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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.12
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20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 11.26-11.28, 12.2, 12.7, 13.17, 15.1-15.2, 15.5, 20.2-20.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.26. וַיְחִי־תֶרַח שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן׃ 11.27. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח תֶּרַח הוֹלִיד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן וְהָרָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־לוֹט׃ 11.28. וַיָּמָת הָרָן עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתּוֹ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 13.17. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃ 15.2. וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃ 15.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃ 15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 20.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וַיִּשְׁלַח אֲבִימֶלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ גְּרָר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שָׂרָה׃ 20.3. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הִנְּךָ מֵת עַל־הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר־לָקַחְתָּ וְהִוא בְּעֻלַת בָּעַל׃ 20.4. וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לֹא קָרַב אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי הֲגוֹי גַּם־צַדִּיק תַּהֲרֹג׃ 20.5. הֲלֹא הוּא אָמַר־לִי אֲחֹתִי הִוא וְהִיא־גַם־הִוא אָמְרָה אָחִי הוּא בְּתָם־לְבָבִי וּבְנִקְיֹן כַּפַּי עָשִׂיתִי זֹאת׃ 20.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאֱלֹהִים בַּחֲלֹם גַּם אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי בְתָם־לְבָבְךָ עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת וָאֶחְשֹׂךְ גַּם־אָנֹכִי אוֹתְךָ מֵחֲטוֹ־לִי עַל־כֵּן לֹא־נְתַתִּיךָ לִנְגֹּעַ אֵלֶיהָ׃ 20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 20.8. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקְרָא לְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם וַיִּירְאוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים מְאֹד׃ 20.9. וַיִּקְרָא אֲבִימֶלֶךְ לְאַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֶה־עָשִׂיתָ לָּנוּ וּמֶה־חָטָאתִי לָךְ כִּי־הֵבֵאתָ עָלַי וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתִּי חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה מַעֲשִׂים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵעָשׂוּ עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי׃ 20.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם כִּי אָמַרְתִּי רַק אֵין־יִרְאַת אֱלֹהִים בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַהֲרָגוּנִי עַל־דְּבַר אִשְׁתִּי׃ 20.12. וְגַם־אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת־אָבִי הִוא אַךְ לֹא בַת־אִמִּי וַתְּהִי־לִי לְאִשָּׁה׃ 20.13. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִתְעוּ אֹתִי אֱלֹהִים מִבֵּית אָבִי וָאֹמַר לָהּ זֶה חַסְדֵּךְ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשִׂי עִמָּדִי אֶל כָּל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר נָבוֹא שָׁמָּה אִמְרִי־לִי אָחִי הוּא׃ 20.14. וַיִּקַּח אֲבִימֶלֶךְ צֹאן וּבָקָר וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַיִּתֵּן לְאַבְרָהָם וַיָּשֶׁב לוֹ אֵת שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 20.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲבִימֶלֶךְ הִנֵּה אַרְצִי לְפָנֶיךָ בַּטּוֹב בְּעֵינֶיךָ שֵׁב׃ 20.16. וּלְשָׂרָה אָמַר הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי אֶלֶף כֶּסֶף לְאָחִיךְ הִנֵּה הוּא־לָךְ כְּסוּת עֵינַיִם לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אִתָּךְ וְאֵת כֹּל וְנֹכָחַת׃ 20.17. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אַבְרָהָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּרְפָּא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאַמְהֹתָיו וַיֵּלֵדוּ׃ 20.18. כִּי־עָצֹר עָצַר יְהוָה בְּעַד כָּל־רֶחֶם לְבֵית אֲבִימֶלֶךְ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרָה אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָהָם׃ 11.26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran." 11.27. Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot." 11.28. And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 13.17. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.’" 