה ליבא בעי דכתיב (שמואל א טז, ז) וה' יראה ללבב,אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,א"ר אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנא' (משלי ה, כג) הוא ימות באין מוסר וברוב אולתו ישגה רב (אשי) אמר נצטרע שנאמר (תהלים עג, כז) הצמתה כל זונה ממך,כתיב התם (ויקרא כה, ל) לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו),א"ר יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,(א"ר) יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד,וא"ר יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש,וא"ר יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחילה קראו רבו (תהלים נה, יד) ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומיודעי ולבסוף קראו חבירו (תהלים נה, טו) אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו (תהלים מא, י) גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו 106b. With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, bdid the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain”(Joshua 13:22), bRav says:It means bthat they accomplished in himall bfourmeans of court-imposed bexecutions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation. /b, bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam waswhen he died? Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: It is not writtenexplicitly in the Torah. bBut fromthe fact bthat it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was bthirty-two or thirty-four years old,less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic bsaid to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him. /b, bMar, son of Ravina, said to his son:With regard to ball of thoseenumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, bdo not extensively interpretverses bhomileticallyin order to denigrate them, bexceptwith regard to bBalaam the wicked, as anynegative element bthat you discover in hisregard, continue to binterpret homiletically concerning him,as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.,§ bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Doegthe Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), band it is writtenin another verse: “And the king said to bDoyeig”(I Samuel 22:18). bRabbi Yoḥa saysin explaining the discrepancy: bInitially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [ idoeg /i]that bperhaps thisperson bwould emerge toundertake ban evil path. After he emergedon that path, God bsaid: Alas [ ivai /i], thatperson bhas emerged toundertake an evil path.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: bMighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually”(Psalms 52:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continuallywhen you engage in His Torah?, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes,and that you have taken My covet in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutesand My Torah? bWhen you reachthe Torah bportion of murderers andthe Torah bportion of slanderers, how do you teach them?You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: b“And that you have taken My covet in your mouth”(Psalms 50:16), bRabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is onlyinsincere blip service,as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him”(Psalms 52:8)? bInitially, they will fearDoeg due to his success, band ultimately they will laughwhen they witness his downfall., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly”(Job 20:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die.God bsaid to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.”He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David bsaid before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.”God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come.David bsaid before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,”i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto David: At least blet them state a ihalakhain the study hall in his name.David bsaid before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,”i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: bLet him have sons who are Sages.David said: b“And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,”i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [ imigdalim /i]”(Isaiah 33:18)? bWhere is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all theelements of ia fortioriinferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers?This is Doeg, bwho would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard [ imigdal /i] that floats in the air [ iavir /i]. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolveeven bone,an indication of their great knowledge. bRava says:Is it bgreatness to raise dilemmas?That is not a barometer of greatness, as bin the years of Rav Yehuda all of theirTorah bstudywas confined to the order of iNezikin /i, and we study muchmore than that, and are expert even bintractate iOkatzin /i,the final tractate in the difficult order of iTeharot /i., bMoreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounterthe mishna in tractate iOkatzinthat discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the ihalakhaconcerning ba woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some saywhen he would reach the mishna ( iOkatzin2:1): bOlives pickled with their leaves are pure,because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. bHe would say:Those are bthe discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we,by contrast, bteachtractate iOkatzinin thirteen academies. /b, bButnevertheless, bwhen Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain wouldimmediately bfall,whereas bwe cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart,and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, bas it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart”(I Samuel 16:7)., bRav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to thisstatement: These are people bwith regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers”(Isaiah 33:18), band you saythat bthey did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather,Doeg and Ahithophel bwould not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhicrulings, bas it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him”(Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect., bRabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray”(Proverbs 5:23). bRav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosybefore his death, bas it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [ ihitzmatta /i] all those who go astray from You”(Psalms 73:27).,Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? bIt is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ ilitzmitut /i]”(Leviticus 25:23), band we translateit into Aramaic as: iLaḥalutin /i. And we learnedin a mishna with regard to lepers ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantinedleper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i]leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head bgrow and rendingone’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between ihitzmattaand ilitzmitut /i; the translation of ilitzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i, and the etymological similarity between ilaḥalutinand imuḥlat /i.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the ihalakhotthat follow: bThree, saw, and half, and called him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torahknowledge, bone who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes ofhis soul bin synagogues and in study hallsto be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another,as both died at a young age. bDoeglived bin the days of Saul, and Ahithophellived bin the days of David,toward the end of David’s life., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of theirallotted bdays,as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24); ball the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, andthe years bof Ahithophel were only thirty-three. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially,David bcalledAhithophel bhis teacher,as it is stated: b“But it was you, a man my equal, my master [ ialufi /i], and my familiar friend”(Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as ialufas he trains [ ime’alef] his students. bAnd eventually, he called him his colleague,as it is stated: b“We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng”(Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. bAnd ultimately, he called him his student,as it is stated: b“Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

