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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 58.1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 6.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners?
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.4. וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 12.4. וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃ 12.4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 21.6, 23.1, 25.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.6. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרָה צְחֹק עָשָׂה לִי אֱלֹהִים כָּל־הַשֹּׁמֵעַ יִצְחַק־לִי׃ 23.1. וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה׃ 23.1. וְעֶפְרוֹן יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי־חֵת וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת לְכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 25.17. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְאַת שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וַיִּגְוַע וַיָּמָת וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 21.6. And Sarah said: ‘God hath made laughter for me; every one that heareth will laugh on account of me.’" 23.1. And the life of Sarah was a hundred and seven and twenty years; these were the years of the life of Sarah." 25.17. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirty and seven years; and he expired and died; and was gathered unto his people."
4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.20. But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings; and ye shall go forth, and gambol as calves of the stall."
5. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. But there are three kinds of life. The first life, to God; the second, with respect to the creature; the third, is on the borders of both, being compounded of the two others. Now, the life to God has not descended to us, and has not come to the necessities of the body. Again, life with respect to the creature has not wholly ascended up to heaven, nor has it sought to ascend, but it lurks in unapproachable recesses, and rejoices in a life which is no life.
7. Mishnah, Niddah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.9. If a woman at the age of twenty did not bring forth two hairs, she must bring evidence that she is twenty years of age and she is an aylonit, she doesn't perform halitzah or yibbum. If a man at the age of twenty years did not produce two hairs, he must bring evidence that he is twenty years old and he becomes confirmed as a saris and he doesn't perform halitzah or yibbum, the words of Bet Hillel. Bet Shammai says: with both of them at the age of eighteen. Rabbi Eliezer says: In the case of the male, according to the words of Bet Hillel, while in that of the female, in accordance with the words of Bet Shammai, since a woman matures earlier than a man."
8. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. And these are they which are not qualified [to be witnesses or judges]: A dice player, a usurer, pigeon racers, or traffickers in Seventh Year produce, and slaves. This is the general rule: any testimony for which a woman is not qualified, they too are not qualified."
9. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. And these are they which are not qualified [to be witnesses or judges]:A dice player, a usurer, pigeon racers, or traffickers in Seventh Year produce. Rabbi Shimon said: “In the beginning they called them ‘gatherers’ of Seventh Year produce, but after the oppressors grew many they changed this and called them ‘traffickers’ of Seventh Year produce.” Rabbi Judah said: “This applies only if they have no other trade, but if they have some other trade other than that, they are not disqualified.”"
10. Tosefta, Hagigah, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.17, 53.8, 58.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44.17. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא (בראשית טו, יב), רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר תְּחִלַּת מַפָּלָה שֵׁנָה, דָּמִיךְ לֵיהּ וְלָא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרַיְיתָא, דָּמִיךְ לֵיהּ וְלָא עָבֵיד עֲבוֹדָה. רַב אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה תַּרְדֵּמוֹת הֵן, תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה. תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה (בראשית ב, כא): וַיַּפֵּל ה' אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן. תַּרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה: וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל אַבְרָם, וְתַרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א כו, יב): וְאֵין רֹאֶה וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין מֵקִיץ כִּי כֻלָּם יְשֵׁנִים כִּי תַּרְדֵּמַת ה' נָפְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אַף תַּרְדֵּמָה שֶׁל שְׁטוּת, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ ה' עֲלֵיכֶם רוּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָה וגו'. רַבִּי חֲנִינָה בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר שָׁלשׁ נוֹבְלוֹת הֵן, נוֹבְלוֹת מִיתָה, שֵׁנָה. נוֹבְלוֹת נְבוּאָה, חֲלוֹם. נוֹבְלוֹת הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שַׁבָּת. רַבִּי אָבִין מוֹסִיף תַּרְתֵּין, נוֹבְלוֹת אוֹרָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה. נוֹבְלוֹת חָכְמָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, תּוֹרָה. (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה חֲשֵׁכָה גְדֹלָה נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו. אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ג, יט): בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְתַעֲנִית. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן. רַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים דּוּכָסִים, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אִפַּרְכוּן, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אִסְטְרַטְלִיטִין. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מִשִּׁשִׁים שִׁשִּׁים, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ח, טו): נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב. נָחָשׁ, זוֹ בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זוֹ מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן. מָה עַקְרָב זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת לְשִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הֶעֱמִידָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מִשִּׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁמַּחְלִיפִין, נוֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו, זוֹ בָּבֶל, דִּכְתִיב בָּהּ (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, דִּכְתִיב (אסתר ג, א): אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ז): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה. 53.8. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרָה צְחֹק עָשָׂה לִי אֱלֹהִים (בראשית כא, ו), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בְּרַבִּי יִצְחָק רְאוּבֵן בְּשִׂמְחָה שִׁמְעוֹן מָה אִכְפַּת לֵיהּ, כָּךְ שָׂרָה נִפְקְדָה אֲחֵרִים מָה אִכְפַּת לָהֶם, אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְקְדָה אִמֵּנוּ שָׂרָה הַרְבֵּה עֲקָרוֹת נִפְקְדוּ עִמָּהּ, הַרְבֵּה חֵרְשִׁים נִתְפַּקְחוּ, הַרְבֵּה סוּמִים נִפְתְּחוּ, הַרְבֵּה שׁוֹטִים נִשְׁתַּפּוּ. נֶאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשִׂיָּה, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (אסתר ב, יח): וַהֲנָחָה לַמְדִינוֹת עָשָׂה, מָה עֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן נִתַּן דּוֹרָיָה לָעוֹלָם, אַף עֲשִׂיָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן דּוֹרָיָה לָעוֹלָם. וְרַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הוֹסִיפוּ עַל הַמְּאוֹרוֹת, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשִׂיָּה עָשָׂה לִי, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (בראשית א, טז): וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת. 53.8. AND SARAH SAID: GOD HAS MADE JOY FOR ME; EVERY ONE THAT HEARS WILL REJOICE WITH ME (Gen. 21:6). R. Berekiah, R. Judah b. R. Simon, and R. Ha in the name of R. Samuel b. R. Isaac said: If Reuben has cause to rejoice, what does it matter to Simeon? Similarly, if Sarah was remembered, what did it matter to others? But when the matriarch Sarah was remembered [gave birth], many other barren women were remembered with her; many deaf gained their hearing; many blind had their eyes opened, many insane became sane. For ‘making’ [HAS MADE] is mentioned here, and also elsewhere, viz. And he made a release to the provinces (Est. II, 18). As the making mentioned there means that a gift was granted to the world,l so the making mentioned here means that a gift was granted to the world. R. Levi said: She increased the light of the luminaries: ‘making’ is mentioned here, viz. GOD HAS MADE FOR ME, while elsewhere it says, And God made the two lights (Gen. I, 16)."
13. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 28.1, 30.2, 31.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן (ויקרא כג, י), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת א, ג): מַה יִּתְרוֹן לָאָדָם בְּכָל עֲמָלוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹל תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין בֶּן לֵוִי בִּקְשׁוּ לִגְנֹז סֵפֶר קֹהֶלֶת שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בּוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם נוֹטִין לְצַד מִינוּת, אָמְרוּ כָּךְ הָיָה רָאוּי שְׁלֹמֹה לוֹמַר (קהלת יא, ט): שְׂמַח בָּחוּר בְּיַלְדוּתֶךָ וִיטִיבְךָ לִבְּךָ בִּימֵי בְחוּרוֹתֶיךָ, משֶׁה אָמַר (במדבר טו, לט): וְלֹא תָתוּרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם, וּשְׁלֹמֹה אָמַר (קהלת יא, ט): וְהַלֵּךְ בְּדַרְכֵי לִבְּךָ וּבְמַרְאֵה עֵינֶיךָ, אֶלָּא הֻתְּרָה רְצוּעָה לֵית דִּין וְלֵית דַּיָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר (קהלת יא, ט): וְדָע כִּי עַל כָּל אֵלֶּה יְבִיאֲךָ הָאֱלֹהִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, אָמְרוּ יָפֶה אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי בִּקְּשׁוּ לִגְנֹז סֵפֶר קֹהֶלֶת שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵם נוֹטִים לְצַד מִינוּת, אָמְרוּ כָּךְ הָיָה שְׁלֹמֹה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר: מַה יִּתְרוֹן לָאָדָם, יָכוֹל אַף בַּעֲמָלָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בַּמַּשְׁמָע, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ אִלּוּ אָמַר בְּכָל עָמָל וְשָׁתַק הָיִינוּ אוֹמְרִים אַף בַּעֲמָלָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה בַּמַּשְׁמָע הוּא, הָא אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא בְּכָל עֲמָלוֹ, בַּעֲמָלוֹ הוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֲבָל בַּעֲמָלוֹ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה מוֹעִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֵין לוֹ, לְמַעְלָה מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אוֹמֵר כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַבְּרִיּוֹת מְגַדְּלִין בְּמִצְווֹת וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דַּיָּן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַזְרִיחַ לָהֶם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת א, ה): וְזָרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וּבָא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי כָּל מַה שֶּׁהַצַּדִּיקִים מְגַדְּלִין בְּמִצְווֹת וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, דַּיָּן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵיהֶם כְּגַלְגַּל חַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, לא): וְאֹהֲבָיו כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַאי בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ לִטְרָא אַחַת שֶׁל בָּשָׂר מִן הַשּׁוּק, כַּמָּה יְגִיעוֹת הוּא יָגֵעַ, כַּמָּה צַעַר הוּא מִצְטָעֵר עַד שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ, וְהַבְּרִיּוֹת יְשֵׁנִין עַל מִטּוֹתֵיהֶן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַשִּׁיב רוּחוֹת וּמַעֲלֶה עֲנָנִים וּמְגַדֵּל צְמָחִים וּמְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִים לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׂכַר הָעֹמֶר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן. 30.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים טז, יא): תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹדִיעֵנִי בְּאֵיזֶה פִּילוֹן מְפֻלָּשׁ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד אִם חַיִּים אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, יִסּוּרִין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב (משלי ו, כג): וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר. שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, שִׂבְּעָנוּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה שְׂמָחוֹת, מִקְרָא, מִשְׁנָה, תַּלְמוּד, תּוֹסֶפְתָּא וְאַגָּדוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת פָּנֶיךָ, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה וּפְנֵיהֶם דּוֹמוֹת לַחַמָּה וּלְבָנָה, לָרָקִיעַ, לַכּוֹכָבִים, לַבְּרָקִים וּלְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים וְלַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. לַחַמָּה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה. לַלְּבָנָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה. לָרָקִיעַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ. לַכּוֹכָבִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. לַבְּרָקִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחום ב, ה): מַרְאֵיהֶן כַּלַּפִּידִים כַּבְּרָקִים יְרוֹצֵצוּ. לְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים מִנַּיַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מה, א): לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שׁשַׁנִּים. לַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ד, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ. (תהלים טז, יא): נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח, וְכִי מִי מוֹדִיעֵנוּ אֵיזוֹ כַּת הַחֲבִיבָה וְהַנְּעִימָה שֶׁבָּהֶן, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר זוֹ שֶׁבָּאָה מִכֹּחָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וּמִכֹּחָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת, וְאָחֳרָנָא אָמַר אֵלּוּ סוֹפְרִין וּמַשְׁנִין שֶׁמְּלַמְּדִין תִּינוֹקוֹת בַּאֲמִתָּן, שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד בִּימִינוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אַל תְּהִי קוֹרֵא כֵּן אֶלָּא שֶׁבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְווֹת שֶׁבֶּחָג, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין שֶׁבַּלּוּלָב, וְסֻכָּה, חֲגִיגָה וְשִׂמְחָה. אִם שִׂמְחָה לָמָּה חֲגִיגָה וְאִם חֲגִיגָה לָמָּה שִׂמְחָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין מָשָׁל לִשְׁנַיִם שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אֵצֶל הַדַּיָּן וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן הוּא נוֹצֵחַ, אֶלָּא מַאן דְּנָסַב בָּאיָין בִּידֵיהּ, אֲנַן יָדְעִין דְּהוּא נָצוֹחַיָיא, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּאִין וּמְקַטְרְגִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן נָצַח, אֶלָּא בַּמֶּה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יוֹצְאִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלוּלָבֵיהֶן וְאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן בְּיָדָן, אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין דְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִינוּן נָצוֹחַיָּא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. 28.1. And he shall wave the sheaf before the Lord. How did he wave it? R. Hama b.Ukba in the name of R.Joshua b. Haia said: He moved it forward and backward, upward and downward; forward and backward to symbolize that the act was in honor of Him to whom the whole world belongs; upward and downward to symbols that the act was in honor of Him to whom belong the regions on high and the regions below. R. Simon son of R. Joshua said: The movements forward and backward were to counteract the effects of injurious winds; and the movements upward and downwards were to counteract the effect of injurious dews."
