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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 20.10
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 29.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.12. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְנָתַתָּה עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּאֶצְבָּעֶךָ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַדָּם תִּשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 29.12. And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger; and thou shalt pour out all the remaining blood at the base of the altar."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.1, 3.17-3.19, 4.12, 28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.19, 4.25, 4.30-4.31, 4.34-4.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.19. וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה׃ 4.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.34. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.35. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.19. And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar." 4.25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering." 4.30. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 4.34. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.35. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.12. הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃ 11.12. Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 4.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.14. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא גִּדַּל יְהוָה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּעֵינֵי כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרְאוּ אֶת־מֹשֶׁה כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו׃ 4.14. On that day the LORD magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel; and they feared him, as they feared Moses, all the days of his life."
6. Anon., 2 Baruch, 50-51, 49 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.11, 20.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.11. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם (בראשית ה, ב), זֶה אֶחָד מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁשִּׁנּוּ לְתַלְמַי הַמֶּלֶךְ, זָכָר וּנְקוּבָיו בְּרָאָם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמְרֵי, בָּרָא בוֹ אַרְבַּע בְּרִיּוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאַרְבַּע מִלְּמַטָּן, אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כִּבְהֵמָה, פָּרָה וְרָבָה כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמַטִּיל גְּלָלִים כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמֵת כִּבְהֵמָה. מִלְּמַעְלָה, עוֹמֵד כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, מְדַבֵּר כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, יֵשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַת כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְרוֹאֶה כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. וּבְהֵמָה אֵינָה רוֹאָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא זֶה מְצַדֵּד. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת וְאֵינָן פָּרִין וְרָבִין, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים פָּרִים וְרָבִים, וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲרֵינִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, פָּרָה וְרָבָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם בּוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הוּא חַי וְאֵינוֹ מֵת, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הוּא מֵת וְאֵינוֹ חַי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, אִם יֶחְטָא יָמוּת, וְאִם לֹא יֶחְטָא יִחְיֶה. 20.9. בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכְלֶנָּה (בראשית ג, יז), אָמַר רַב אָסֵי קָשָׁה הִיא הַפַּרְנָסָה כִּפְלַיִם כַּלֵּדָה, בַּלֵּדָה כְּתִיב: בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים, וּבַפַּרְנָסָה כְּתִיב: בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכְלֶנָּה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר הֵקִישׁ גְּאֻלָּה לְפַרְנָסָה וּפַרְנָסָה לִגְאֻלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלו, כד): וַיִּפְרְקֵנוּ מִצָּרֵינוּ, וְסָמִיךְ לֵיהּ (תהלים קלו, כה): נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל בָּשָׂר, מַה גְּאֻלָּה פְּלָאִים אַף פַּרְנָסָה פְּלָאִים, מַה פַּרְנָסָה בְּכָל יוֹם אַף גְּאֻלָּה בְּכָל יוֹם. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר וּגְדוֹלָה מִן הַגְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁהַגְּאֻלָּה עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ וְהַפַּרְנָסָה עַל יְדֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. גְּאֻלָּה עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, טז): הַמַּלְאָךְ הַגֹּאֵל אֹתִי מִכָּל רָע. פַּרְנָסָה עַל יְדֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קמה, טז): פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת יָדֶךָ וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל חַי רָצוֹן. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר גְּדוֹלָה מִקְּרִיעַת יַם סוּף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלו, יג): לְגֹזֵר יַם סוּף לִגְזָרִים, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קלו, כה): נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל בָּשָׂר וגו'. 8.11. ... R’ Yehoshua barNechemyah in the name of R’ Chanina bar Yitshak and the rabbis in the name of R’ Lazar (Elazar), say: He created in him four creations from above /mil’ma`lah and four from below /mil’matah. From above – he stands like the ministering angels / mal’akhey hashareit, and speaks like the ministering angels, and has knowledge in him like the ministering angels, and sees like the ministering angels . . . From below – he eats and drinks like an animal /kab’heimah, bears fruit and multiplies, leaves piles (excretes) and dies like an animal... Said the Holy One: If I create him from the upper ones [alone] he lives and won’t die [in this world]; from the lower ones, he dies [in this world] and won’t live [in the coming world]."
9. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

118a. מאי ברכת השיר רב יהודה אמר יהללוך ה' אלהינו ורבי יוחנן אמר נשמת כל חי ת"ר רביעי גומר עליו את ההלל ואומר הלל הגדול דברי ר"ט וי"א (תהלים כג, א) ה' רועי לא אחסר,מהיכן הלל הגדול רבי יהודה אומר (תהלים קלו, א) מהודו עד (תהלים קלז, א) נהרות בבל ורבי יוחנן אומר משיר המעלות עד נהרות בבל רב אחא בר יעקב אמר (תהלים קלה, ד) מכי יעקב בחר לו יה עד נהרות בבל,ולמה נקרא שמו הלל הגדול א"ר יוחנן מפני שהקב"ה יושב ברומו של עולם ומחלק מזונות לכל בריה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי הני עשרים וששה הודו כנגד מי כנגד כ"ו דורות שברא הקב"ה בעולמו ולא נתן להם תורה וזן אותם בחסדו,אמר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלו, א) הודו לה' כי טוב הודו לה' שגובה חובתו של אדם בטובתו עשיר בשורו ואת עני בשיו יתום בביצתו אלמנה בתרנגולתה,א"ר יוחנן קשין מזונותיו של אדם כפליים כיולדה דאילו ביולדה כתי' (בראשית ג, טז) בעצב ובמזונות כתי' (בראשית ג, יז) בעצבון,(א"ר) יוחנן קשין מזונותיו של אדם יותר מן הגאולה דאילו בגאולה כתיב (בראשית מח, טז) המלאך הגואל אותי מכל רע מלאך בעלמא ואילו במזונות כתיב (בראשית מח, טו) האלהים הרועה אותי,א"ר יהושע בן לוי בשעה שאמר הקב"ה לאדם (בראשית ג, יח) וקוץ ודרדר תצמיח לך זלגו עיניו דמעות אמר לפניו רבש"ע אני וחמורי נאכל באבוס אחד כיון שאמר לו (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפך תאכל לחם נתקררה דעתו,אמר ר"ש בן לקיש אשרינו אם עמדנו בראשונה ועדיין לא פלטינן מינה דקא אכלינן עיסבי דדברא,אמר רב שיזבי משמיה דרבי אלעזר בן עזריה קשין מזונותיו של אדם כקריעת ים סוף דכתיב (תהלים קלו, כה) נותן לחם לכל בשר וסמיך ליה לגוזר ים סוף לגזרים,אמר ר"א בן עזריה קשין נקביו של אדם כיום המיתה וכקריעת ים סוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח וכתיב בתרי' רוגע הים ויהמו גליו,ואמר רב ששת משום ר"א בן עזריה כל המבזה את המועדות כאילו עובד ע"ז שנאמר (שמות לד, יז) אלהי מסכה לא תעשה לך וכתיב בתריה את חג המצות תשמור,ואמר רב ששת משום ר"א בן עזריה כל המספר לשון הרע וכל המקבל לשון הרע וכל המעיד עדות שקר בחבירו ראוי להשליכו לכלבים שנאמר (שמות כב, ל) לכלב תשליכון אותו וכתיב בתריה (שמות כג, א) לא תשא שמע שוא וקרי ביה לא תשיא,וכי מאחר דאיכא הלל הגדול אנן מ"ט אמרינן האי משום שיש בו ה' דברים הללו יציאת מצרים וקריעת ים סוף ומתן תורה ותחיית המתים וחבלו של משיח,יציאת מצרים דכתי' (תהלים קיד, א) בצאת ישראל ממצרים וקריעת ים סוף דכתיב (תהלים קיד, ג) הים ראה וינוס מתן תורה דכתי' (תהלים קיד, ד) ההרים רקדו כאילים תחיית המתים דכתיב (תהלים קטז, ט) אתהלך לפני ה',חבלו של משיח דכתיב (תהלים קטו, א) לא לנו ה' לא לנו וא"ר יוחנן לא לנו ה' לא לנו זו שעבוד מלכיות איכא דאמרי אמר רבי יוחנן לא לנו ה' לא לנו זו מלחמת גוג ומגוג,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שיש בו מילוט נפשות של צדיקים מגיהנם שנא' (תהלים קטז, ד) אנה ה' מלטה נפשי חזקיה אמר מפני שיש בו ירידתן של צדיקים לכבשן האש ועלייתן ממנו,ירידתן דכתיב לא לנו ה' לא לנו אמר חנניה כי לשמך תן כבוד אמר מישאל על חסדך ועל אמיתך אמר עזריה למה יאמרו הגוים אמרו כולן,עלייתן מכבשן האש דכתיב (תהלים קיז, א) הללו את ה' כל גוים אמר חנניה שבחוהו כל האומים אמר מישאל כי גבר עלינו חסדו אמר עזריה ואמת ה' לעולם הללויה אמרו כולן,ויש אומרים ואמת ה' לעולם גבריאל אמרו בשעה שהפיל נמרוד הרשע את אברהם אבינו לתוך כבשן האש אמר גבריאל לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע ארד ואצנן ואציל את הצדיק מכבשן האש אמר לו הקב"ה אני יחיד בעולמי והוא יחיד בעולמו נאה ליחיד להציל את היחיד ולפי שהקב"ה אינו מקפח שכר כל בריה אמר תזכה ותציל שלשה מבני בניו,דרש ר"ש השלוני בשעה שהפיל נבוכדנצר הרשע חנניה מישאל ועזריה לתוך כבשן האש עמד יורקמו שר הברד לפני הקב"ה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ארד ואצנן את הכבשן ואציל לצדיקים הללו מכבשן האש אמר לו גבריאל אין גבורתו של הקב"ה בכך שאתה שר ברד והכל יודעין שהמים מכבין את האש אלא אני שר של אש ארד ואקרר מבפנים 118a. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the blessing of the songmentioned in the mishna? bRav Yehuda said:It is the blessing that begins with: bThey shall praise You, Lord, our God. And Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat one also recites: bThe breath of all living,a prayer that follows the verses of praise [ ipesukei dezimra /i]. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to the bfourthcup, bone completes ihallelover it and recites the great ihallel /i;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Tarfon. And some saythat one recites: b“The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want”(Psalms 23:1), in appreciation of the food he ate at the meal.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes the bgreat ihallel /ibegin and where does it end? bRabbi Yehuda says: From “Give thanks”(Psalms 136:1) buntil “The rivers of Babylon”(Psalms 137:1). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: From “A song of ascents”(Psalms 134:1) buntil “The rivers of Babylon.” Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: From “For the Lord has chosen Jacob for Himself”(Psalms 135:4) buntil “The rivers of Babylon.” /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd why isthis section bcalled the great ihallel /i? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Becausethis passage states that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sits in the heights of the universe and dispenses food to every creature.The whole world praises God for His kindness through the great ihallel /i, which includes the verse: “Who gives food to all flesh” (Psalms 136:25)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These twenty-sixmentions of the word ihodu /i,give praise, in this ihallel(Psalms 136), bto whatdo they bcorrespond?He explains: They bcorrespond to the twenty-six generations that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, andto whom He bdid not give the Torah.There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, another ten from Noah to Abraham, and six generations from Abraham to Moses and the revelation at Sinai, i.e., Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kehat, Amram, and Moses. bAndwhy did these generations survive, despite the fact that they did not learn Torah or perform mitzvot? They survived only because God bsustained them through His mercy,even though they were undeserving., bRav Ḥisda said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Give thanks to the Lord for He is good”(Psalms 136:1)? It means bgive thanks to the Lord who exacts one’s debt,the punishment for a person’s sins and wickedness, binaccordance with the bgoodness ofeach individual. God punishes each person based on his means. He punishes ba wealthyperson by taking bhis ox, andHe punishes ba poorperson by means of bhis sheep.He punishes the borphan bytaking away bhis egg,and He punishes the bwidow bymeans of bher chicken.God punishes each person based on his ability to endure deprivation, and He does not punish people with more than they can handle.,With regard to the praise due to God for sustaining the world, the Gemara cites a statement that bRabbi Yoḥa said:The task of providing ba person’s food is twice as difficult asthe suffering endured by ba woman in childbirth. While, with regard to a woman in childbirth, it is written: “In pain [ ibe’etzev /i]you shall bring forth children” (Genesis 3:16), bwith regard to food, it is written: “In toil [ ibe’itzavon /i]you shall eat of it, all the days of your life” (Genesis 3:17). iItzavonis a superlative form of ietzev /i, which indicates that it is more difficult to support oneself than to give birth., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The task of providing ba person’s food is more difficult than the redemption. While, with regard to the redemption, it is written: “The angel who has redeemed me from all evil”(Genesis 48:16), indicating that ba mere angelis sufficient to protect a person from all evil; bwhereas, with regard to sustece, it is written: “The God who has been my shepherdall my life long to this day” (Genesis 48:15). This verse implies that only God can help one who is struggling to earn a living.,The Gemara cites a similar statement. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Adam: “Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you,and you shall eat the herb of the field” (Genesis 3:18), bhis eyes streamed with tears.Adam bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,will bmy donkey and I eat from one trough? AfterGod bsaid to him: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19), bhis mind was settled,assured that if he toils he will be able to eat bread, unlike the donkey., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Wewould have been bfortunate had we remained under the firstdecree and were still able to eat the herbs of the field. bAnd we still have notentirely bescaped fromthis decree, bas wesometimes beat the grass of the field,in the form of vegetables and leaves., bRav Sheizvi said, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya:The task of providing ba person’s food is as difficult as the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is written: “He gives food to all flesh,for His mercy endures forever” (Psalms 136:25), band juxtaposed to it isthe verse: b“To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder,for His mercy endures forever” (Psalms 136:13). The reiteration of the last part of the verse indicates that the two praises are to a certain extent equivalent.,Likewise, bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: A person’s orifices,when he cannot properly relieve himself, bare as difficultfor him bas the day of death and the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is stated: “He who is bent down shall speedily be loosed;and he shall not go down dying into the pit, neither shall his bread fail” (Isaiah 51:14). The phrase “dying into the pit” indicates that the opening of the orifices is similar to a rescue from death. bAnd afterward it is written: “Who stirs up the sea, that its waves roar”(Isaiah 51:15), which compares the previous matter to the splitting of the sea.,After citing a statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya that was transmitted by iamora’im /i, the Gemara quotes additional expositions attributed to him. bAnd Rav Sheshet said, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: Anyone who disparages the Festivals, it isconsidered bas though he engages in idol worship.This, too, is derived from the juxtaposition of verses, bas it is stated: “You shall make yourself no molten gods”(Exodus 34:17), band afterward it is written: “The Festival of imatzotyou shall keep”(Exodus 34:18), from which it can be inferred that anyone who does not observe the Festivals properly is likened to one who fashions idols., bAnd Rav Sheshetfurther bsaid, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: Anyone who speaks slander, and anyone who acceptsand believes the bslanderhe hears, band anyone who testifies falsely about another, it is fitting to throw him to