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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 47.8
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1. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71b. מעת לעת,והתני לודאה יום הבראתו כיום הולדו מאי לאו מה יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת אף יום הבראתו לא בעינן מעת לעת,לא עדיף יום הבראתו מיום הולדו דאילו יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת ואילו יום הבראתו בעינן מעת לעת,רב פפא אמר כגון דכאיב ליה עיניה לינוקא ואיתפח ביני וביני,רבא אמר כגון שהיו אביו ואמו חבושין בבית האסורין,רב כהנא בריה דרב נחמיה אמר כגון טומטום שנקרע ונמצא זכר ביני וביני,רב שרביא אמר כגון שהוציא ראשו חוץ לפרוזדור,ומי חיי והתניא כיון שיצא לאויר העולם נפתח הסתום ונסתם הפתוח שאלמלא כן אין יכול לחיות אפילו שעה אחת,הכא במאי עסקינן כגון דזנתיה אישתא אישתא דמאן אילימא אישתא דידיה אי הכי כל שבעה בעי אלא דזנתיה אישתא דאימיה ואיבעית אימא ה"מ היכא דלא מעוי אבל היכא דמעוי מחייא חיי,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי בנאה ערל מקבל הזאה שכן מצינו באבותינו שקבלו הזאה כשהן ערלים שנאמר (יהושע ד, יט) והעם עלו מן הירדן בעשור לחדש הראשון,בעשרה לא מהילי משום חולשא דאורחא הזאה אימת עביד להו לאו כשהן ערלים,ודלמא לא עבוד פסח כלל לא ס"ד דכתיב (יהושע ה, י) ויעשו את הפסח,מתקיף לה מר זוטרא ודלמא פסח הבא בטומאה היה א"ל רב אשי תניא בהדיא מלו וטבלו ועשו פסחיהן בטהרה,אמר רבה בר יצחק אמר רב לא ניתנה פריעת מילה לאברהם אבינו שנאמר (יהושע ה, ב) בעת ההיא אמר ה' אל יהושע עשה לך חרבות צורים וגו',ודלמא הנך דלא מהול דכתיב (יהושע ה, ה) כי מולים היו כל העם היוצאים וכל העם הילודים וגו',א"כ מאי שוב אלא לאו לפריעה ומאי שנית,לאקושי סוף מילה לתחלת מילה מה תחלת מילה מעכבת אף סוף מילה מעכבין בו דתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין את המילה בשר החופה את [רוב] העטרה ואין אוכל בתרומה,אמר רבינא ואיתימא רב ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה את רוב גובהה של עטרה,ובמדבר מאי טעמא לא מהול איבעית אימא משום חולשא דאורחא 71b. that during the recovery period one must wait bfromthe btimethe seven days began btothe exact same btimeseven days later, i.e., seven complete twenty-four-hour periods. Therefore, if the child recovered in the afternoon of a particular day, one is required to wait until that same time of day a week later, and only then is he circumcised.,The Gemara asks: bDidn’tthe Sage bfrom Lod teachthat bthe day of his healing is like the day of his birth? What, is it notthat bjust aswith regard to bthe day of his birth we need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, bso too,with regard to bthe day of his healing we need notwait bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later?,The Gemara refutes this argument: bNo, the day of his healing is superior to the day of his birth: Whilefrom bthe day of his birthuntil circumcision bwe need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, i.e., the child may be circumcised already at the start of the eighth day, from bthe day of his healing we needto wait seven complete days bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later.,The Gemara suggests other circumstances where a male child may be present at the time of the eating of the Paschal lamb but absent at the time of its preparation. bRav Pappa said:This would take place, bfor example, if the baby’s eye hurt himon the eighth day following his birth, which occurred on the eve of Passover, band he recovered in the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating. In the case of a minor ailment such as eye pain, circumcision is not performed as long as the pain persists, but it may be performed as soon as the child has recovered, without first waiting seven days., bRava said:This would occur, bfor example, ifthe infant’s bfather and mother were incarcerated in a prisonat the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb, and they slaughtered their offering by way of an agent, and there was no one available to circumcise the infant, and the parents were released from prison before the time for eating the Paschal lamb arrived., bRav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥemya, said:This would occur, bfor example,if the infant was ba itumtum /i,one whose external sexual organs are indeterminate and it is unclear whether the infant is male or female, and bin the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, bhe was tornopen, his gender was revealed, band he was foundto be ba male,so that the obligation to circumcise him went into effect., bRav Sherevya said:This would occur, bfor example, ifseven days earlier the baby had already bextended his head,but not the rest of his body, bout of the corridorto his mother’s womb. In such a situation he is considered born, but he is fit for circumcision only after his entire body has emerged. If this occurs between the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, the child’s father may not eat of the offering until he has circumcised his son.,The Gemara poses a question: bButin a case such as this, bcanthe child blivefor such a long period with only his head outside? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOncea baby bemerges into the air of the world,that which had been bclosed,the mouth and nostrils, bopen, andthat which had been bopen,the umbilical cord, from which the child had previously received its sustece, bcloses, as, if thisdid bnotoccur bit could not live for even an hour,as it has no other way to receive nutrition. If so, this child whose head alone emerged from his mother’s womb would certainly starve, as it cannot take in any sustece.,The Gemara answers: bWith whatcase bare we dealing here?It is, bfor example,a case bwhere he was sustained bythe heat of ba feverand therefore did not need to eat. The Gemara asks: bWhose fever? If we sayit is bhis own fever,i.e., the baby himself had a fever, bif so,it should be bnecessaryto wait ba full sevendays after his entire body exits the womb before he can be circumcised, in accordance with the ihalakhagoverning an infant who was ill. bRather,it must be bthat he was sustained by his mother’s fever. And if you wish, saythat bthisprinciple that a child cannot survive in such conditions bapplies only when he does not cry, but when he cries hecan blive,as his crying indicates that he has already started to breathe.