15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’" 15.2. And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’" 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 20.2. And Abraham said of Sarah his wife: ‘She is my sister.’ And Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah." 20.3. But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and said to him: ‘Behold, thou shalt die, because of the woman whom thou hast taken; for she is a man’s wife.’" 20.4. Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said: ‘Lord, wilt Thou slay even a righteous nation?" 20.5. Said he not himself unto me: She is my sister? and she, even she herself said: He is my brother. In the simplicity of my heart and the innocency of my hands have I done this.’" 20.6. And God said unto him in the dream: ‘Yea, I know that in the simplicity of thy heart thou hast done this, and I also withheld thee from sinning against Me. Therefore suffered I thee not to touch her." 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’" 20.8. And Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears; and the men were sore afraid." 20.9. Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him: ‘What hast thou done unto us? and wherein have I sinned against thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done.’" 20.10. And Abimelech said unto Abraham: ‘What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?’" 20.11. And Abraham said: ‘Because I thought: Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife’s sake." 20.12. And moreover she is indeed my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and so she became my wife." 20.13. And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father’s house, that I said unto her: This is thy kindness which thou shalt show unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me: He is my brother.’" 20.14. And Abimelech took sheep and oxen, and men-servants and women-servants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife." 20.15. And Abimelech said: ‘Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee.’" 20.16. And unto Sarah he said: ‘Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver; behold, it is for thee a covering of the eyes to all that are with thee; and before all men thou art righted.’" 20.17. And Abraham prayed unto God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid-servants; and they bore children." 20.18. For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham’s wife."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 103.12, 103.15, 103.17-103.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

103.12. כִּרְחֹק מִזְרָח מִמַּעֲרָב הִרְחִיק מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־פְּשָׁעֵינוּ׃ 103.17. וְחֶסֶד יְהוָה מֵעוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם עַל־יְרֵאָיו וְצִדְקָתוֹ לִבְנֵי בָנִים׃ 103.18. לְשֹׁמְרֵי בְרִיתוֹ וּלְזֹכְרֵי פִקֻּדָיו לַעֲשׂוֹתָם׃ 103.12. As far as the east is from the west, So far hath He removed our transgressions from us." 103.17. But the mercy of the LORD is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him, And His righteousness unto children's children;" 103.18. To such as keep His covet, And to those that remember His precepts to do them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.13. טְהוֹר עֵינַיִם מֵרְאוֹת רָע וְהַבִּיט אֶל־עָמָל לֹא תוּכָל לָמָּה תַבִּיט בּוֹגְדִים תַּחֲרִישׁ בְּבַלַּע רָשָׁע צַדִּיק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 1.13. Thou that art of eyes too pure to behold evil, And that canst not look on mischief, Wherefore lookest Thou, when they deal treacherously, And holdest Thy peace, when the wicked swalloweth up The man that is more righteous than he;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל־תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל־תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי־יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה׃ 10.2. אָהֳלִי שֻׁדָּד וְכָל־מֵיתָרַי נִתָּקוּ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי וְאֵינָם אֵין־נֹטֶה עוֹד אָהֳלִי וּמֵקִים יְרִיעוֹתָי׃ 10.2. thus saith the LORD: Learn not the way of the nations, And be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; For the nations are dismayed at them."
5. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

81. Again, she gives Hagar to him, not the first moment that he arrives in the country of the Canaanites, but after he has abode there ten years. And what the meaning of this statement is we must investigate in no careless manner. Now, at the beginning of our existence, our soul dwelt among the passions alone as its fosterbrethren, griefs, pains, fears, desires, and pleasures, which reach it through the medium of the external senses, before reason was as yet able to see good and evil, and to distinguish accurately the points wherein these things differ from one another, but while it was still wavering and hesitating, and as it were closing its eyes in profound sleep;
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 222, 190 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

190. the evident proofs of which you will see even while involved in the corporeal cares perceptible by the outward senses, sometimes while in deep slumber (for then the mind, roaming abroad, and straying beyond the confines of the outward senses, and of all the other affections of the body, begins to associate with itself, looking on truth as at a mirror, and discarding all the imaginations which it has contracted from the outward senses, becomes inspired by the truest divination respecting the future, through the instrumentality of dreams), and at other times in your waking moments.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. Let them run over in their minds the first creation of the universe, when, before the sun or the moon existed, the earth brought forth all kinds of plants and all kinds of fruits: and seeing this in their minds let them hope that it will again also bring forth such, according to the appointment of the Father, when it shall seem good to him, without his having need of the aid of any of the sons of men beneath the heavens, to whom he has given powers, though not absolute ones." For as a charioteer holding the reigns or a helmsman with his hand upon the rudder, he guides everything as he pleases, in accordance with law and justice, needing no one else as his assistant; for all things are possible to God. XV.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 38, 41-42, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. What is it then that the gravest philosophers, who have talked in the most grandiloquent manner about divine law and the honour due to God, have determined both to say and to allow to be said, If ye have in ye a mind which is equal to God, which regulating by its own power all the good and bad things which exist among men, occasionally mingles both in certain persons, and sometimes distributes both good and bad to some in an unalloyed state;
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 78, 69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

69. But Pharaoh, the squanderer of all things, not being able himself to receive the conception of virtues unconnected with time, inasmuch as he was mutilated as to the eyes of his soul, by which alone incorporeal natures are comprehended, would not endure to be benefited by virtues unconnected with time; but being weighed down by soulless opinions, I mean here by the frogs, animals which utter a sound and noise wholly void and destitute of reality, when Moses says, "appoint a time to me when I may pray for you and for your servants that God will make the frogs to Disappear," though he ought, as he was in very imminent necessity, to have said, Pray this moment, nevertheless postponed it, saying, "Pray to-morrow," in order that he might in every case preserve the folly of his impiety.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.80, 1.165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.80. which, after it has arisen, arouses as if from sleep the senses of seeing, and of hearing, and also of taste, and of touch, and of smell, and sends to sleep the intellectual qualities of prudence, and justice, and knowledge, and wisdom, which were all awake. 1.165. It is becoming then for you to act thus; but as for ye, O souls, who have once tasted of divine love, as if you had even awakened from deep sleep, dissipate the mist that is before you; and hasten forward to that beautiful spectacle, putting aside slow and hesitating fear, in order to comprehend all the beautiful sounds and sights which the president of the games has prepared for your advantage. XXVII.
12. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.223-3.224 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. But some say that the proper name of the man who found him wandering in the plain is not mentioned, and they themselves are in some degree mistaken here, because they are unable clearly to discover the true way of this business, for if they had not been mutilated as to the eye of the soul, they would have known that of one who is truly a man, the most proper, and appropriate, and felicitous name is this very name of man, being the most appropriate appelation of a well regulated and rational mind.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.155-1.156, 1.158 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.155. for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, That there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that, as to other [gods], if they contributed any thing to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power. 1.156. This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun, and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus:—“If [said he] these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them, to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving.” 1.158. 2. Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says thus: “In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man righteous and great, and skillful in the celestial science.”
15. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.1, 41.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.1. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וגו' (בראשית יב, א), רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (תהלים מה, יא): שִׁמְעִי בַת וּרְאִי וְהַטִּי אָזְנֵךְ וְשִׁכְחִי עַמֵּךְ וּבֵית אָבִיךְ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, וְרָאָה בִּירָה אַחַת דּוֹלֶקֶת, אָמַר תֹּאמַר שֶׁהַבִּירָה הַזּוֹ בְּלֹא מַנְהִיג, הֵצִיץ עָלָיו בַּעַל הַבִּירָה, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי הוּא בַּעַל הַבִּירָה. כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם אוֹמֵר תֹּאמַר שֶׁהָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּלֹא מַנְהִיג, הֵצִיץ עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי הוּא בַּעַל הָעוֹלָם. (תהלים מה, יב): וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ כִּי הוּא אֲדֹנַיִךְ. וְיִתְאָו הַמֶּלֶךְ יָפְיֵךְ, לְיַפּוֹתֵךְ בָּעוֹלָם, (תהלים מה, יב): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִי לוֹ, הֱוֵי וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם. 39.1. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְנָפְלָה מַרְגָּלִית מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ, עָמַד הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהֶעֱמִיד פַּמַּלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ שָׁם וְעָשָׂה צִבּוּרִים וְהֵבִיא מִכְבָּרוֹת וְכָבַר אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְלֹא מָצָא, הַשֵּׁנִי וְלֹא מָצָא, וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁית מְצָאָהּ, אָמְרוּ מָצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ מַרְגָּלִית שֶׁלּוֹ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מַה צֹּרֶךְ הָיָה לִי לְיַחֵס שֵׁם, אַרְפַּכְשַׁד, שֶׁלַח, עֵבֶר, פֶּלֶג, רְעוּ, שְׂרוּג, נָחוֹר, תֶּרַח, אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִילָךְ, (נחמיה ט, ח): וּמָצָאתָ אֶת לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד, מַה צֹּרֶךְ הָיָה לִי לְיַחֵס פֶּרֶץ, חֶצְרוֹן, רָם, עַמִּינָדָב, נַחְשׁוֹן, שַׂלְמוֹן, בֹּעַז, עוֹבֵד, יִשַּׁי, דָּוִד, לֹא בִּשְׁבִילָךְ, (תהלים פט, כא): מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו. 41.1. וַיְנַגַּע ה' אֶת פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וגו' (בראשית יב, יז), כְּתִיב (תהלים צב, יג): צַדִּיק כַּתָּמָר יִפְרָח, מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ וְאֶרֶז אֵין בָּהֶם לֹא עִקּוּמִים וְלֹא סִיקוּסִים, כָּךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים אֵין בָּהֶם לֹא עִקּוּמִים וְלֹא סִיקוּסִים. מָה הַתְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז צִלָּן רָחוֹק, כָּךְ מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים רָחוֹק. מָה הַתְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז לִבָּן מְכֻוָּן לְמַעְלָן, כָּךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים לִבָּן מְכֻוָּן לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כה, טו): עֵינַי תָּמִיד אֶל ה' כִּי הוּא יוֹצִיא מֵרֶשֶׁת רַגְלָי. מַה תְּמָרָה וְאֶרֶז יֵשׁ לָהֶן תַּאֲוָה, אַף צַדִּיקִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן תַּאֲוָה, וּמַה הִיא תַּאֲוָתָן, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (תהלים מ, ב): קַוֹּה קִוִּיתִי ה'. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מַעֲשֶׂה בִּתְמָרָה אַחַת שֶׁהָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת בְּחַמְתָן וְלֹא הָיְתָה עוֹשָׂה פֵּרוֹת, עָבַר דִּקְלַי אֶחָד וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ, אָמַר תְּמָרָה זוֹ צוֹפָה מִירִיחוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִרְכִּיבוּ אוֹתָהּ עָשְׂתָה פֵּרוֹת. אִי מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ אֵין עוֹשִׂין מִמֶּנָּה כֵלִים, יָכוֹל אַף הַצַּדִּיקִים כֵּן, אֶתְמְהָא, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר כְּאֶרֶז. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא תַּמָּן עָבְדִין מִינֵיהּ מָאנִין. אִי מָה הָאֶרֶז אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה פֵּרוֹת, כָּךְ הֵן צַדִּיקִים, אֶתְמְהָא, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר יִפְרָח. מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ אֵין בָּהּ פְּסֹלֶת, אֶלָּא תְּמָרֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה, וְלוּלָבֶיהָ לְהַלֵּל, חֲרָיוֹת לְסִכּוּךְ, סִיבִים לַחֲבָלִים, סַנְסַנִּים לִכְבָרָה, שִׁפְעַת קוֹרוֹת לְהַקְרוֹת בָּהֶם אֶת הַבַּיִת, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין בָּהֶם פְּסֹלֶת, אֶלָּא מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי מִקְרָא, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי מִשְׁנָה, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי תַּלְמוּד, מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי הַגָּדָה. מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ וְאֶרֶז כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה לְרֹאשָׁן וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּר אֶת עַצְמוֹ הוּא נוֹפֵל וָמֵת, כָּךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, סוֹף שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם. תֵּדַע לְךָ שֶׁכֵּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׂרָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּשָׁכָהּ פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה אַחַת לָקָה הוּא וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ בִּנְגָעִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיְנַגַע ה' אֶת פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וגו'. 