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. קים לי בנפשאי דידענא טפי אבל תולה בדעת יונו אימא לא,ואי תנא תולה בדעת יונו דאמר בנקשא תליא מילתא ואנא ידענא לנקושי טפי אבל תולה בדעת עצמו אימא לא צריכא,מיתיבי המשחק בקוביא אלו הן המשחקים בפיספסים ולא בפיספסים בלבד אמרו אלא אפילו קליפי אגוזים וקליפי רימונים,ואימתי חזרתן משישברו את פיספסיהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה דאפילו בחנם לא עבדי,מלוה בריבית אחד המלוה ואחד הלוה ואימתי חזרתן משיקרעו את שטריהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה אפילו לנכרי לא מוזפי,ומפריחי יונים אלו שממרין את היונים ולא יונים בלבד אמרו אלא אפילו בהמה חיה ועוף ואימתי חזרתן משישברו את פגמיהן ויחזרו בהן חזרה גמורה דאפי' במדבר נמי לא עבדי,סוחרי שביעית אלו שנושאין ונותנין בפירות שביעית ואימתי חזרתן משתגיע שביעית אחרת ויבדלו,וא"ר נחמיה לא חזרת דברים בלבד אמרו אלא חזרת ממון כיצד אומר אני פלוני בר פלוני כינסתי מאתים זוז בפירות שביעית והרי הן נתונין במתנה לעניים,קתני מיהת בהמה בשלמא למאן דאמר אי תקדמיה יונך ליון היינו דמשכחת לה בהמה אלא למ"ד ארא בהמה בת הכי היא,אין בשור הבר וכמאן דאמר שור הבר מין בהמה הוא דתנן שור הבר מין בהמה הוא רבי יוסי אומר מין חיה,תנא הוסיפו עליהן הגזלנין והחמסנין,גזלן דאורייתא הוא לא נצרכא אלא למציאת חרש שוטה וקטן,מעיקרא סבור מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן לא שכיחא אי נמי מפני דרכי שלום בעלמא כיון דחזו דסוף סוף ממונא הוא דקא שקלי פסלינהו רבנן,החמסנין מעיקרא סבור דמי קא יהיב אקראי בעלמא הוא כיון דחזו דקא חטפי גזרו בהו רבנן,תנא עוד הוסיפו עליהן הרועים הגבאין והמוכסין,רועים מעיקרא סבור אקראי בעלמא הוא כיון דחזו דקא מכווני ושדו לכתחילה גזרו בהו רבנן: הגבאין והמוכסין מעיקרא סבור מאי דקיץ להו קא שקלי כיון דחזו דקא שקלי יתירא פסלינהו,אמר רבא רועה שאמרו אחד רועה בהמה דקה ואחד רועה בהמה גסה,ומי אמר רבא הכי והאמר רבא רועה בהמה דקה בא"י פסולין בחוצה לארץ כשרין רועה בהמה גסה אפילו בא"י כשרין ההוא במגדלים איתמר,ה"נ מסתברא מדקתני נאמנין עלי שלשה רועי בקר מאי לאו לעדות,לא לדינא דיקא נמי דקתני שלשה רועי בקר ואי לעדות שלשה למה לי,ואלא מאי לדינא מאי איריא שלשה רועי בקר כל בי תלתא דלא גמרי דינא נמי,הכי קאמר אפילו הני דלא שכיחי ביישוב,א"ר יהודה סתם רועה פסול סתם גבאי כשר,אבוה דר' זירא עבד גביותא תליסר שנין כי הוה אתי ריש נהרא למתא כי הוה חזי רבנן א"ל (ישעיהו כו, כ) לך עמי בא בחדריך כי הוה חזי אינשי דמתא אמר ריש נהרא אתא למתא והאידנא נכיס אבא לפום ברא וברא לפום אבא 25b. bI am certain of myself that I know betterthan my competitor how to win. bButwith regard to one who bmakes it dependent on the decision of his pigeon, saythat he is bnotdisqualified from bearing witness, as he is aware that he cannot guarantee the results and therefore resolves to transfer the money if he loses., bAndconversely, bhadthe mishna btaughtthis ihalakhaonly with regard to one who bmakes it dependent on the decision of his pigeon,one might assume that only this type of gambler is disqualified, bas hepresumably bsays: The matter,i.e., the race, bis determined by knockingon trees and other objects to speed up the pigeons, band I knowhow bto knock betterthan my opponent. Therefore, he does not resolve to transfer the money if he loses. bButwith regard to one who bmakes it dependent on his own decision, saythat he is bnotdisqualified from bearing witness, as the roll of the dice is pure chance. Therefore, it is bnecessaryfor the mishna to teach both cases.,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion that the expression: Those who fly pigeons, refers to an iara /i, from a ibaraita /i: With regard to the expression bone who plays with dice, these are ones who play with ipispasim /i,which are dice of marble or other types of stone. bButthe Sages bdid notmean to bsaythat bonlyone who plays bwith ipispasim /iis disqualified from bearing witness, but brather evenone who plays with bnutshells or pomegranate shellsis disqualified., bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted, so that they may resume being fit to bear witness? bOnce they break their ipispasimand repent of them completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, bwhere they do not dothis beven for nothing,i.e., they do not play even without betting.,The ibaraitacontinues: The expression: bOne who lends with interest,is referring to bboth the lender and the borrower.Both are disqualified. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce they tear theirpromissory bnotes and repent of them completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, where bthey do not lendwith interest beven to a gentile. /b,The expression: bAndthose bwho fly pigeons,is referring to bthose who induce the pigeonsto behave in this manner, i.e., they train them. bAndthe Sages bdid notmean to bsaythat bonlythose who fly bpigeonsare disqualified; brather, eventhose who do this with ba domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, orany type of bbirdare disqualified. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce they break their fixtures [ ipigmeihen /i]upon which they stand the competing animals, band repent completely,abandoning this occupation entirely, bwhere they do not dothis beven in the wilderness,where there is no one from whom to steal.,The expression: bMerchantswho trade in the produce bof the SabbaticalYear, is referring to bthose who do business withthe bproduce of the SabbaticalYear. bAnd when is their repentanceaccepted? bOnce another SabbaticalYear boccurs and they refrainfrom selling its produce or from assuming ownership of such produce.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd Rabbi Neḥemya said:The Sages bdid not saythat bverbal repentance aloneis sufficient for a merchant who traded in the produce of the Sabbatical Year to be reinstated as a valid witness; brather, returningthe bmoneyis also necessary. bHowcan one return the money he gained from selling produce of the Sabbatical Year? bHe says: I, so-and-so the son of so-and-so, gathered,i.e., profited, btwo hundred dinarsfrom trading binthe bproduce of the SabbaticalYear, bandas I gained it improperly, this sum is bhereby given as a gift to the poor. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bIn any event, it is taughtin the ibaraitathat the status of one who flies pigeons applies to one who uses ba domesticated animalin the same manner. bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the term: One who flies pigeons, is referring to those who race pigeons, saying: bIf your pigeon reachesa certain destination bbefore my pigeonI will give you such and such an amount of money, bthis is how you finda parallel case of one who races ba domesticated animalagainst another animal. bBut according to the one who saysthat the term pigeon flyer means ban iara /i, is a domesticated animal capable ofluring other domesticated animals?,The Gemara answers: bYes,the ibaraitastates this bwith regard to the wild ox,which can be lured away from its owner’s property because it is not a completely domesticated animal. bAndthe ibaraitastates this baccording to the one who saysthat bthe wild ox is a species of domesticated animal, as we learnedin a mishna ( iKilayim8:6): bThe wild ox is a species of domesticated animal.But bRabbi Yosei says:It is ba species of undomesticated animal. /b,§ It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages badded the robbers and those who force transactions,i.e., who compel others to sell to them, btothe list of those who are disqualified from bearing witness.,The Gemara asks: bA robber isdisqualified bby Torah law;why is it necessary for the Sages to add such an individual to the list? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary only toadd one who steals ban item found by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor,who acquire those items by rabbinic law only (see iGittin59b). Since these people are not considered halakhically competent, by Torah law they do not acquire an item that they find, and consequently one who steals such an item from them is not in violation of a prohibition by Torah law.,One possibility is that taking such an item is prohibited by rabbinic law because it constitutes robbery. Nevertheless, binitiallythe Sages did not disqualify such an individual from bearing witness, as they bassumedthat the case of ban item found by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor is uncommon.Therefore, it was not deemed necessary to disqualify one who robs them of such an item. bAlternatively,the Sages may have reasoned that taking such an item is prohibited bmerely on account of the ways of peace,i.e., to foster peace and prevent strife and controversy, and is not considered actual robbery. bWhen they realized that ultimatelythese people bwere taking propertyfrom others and were likely to perform actual robbery, bthe Sages disqualified them. /b,Similarly, with regard to bthose who force transactions, initiallythe Sages did not disqualify them, as bthey assumedthat their behavior could be excused for two reasons: bThey would pay moneyfor the items they took, and their forcing transactions bwas merely occasional;it was not a common practice. bWhen they realized thatthese people bwere snatchingitems regularly, bthe Sages issued a decree that theyare disqualified from bearing witness.,§ It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages bfurther addedthe following btothe list of those disqualified from bearing witness: bThe shepherds,who shepherd their animals in the fields of others and are therefore considered like robbers; bthe collectorsof government taxes, who collect more than the amount that people are legally liable to pay; band the customs officials,who collect customs in an illegal manner.,The Gemara explains: bShepherdswere not disqualified at first, as the Sages binitially assumed it was merely incidentalthat they would let their animals graze in the fields of others. bWhen they realized that they would intentionally sendthe animals to the fields of others bfrom the outset, the Sages issued a decree that theyare disqualified from bearing witness. bThe collectorsof taxes band the customs officialswere not disqualified at first, as the Sages binitially assumed they would take the set amount theywere instructed to take. bWhen they realized thatthese officials bwere taking morethan that, bthey disqualified them. /b, bRava says:The bshepherd thatthe Sages bsaidis disqualified from bearing witness is referring to bboth a shepherd of small livestock and a herder of large livestock. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd does Rava say this? But doesn’t Rava say: Shepherds of small livestock in Eretz Yisrael are disqualifiedfrom bearing witness, as besides grazing in others’ fields they also ruin the land? bOutside of EretzYisrael bthey are fitto bear witness. By contrast, bherders of large livestock, even in Eretz Yisrael, are fitto bear witness. The Gemara answers: bThat was stated with regard tothose bwho raisetheir animals on their own land, without herding them on land in the public domain.,The Gemara suggests a proof for Rava’s opinion that a herder of large livestock is also disqualified: bThis too stands to reason, fromthe fact bthatthe mishna (24a) bteachesthat a litigant may state: bThree cattle herders are trusted for mein court; by inference, cattle herders are generally disqualified. bWhat, is it not with regard to bearing witnessthat cattle herders are disqualified, in accordance with Rava’s statement?,The Gemara rejects this proof: bNo,it is bwith regard tositting in bjudgment.The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna bis also preciseaccording to this interpretation, bas it teaches: Three cattle herdersare trusted for me. bAnd ifit is bwith regard to bearing witness, why do Ineed bthreewitnesses? Two are enough.,The Gemara asks: bBut rather,with