118b. נחלת יעקב אביך וגו' לא כאברהם שכתוב בו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה וגו' ולא כיצחק שכתוב בו (בראשית כו, ג) כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל אלא כיעקב שכתוב בו (בראשית כח, יד) ופרצת ימה וקדמה וצפונה ונגבה,ר"נ בר יצחק אמר ניצול משעבוד גליות כתיב הכא והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כט) ואתה על במותימו תדרוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו משאלות לבו שנאמר (תהלים לז, ד) והתענג על ה' ויתן לך משאלות לבך עונג זה איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר וקראת לשבת עונג הוי אומר זה עונג שבת במה מענגו רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמי' דרב אמר בתבשיל של תרדין ודגים גדולים וראשי שומין רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אפי' דבר מועט ולכבוד שבת עשאו הרי זה עונג מאי היא א"ר פפא כסא דהרסנא,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המשמר שבת כהלכתו אפי' עובד ע"ז [כדור] אנוש מוחלין לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ב) אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת וגו' מחללו אל תקרי מחללו אלא מחול לו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלמלי שמרו ישראל שבת ראשונה לא שלטה בהן אומה ולשון שנאמר (שמות טז, כז) ויהי ביום השביעי יצאו מן העם ללקוט וכתיב בתריה ויבא עמלק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים שנא' (ישעיהו נו, ד) כה אמר ה' לסריסים אשר ישמרו את שבתותי וכתיב בתריה והביאותים אל הר קדשי וגו',אמר ר' יוסי יהא חלקי מאוכלי שלש סעודות בשבת א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגומרי הלל בכל יום איני והאמר מר הקורא הלל בכל יום הרי זה מחרף ומגדף כי קאמרינן בפסוקי דזמרא,א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתפללים עם דמדומי חמה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מצוה להתפלל עם דמדומי חמה א"ר זירא מאי קרא (תהלים עב, ה) ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בחולי מעיים דאמר מר רובן של צדיקים מתים בחולי מעיים וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בדרך מצוה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממכניסי שבת בטבריא וממוציאי שבת בצפורי וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממושיבי בהמ"ד ולא ממעמידי בהמ"ד,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגבאי צדקה ולא ממחלקי צדקה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממי שחושדין אותו ואין בו אמר רב פפא לדידי חשדן ולא הוה בי,א"ר יוסי חמש בעילות בעלתי ונטעתי חמשה ארזים בישראל ומאן אינון ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ור' אלעזר בר"י ור' חלפתא בר"י ור' אבטילס בר"י ורבי מנחם בר' יוסי והאיכא ורדימס היינו ורדימס היינו מנחם ואמאי קרי ליה ורדימס שפניו דומין לורד למימרא דרבי יוסי מצות עונה לא קיים אלא אימא חמש בעילות בעלתי ושניתי,אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי,אמר ר' יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו וא"ר יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי,וא"ר יוסי מימי לא עברתי על דברי חברי יודע אני בעצמי שאיני כהן אם אומרים לי חבירי עלה לדוכן אני עולה וא"ר יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי,אמר רב נחמן) תיתי לי דקיימית ג' סעודות בשבת אמר רב יהודה תיתי לי דקיימית עיון תפלה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע תיתי לי דלא סגינא ד' אמות בגילוי הראש אמר רב ששת תיתי לי דקיימית מצות תפילין ואמר ר"נ תיתי לי דקיימית מצות ציצית,אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך במאי זהיר טפי אמר ליה בציצית יומא חד הוה קא סליק בדרגא איפסיק ליה חוטא ולא נחית ואתא כמה דלא רמיה ואמר אביי תיתי לי דכי חזינא צורבא מרבנן דשלים מסכתיה 118b. bon the inheritance of Jacob your father,as the mouth of God has spoken” (Isaiah 58:13–14). The reward for delighting in Shabbat is specifically the portion of Jacob. bNot that of Abraham, about whom it is written, “Rise, walk through the land through its lengthand its width because I have given it to you” (Genesis 13:17), i.e., only this land alone in its borders. bAnd not that of Isaac, about whom it is written,“Dwell in this land and I will be with you and I will bless you bbecause I will give all of these lands to you and your offspring”(Genesis 26:3), meaning these lands and no others. bRather, that of Jacob, about whom it is written,“And your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, band you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south,and all of the families of the land will be blessed through you and your offspring” (Genesis 28:14). There are no boundaries for Jacob’s portion., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One who delights in Shabbat bis rescued from the oppression of exile.He derives it by means of a verbal analogy. bIt is written here,with regard to Shabbat: b“And I will cause you to ride on the heights [ ibamotei /i] of the world”(Isaiah 58:14), band it is written there:“You are fortunate Israel, who is like you? A nation redeemed by God, the shield that aids you and the sword of your triumph. Your enemies will try to defeat you band you will trample their high places [ ibamoteimo /i]”(Deuteronomy 33:29). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:With regard to banyone who delights in the Shabbat,God bgrants him his heart’s desires,as bit is stated: “And you shall delight in God and He will grant you your heart’s desires”(Psalms 37:4). bThis delightin God, which is mentioned in the verse, bI do not know what it is. When it says: “And you shall call the Shabbat delight,”one bmust say: It is the delight of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWith what does one delightin the day of Shabbat? bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: With a dish of beets, and large fish, and heads of garlic. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashisaid that bRav said: Evenwith regard to ba small item and one prepared it in deference to Shabbat, it isa bdelight.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe small item mentioned? bRav Pappa said: Small fried fish. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to banyone who observes Shabbat in accordance with its ihalakhot /i, evenif he bworships idolatry asin bthe generation of Enosh,God bforgives himhis sins, bas it is stated: “Fortunate is the man [enosh] who does thisand the person who holds strong to it, one who guards the Shabbat bfrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i],and guards his hand from doing any evil” (Isaiah 56:2). bDo not readit as: bFrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i], but rather: He is forgiven [ imaḥul lo /i].With regard to the generation of Enosh it is written: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then they began [ ihuḥal /i] to call upon the Name of God” (Genesis 4:26), meaning to desecrate [ ileḥallel /i] His name., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Had the Jewish peopleproperly bobservedthe bfirst Shabbatthat was commanded them, bno nation or tongue would haveever bruled them, as it is stated: “And it happened on the seventh day, some people went out from the nation to collectand they did not find” (Exodus 16:27). bAnd it is written afterthey went out to collect manna: b“And Amalek cameand fought with Israel in Refidim” (Exodus 17:8). bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two iShabbatotin accordance with their ihalakhot /i,they would be bimmediately redeemed,as bit is stated: “So said God to the eunuchs who will keep My Shabbatot”(Isaiah 56:4), band it is written afterthat: b“And I will bring them to My holy mountainand will let them rejoice in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:7)., bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbat.Apropos this statement of Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara cites additional declarations. bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who complete hallel every day.The Gemara is surprised at this: bIs that so? Didn’t the Master say: One who reads ihallelevery day istantamount to bone who curses and blasphemesGod. He displays contempt for ihallelby not reserving it for days on which miracles occurred. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saythis statement of Rabbi Yosei, we are referring to bthe verses of praise [ ipesukei dezimra /i],recited during the morning service, not to ihallel(Psalms 113–118) recited on special days.,And furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who praythe morning and afternoon prayers bwith the reddening of the sun,i.e., the morning prayer at sunrise and the afternoon prayer adjacent to nightfall. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is a mitzva to pray with the reddening of the sun. Rabbi Zeira said: What versealludes to this? b“They will fear You with the sun and before the moon, generation upon generation”(Psalms 72:5). Fear of God, prayer, should be with the sun and before the moon., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die from intestinal disease, as the Master said: Most righteous people die of intestinal disease.It is a very harsh disease through which the sins of righteous people are cleansed before their death and also, as a result, they die with a clean body. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die on the path toperform ba mitzva. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who accept Shabbat in Tiberias,which is in a valley where day turns to evening earlier, band among those who see Shabbat out in Tzippori,which is located on a mountain top where the sun is visible for longer, and Shabbat ends later. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who seatothers bin the study hall,i.e., who cause others to come sit and study, band not among those who causeothers bto stand in the study hall,i.e., who announce that it is time to leave the study hall and go to eat., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among the collectors of charity and not the distributors of charity.One who collects charity collects fixed amounts, whereas distributors may inadvertently fail to give the poor person enough to cover his needs. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be with one whomothers bsuspectof sin band there is nobasis for suspecting bhim. Rav Pappa said: They suspected me, and there was nobasis for suspecting bme. /b,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: I engaged in relations five times, and I planted five cedars in Eretz Yisrael. And who arethese cedars? The sons of Rabbi Yosei, who were great Sages of Israel: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Ḥalafta, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Avtilas, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosei.The Gemara asks: bIsn’t there Vardimas,who was also Rabbi Yosei’s son? The Gemara answers: bVardimas is the same as Menaḥem. And why did they call him Vardimas?Because bhis face was asbeautiful as ba rose [ ivered /i].The Gemara asks: bIs that to saybased on this statement that bRabbi Yosei did not fulfill the mitzva ofhis wife’s bconjugal rights,but only had relations with her five times? bRather, sayit this way: bI engaged in relations five times and I did so again,and the Sages said that one who seeks to father male offspring should engage in relations and do so again.,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei saidthat he always spoke euphemistically: bIn all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather,I called bmy wife, my home,because she is the essence of the home, band my ox, my field,because it is the primary force in the fields., bRabbi Yosei said: In all my days,due to modesty, bI never looked at my circumcision.The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t they say to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bWhy did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them:It is because bin all my days I never looked at my circumcision.If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: bInthe case of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, banother matterof modesty bwaspresent bin him, as he did not insert his hand below his beltdue to his great modesty. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robedue to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never violated the words of my friends. I know about myself that I am not a priest,and nevertheless, bif my friends say to me: Go up to the platformwith the priests, bI go up. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never said something and then retreatedfrom it. Rabbi Yosei never said something positive or negative about a specific person and then denied it., bRav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation to eat bthree meals on Shabbatmagnificently. bRav Yehuda said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation of bconsiderationduring bprayer. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: May I receivemy reward because bI never walked four cubits with my head uncovered. Rav Sheshet said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of phylacteriesmagnificently. bAnd Rav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of ritual fringesmagnificently., bRav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: In whatarea bwas your father,Rabba, bespecially vigilant?He bsaid to him:It was binthe mitzva of britual fringes.The Gemara relates: bOne day he was climbing the stairswhen a bstringfrom his ritual fringes bwas severed, and he would not descend until he placeda new string bonthe garment. bAnd Abaye said: May I receivemy reward because bwhen I see a young Torah scholar who has completed a tractatethat bhestudied
26. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. וקטליאות נזמים וטבעות מעבירין ממנה כדי לנוולה ואחר כך מביא חבל מצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה,וכל הרוצה לראות בא לראות חוץ מעבדיה ושפחותיה מפני שלבה גס בהן וכל הנשים מותרות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר גמדא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אתיא תורה תורה כתיב הכא (במדבר ה, ל) ועשה לה הכהן את כל התורה וכתיב התם (דברים יז, יא) על פי התורה אשר יורוך מה להלן בשבעים ואחד אף כאן בשבעים ואחד,ומאיימין עליה וכו' ורמינהו כדרך שמאיימין עליה שלא תשתה כך מאיימין עליה שתשתה אומרים לה בתי אם ברור לך הדבר שטהורה את עמדי על בורייך ושתי לפי שאין מים המרים דומין אלא לסם יבש שמונח על בשר חי אם יש שם מכה מחלחל ויורד אין שם מכה אינו מועיל כלום,לא קשיא כאן קודם שנמחקה מגילה כאן לאחר שנמחקה מגילה,ואומר לפניה וכו' ת"ר אומר לפניה דברים של הגדה ומעשים שאירעו בכתובים הראשונים כגון (איוב טו, יח) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם,יהודה הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ראובן הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ומה שכרן מה שכרן כדקא אמרינן אלא מה שכרן בעולם הזה (איוב טו, יט) להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר זר בתוכם,בשלמא ביהודה אשכחן דאודי דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני אלא ראובן מנלן דאודי,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו. של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי גרם לראובן שהודה יהודה וזאת ליהודה,מיד (דברים לג, ז) שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא ולא הוה קא מעיילין ליה למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו ולא הוה קא ידע משקל ומטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה קא סלקא ליה שמעתא אליבא דהילכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,בשלמא יהודה דאודי כי היכי דלא תישרף תמר אלא ראובן למה ליה דאודי והאמר רב ששת חציף עלי (בר ישראל) דמפריט חטאיה כי היכי דלא ליחשדו אחוהי,אם אמרה טמאה אני וכו' שמעת מינה כותבין שובר,אמר אביי תני מקרעת א"ל רבא והא שוברת קתני אלא אמר רבא במקום שאין כותבין כתובה עסקינן,ואם אמרה טהורה אני מעלין אותה לשערי מזרח מעלין אותה 7b. bor chokers [ ikatliyot /i],or bnose rings, orfinger brings, they removed them from her in order to render her unattractive. And afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropefashioned from palm fibers, band he would tie it above her breasts. /b, bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may come to watch, except for her slaves and maidservants,who are not permitted to watch bbecause her heart is emboldened by them,as seeing one’s slaves reinforces one’s feeling of pride, and their presence may cause her to maintain her innocence. bAnd all of the women are permitted to watch her, as it is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks concerning the ihalakhathat the isotais brought before the Sanhedrin: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the words b“ itora /i”and b“ itora /i.”It bis written here,with regard to a isota /i: b“And the priest shall execute upon her all this law [ itora /i]”(Numbers 5:30), bandit bis written there,with regard to a rebellious Elder, who must go to the place chosen by God and follow the ruling of the Sanhedrin: b“According to the law [ itora /i] that they shall teach you”(Deuteronomy 17:11). bJust as therethe verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges, bso too here,with regard to a isota /i, the verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd they threaten herin order that she admit her sin, to obviate the need to erase God’s name. bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraitain the iTosefta(1:6): bIn the same manner that they threaten her so that she will not drink, so too, they threaten her so that she will drink,as bthey say to her: My daughter, if the matter is clear to you that you are pure, arise forthe sake of byour clearposition band drink.If you are innocent you have nothing to fear, bbecause the bitter water is similar only to a dry poison placed on the flesh. If there is a woundthere, the poison will bpenetrate and enterthe blood stream, but if bthere is no wound there, it does not have any effect.This teaches that the woman is warned not to drink if she is guilty, but if she is not guilty she is encouraged to drink. There is no mention of the latter in the mishna.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe mishna is referring to bbefore the scroll was erased,and at that point the woman is warned only not to drink if she is guilty, so that the name of God will not be erased. bTherethe ibaraitais referring to bafter the scroll was erased.Then she is warned that if she is innocent she should drink because if she now refuses to drink, it will turn out that the scroll was erased for no purpose.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe judge bsays in her presencematters that are not worthy of being heard by her and all her father’s family in order to encourage her to admit her sin. The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat details what was said. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The judge bsays in her presence words of homileticalinterpretation bandmentions bincidents that happenedto previous generations that are recorded bin the earlyprophetic bwritings. For example,they expound the following verse: b“That wise men told and did not hide from their fathers”(Job 15:18); this teaches that even during the time of the forefathers, there were people who admitted their sins despite the shame they incurred.,For example, bJudah admittedthat he sinned with Tamar band was not embarrassedto do so, and bwhat was his end? He inherited the life of the World-to-Come. Reuben admittedthat he lay with his father’s concubine Bilhah band was not embarrassed,and bwhat was his end? Hetoo binherited the life of the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bAnd what is their reward?The Gemara interjects: bWhat is their reward?Their reward was clearly bas we say,that they inherited the life of the World-to-Come. The Gemara clarifies: bRather,the second question was: bWhat is their reward in this world?The Gemara answers by citing the next verse in the book of Job: b“To them alone the land was given, and no stranger passed among them”(Job 15:19). Judah was given the kingship, and Reuben inherited a portion of land in the Transjordan before the other tribes.,The Gemara questions the source for Reuben’s admission. bGranted, with regard to Judah we have founda source bthat he admittedhis sin with Tamar, bas it is written: “And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I”(Genesis 38:26). Judah admitted that he was the one who had impregnated Tamar. bBut from where do wederive bthat Reuben admittedhis sin?,The Gemara answers: It is bas Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward, in the following verse, it is stated: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa says: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses arose and asked for compassion onJudah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he admithis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same. Moses continues in the next verse: b“And this for Judah,”as if to say: Is this Judah’s reward for serving as an example of confessing to one’s sins, that his bones roll around?, bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ishafa /i],and his skeleton was reassembled. bButthe angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, bbut hestill bdid not knowhow bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith theheavenly bsages.Moses then prayed: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The Gemara discusses the propriety of admitting one’s sins in public. bGranted,with regard to bJudah,it was proper bthat he admittedhis sin in public, as he did so bin order that Tamar not be burnedinnocently. bBut why did Reuben admithis sin in public? bBut didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Iconsider one bwho specifies his sinsin public to be bbrazen,as one who does so indicates that he is not embarrassed by his actions? The Gemara