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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 16.5-16.6
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ הָאוֹת כִּי אָנֹכִי שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָהָר הַזֶּה׃ 3.12. And He said: ‘Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.15-2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
4. Anon., Jubilees, 3.8-3.14, 4.23-4.26, 8.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. 3.14. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that giveth birth: 4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 4.24. And what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; 4.25. he saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all the children of men and for their generations. 4.26. And in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ednî, the daughter of Dânêl, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 8.19. and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Miscellaneous Rules, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 16.6, 95.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16.6. וַיְצַו ה' אֱלֹהִים עַל הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל (בראשית ב, טז), רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר צִוָּהוּ עַל שֵׁשׁ מִצְווֹת, וַיְצַו, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (הושע ה, יא): כִּי הוֹאִיל הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי צָו. ה', עַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ויקרא כד, טז): וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם ה'. אֱלֹהִים, אֵלּוּ הַדַּיָּנִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב, כז): אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל. עַל הָאָדָם, זוֹ שְׁפִיכַת דָּמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, ו): שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם. לֵאמֹר, זֶה גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, א): לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וגו'. מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל, צִוָּהוּ עַל הַגָּזֵל. רַבָּנָן פָּתְרִין לֵיהּ כָּל עִנְיָנָא, וַיְצַו ה' אֱלֹהִים, רַחֲמָן אֲנִי וְדַיָּן אֲנִי לְהִפָּרַע. אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לוֹ אֱלֹהִים אֲנִי, נְהֹג בִּי כֵּאלוֹהַּ, שֶׁלֹא תְקַלְּלֵנִי, כְּמָה דִכְתִיב: אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל. גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת מִנַּיִן (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכָר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל, אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין מָתַי יִתְכַּשֵּׁר לַאֲכִילָה מִשֶּׁתִּשָּׁחֵט, רָמַז לוֹ עַל אֵבָר מִן הַחַי. מוֹת תָּמוּת, מִיתָה לְאָדָם, מִיתָה לְחַוָּה, מִיתָה לוֹ, מִיתָה לְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו. 95.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְאֶת יְהוּדָה שָׁלַח לְפָנָיו, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַחָא וְרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, חַד אָמַר לְהַתְקִין לוֹ בֵּית דִּירָה, וְחַד אָמַר לְהַתְקִין לוֹ בֵּית וַעַד שֶׁיְהֵא מוֹרֶה בוֹ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה וְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים לוֹמְדִים בּוֹ, תֵּדַע לְךָ שֶׁהוּא כֵּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָלַךְ לוֹ יוֹסֵף מֵאֶצְלוֹ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ בְּאֵיזֶה פֶּרֶק פֵּרַשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהָיָה מַשְׁנֶה אוֹתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ אֲחֵי יוֹסֵף אֶצְלוֹ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ (בראשית מה, כו): עוֹד יוֹסֵף חַי וַיָּפָג לִבּוֹ, נִזְכַּר בְּאֵיזֶה פֶּרֶק פֵּרַשׁ הֵימֶנוּ, וְאָמַר בְּלִבּוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁבְּפֶרֶק עֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה פֵּרַשׁ מִמֶּנִּי יוֹסֵף, אָמַר לָהֶם אִם אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים בְּאֵיזֶה פֶּרֶק פֵּרַשׁ מִמֶּנִּי אֲנִי מַאֲמִין לָכֶם, אַף יוֹסֵף הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ בְּאֵיזֶה פֶּרֶק פֵּרַשׁ הֵימֶנּוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה יוֹסֵף נָתַן לָהֶם עֲגָלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מה, כא): וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם יוֹסֵף עֲגָלוֹת עַל פִּי פַרְעֹה, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב יוֹשֵׁב הָיָה עוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתָיו. וְעַד עַכְשָׁיו לֹא נִתְּנָה תּוֹרָה וּכְתִיב בְּאַבְרָהָם (בראשית כו, ה): וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי, וּמֵהֵיכָן לָמַד אַבְרָהָם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר נַעֲשׂוּ שְׁתֵּי כִּלְיוֹתָיו כִּשְׁתֵּי כַּדִּים שֶׁל מַיִם וְהָיוּ נוֹבְעוֹת תּוֹרָה, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁכֵּן הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים טז, ז): אַף לֵילוֹת יִסְרוּנִי וגו'. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר מֵעַצְמוֹ לָמַד תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי יד, יד): מִדְּרָכָיו יִשְׂבַּע סוּג לֵב וּמֵעָלָיו אִישׁ טוֹב. רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן שַׂר הַבִּירָה אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כו, ה): עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם וגו'. וּבֶן כַּמָּה שָׁנִים הִכִּיר אַבְרָהָם אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנָה הִכִּיר אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר בֶּן שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים, דִּכְתִיב עֵקֶב מִנְיַן עֵקֶ"ב, וְאַבְרָהָם חָיָה מֵאָה שִׁבְעִים וְחָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁבֶּן שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים הִכִּיר אֶת בּוֹרְאוֹ, וְהָיָה מְשַׁמֵּר דִּקְדּוּקֵי תּוֹרָה וְהָיָה מְלַמֵּד אֶת בָּנָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יח, יט): כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו וגו', אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתָּה לִמַּדְתָּ בָּנֶיךָ תּוֹרָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אֲבָל בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא אֲנִי בִּכְבוֹדִי מְלַמֵּד לָכֶם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נד, יג): וְכָל בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי ה':
8. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. רבי חנניה בן (גמלא) אומר אף על הדם מן החי רבי חידקא אומר אף על הסירוס רבי שמעון אומר אף על הכישוף,רבי יוסי אומר כל האמור בפרשת כישוף בן נח מוזהר עליו (דברים יח, י) לא ימצא בך מעביר בנו ובתו באש קוסם קסמים מעונן ומנחש ומכשף וחובר חבר ושואל אוב וידעוני ודורש אל המתים וגו' ובגלל התועבות האלה ה' אלהיך מוריש אותם מפניך ולא ענש אלא אם כן הזהיר,רבי אלעזר אומר אף על הכלאים מותרין בני נח ללבוש כלאים ולזרוע כלאים ואין אסורין אלא בהרבעת בהמה ובהרכבת האילן,מנהני מילי אמר ר' יוחנן דאמר קרא (בראשית ב, טז) ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל,ויצו אלו הדינין וכן הוא אומר (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה את בניו וגו',ה' זו ברכת השם וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת אלהים זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על האדם זו שפיכות דמים וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם וגו',לאמר זו גילוי עריות וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר מכל עץ הגן ולא גזל אכל תאכל ולא אבר מן החי,כי אתא רבי יצחק תני איפכא ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים אלהים זו דינין,בשלמא אלהים זו דינין דכתיב (שמות כב, ז) ונקרב בעל הבית אל האלהים אלא ויצו זו ע"ז מאי משמע,רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבדימי חד אמר (שמות לב, ח) סרו מהר מן הדרך אשר צויתים עשו להם וגו' וחד אמר (הושע ה, יא) עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט כי הואיל הלך אחרי צו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה למאן דאמר עשו משעת עשייה מיחייב למאן דאמר כי הואיל הלך עד דאזיל בתרה ופלח לה,אמר רבא ומי איכא למאן דאמר עכו"ם שעשאה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה חייב והתניא בעכו"ם דברים שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן בן נח מוזהר עליהן אין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן אין בן נח מוזהר עליהן למעוטי מאי לאו למעוטי עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה,אמר רב פפא לא למעוטי גיפוף ונישוק,גיפוף ונישוק דמאי אילימא כדרכה בר קטלא הוא אלא למעוטי שלא כדרכה,דינין בני נח איפקוד והתניא עשר מצות נצטוו ישראל במרה שבע שקיבלו עליהן בני נח והוסיפו עליהן דינין ושבת וכיבוד אב ואם,דינין דכתיב (שמות טו, כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט שבת וכיבוד אב ואם דכתיב (דברים ה, יא) כאשר צוך ה' אלהיך ואמר רב יהודה כאשר צוך במרה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,אי הכי מאי והוסיפו עליהן דינין,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכה אלא לדיני קנסות אכתי והוסיפו בדינין מיבעי ליה,אלא אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא להושיב בית דין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר והא בני נח לא איפקוד והתניא כשם שנצטוו ישראל להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר כך נצטוו בני נח להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר,אלא אמר רבא האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דמפיק ד"ך ועייל ס"ך,דתנא דבי מנשה שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים גזל ואבר מן החי סירוס וכלאים,רבי יהודה אומר אדם הראשון לא נצטווה אלא על ע"ז בלבד שנאמר ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר אף על ברכת השם ויש אומרים אף על הדינים,כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלהים אני לא תקללוני אלהים אני לא תמירוני אלהים אני יהא מוראי עליכם כמאן כיש אומרים,תנא דבי מנשה אי דריש ויצו אפילו הנך נמי אי לא דריש ויצו הני מנא ליה,לעולם לא דריש ויצו הני כל חדא וחדא באפי נפשיה כתיבא ע"ז וגילוי עריות 56b. bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamla says:The descendants of Noah are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against consuming bthe blood from a livinganimal. bRabbi Ḥideka says:They are balsocommanded bconcerning castration,i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. bRabbi Shimon says:They are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to beverytype of sorcery bthat is stated in the passage about sorcery,it is bprohibited for a descendant of Noah toengage in bit.This is derived from the verses: “When you come into the land that the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations. bThere shall not be found among you one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, a diviner, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a warlock, or a charmer, or one who consults a necromancer and a sorcerer, or directs inquiries to the dead.For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; band because of these abominations, the Lord your God is driving them out from before you”(Deuteronomy 18:9–12). Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; bandsince God bwould not have punishedthem for an action bunless Hefirst bprohibitedit, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles., bRabbi Elazar says:The descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition of bdiverse kinds.Nevertheless, it is bpermitted for the descendants of Noah to wear diverse kindsof wool and linen band to sow diverse kindsof seeds together, band they are prohibited only with regard to breedingdiverse species of banimals and graftingdiverse species of btrees. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the Noahide mitzvot, derived? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It is from that bwhich the verse states: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat from it, for on the day that you eat from it, you shall die” (Genesis 2:16–17).,The verse is interpreted homiletically as follows: With regard to the term b“and…commanded,” these are thecourts of bjudgment; and so it statesin another verse: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may command his childrenand his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19).,With regard to the term b“the Lord,” thisalludes to bblessing the nameof God; band so it statesin another verse: b“And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord…shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). b“God,” thisalludes to bidol worship; and so it states: “You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:2). b“The man,” thisalludes to bbloodshed; and so it states: “One who sheds the blood of man,by man his blood shall be shed” (Genesis 9:6).,With regard to the term b“saying,” thisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations; and so it states: “Saying, if a man sends his wife, and she goes from him and becomes another man’s… /bwill that land not be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers” (Jeremiah 3:1). b“of every tree of the garden”alludes to the fact that one may partake only of items that are permitted to him, as they belong to him, bandhe may bnotpartake of bstolen items. “You may freely eat”alludes to the fact that one may eat fruit, bbut not a limb from a livinganimal., bWhen Rav Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughttwo of the expositions in bthe oppositeorder: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship. “God,” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the source for the exposition: b“God [ iElohim /i],” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment,is clear; bas it is written: “Then the master of the house shall come near the judges [ iha’elohim /i]”(Exodus 22:7). Evidently, judges are called ielohim /i. bButwith regard to the exposition: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship, from whereis this binferred? /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimiboth give answers to this question. bOneof them bsaysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them; they have made thema molten calf” (Exodus 32:8). The word “commanded” is mentioned here in the context of idol worship. bAndthe other bone saysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in justice, because he willingly went after filth [ itzav /i]”(Hosea 5:11). The word itzav /i, used in this context in reference to idol worship, is the same Hebrew word used in the phrase: “And…commanded [ ivaytzav /i].”,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two sources? The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthem is in the case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it,i.e., he has not yet worshipped it. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“They have madethem a molten calf,” bhe is rendered liable from the time of fashioningit. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“Because he willingly wentafter filth,” he is not liable buntil he goes after it and worships it. /b, bRava says: And is there anyone who saysthat ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it is liable? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWith regard to idol worship, matters,i.e., transgressions, bfor which a Jewish court executesa Jew who commits one of them, bare prohibited to a descendant of Noah.But with regard to transgressions bfor which a Jewish court does not executea Jew who commits one of them, ba descendant of Noah is not prohibited fromdoing bthem. To exclude whattransgressions, i.e., to determine that they do not apply to gentiles, is this stated? Is it bnot to excludethe case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it?Since Jews are not executed for this transgression, gentiles should not be liable for this act either., bRav Pappa says: No,it is possible that it is stated bto exclude embracing and kissingthe idol; neither a Jew nor a gentile who embraces or kisses an idol is liable. No proof can be brought from here with regard to a gentile who fashions an idol but does not worship it.,The Gemara asks: bEmbracing and kissingan idol bin whatmanner? bIf we saythat he did so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship, i.e., that embracing and kissing is the standard method of worshipping this idol, certainly bhe is liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty. bRather,it is stated bto excludea case bwherehe did bnotdo so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the list of the Noahide mitzvot: bWere the descendants of Noah commandedto establish courts of bjudgment? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people were commandedto observe bten mitzvotwhen they were bin Marah: Seven that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andGod badded to themthe following mitzvot: bJudgment, and Shabbat, and honoringone’s bfather and mother. /b,The mitzva of bjudgmentwas given at Marah, bas it is writtenwith regard to Marah: b“There He made for them a statute and an ordice”(Exodus 15:25). bShabbat and honoringone’s bfather and motherwere given at Marah, bas it is writtenconcerning them in the Ten Commandments: “Observe the day of Shabbat to keep it holy, bas the Lord your God commanded you”(Deuteronomy 5:12), and similarly: “Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). The phrase “as the Lord your God commanded you” indicates that they had already been commanded to observe these mitzvot previously. bAnd Rav Yehuda says: “Asthe Lord your God bcommanded you” in Marah.Apparently, the mitzva of establishing courts is not included in the seven Noahide mitzvot., bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:Establishing courts is a Noahide mitzva. The additional mitzva that was given in Marah bwas necessary only with regard tothe details of the ihalakhotof the justice system, e.g., that a defendant in a capital case is punished only by a full panel of twenty-three judges of the bSanhedrin, andonly if there are two bwitnesseswho