41.1. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ (בראשית יג, יז), תָּנֵי הִלֵּךְ בַּשָּׂדֶה בֵּין לְאָרְכָּהּ בֵּין לְרָחְבָּהּ קָנָה עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהִלֵּךְ, כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הִלּוּךְ קָנָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיְהַלֵּךְ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בֶּן זַבְדִּי טַעֲמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ וגו': 39.1. (1) YHVH said to Abram, \"Go you forth from your land…\" … Rabbi Yitzchak said: this may be compared to a man who was traveling from place to place when he saw a bira doleket/castle aglow/lit up (full of light/in flames). He said, \"Is it possible that this castle lacks a person to look after it? The owner of the building looked out and said, “I am the owner of the castle.” Similarly, because Abraham our father said, “Is it possible that this castle has no guide, no one to look after it?,\" the Holy Blessed One looked out and said to him, “I am the Master of the Universe.” … Hence, God said to Avraham, Lech Lecha.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
18. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

156a. רבי יוסי בר' יהודה היא והנ"מ הוא דמשני היכי משני א"ר חסדא על יד על יד,ושוין שבוחשין את השתית בשבת ושותים זיתום המצרי והאמרת אין גובלין ל"ק הא בעבה הא ברכה והני מילי הוא דמשני,היכי משני אמר רב יוסף בחול נותן את החומץ ואח"כ נותן את השתית בשבת נותן את השתית ואח"כ נותן את החומץ לוי בריה דרב הונא בר חייא אשכחיה לגבלא דבי נשיה דקא גביל וספי ליה לתוריה בטש ביה אתא אבוה אשכחיה א"ל הכי אמר אבוה דאמך משמיה דרב ומנו רבי ירמיה בר אבא גובלין ולא מספין ודלא לקיט בלישניה מהלקיטין ליה וה"מ הוא דמשני,היכי משני אמר רב יימר בר שלמיא משמיה דאביי שתי וערב והא לא מערב שפיר אמר רב יהודה מנערו לכלי,כתיב אפינקסיה דזעירי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבי חייא מהו לגבל אמר אסור מהו לפרק אמר מותר אמר רב [מנשיא] חד קמי חד תרי קמי תרי שפיר דמי תלתא קמי תרי אסור רב יוסף אמר קב ואפילו קביים עולא אמר כור ואפילו כוריים,כתיב אפינקסיה דלוי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא בבבל והוה צוח רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא ולית דשמיע ליה ולית חילא בידיה למיסר מדרבי יוסי בר' יהודה,כתיב אפינקסיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי האי מאן דבחד בשבא יהי גבר ולא חדא ביה,מאי [ולא חדא ביה] אילימא ולא חד לטיבו והאמר רב אשי אנא בחד בשבא הואי אלא לאו חדא לבישו והאמר רב אשי אנא ודימי בר קקוזתא הוויין בחד בשבא אנא מלך והוא הוה ריש גנבי אלא אי כולי לטיבו אי כולי לבישו (מאי טעמא דאיברו ביה אור וחושך),האי מאן דבתרי בשבא יהי גבר רגזן מ"ט משום דאיפליגו ביה מיא האי מאן דבתלתא בשבא יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהא מ"ט משום דאיברו ביה עשבים האי מאן דבארבעה בשבא יהי גבר חכים) ונהיר מ"ט משום דאיתלו ביה מאורות,האי מאן דבחמשה בשבא יהי גבר גומל חסדים מ"ט משום דאיברו ביה דגים ועופות האי מאן דבמעלי שבתא יהי גבר חזרן אמר ר"נ בר יצחק חזרן במצות האי מאן דבשבתא יהי בשבתא ימות על דאחילו עלוהי יומא רבא דשבתא אמר רבא בר רב שילא וקדישא רבא יתקרי,אמר להו רבי חנינא פוקו אמרו ליה לבר ליואי לא מזל יום גורם אלא מזל שעה גורם האי מאן דבחמה יהי גבר זיותן יהי אכיל מדיליה ושתי מדיליה ורזוהי גליין אם גניב לא מצלח האי מאן דבכוכב נוגה יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהי מ"ט משום דאיתיליד ביה נורא האי מאן דבכוכב יהי גבר נהיר וחכים משום דספרא דחמה הוא האי מאן דבלבנה יהי גבר סביל מרעין בנאי וסתיר סתיר ובנאי אכיל דלא דיליה ושתי דלא דיליה ורזוהי כסיין אם גנב מצלח האי מאן דבשבתאי יהי גבר מחשבתיה בטלין ואית דאמרי כל דמחשבין עליה בטלין האי מאן דבצדק יהי גבר צדקן אמר ר"נ בר יצחק וצדקן במצות האי מאן דבמאדים יהי גבר אשיד דמא א"ר אשי אי אומנא אי גנבא אי טבחא אי מוהלא אמר רבה אנא במאדים הואי אמר אביי מר נמי עניש וקטיל,איתמר רבי חנינא אומר מזל מחכים מזל מעשיר ויש מזל לישראל רבי יוחנן אמר אין מזל לישראל ואזדא רבי יוחנן לטעמיה דא"ר יוחנן מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה הם יחתו ולא ישראל,ואף רב סבר אין מזל לישראל דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר (בראשית טו, ה) ויוצא אותו החוצה אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (בראשית טו, ג) בן ביתי יורש אותי אמר לו לאו (בראשית טו, ד) כי אם אשר יצא ממעיך,אמר לפניו רבש"ע נסתכלתי באיצטגנינות שלי ואיני ראוי להוליד בן אמר ליה צא מאיצטגנינות שלך שאין מזל לישראל מאי דעתיך 156a. bIt isthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda. And thisleniency bapplies onlyin a case bwhere one altersthe way that he kneads. The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he kneads? bRav Ḥisda said:One does not knead the dough all at once but rather ba little bit at a time. /b,It was also taught: bAnd they agree that one may mix the ishatit /i,roasted barley to which honey is added, bon Shabbat, and drink Egyptian beer,as it is not considered to be for medicinal purposes. The Gemara asks: bDidn’t you say: One may not knead?That contradicts the statement that they agree that it is permitted to stir the ishatit /i. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as there is a distinction between the cases. bThisdispute with regard to ishatitis referring btomixing a bthickmixture, which is similar to kneading. However, bthatstatement where they agree that mixing is permitted is referring btoa bsoft,thin mixture that cannot be kneaded. bAndall of bthesestatements are referring to a case bwhere one altersthe way he kneads or stirs.,The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he performs these actions? bRav Yosef said:On a bweekday onefirst bplaces the vinegarin a vessel band then places the ishatit /i. On Shabbat onefirst bplaces the ishatitand then places the vinegar.The Gemara relates that bLevi, son of Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya, found the one who kneads in his parents’ home kneadingbran on Shabbat band feeding it to his ox. He kicked himso that he would stop. When bhis father cameand bfound him,he bsaid to him: Thisis what byour mother’s father said in the name of Rav.The Gemara interjects: bAnd who ishis mother’s father? It is bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba,who said: bOne may knead but not feedanimals, banda calf bthat does not takethe food bwith its tongue may be fedon Shabbat. bAnd this appliesonly bwhen one altersthe manner in which he does so.,The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he does so? bRav Yeimar bar Shelamya said in the name of Abaye:One moves the ladle or stirring utensil in the directions of bwarp and woof.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit the case that bit will not mix well,so what is the point of stirring it that way? bRav Yehuda said:It means that bone pours it intoanother bvesseland in the process it is mixed., bIt was written in Ze’eiri’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, andthe Gemara asks: bAnd who ishis rabbi? It is bRabbi Ḥiyya.And Ze’eiri said before him: bWhat isthe ruling? Is it permitted bto kneadon Shabbat? bHe said:It is bprohibited. What isthe ruling with regard to bemptyingfood from a vessel before one animal to place it before another animal? bHe said:It is bpermitted. Rav Menashya said:Placing bonetrough bbefore oneanimal or btwotroughs bbefore twoanimals, one may bwelldo so. Placing bthreetroughs bbefore twoanimals bis prohibited,because it is considered to be superfluous labor as he is bringing the animals more food than they need. bRav Yosef said:It is permitted to add ba ikav /iof additional food bor even two ikav /i. Ulla said:One may add ba ikoror even two ikor /iand there is no need for concern., bIt was written in Levi’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, andthe Gemara asks: bAnd who ishis rabbi? It is bour holy Rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Levi spoke baboutthe fact that bpeople would knead ishatitin Babylonia, and my rabbi, and who is it, our holy Rabbi, criedin protest over the fact that bpeople would knead ishatit /i. Andthere was bno one who listened to him, and he did not have the power to prohibitit bdue tothe people’s reliance on the opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,who permitted doing so.,After citing relevant ihalakhotwritten in the notebooks of various Sages, the Gemara relates that bit was written in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s notebook: One whowas born bon the first day of the week,Sunday, bwill be a person and there will not be one in him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: bThere will not be one in him? If you saythat bthere is not onequality bfor the best,that cannot be, bas Rav Ashi said: I wasborn bon the first day of the week,and one cannot say that there was nothing good about him. bRather,it must mean that bthere is not onequality bfor the worst. Didn’t Rav Ashi say: I and Dimi bar Kakuzta wereboth born bon the first day of the week. Ibecame ba king,the head of a yeshiva, band he became the head ofa gang of bthieves,clearly a negative quality. bRather,one born on a Sunday bis either completely for the best or completely for the worst. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecauseboth blight and darkness were createdon the first day of Creation., bOne who wasborn bon the second day of the week,Monday, bwill be a short-tempered person. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day,the second day of Creation, btheupper and lower bwaters were divided.Therefore, it is a day of contentiousness. br bOne who wasborn bon the third day of the week will be a rich man and a promiscuousperson. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day,the third day, bvegetation was created.It grows abundantly but is also mixed together without boundaries between the grass and the plants. br bOne who wasborn bon the fourth day of the week will be a wise and enlightened person. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause theheavenly blights were hungin the heavens bon that day,and wisdom is likened to light., bOne who wasborn bon the fifth day of the week will be a person who performs acts of kindness. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day the fish and fowl were created,and they do not receive their sustece by performing work for people. They are sustained by the kindness of God alone. br bOne who wasborn bon the sixth day of the week will be a seeker. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat this means that he will be bone who seeks out mitzvot,as most of the activity on Friday involves preparation for Shabbat. br bOne who wasborn bon Shabbat will die on Shabbat, because they desecrated the great day of Shabbat on hisbehalf. bRava bar Rav Sheila said: And he will be called aperson of bgreat sanctitybecause he was born on the sacred day of Shabbat., bRabbi Ḥanina said tohis students who heard all this: bGoand btell the son of Leiva’i,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: bIt is not the constellation of the dayof the week bthat determinesa person’s nature; brather,it is bthe constellation of the hourthat bdetermineshis nature. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bthe sun will be a radiant person; he will eat from his ownresources band drink from his ownresources, band his secrets will be exposed. If he steals he will not succeed,because he will be like the sun that shines and is revealed to all. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bVenus will be a rich and promiscuous person. What is the reasonfor this? bBecause fire was bornduring the hour of Venus, he will be subject the fire of the evil inclination, which burns perpetually. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bMercury will be an enlightened and expert man, becauseMercury bis the sun’s scribe,as it is closest to the sun. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bthe moon will be a man who suffers pains, who builds and destroys, and destroys and builds.He will be a man bwho eats not from his ownresources band drinks not from his ownresources, band whose secrets are hidden. If he steals he will succeed,as he is like the moon that constantly changes form, whose light is not its own, and who is at times exposed and at times hidden. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bSaturn will be a man whose thoughts are for naught. And some saythat beverything thatothers bthink about himand plan to do to him bis for naught. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bJupiter [ itzedek /i] will be a justperson b[ itzadkan /i]. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And justin this context means just binthe performance of bmitzvot. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bMars will be one who spills blood. Rav Ashi said:He will be beither a blood letter, or a thief, or a slaughtererof animals, bor a circumciser. Rabba said: I wasborn bunderthe influence of bMarsand I do not perform any of those activities. bAbaye said: My Master also punishes and killsas a judge., bIt was statedthat bRabbi Ḥanina says: A constellation makes one wiseand ba constellation makes one wealthy, and there is a constellation for the Jewish peoplethat influences them. bRabbi Yoḥa said: There is no constellation for the Jewish peoplethat influences them. The Jewish people are not subject to the influence of astrology. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa follows hisown breasoning,as bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived bthat there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayedby them, bbut not the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rav also holdsthat bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: From whereis it derived bthat there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is statedwith regard to Abraham: b“And He brought him outside,and said: Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if you are able to count them; and He said unto him: So shall your offspring be” (Genesis 15:5). The Sages derived from this that bAbraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,“Behold, You have given me no offspring, and bone born in my house is to be my heir”(Genesis 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: No.“And, behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying: This man shall not be your heir; brather, one that will come forth from your own innards shall be your heir”(Genesis 15:4).,Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my astrologicalmap, bandaccording to the configuration of my constellations bI am not fit to have a son.The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Emerge from your astrology,as the verse states: “And He brought him outside,” bas there is no constellation for Israel. What is your thinking? /b
19. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.3-9.17.4, 9.18.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Artapanus, Apud Eusebius, 9.18.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abaye Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
abraham Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
ahriman Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
aramaic Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
ashi, rav Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
astrology, babylonian rabbinic attitudes toward Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
astrology, prohibition of, in some rabbinic traditions Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
astrology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
blessing Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
blood Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
chaldaeans Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 357, 358
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with, charioteer, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
circumcision Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
covenant Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
cross Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
decree Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 357, 358
determinism Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 357
egypt Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
elder, meaning of designation Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 127
eleazar b. pedat, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
elect/election Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
eliezer Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
evil, spirit Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
external goods, the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
fate Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
free will Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
god, as charioteer of the cosmos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
gods Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
gray, alyssa Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
hands Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 358
heaven Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
hebrew Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
isaac Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
kedushah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 358
mazal (mazla), and the rabbinic expression israel has no mazal, Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
melchizedek Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
middle persian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
migrations of abraham, as spiritual Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
money Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
munch, edvard Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 357
myth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
ohrmazd Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293, 299
orality, pagan Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
patriarch Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
piyut Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 357, 358
poor Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
power Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 358
promise Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
prophets, biblical Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
r. yohanan Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
rabbis, babylonian, connections with east Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
rav Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
rava Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
relative, father Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299
relative, mother-in-law Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 293
righteous/ness Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
shem' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 166
soul, the eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
stars Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
talmud, babylonian, anonymous portions of, xi Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
talmud, babylonian, appropriation of eastern roman culture Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
talmud, babylonian, palestinian rabbinic traditions in Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 185
the cosmos, contemplation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
the cosmos, god directing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 217
zoroastrianism Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 299