answers: The reason he admitted his sin in public was bin order that his brothers should not be suspectedof having committed the deed.,§ The mishna teaches: bIfafter the judge’s warning bshe says: I am defiled,she writes a receipt for her marriage contract. The Gemara comments: bYoucan blearn from thismishna bthat one writes a receiptto serve as proof that a debt has been paid rather than tearing the promissory note. This matter is the subject of a dispute between the itanna’imin tractate iBava Batra(170b)., bAbaye said: Teachin the mishna differently. Rather than understanding that she writes a receipt, explain it to mean: bShe tearsher marriage contract. bRava said to him: Butthe mishna bteachesexplicitly that bshe writes a receipt. Rather,to explain the mishna, bRava said: We are dealing with a place inwhich bthey do not write a marriage contract,as they rely on the rabbinical ordice that all wives are entitled to the sum of a standard marriage contract upon divorce or being widowed, even if no marriage contract has been written. Because there is no marriage contract to tear, a receipt is written so that the man can prove that he no longer has a monetary obligation. However, generally, it is possible that the document would be torn, and no proof can be adduced from this mishna.,§ The mishna teaches: bBut ifafter the warning bshemaintains her innocence and bsays: I am pure, theywould bbring her up to the Eastern Gate.The Gemara asks: Would bthey bring her up? /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. משום דנפישי בני חילא דמחוזא,אילפא ור' יוחנן הוו גרסי באורייתא דחיקא להו מילתא טובא אמרי ניקום וניזיל וניעבד עיסקא ונקיים בנפשין (דברים טו, ד) אפס כי לא יהיה בך אביון אזלו אותבי תותי גודא רעיעא הוו קא כרכי ריפתא אתו תרי מלאכי השרת,שמעיה רבי יוחנן דאמר חד לחבריה נישדי עלייהו האי גודא ונקטלינהו שמניחין חיי עולם הבא ועוסקין בחיי שעה אמר ליה אידך שבקינהו דאיכא בהו חד דקיימא ליה שעתא רבי יוחנן שמע אילפא לא שמע אמר ליה ר' יוחנן לאילפא שמע מר מידי אמר ליה לא אמר מדשמעי אנא ואילפא לא שמע ש"מ לדידי קיימא לי שעתא,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן איהדר ואוקי בנפשאי (דברים טו, יא) כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ ר' יוחנן הדר אילפא לא הדר עד דאתא אילפא מליך רבי יוחנן,אמרו לו אי אתיב מר וגריס לא הוה מליך מר אזל תלא נפשיה באסקריא דספינתא אמר אי איכא דשאיל לי במתניתא דר' חייא ורבי אושעיא ולא פשטינא ליה ממתני' נפילנא מאסקריא דספינתא וטבענא,אתא ההוא סבא תנא ליה האומר תנו שקל לבניי בשבת והן ראויין לתת להם סלע נותנין להם סלע ואם אמר אל תתנו להם אלא שקל אין נותנין להם אלא שקל,אם אמר מתו ירשו אחרים תחתיהם בין שאמר תנו בין שאמר אל תתנו אין נותנין להם אלא שקל א"ל הא מני ר"מ היא דאמר מצוה לקיים דברי המת,אמרו עליו על נחום איש גם זו שהיה סומא משתי עיניו גידם משתי ידיו קיטע משתי רגליו וכל גופו מלא שחין והיה מוטל בבית רעוע ורגלי מטתו מונחין בספלין של מים כדי שלא יעלו עליו נמלים פעם אחת [היתה מטתו מונחת בבית רעוע] בקשו תלמידיו לפנות מטתו ואח"כ לפנות את הכלים אמר להם בניי פנו את הכלים ואח"כ פנו את מטתי שמובטח לכם כל זמן שאני בבית אין הבית נופל פינו את הכלים ואחר כך פינו את מטתו ונפל הבית,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי וכי מאחר שצדיק גמור אתה למה עלתה לך כך אמר להם בניי אני גרמתי לעצמי שפעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך לבית חמי והיה עמי משוי ג' חמורים אחד של מאכל ואחד של משתה ואחד של מיני מגדים בא עני אחד ועמד לי בדרך ואמר לי רבי פרנסני אמרתי לו המתן עד שאפרוק מן החמור לא הספקתי לפרוק מן החמור עד שיצתה נשמתו,הלכתי ונפלתי על פניו ואמרתי עיני שלא חסו על עיניך יסומו ידיי שלא חסו על ידיך יתגדמו רגליי שלא חסו על רגליך יתקטעו ולא נתקררה דעתי עד שאמרתי כל גופי יהא מלא שחין אמרו לו אוי לנו שראינוך בכך אמר להם אוי לי אם לא ראיתוני בכך,ואמאי קרו ליה נחום איש גם זו דכל מילתא דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה זימנא חדא בעו לשדורי ישראל דורון לבי קיסר אמרו מאן ייזיל ייזיל נחום איש גם זו דמלומד בניסין הוא שדרו בידיה מלא סיפטא דאבנים טובות ומרגליות אזל בת בההוא דירה בליליא קמו הנך דיוראי ושקלינהו לסיפטיה ומלונהו עפרא (למחר כי חזנהו אמר גם זו לטובה),כי מטא התם [שרינהו לסיפטא חזנהו דמלו עפרא] בעא מלכא למקטלינהו לכולהו אמר קא מחייכו בי יהודאי [אמר גם זו לטובה] אתא אליהו אדמי ליה כחד מינייהו א"ל דלמא הא עפרא מעפרא דאברהם אבוהון הוא דכי הוה שדי עפרא הוו סייפיה גילי הוו גירי דכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,הויא חדא מדינתא דלא מצו למיכבשה בדקו מיניה וכבשוה עיילו לבי גנזיה ומלוהו לסיפטיה אבנים טובות ומרגליות ושדרוהו ביקרא רבה,כי אתו ביתו בההוא דיורא אמרו ליה מאי אייתית בהדך דעבדי לך יקרא כולי האי אמר להו מאי דשקלי מהכא אמטי להתם סתרו לדירייהו ואמטינהו לבי מלכא אמרו ליה האי עפרא דאייתי הכא מדידן הוא בדקוה ולא אשכחוה וקטלינהו להנך דיוראי:,אי זו היא דבר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כו': ת"ר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות ואלף רגלי כגון כפר עכו ויצאו הימנה תשעה מתים בשלשה ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר,ביום אחד או בד' ימים אין זה דבר ועיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כגון כפר עמיקו ויצאו ממנה שלשה מתים בג' ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר 21a. bdue tothe fact that bthere are many soldiers inthe city of bMeḥoza,and if I let them all eat, they will take all the food I own.,§ The Gemara relates another story that involves an unstable wall. bIlfa and Rabbi Yoḥa studied Torahtogether, and as a result bthey became very hard-pressedfor money. bThey said: Let us get up and go and engage in commerce, and we will fulfill, with regard to ourselves,the verse: b“Although there should be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4), as we will no longer be complete paupers. bThey went and sat under a dilapidated walland bwere eating bread,when btwo ministering angels arrived. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa heard that oneangel bsaid to the other: Let us knock this wall down upon them and kill them, as they abandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. bThe otherangel bsaid to him: Leave them, as there is one of them whose timeof achievement bstands before him,i.e., his time has yet to come. bRabbi Yoḥa heardall this, but bIlfa did not hearthe angels’ conversation. bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: Did the Master hear anything?Ilfa bsaid to him: No.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaidto himself: bSince I heardthe angels band Ilfa did not hear,I can blearn from thisthat it is bI whose timeof achievement bstands before me. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: I will returnhome and bfulfill with regard to myselfthe contrary verse: b“For the poor shall never cease out of the land”(Deuteronomy 15:11). bRabbi Yoḥa returnedto the study hall, and bIlfa did not return,but went to engage in business instead. bBythe time bthat Ilfa cameback from his business travels, bRabbi Yoḥahad been bappointedhead of the academy, and his ficial situation had improved.,His colleagues bsaid toIlfa: bIf the Master had sat and studied,instead of going off to his business ventures, bwouldn’t the Master havebeen bappointedhead of the academy? Ilfa bwent and suspended himself from the mast [ iaskariya /i] of a ship, saying: If there is anyone who can ask mea question bconcerning a ibaraitaof Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Oshaya, and I do not resolve hisproblem bfrom a mishna, I will fall from the mast of this ship and be drowned.Ilfa sought to demonstrate that despite the time he had spent in business, he still retained his extensive Torah knowledge., bA certain old man came and taughta ibaraitabefore bhim:If there is a man bwho,upon his deathbed, bsaysin his will: bGive a shekel to my sonsevery bweek, butthis is a situation bwhere,based on their needs, bthey are fitfor the bcourt to give them a isela /i,i.e., double the amount, bthey give them a isela /i.When the dying man mentioned a shekel, he presumably meant that they should be given a sum in accordance with their actual requirements, not that specific amount. bBut if he said: Give them only a shekel,the court bgives them only a shekeland no more.,The ibaraitafurther states that bif one said: Ifmy sons bdie, others should inherittheir portion bin their stead,regardless of bwhether he said: Give thema shekel, or bwhether he said: Give them onlya shekel, then the court bgiveshis sons bonly a shekelper week, as their father clearly stated that he wishes to give his sons only a specific stipend and that he intends to leave the bulk of his property to others. Ilfa bsaid tothe old man: In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thisruling? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir, who said: It is a mitzva to fulfill the statement of the dead.This entire ibaraitacan be explained based on a principle that appears in a mishna: In all cases, one should try to execute the wishes of the deceased.,§ The Gemara relates another story about a rundown building. bThey said about Naḥum of Gam Zu that he was blind in both eyes, both his arms were amputated, both his legs were amputated, and his entire body was covered in boils. And he was lying in a dilapidated house, and legs of his bed were placed in buckets of water so that ants should not climb onto him,as he was unable to keep them off in any other manner. bOnce his students sought to remove his bedfrom the house band afterward removehis other bvessels. He said to them: My sons, remove the vessels first, and afterward remove my bed, as I can guarantee you that as long as I am in the house, the house will not fall.Indeed bthey removed the vessels and afterward they removed his bed, andimmediately bthe house collapsed. /b, bHis students said to him: Rabbi, since you areevidently ba wholly righteous man,as we have just seen that as long as you were in your house it did not fall, bwhy has thissuffering bbefallen you? He said to them: My sons, I brought it upon myself.Naḥum of Gam Zu related to them the following: bAs once I was traveling along the road to my father-in-law’s house, and I had with me a loaddistributed among bthree donkeys, one of food, one of drink, and one of delicacies. A poor person came and stoodbefore me bin the road, saying: My rabbi, sustain me. I said to him: Wait until I unload the donkey,after which I will give you something to eat. However, bI had not managed to unload the donkey before his soul lefthis body., bI went and fell upon his face and said: May my eyes, which had no compassion on your eyes, be blinded; may my hands, which had no compassion on your hands, be amputated; may my legs, which had no compassion on your legs, be amputated. And my mind did not rest until I said: May my whole body be covered in boils.Naḥum of Gam Zu prayed that his suffering might atone for his failure. His students bsaid to him:Even so, bwoe to us that we have seen you in thisstate. bHe said to them: Woe is me if you had not seen me in thisstate, as this suffering atones for me.,The Gemara inquires: bAnd why did they call him Naḥum of Gam Zu?The reason is bthatwith regard to bany matter that occurred to him, hewould bsay: This too is for the good [ igam zu letova /i]. Once, the Jews wished to send a gift [ idoron /i] to the house of the emperor. They said: Who should goand present this gift? bLet Naḥum of Gam Zu go, as he is accustomed to miracles. They sent with him a chest [ isifta /i] full of jewels and pearls,and bhe went and spent the night in a certain inn. During the night, these residentsof the inn arose and btook all ofthe precious jewels and pearls from bthe chest, and filled it with earth.The next day, when he saw what had happened, Naḥum of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good., bWhen he arrived there,at the ruler’s palace, bthey opened the chestand bsaw that it was filled with earth. The king wished to put allthe Jewish emissaries bto death. He said: The Jews are mocking me.Naḥum of Gam Zu bsaid: This too is for the good. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and appeared beforethe ruler bas one ofhis ministers. He bsaid tothe ruler: bPerhaps this earth is from the earth of their father Abraham. As when he threw earth, it turned into swords,and when he threw bstubble, it turned into arrows, as it is writtenin a prophecy that the Sages interpreted this verse as a reference to Abraham: b“His sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble”(Isaiah 41:2)., bThere was one province thatthe Romans bwere unable to conquer.They took some of this earth, btested itby throwing it at their enemies, band conqueredthat province. When the ruler saw that this earth indeed had miraculous powers, his servants bentered his treasury and filledNaḥum of Gam Zu’s bchest with precious jewels and pearls and sent him off with great honor. /b, bWhenNaḥum of Gam Zu bcame to spend the night at thatsame binn,the residents bsaid to him: What did you bring with youto the emperor bthat he bestowed upon you such great honor? He said to them: That which I took from here, I brought there.When they heard this, the residents of the inn thought that the soil upon which their house stood had miraculous powers. bThey tore down their inn and broughtthe soil underneath bto the king’s palace. They said to him: That earth that was brought here was from ourproperty. The miracle had been performed only in the merit of Naḥum of Gam Zu. The emperor btestedthe inn’s soil in battle, band it was not foundto have miraculous powers, band hehad bthese residentsof the inn bput to death. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhat isconsidered a plague of bpestilence?If it is ba city that sends out five hundred infantrymen,and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, one dead per day, this is a plague of pestilence. bThe Sages taught:If ba city that sends out fifteen hundred infantrymen,i.e., one that has a population of at least fifteen hundred men, e.g., bthe village of Akko, and nine dead are removed from it on three consecutive days,i.e., three dead per day, bthis isconsidered a plague of bpestilence. /b,If all nine died bon a single day,while none died on the other days, borif the nine died bovera period of bfour days, this is nota plague of bpestilence. And a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, for example, the village of Amiko, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, this isa plague of bpestilence. /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