testify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,and the mitzva given at Marah is a specification of the ihalakhotof the justice system, bwhatis the meaning of the sentence: bAndGod badded to them: Judgment?The details of a preexisting mitzva would not be referred to as an added mitzva., bRather, Rava says:The mitzva given at Marah bwas necessary only with regard to the ihalakhotof fines.Since these are not ihalakhotthat pertain to the basic performance of justice, but rather concern an additional fine for the guilty party, they were not given to the descendants of Noah. The Gemara asks: According to this interpretation, the language of the ibaraitais bstillinaccurate, as bit should havestated: bAndGod badded to themmore ihalakhot bof judgment. /b, bRather, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: It was necessary onlyfor the additional requirement bto establish a court in each and every province and in each and every city.The Gemara asks: bAnd were the descendants of Noah not commandedwith regard to bthismatter? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bJust as the Jewish people were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city, so too, the descendants of Noah were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city? /b, bRather, Rava says: This itanna /i,who holds that the mitzva of establishing courts of judgment is not included in the Noahide mitzvot, bisthe itannaof the school of Menashe, who removesfrom the list of the Noahide mitzvot two mitzvot whose mnemonic is idalet /i, ikaf /i,which stands for judgment [ idinim /i] and blessing the name of God [ ibirkat Hashem /i], band insertsin their place two mitzvot whose mnemonic is isamekh /i, ikaf /i,standing for castration [ iseirus /i] and diverse kinds [ ikilayim /i]., bAs the school of Menashe taught: The descendants of Noah were commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The prohibitions of bidol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and blood-shed,and brobbery, andeating ba limb from a livinganimal, and bcastration, and diverse kinds. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: Adam, the firstman, bwas commanded only with regard tothe prohibition of bidol worship, as it is stated: “And the Lord God commanded the man”(Genesis 2:16). bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says:He was balsocommanded bconcerning blessing the nameof God. bAnd some saythat he was balsocommanded bconcerningestablishing courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in interpretation of the aforementioned verse: Since bI am “God,” do not curse Me;since bI am “God,” do not exchange Mewith another god; since bI am “God,” My fear shall be upon you?The Gemara answers: bIn accordance with whoseopinion? It is bin accordance withwhat bsome say,i.e., that the phrase “and the Lord God commanded the man” includes the prohibitions against cursing God’s name and idol worship, as well as the mitzva of establishing a system of law and justice, so that the fear of God will be upon the people.,The Gemara challenges: bIfthe itannaof the school of Menashe interpretsthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, even thesemitzvot, cursing the name of God and establishing courts, should be included. And bif he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, from where does hederive btheseseven mitzvot in his list?,The Gemara answers: bActually, he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically,but with regard to bthesemitzvot in his list, beach and every oneof them bis written separatelyin the Torah. The prohibitions of bidol worship and forbidden sexual relationsare stated


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
adam and law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
akkadian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
animal, bovine Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal, bull Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal, snake Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
animal, unicorn Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
animal Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
babylonia Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
darkness Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
david (king) Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
deities Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
demon Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
dulkin, ryan Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
enuma elish Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
eusebius Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 308
evil Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
female Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
gods Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 308
light Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
magic, incantation Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
male Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
mamzer and legal fiction, marah laws given at Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
monster Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
natural law, in rabbinic thought' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
noahide laws Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
priests Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
rabbinization Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 305, 308
sacrifice Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 318
scribe Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
sex, androgynous Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12
shema Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 305
sinai law before Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 332
symbol Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 12