the dogs, as it is stated:“And you shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field, byou shall cast it to the dogs”(Exodus 22:30), band afterward it is written: “You shall not utter [ itisa /i] a false report;put not your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness” (Exodus 23:1). Uttering rumors is here equated to delivering false testimony. Furthermore, bread intothe verse as though it stated: bDo not causea false report bto be accepted [ itasi /i],i.e., do not lead others to accept your false reports.,The Gemara asks: bAnd since there isthe bgreat ihallel /i,which contains the special praise of “Who gives food to all flesh” (Psalms 136:25), as explained above, bwhat is the reasonthat bonealso brecites this ihallelof Psalms 113–118, the section recited on every joyous occasion? The Gemara answers: The reason is bbecausethe regular ihallel bcontains these five matters:The remembrance of the bexodus from Egypt, the splitting of the Red Sea, the giving of the Torah, the resurrection of the dead, and the pangs of the Messiah.Since it mentions these key concepts, this hallel is also considered important.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe exodus from Egypt, as it is written: “When Israel came forth out of Egypt,the house of Jacob from a people of strange language” (Psalms 114:1). bAnd the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is written: “The sea saw it and fled;the Jordan turned backward” (Psalms 114:3). bThe giving of the Torah, as it is written: “The mountains skipped like rams”(Psalms 114:4), which is similar to the description of the giving of the Torah found elsewhere in the books of the Prophets. bThe resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “I will walk before the Lordin the lands of the living” (Psalms 116:9), which follows the verse: “For you have delivered my soul from death.” After mentioning death, the psalm describes the resurrection in the lands of the living., bThe pangs of the Messiah, as it is written: “Not to us, God, not to us,but to Your name give glory” (Psalms 115:1). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The verse b“Not to us, God, not to us”and the entire psalm, including the verse “Why should the nations say, where now is their God?” (Psalms 115:2), is referring to the era of bthe enslavement of the kingdomsand the redemption of the Jewish people from their dominion. bSome saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The verse b“Not to us, God, not to us”is referring to bthe war of Gog and Magog,the catastrophes and wars that will befall the Jewish people in the end of days from which they will be delivered., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Another reason why one recites ihallelof Psalms 113–118 is bbecause it containsa reference to bthe deliverance of the souls of the righteous from Gehenna, as it is stated: “I beseech you, Lord, deliver my soul”(Psalms 116:4). bḤizkiya said:Another reason is bbecause it containsthe story of bthe descent of the righteousHaiah, Mishael, and Azariah binto the fiery furnace and theirmiraculous bascent from it. /b,Ḥizkiya clarifies his previous statement: bTheir descentis mentioned in this hallel, bas it is written: “Not to us, God, not to us,”a verse that Haiah brecited. Mishael recited: “But to Your name give glory.” Azariah recited: “For Your mercy and for Your truth’s sake.” They all recitedtogether: b“Why should the nations say:Where now is their God?”,This ihallelalso alludes to bthe ascentof Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bfrom the fiery furnace, as it is written:“Praise the Lord, all you nations, laud Him all you peoples. For His mercy is great toward us, and the truth of the Lord endures forever, ihalleluya /i” (Psalms 117). bHaiah recited: “Praise the Lord, all you nations,”for the overt miracle performed for them before the nations. bMishael recited: “Laud Him all you peoples.” Azariah recited: “For His mercy is great toward us.” They all recitedtogether: b“And the truth of the Lord endures forever, ihalleluya /i.” /b, bAnd some saythat the angel bGabriel recited: “And the truth of the Lord endures forever.”This Gemara elaborates: bWhen the evil Nimrod threw our father, Abraham, into the fiery furnace, Gabriel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I will descend and coolthe furnace, band I willthereby bsave the righteousAbraham bfrom the fiery furnace. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: I am unique in my world andAbraham bisstill bunique in his world. It is fitting for the unique to save the unique.Therefore, God Himself went down and saved him. bAnd as the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not withhold reward from any creaturewho sought to perform a good deed, He bsaidto Gabriel: bYou will merit the rescue of three of his descendantsunder similar circumstances., bRabbi Shimon HaShiloni taught: When the evilNebuchadnezzar bthrew Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah into the fiery furnace, Yurkamo, the ministering angel of hail, stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He,and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I will go down and coolthe fiery bfurnace, and I will save these righteous ones from the fiery furnace. Gabriel said to him: The strength of the Holy One, Blessed be He, will not beevident bin thismanner, as byou are the minister of hail, and everyone knows that water extinguishes fire.Your action would not be regarded as a great miracle. bRather, I, the ministering angel of fire, will descend, and I will coolthe furnace bfrom within, /b
10. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 1 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

11. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.32-7.37

7.32. And the earth shall give up those who are asleep in it, and the dust those who dwell silently in it; and the chambers shall give up the souls which have been committed to them. 7.33. And the Most High shall be revealed upon the seat of judgment, and compassion shall pass away, and patience shall be withdrawn; 7.34. but only judgment shall remain, truth shall stand, and faithfulness shall grow strong. 7.35. And recompense shall follow, and the reward shall be manifested; righteous deeds shall awake, and unrighteous deeds shall not sleep. 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.37. Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, `Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised!
12. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 14



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
abraham Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
adam, seed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
adam Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
angel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
animal, serpent Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
animals Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68, 71
berakhiah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
blessing Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68
body Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
bread Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
church Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
circumcision Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
condemnation Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
conversion Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
creation Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
darkness Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
day, final Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
day, great Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
dominion of death Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
eden Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71
eve Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
expulsion Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
festival Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
food Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68
fruit Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68
gnostic/gnosticism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
hama berabi haninah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
hands, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
helbo, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
herbage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 660
huna, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
hyperbole, in aggadah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
identity Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67
inclination (evil) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
israel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
issi b. yehudah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71
joy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
levi, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
midrash, davar aher Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
midrashim, juxtapositions in Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
midrashim, petihta Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
moses Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314
persia Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
petihta Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
primordial Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71
punishment Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67, 68, 71
rabbis, hyperbole used by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
repent Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68
resurrection, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
seeds, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
seeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1004
serpent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 121
sexual relations Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68
sin, original' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 71
sin, original Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 67
sin Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 68, 71
tanhuma, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
thorns/thorny plants Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 121, 660
weeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 660
word play, juxtaposition Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
zeira, r., on r. hunas interpretation Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
zeorah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 240
zoroastrianism Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 314