78a. מפכין עתידין להיות יוצאין מתחת מפתן הבית מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר ועולה עד שמגיע לפתח בית דוד כיון שמגיע לפתח בית דוד נעשה כנחל שוטף שבו רוחצין זבין וזבות נדות ויולדות שנאמר (זכריה יג, א) ביום ההוא יהיה מקור נפתח לבית דוד וליושבי ירושלם לחטאת ולנדה,אמר רב יוסף מכאן רמז לנדה שצריכה לישב עד צוארה במים ולית הילכתא כוותיה,(תינח יום הכפורים דליכא מנעל) שבת דאיכא מנעל מאי אמר נחמיה חתניה דבי נשיאה אנא חזיתיה לרבי אמי ורבי אסי דמטו עורקומא דמיא ועברוה דרך מלבוש,תינח מנעל סנדל מאי איכא למימר אמר רב ריחומי אנא חזיתיה לרבינא דעבר דרך מלבוש רב אשי אמר סנדל לכתחלה לא,ריש גלותא איקלע להגרוניא לבי רב נתן רפרם וכולהו רבנן אתו לפירקא רבינא לא אתא למחר בעי רפרם לאפוקי לרבינא מדעתיה דריש גלותא אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא אתא מר לפירקא אמר ליה הוה כאיב לי כרעאי איבעי לך למיסם מסאני גבא דכרעא הוה,איבעי לך למרמא סנדלא אמר ליה עורקמא דמיא הוה באורחא איבעי לך למעבריה דרך מלבוש אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב אשי סנדל לכתחלה לא,תני יהודה בר גרוגרות אסור לישב על גבי טינא ביום הכפורים אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי ובטינא מטפחת אמר אביי ובטופח על מנת להטפיח אמר רב יהודה מותר להצטנן בפירות רב יהודה מצטנן בקרא,רבה מצטנן בינוקא רבא מצטנן בכסא דכספא אמר רב פפא כסא דכספא מלא אסור חסר שרי דפחרא אידי ואידי אסור משום דמישחל שחיל רב (פפא) אמר כסא דכספא חסר נמי אסור משום דמזדריב,זעירא בר חמא אושפיזכנין דרבי אמי ורבי אסי ורבי יהושע בן לוי ודכולהו רבנן דקיסרי הוה אמר ליה לרב יוסף בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מעליתא דהוה עביד אבוך מטפחת היה לו בערב יום הכפורים ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מקנח בה פניו ידיו ורגליו ערב תשעה באב שורה אותה במים ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו,וכן כי אתא רבה בר מרי אמר בערב תשעה באב מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ומניחה תחת מראשותיו ולמחר מקנח פניו ידיו ורגליו בערב יום הכפורים מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו אמר ליה ר' יעקב לרבי ירמיה בר תחליפא איפכא אמרת לן ואותיבנך סחיטה,אמר רב מנשיא בר תחליפא אמר רב עמרם אמר רבה בר בר חנה שאלו את רבי אלעזר זקן ויושב בישיבה צריך ליטול רשות להתיר בכורות או אינו צריך,מאי קא מיבעי להו הכי קא מיבעי להו כי הא דאמר רב אידי בר אבין דבר זה הניחו להם לבי נשיאה כדי להתגדר בו צריך ליטול רשות או דילמא כיון דזקן ויושב בישיבה אין צריך עמד ר' צדוק בן חלוקה על רגליו ואמר אני ראיתי את רבי יוסי בן זימרא שזקן ויושב בישיבה היה ועמד במעלה מזקנו של זה ונטל רשות להתיר בכורות,אמר ליה ר' אבא לא כך היה מעשה אלא כך היה מעשה ר' יוסי בן זימרא כהן היה והכי קא מיבעיא ליה הלכה כר"מ דאמר החשוד בדבר לא דנו ולא מעידו או דילמא הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דאמר נאמן הוא על של חבירו ואינו נאמן על של עצמו ופשט ליה הלכה כרשב"ג,ותו קא מבעיא להו מהו לצאת בסנדל של 78a. bin the future, will bubble from under the threshold of the Temple. From thispoint bforward,the spring bwill grow in strength and rise until it reaches the opening of David’s house,i.e., his grave, which is outside of Jerusalem. bWhen it reaches the opening of David’s house, it will become a flowing river in which izavimand izavot /i, menstruating women, and women after childbirth will batheto purify themselves. bAs it is stated: “On that day there shall be a fountain opened for the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for purification and for sprinkling”(Zechariah 13:1)., bRav Yosef said: From here, there is an allusion that a menstruating woman mustbe able to bsit up to her neck in water,i.e., that this is the appropriate depth for waters of a ritual bath to purify. The Gemara comments: bBut the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion. Rather, the depth of the water is irrelevant. As long as the water can cover an entire adult body, the ritual bath is kosher.,§ The Gemara investigates the permissibility of crossing water in order to fulfill a mitzva: It works out bwellthat on bYom Kippurit is permitted because bthere are no shoes,and there is no problem going through water barefoot. However, on bShabbat, when there are shoes, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is one permitted to cross water wearing shoes? Is there a concern that his shoe might come off and he may pick it up, thereby violating the prohibition of carrying out? bNeḥemya, the son-in-law of the iNasi /i, said: I saw Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi come to a pool of waterthat they had to cross on Shabbat, band they crossed it while wearingtheir shoes without removing them first.,The Gemara asks: It works out bwellthat bshoesare permitted, since one can tie them tightly, but bwhat is there to sayabout bsandals?Since they do not fit tightly on the foot, they might come off in the water. bRav Riḥumi said: I saw Ravina crossa river while bwearingsandals on his feet. bRav Ashi said: If he iswearing bsandals,he should bnotcross the water iab initio /i,lest the sandal fall off his foot and he violate the prohibition of carrying on Shabbat by picking it up.,Incidental to this, the Gemara reports: bThe Exilarch came todeliver a lecture in bRav Natan’s study hall in Hagronya. Rafram and all the Sages came to the lecture,but bRavina did not come. The next day,when he came, bRafram wanted to removeany anger towards bRavina from the mindof bthe Exilarch,for missing the lecture. Rafram therefore asked Ravina: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master did not come to the lecture? He said to him: My foot hurt.He said to him: bYou should have put shoes on.Ravina answered him: bIt was the back of the footthat hurt, so wearing shoes would have been hard for me.,Rafram said to Ravina: bYou should have worn sandals,which leave the heel exposed. bHe said to him: There was a pool of water on the waythat I would have had to cross. bHe said to him: You should have crossed it wearingthe sandals. bHe said to him: Does the Master not holdwith that which bRav Ashi said:One should bnotwear bsandalswhen crossing a river on Shabbat, iab initio /i?From this conversation, the Exilarch understood that Ravina meant no disrespect in not attending the lecture.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the laws of Yom Kippur: bYehuda bar Gerogarot taught: It is prohibited to sit ondamp bclay on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This prohibition applies only when the bclayis bdripping wet,when one feels its wetness when touching it. bAbaye saidin clarification: It must be bdripping wet enough to make something else wet. Rav Yehuda said:One is bpermitted to cool off with fruiton Yom Kippur, and it is not considered bathing. Similarly, when bRav Yehudasuffered from the heat on Yom Kippur he bcooled offby putting ba squashon himself., bRabba cooled off byplacing ba baby [ iyanuka /i]next to him, because a baby’s body is cold. bRava cooled off with a silver cup. Rav Pappa said:If the bsilver cupis bfull, it is prohibited;however, if it is bnot full, it is permitted.With regard to ba ceramiccup, both bthis and that are prohibited, sincethe water bseeps throughthe cup, causing a violation of the prohibition of bathing. bRavAshi bsaid: A silver cup that is not full is also prohibited because it can slip [ imizderiv /i]from his hand and spill., bZe’eira bar Ḥama,the bhostof the home where bRabbi Ami, and Rabbi Asi, and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and all the Sages of Caesareastayed, bsaid to Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Son of a lion, come, I will tell youabout ba wonderful custom that your father used to perform. He had a cloth thathe would prepare bon the day before Yom Kippur by soaking it in water andwringing it out, bmaking italmost blike a dried cloth. And the next day he wiped his face, hands, and feet with it.On bthe day before the Ninth of Av,on which the prohibition of bathing is by rabbinic law and not Torah law, he would bsoak thecloth bin water and the next day pass it over his eyes. /b, bSimilarly, when Rabba bar Mari camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The day before the Ninth of Av they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water and place it under his head. The next day,when only some moisture remains, bhemay bwipe his face, hands, and feetwith it. bOn the day before Yom Kippur, they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water andwring it out to bmake it like a dried cloth. The next day, hemay bpass it over his eyes. Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Taḥlifa: You told us the opposite.What you told us about Yom Kippur was really what he did on the Ninth of Av, band we objected to youwith regard to the prohibition of bwringing,since Yom Kippur has the same prohibition of wringing that Shabbat has.,§ bRav Menashya bar Taḥalifa saidthat bRav Amram saidthat bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: They asked Rabbi Elazarben Pedat: Must ban Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva receive permissionfrom the iNasi bto permithim to render bfirstborn animals permitted,like others who must get permission from the iNasi btorender bfirstborn animals permitted, or not?A firstborn animal may not be eaten until it has a blemish. Knowing which blemishes are permanent and permit the animal to be eaten and which are temporary is specialized knowledge.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are they asking?What is the basis of the question? The Gemara explains: bThis is what they are asking, like thisstatement of bRav Idi bar Avin,who bsaid: This matter,the authority of the iNasito grant permission, bwas given to the house of the iNasito raise its stature.Therefore, bmust permission be received,since the request itself honors the iNasi /i? bOr, perhaps becausethe individual in question bis an Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva, there is no need. Rav Tzadok ben Ḥaluka rose to his feet and said: I saw Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra, who was an Elder who sat in the yeshiva and who stood before the grandfather of thiscurrent iNasi /i, bask permissionfrom him bto permit firstborn animals. /b, bRabbi Abba said to him:The way you described it bwas not how the incident was. Rather this was the incident: Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra was a priest, and he raised the following dilemma: Is the ihalakhain accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,who bsaid: One who is suspect ina certain bareamay bnot judge it andmay bnot testifyabout bit?Priests are suspected of inflicting blemishes on firstborn animals because after the destruction of the Temple, even priests may not benefit from a firstborn animal until it becomes blemished. The question was not one of seeking permission from the iNasi /i, but it was a question of ihalakha /i. Are priests who are Torah scholars also suspected of inflicting blemishes? bOr perhaps the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel,who bsaid:One who is suspect bis believed about his fellow but is not believed about himself. He resolvedthe question for bhim:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b,§ bThey raisedanother bdilemmabefore bthem,the same Sages mentioned: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to bgoing out in sandals made of /b
29. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.33. The oracle which the Coans received was on this wise:Hephaestus cast the tripod in the sea;Until it quit the city there will beNo end to strife, until it reach the seerWhose wisdom makes past, present, future clear.That of the Milesians beginning Who shall possess the tripod? has been quoted above. So much for this version of the story.Hermippus in his Lives refers to Thales the story which is told by some of Socrates, namely, that he used to say there were three blessings for which he was grateful to Fortune: first, that I was born a human being and not one of the brutes; next, that I was born a man and not a woman; thirdly, a Greek and not a barbarian.
30. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 4.7, 11.18-11.25



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abahu, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
abaye Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171, 174
abba tachanah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
aha, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
akiba, r., and moses Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
ami, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
ammei ha aretz, and rabbis Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 289
asi, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
banning, of judah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
baraitot (tannaitic sources not in mishna), knowledge of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
bavli (babylonian talmud), parallels to Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
blessings Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
canaan Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
death Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
doeg Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
eleazar b. r. shimon, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
genesis rabbah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 240
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
gods will Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 230
heavenly realm, judah banned from Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
ilfa Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
israel, land of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
jacob (patriarch) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239, 240
judah, in heavenly realm Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
kahana, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
moses, and r. akiba Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239, 240
padan aram Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
palestinian sources, and rabbi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, on study-house Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
palestinian sources, parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
papa, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rabbah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rabbi (yehuda hanasi), and r. eleazer b. r. shimon Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
rabbis, and the masses Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 289
rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority figures, range of authority' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 289
rashi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 240; Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
sabbath Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239, 240
sabbath limits Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 240
samaritan, parable of good Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
shechem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 239
shimon b. gamaliel, rabban Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
shimon b. yohai, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
simeon bar yohai Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 240
stammaim, on study-house/academy Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
study-house (bet midrash) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
torah study, bavli on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
torah study, palestinian sources on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
yehuda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), on r. kahana Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), shimon b. gamaliel in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yohanan, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171, 174