regard to bwhatare cattle herders disqualified? If it is bwith regard tositting in bjudgment, whydoes the mishna mention bspecifically three cattle herders? Any threepeople bwho did not study ihalakhaare alsodisqualified from serving as a court.,The Gemara answers: bThisis what the mishna bis saying:The litigants can accept as judges beven thosecattle herders bwhodwell in the fields and bdo not frequent the settled area,and are therefore not proficient in the ways of business., bRav Yehuda says: An ordinary shepherdis bdisqualifiedfrom bearing witness unless the court recognizes him as one who does not let his animals graze in the fields of others. bAn ordinarytax bcollectoris bfitunless the court determines he is one who collects more than people are obligated to pay.,The Gemara relates a story about a tax collector: bThe father of Rabbi Zeira collectedtaxes for bthirteen years. When the headtax collector of the briverregion bwould come to the city,Rabbi Zeira’s father would prepare the residents ahead of time. bWhen he would see the rabbis, he would say to themas a hint: b“Come, my people, enter into your chambers,and shut your doors behind you; hide yourself for a little moment until the indignation has passed” (Isaiah 26:20). He said this so that the head tax collector would not see the rabbis, and it would be possible to lower the taxes of the city. bWhen he would seethe ordinary bpeople of the city, he would sayto them: Beware, as bthe headtax collector of the briverregion bis coming to the city, and will now slaughter the father,i.e., take one’s money, bbefore the son, and the son before the father. /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

89b. שפרו ורבו עליה ישראל מדבר סיני שירדה שנאה לעכו"ם עליו ומה שמו חורב שמו ופליגא דר' אבהו דא"ר אבהו הר סיני שמו ולמה נקרא הר חורב שירדה חורבה לעכו"ם עליו:,מנין שקושרין לשון של זהורית וכו': כשנים כשני מיבעי ליה א"ר יצחק אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים הללו שסדורות ובאות מששת ימי בראשית ועד עכשיו כשלג ילבינו: דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (ישעיה א, יח) לכו נא ונוכחה יאמר ה' לכו נא בואו נא מיבעי ליה יאמר ה' אמר ה' מיבעי ליה לעתיד לבא יאמר להם הקב"ה לישראל לכו נא אצל אבותיכם ויוכיחו אתכם,ויאמרו לפניו רבש"ע אצל מי נלך אצל אברהם שאמרת לו (בראשית טו, יג) ידוע תדע ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל יצחק שבירך את עשו (שם כז, מ) והיה כאשר תריד ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל יעקב שאמרת לו (שם מו, ד) אנכי ארד עמך מצרימה ולא בקש רחמים עלינו אצל מי נלך עכשיו יאמר ה' אמר להן הקב"ה הואיל ותליתם עצמכם בי אם יהיו חטאיכם כשנים כשלג ילבינו:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מ"ד (ישעיה סג, טז) כי אתה אבינו כי אברהם לא ידענו וישראל לא יכירנו אתה ה' אבינו גואלנו מעולם שמך לעתיד לבא יאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם בניך חטאו לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע ימחו על קדושת שמך אמר אימר ליה ליעקב דהוה ליה צער גידול בנים אפשר דבעי רחמי עלייהו אמר ליה בניך חטאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע ימחו על קדושת שמך אמר לא בסבי טעמא ולא בדרדקי עצה אמר לו ליצחק בניך חטאו לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בני ולא בניך בשעה שהקדימו לפניך נעשה לנשמע קראת להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי עכשיו בני ולא בניך,ועוד כמה חטאו כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה דל עשרין דלא ענשת עלייהו פשו להו חמשין דל כ"ה דלילותא פשו להו כ"ה דל תרתי סרי ופלגא דצלויי ומיכל ודבית הכסא פשו להו תרתי סרי ופלגא אם אתה סובל את כולם מוטב ואם לאו פלגא עלי ופלגא עליך ואת"ל כולם עלי הא קריבית נפשי קמך פתחו ואמרו (כי) אתה אבינו אמר להם יצחק עד שאתם מקלסין לי קלסו להקב"ה ומחוי להו יצחק הקב"ה בעינייהו מיד נשאו עיניהם למרום ואומרים (ישעיה סג, טז) אתה ה' אבינו גואלנו מעולם שמך,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן ראוי היה יעקב אבינו לירד למצרים בשלשלאות של ברזל אלא שזכותו גרמה לו דכתיב (הושע יא, ד) בחבלי אדם אמשכם בעבותות אהבה ואהיה להם כמרימי עול על לחיהם ואט אליו אוכיל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוציא עצים כדי לבשל ביצה קלה תבלין כדי לתבל ביצה קלה ומצטרפין זה עם זה קליפי אגוזין קליפי רמונים איסטיס ופואה כדי לצבוע בהן בגד קטן פי סבכה מי רגלים נתר ובורית קמוליא ואשלג כדי לכבס בגד קטן פי סבכה רבי יהודה אומר כדי להעביר את הכתם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנינא חדא זימנא קנה כדי לעשות קולמוס אם היה עב או מרוסס כדי לבשל ביצה קלה שבביצים טרופה ונתונה באילפס מהו דתימא התם הוא דלא חזי למידי אבל עצים דחזו לככא דאקלידא אפילו כל שהוא קמ"ל:,תבלין כדי לתבל ביצה קלה: ורמינהו תבלין שנים וג' שמות ממין אחד או משלשה מינין (ושם אחד) אסורין ומצטרפין זה עם זה ואמר חזקיה 89b. because bthe Jewish people were fruitful[iparu/b] band multiplied in it; the Sinai Desert,because bhatred descended upon the nations of the world on it,on the mountain on which the Jewish people received the Torah. bAnd what isthe mountain’s true bname? Horeb is its name. Andthat bdisputesthe opinion of bRabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu said: Mount Sinai is its name. And why is it called Mount Horeb?It is because bdestruction [ iḥurba /i] of the nations of the world descended upon it. /b,We learned in the mishna: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one ties a scarlet stripof wool to the scapegoat? As it says: “If your sins be like scarlet [ ikashanim /i], they will become white like snow” (Isaiah 1:18). The Gemara wonders at this: Why does the verse use the plural form: iKashanim /i? It should haveused the singular form: iKashani /i. Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people:Even bif your sins areas numerous bas those years [ ikashanim /i] that have proceeded continuously from the six days of Creation until now, they will become white like snow. Rava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Go please and let us reason together, the Lord will say”(Isaiah 1:18)? Why does the verse say: bGo please? It should havesaid: bCome please.And why does the verse say: bThe Lord will say?The prophet’s message is based on something that God already said. Therefore, the verse bshould havesaid: bGod said.Rather, the explanation of this verse is that bin the futurethat will surely bcome, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to the Jewish people: Go please to your Patriarchs, and they will rebuke you. /b, bAndthe Jewish people bwill say before Him: Master of the Universe, to whom shall we go?Shall we go bto Abraham, to whom You said: “Know certainlythat your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf?Or perhaps we should go bto Isaac, who blessed Esauand said: b“And it shall come to pass when you shall break loose,that you shall shake his yoke from off your neck” (Genesis 27:40), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf.Or perhaps we should go bto Jacob, to whom You said: “I will go down to Egypt with you”(Genesis 46:4), band he did not ask for mercy on our behalf.And if so, bto whom shall we go?Shall we go to our Patriarchs, who do not have mercy on us? Rather, bnow GodHimself bsayswhat punishment we deserve. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Since you made yourselves dependent on Me, “If your sins be like scarlet, they will become white like snow.” /b,Apropos the Jewish people assessing their forefathers, the Gemara cites a related teaching. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You are our Father; for Abraham knows us not, and Israel does not acknowledge us; You, Lord, are our Father, our Redeemer, everlasting is Your name”(Isaiah 63:16). bIn the futurethat will surely bcome, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to Abraham: Your children have sinned against Me.Abraham will bsay before Him: Master of the Universe,if so, blet them be eradicated to sanctify Your name.God bsaid: I will say it to Jacob.Since he experienced bthe pain of raising children,perhaps bhe will ask for mercy on their behalf.He bsaid toJacob: bYour children have sinned.Jacob bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,if so, blet them be eradicated to sanctify Your name.The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid: There is no reason in elders and no wisdom in youth.Neither Abraham nor Jacob knew how to respond properly. He bsaid to Isaac: Your children have sinned against Me.Isaac bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,are they bmy children and not Your children? AtSinai, bwhen they accorded precedence to “We will do” over “We will listen” before You,didn’t You bcall them, “My son, My firstborn sonIsrael” (Exodus 4:22)? bNowthat they have sinned, are they bmy children and not Your children? /b, bAnd furthermore, how much did theyactually bsin? How long is a person’s life? Seventy years. Subtractthe first btwentyyears of his life. One bis not punished forsins committed then, as in heavenly matters, a person is only punished from age twenty. bFiftyyears bremain for them. Subtract twenty-fiveyears bof nights,and btwenty-fiveyears bremain for them. Subtract twelve and a halfyears during which bone prays and eats anduses bthe bathroom,and btwelve and a halfyears bremain for them. If Youcan bendure them alland forgive the sins committed during those years, bexcellent. And if not, halfof the sins are bupon meto bear band half upon You. And if You saythat ball of them,the sins of all twelve and a half years that remain, are bupon me, I sacrificed my soul before Youand You should forgive them due to my merit. The Jewish people bbegan to sayto Isaac: bYou are our father.Only Isaac defended the Jewish people as a father would and displayed compassion toward his children. bIsaac said to them: Before you praise me, praise the Holy One, Blessed be He. And Isaac points to the Holy One, Blessed be He, before their eyes. Immediately they lifted their eyes to the heavens and say: “You, Lord, are our Father, our Redeemer, everlasting is Your name.” /b,And since the Gemara mentioned Jacob’s descent to Egypt, the Gemara cites that which bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Our father Jacob should have gone down to Egypt in iron chainsas would an exile against his will, as decreed by God and related to Abraham. bHowever, his merit caused himto descend without suffering, bas it is written: “I drew them with cords of man, with bands of love, and I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, and I fed them gently”(Hosea 11:4)., strongMISHNA: /strong After an extended digression for a discussion of matters unrelated to the ihalakhotof Shabbat, this mishna resumes treatment of the ihalakhotof carrying from domain to domain on Shabbat. bOne who carries out woodon Shabbat is liable for a measure bequivalentto the amount of wood necessary bto cook an easilycooked begg.The measure that determines liability for carrying out bspicesis bequivalentto that which is used bto season an easilycooked begg. Andall types of spices bjoin together with one anotherto constitute the measure for liability. The measure that determines liability for carrying out bnutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower, and madder,which are used to produce dyes, is bequivalentto the amount that is used bto dye a small garmentplaced batop awoman’s bhairnet.The measure that determines liability for carrying out burine, natron, and iborit /i, cimolian earth [ iKimoleya /i], and potash,all of which are abrasive materials used for laundry, is bequivalentto the amount that is used bto launder a small garmentplaced batop awoman’s bhairnet. And Rabbi Yehuda says:The measure that determines liability for these materials is bequivalentto that which is used bto remove a stain. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the measure of wood, the Gemara asks: Didn’t bwealready blearn it once?As we learned in a mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out ba reedis bequivalentto that which is used bto make a quill. And ifthe reed bwas thickand unfit for writing, borif it was bfragmented,the measure that determines its liability is bequivalentto that which is used bto cook an egg most easilycooked, one that is already bbeaten and placed in a stew pot.The measure of firewood is clearly delineated. The Gemara answers: Still, this mishna is necessary. bYou might have said: There,the measure of the crushed reed reflects the fact that bit is not suitable for anythingother than kindling. bHowever,regarding bwood that is suitable tobe used bas a tooth of a key [ iaklida /i],the measure that determines its liability should be beven anysmall bamount.Therefore, bit teaches usthat wood is typically designated for burning, and that determines the measure for liability for carrying out wood on Shabbat.,We learned in the mishna that all types of bspicesjoin together with one another to constitute the measure bequivalentto that which is used bto season an easilycooked begg. TheGemara braises a contradictionfrom that which we learned elsewhere: bSpices,which are prohibited due to btwo or threedifferent bprohibitions,e.g., one is prohibited due to iorla /i, and one due to the prohibition of untithed produce, and they were all bof a single species( iTosafot /i), borif they were bof threedifferent bspecies, are prohibited, and they join together with each otherto constitute a complete measure. bAnd Ḥizkiya said: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
abin r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
abraham Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
abun r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
akibah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
anan ben david Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
aqiva r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
barak Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
blind Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
candlestick (see also menorah) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
chariot (see also merkavah), suns Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
david, house of Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
deaf Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
deborah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
enemy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
fetha naghast Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
god, angel of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
god, faith in Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
hanania b. yitzhaq r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
helios (see also sol invictus) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228, 229
herner, s. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
ibn ezra, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
incense Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
infertility Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
inheritance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
jacob (patriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
justa bar shonem r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
karaites Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
kumisi, daniel al- Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
law, talmudic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
levi r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
maharsha (rabbi solomon eidels) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
menahem r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
nathan r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
naḥmanides Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
offspring Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
pharaoh Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
philo Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
rab (third century rabbi) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
rav papa, real estate, sale of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
rebekka (matriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
righteous Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
sabbath Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228
sarah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
sarah (matriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
segal, e. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
semi-proselytes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
seven species Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228, 229
son Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
sun, worship Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228, 229
temple, cult, jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
torah' Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 201
torah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228, 229
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
walfish, b. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
wine, grape juice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
witnesses, age of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 69
yannai r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yefeh anaf (by rabbi samuel jaffe) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136
yehudah ha-nasi/ rabbi judah i Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 228, 229
yishmael r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
yohanan r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
zodiac Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 229
ḥisda Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 136