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Bena’a: An uncircumcisedman bmay receivethe bsprinklingof the water mixed with the ashes of a red heifer in order to purify himself from ritual impurity imparted by a human corpse, as we do not say that this sprinkling is ineffective as long as he is uncircumcised. bAs we found that our forefathers receivedthe bsprinkling when they were uncircumcised, as it is stated: “And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month”(Joshua 4:19), and the verses go on to relate that the men were all later circumcised before sacrificing the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth (see Joshua 5:10).,The Gemara clarifies: bOn the tenthday itself bthey did not circumcisethemselves bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey. When,then, bwasthe bsprinkling done to themin order to remove the ritual impurity resulting from contact with a corpse, so that they would be fit to bring the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth? The first sprinkling must have taken place no later than the tenth, as there is a four-day waiting period between the first and second sprinklings. In that case, bwasn’tthe initial sprinkling performed bwhen they werestill buncircumcised?This proves that an one who is uncircumcised may receive the sprinkling of the purification waters.,The Gemara counters: bBut perhaps they did not sacrificethe bPaschal lamb at all.The Gemara answers: bThis cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And they kept the Passover”(Joshua 5:10), meaning they brought the Paschal lamb., bMar Zutra strongly objects to this: But perhaps it was a Paschal lamb that comes ina state of bimpurity?If the majority of the community is ritually impure due to contact with a corpse, they may all sacrifice their Paschal lambs even though they are ritually impure, and there is no need for any sprinkling. bRav Ashi said to him: It is taught explicitlyin a ibaraitathat bthey circumcisedthemselves, bimmersedin a ritual bath, band performedthe ritual of btheir Paschal lambs ina state of bpurity. /b, bRabba bar Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said: Themitzva of buncoveringthe corona during bcircumcision was not given to our Patriarch Abraham.The command given to Avraham included only the mitzva of circumcision itself, i.e., the removal of the foreskin, but not the uncovering of the corona, i.e., the folding back of the thin membrane that lies under the foreskin. bAs it is stated: “At that time the Lord said to Joshua: Make yourself knives of flint,and circumcise again the children of Israel a second time” (Joshua 5:2). Why was it necessary to circumcise them? Apparently, it is because before the Torah was given on Mount Sinai, some of them had been circumcised in the manner of Abraham, without uncovering the corona, and therefore they needed to be circumcised a second time in accordance with the Torah law that requires uncovering the corona.,The Gemara asks: How may it be inferred that those who were already circumcised required a second circumcision? bPerhapsthe verse is referring to bthose who had not been circumcised at all, as it is written: “For all the people who came out were circumcised; but all the people who were bornin the wilderness…had not been circumcised” (Joshua 5:5)?,The Gemara responds: bIf so,that it was only those who had never been circumcised who required circumcision, bwhat isthe meaning of “circumcise bagain,”which indicates that they had to be circumcised a second time? bRather, is it notreferring bto uncoveringthe corona? bAnd what isthe meaning of b“a second time,”stated in the same verse? This phrase appears redundant, as the verse already stated: “Circumcise again.”,The Gemara explains: It comes bto equate the end of circumcision,when it is necessary to circumcise a second time in order to correct an improperly performed circumcision, bwith the beginning of circumcision: Just asan incomplete performance at bthe beginning of circumcision invalidatesthe circumcision, bso too,incomplete performance at bthe end of circumcision,i.e., the foreskin not being fully removed, binvalidatesthe circumcision. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat137a): bThese are the shredsof flesh bthat invalidate the circumcisionif they are not cut. The essential element of circumcision is the removal of bthe flesh that covers most of the corona,and a child who was not circumcised in this manner is considered uncircumcised, band he does not partake of iteruma /i. /b,With regard to this issue bRavina said, and some sayit was bRav Yirmeya bar Abbawho said that bRav said:When the mishna mentioned most of the corona, it meant bthe flesh that covers most of the height of the coronaas well as most of its circumference.,The Gemara returns to the incident involving Joshua. bAnd what is the reasonthat bthey did not circumcisethemselves bin the wildernessafter the Torah had already been given? The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, sayit was bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey.Since they were traveling continuously, they were too weak to undergo circumcision.
2. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 2.6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
change, in custom and halakhah Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
circumcision, adults as requiring milah but not periah Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 499
circumcision, surgery of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 499
circumcision Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
circumcision , periah (drawing down of the prepuce) Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
death and mourning Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
method, methodology, exegetical Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
milah Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 499
periah' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 499
rav Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59
time, change over Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 59