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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



624
Anon., Genesis Rabba, 14.5
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15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
2. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted." 3.5. If idolaters worship mountains and hills these are permitted; but what is upon them is prohibited, as it is says, “you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them and take them” (Deut. 7:25). Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [it says] “their gods on the mountains” (Deut. 12:, not their mountains which are their gods; “their gods on the hills” (ibid.), not their hills which are their gods. And why is an asherah prohibited? Because there was manual labour connected with it, and whatever has manual labour connected with it is prohibited. Rabbi Akiba said: let me expound and decide [the interpretation] before you: wherever you find a high mountain or elevated hill or green tree, know that an idolatrous object is there."
3. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.20-15.23, 15.45-15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
4. New Testament, Galatians, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law
5. New Testament, Philippians, 2.5-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
6. New Testament, Romans, 5.12-5.21, 8.3, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen.
7. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 4.7, 8.1, 14.1, 14.3-14.4, 17.8, 18.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.7. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם, רַב אָמַר אֵשׁ וּמָיִם, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַב, נָטַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵשׁ וּמַיִם וּפְתָכָן זֶה בָּזֶה וּמֵהֶן נַעֲשׂוּ שָׁמַיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שָׁמִים כְּתִיב, שֶׁהֵן שָׁמִים מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת, אִם זָכוּ (תהלים צז, ו): וְהִגִּידוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם צִדְקוֹ, וְאִם לָאו (איוב כ, כז): יְגַלּוּ שָׁמַיִם עֲוֹנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁהַבְּרִיּוֹת מִשְׁתּוֹמְמִים עֲלֵיהֶן לֵאמֹר, שֶׁל מָה הֵן, שֶׁל אֵשׁ הֵן, שֶׁל מַיִם הֵן, אֶתְמְהָא. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, הוּא אָתָא וְקָם עָלָיו (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו, הֱוֵי שֶׁל מַיִם הֵן. סַמִּים, מַה סַּמִּים הַלָּלוּ, מֵהֶן יְרֻקִּין וּמֵהֶן אֲדֻמִּים, מֵהֶם שְׁחֹרִים וּמֵהֶם לְבָנִים, כָּךְ שָׁמַיִם פְּעָמִים יְרֻקִּין, וּפְעָמִים אֲדֻמִּים, פְּעָמִים שְׁחֹרִים, וּפְעָמִים לְבָנִים. רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר, שָׁמַיִם, שָׂא מַיִם, טְעוֹן מַיִם. מָשָׁל לְחָלָב שֶׁהָיָה נָתוּן בִּקְעָרָה, עַד שֶׁלֹא תֵּרֵד לְתוֹכוֹ טִפָּה אַחַת שֶׁל מְסוֹ הוּא מְרַפֵּף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד לְתוֹכוֹ טִפָּה אַחַת שֶׁל מְסוֹ, מִיָּד הוּא קוֹפֵא וְעוֹמֵד, כָּךְ (איוב כו, יא): עַמּוּדֵי שָׁמַיִם יְרוֹפָפוּ, עָמְדוּ שָׁמַיִם נִתַּן בָּהֶם אֶת הַמְּסוֹ, וַיְהִי עֶרֶב וַיְהִי בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי, אַתְיָא כִּדְאָמַר רַב, לַחִים הָיוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן וּבַשֵּׁנִי קָרְשׁוּ. 8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 14.1. וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ב, ז), כְּתִיב (משלי כט, ד): מֶלֶךְ בְּמִשְׁפָּט יַעֲמִיד אָרֶץ וגו', מֶלֶךְ זֶה מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּמִשְׁפָּט יַעֲמִיד אָרֶץ, שֶׁבָּרָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. (משלי כט, ד): וְאִישׁ תְּרוּמוֹת יֶהֶרְסֶנָּה, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהָיָה גְּמַר חַלָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, וְנִקְרֵאת חַלָּה תְּרוּמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵכֶם וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן קְצַרְתָּה, כָּאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁקְשֶׁקֶת עִסָּתָהּ בַּמַּיִם וְהַגְבָּהַת חַלָּתָה מִבֵּנְתַיִם, כָּךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים וגו'. 14.1. וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָה (בראשית ב, ז), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר מְלַמֵּד שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ עֹקֶץ כְּחַיָּה, וְחָזַר וּלְקָחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹדוֹ. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר עֲשָׂאוֹ עֶבֶד מְכֻרָן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, דְּאִי לָא לָעֵי לָא נָגֵיס. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא דַּאֲמַר (איכה א, יד): נְתָנַנִי ה' בִּידֵי לֹא אוּכַל קוּם, לָעֵי בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא בְּלֵילָא וּבִימָמָא לָא מָטֵי. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל חַתְנֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא חַבְרֵהוֹן דְּרַבָּנָן אָמַר, כָּאן הוּא עוֹשֶׂה נְשָׁמָה נֶפֶשׁ, וּלְהַלָּן הוּא עוֹשֶׂה נְשָׁמָה רוּחַ, מִנַּיִן לִתֵּן אֶת הָאָמוּר כָּאן לְהַלָּן, וְאֶת הָאָמוּר לְהַלָּן כָּאן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר חַיִּים חַיִּים לִגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה. 14.3. וַיִּיצֶר שְׁתֵּי יְצִירוֹת, יְצִירָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וִיצִירָה מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, בָּרָא בוֹ ד' בְּרִיּוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן וְד' מִלְמַטָּן, אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כִּבְהֵמָה, פָּרָה וְרָבָה כִּבְהֵמָה, מַטִּיל גְּלָלִים כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמֵת כִּבְהֵמָה. מִלְּמַעְלָה, עוֹמֵד כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, מְדַבֵּר, וּמֵבִין, וְרוֹאֶה, כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. וּבְהֵמָה אֵינָהּ רוֹאָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא זֶה מְצַדֵּד. רַבִּי תַּפְדוּיֵי אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, וְאֵינָן פָּרִין וְרָבִין. וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, פָּרִין וְרָבִין וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּדְמוּת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, פָּרָה וְרָבָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּפְדוּיֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הוּא חַי וְאֵינוֹ מֵת, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הוּא מֵת וְאֵינוֹ חַי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי בּוֹרְאוֹ מֵאֵלּוּ וּמֵאֵלּוּ, וְאִם יֶחֱטָא יָמוּת, וְאִם לָאו יִחְיֶה. 14.4. וַיִּיצֶר, שְׁנֵי יְצָרִים, יֵצֶר טוֹב וְיֵצֶר הָרָע. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה לִבְהֵמָה ב' יְצָרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹאָה סַכִּין בְּיַד אָדָם לְשָׁחֲטָהּ הָיְתָה מְפַחֶדֶת וּמֵתָה, וַהֲרֵי אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ ב' יְצָרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידָא (זכריה יב, א): וְיֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם צְרוּרָה בְּקִרְבּוֹ, אִלְּמָלֵא כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַצָּרָה בָּאָה עָלָיו הָיָה שׁוֹמְטָהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ. 17.8. שָׁאֲלוּ אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ יוֹצֵא פָּנָיו לְמַטָּה, וְאִשָּׁה יוֹצֵאת פָּנֶיהָ לְמַעְלָה, אָמַר לָהֶם הָאִישׁ מַבִּיט לִמְקוֹם בְּרִיָּתוֹ, וְאִשָּׁה מַבֶּטֶת לִמְקוֹם בְּרִיָּתָהּ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִשָּׁה צְרִיכָה לְהִתְבַּשֵֹּׂם וְאֵין הָאִישׁ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְבַּשֵֹּׂם, אָמַר לָהֶם אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה וְהָאֲדָמָה אֵינָהּ מַסְרַחַת לְעוֹלָם, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵעֶצֶם, מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחַ בָּשָׂר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים בְּלֹא מֶלַח מִיָּד הוּא מַסְרִיחַ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִשָּׁה קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ וְלֹא הָאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶם מָשָׁל אִם תְּמַלֵּא קְדֵרָה בָּשָׂר אֵין קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְתוֹכָהּ עֶצֶם מִיָּד קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ. מִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ נוֹחַ לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נוֹחָה לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת, אָמַר לָהֶן אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאַתָּה נוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ טִפָּה שֶׁל מַיִם מִיָּד הִיא נִשְׁרֵית, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵעֶצֶם וַאֲפִלּוּ אַתָּה שׁוֹרֶה אוֹתוֹ כַּמָּה יָמִים בַּמַּיִם אֵינוֹ נִשְׁרֶה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ תּוֹבֵעַ בְּאִשָּׁה וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה תּוֹבַעַת בְּאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶן מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְאֶחָד שֶׁאָבַד אֲבֵדָה הוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדָתוֹ אֵינָהּ מְבַקְשַׁתּוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ מַפְקִיד זֶרַע בָּאִשָּׁה וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מַפְקֶדֶת זֶרַע בָּאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶם דּוֹמֶה לְאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדוֹ פִּקָּדוֹן וּמְבַקֵּשׁ אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שֶׁיַּפְקִידֶנוּ אֶצְלוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ יוֹצֵא רֹאשׁוֹ מְגֻלֶּה וְהָאִשָּׁה רֹאשָׁהּ מְכֻסֶּה, אָמַר לָהֶן לְאֶחָד שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה וְהוּא מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם, לְפִיכָךְ יוֹצֵאת וְרֹאשָׁהּ מְכֻסֶּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֵן מְהַלְּכוֹת אֵצֶל הַמֵּת תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁגָּרְמוּ מִיתָה לָעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ הֵן מְהַלְּכוֹת אֵצֶל הַמֵּת תְּחִלָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כא, לג): וְאַחֲרָיו כָּל אָדָם יִמְשׁוֹךְ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נִדָּה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁשָּׁפְכָה דָּמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נִדָּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת חַלָּה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁקִּלְקְלָה אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהָיָה גְּמַר חַלָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת חַלָּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נֵר שַׁבָּת, אָמַר לָהֶן עַל יְדֵי שֶׁכִּבְּתָה נִשְׁמָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נֵר שַׁבָּת. 18.6. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים (בראשית ב, כה), אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר שְׁלשָׁה הֵן שֶׁלֹא הִמְתִּינוּ בְּשַׁלְוָתָן שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אָדָם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וְסִיסְרָא. אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כה): וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ, לֹא בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְהוּא בְּשַׁלְוָתוֹ. וְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, א): וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי בשֵׁשׁ משֶׁה, כִּי בָאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא משֶׁה. סִיסְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, כח): מַדּוּעַ בּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ לָבוֹא, בְּכָל יוֹם הָיָה לָמוּד לָבוֹא בְּשָׁלשׁ שָׁעוֹת בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, וְעַכְשָׁיו בָּאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וְלֹא בָא, הֱוֵי וְלֹא יִתְבּוֹשָׁשׁוּ. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם (בראשית ג, א), לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ קְרָא לוֹמַר אֶלָּא (בראשית ג, כא): וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ מֵאֵי זוֹ חַטָּיָה קָפַץ עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹתוֹ הָרָשָׁע, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן מִתְעַסְּקִין בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ וְנִתְאַוָּה לָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין שֶׁלֹא לְהַפְסִיק בְּפָרָשָׁתוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ. 4.7. \"and god called the ferment heavens\", rav says it means fire and water mixed together. r abba the son of r chahna said in the name of rav, god took fire and water, joined them together and made the heavens. another matter, the word שמים can be read as meaning \"evaluation\" for the heavens evaluate the actions of people, if they merit than \"the heavens will tell his righteousness\" and if he doesn't merit \"the heavens will reveal his sin\". another matter why is it called shumiaim because people wonder about them are they water or fire?!!! r pinchas said he came and revealed it \"" 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 14.3. ... Said the Holy One: If I create him from the upper ones [alone] he lives and won’t die [in this world]; from the lower ones, he dies [in this world] and won’t live [in the coming world]." 14.4. Wayyiyzer: two formations, the good and the evil. For if an animal possessed two [such] formations, it would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill it. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. Hanina (rjinena) b. Idi: He bound up the spirit of man within him (Zechariah 12:1); for if that were not so, whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him." 18.6. \"And they were both naked.\" Rabbi Eleazar said: there were three who did not wait for their contentment even six hours, and these are they: Adam, and Israel, and Sisra. Adam, as it says: \"and they were not embarrassed\" (Genesis 2:25) - six hours had not passed, and he was content. Israel, as it says: \"And the nation saw that Moses delayed\" (Exodus 32:1), when six hours had passed and Moses had not appeared. Sisra, as it says: \"Why does his chariot delay in coming?\" (Judges 5:28) - every day he would come in three or four hours, and today six hours have past and he is not here - these are all cases related to \"and they were not embarrassed.\" \"And the snake was crafty\" (Genesis 3:1) - the text only needed to continue with \"And Hashem God made for Adam and his wife...\" (Genesis 3:21). Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karchah said: to teach you which temptation the snake sprung on them - he saw them engaged in the way of the world, and desired here. Rabbi Yaakov of the village of Hannin said: to not pause the story of the snake."
8. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 23.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23.12. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יח, ג): כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ מִִצְרַיִם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כד, טו): וְעֵין נֹאֵף שָׁמְרָה נֶשֶׁף לֵאמֹר לֹא תְשׁוּרֵנִי עָיִן וְסֵתֶר פָּנִים יָשִׂים, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא בְּגוּפוֹ נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, נוֹאֵף בְּעֵינָיו נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעֵין נֹאֵף, וְהַנּוֹאֵף הַזֶּה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמֵּר אֵימָתַי נֶשֶׁף בָּא אֵימָתַי עֶרֶב בָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ז, ט): בְּנֶשֶׁף בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּסִתְרוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, ג): הֲטוֹב לְךָ כִּי תַעֲשֹׁק, זֶה זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס וְהוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אַחֵר, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): כִּי תִמְאַס יְגִיעַ כַּפֶּיךָ, וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁאַתָּה יָגֵעַ בּוֹ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אַתָּה חוֹזֵר וּמְקַלְקְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): וְעַל עֲצַת רְשָׁעִים הוֹפָעְתָּ, כָּךְ הוּא כְבוֹדְךָ לַעֲמֹד בֵּין נוֹאֵף לְנוֹאָפֶת. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִיּוֹב רָאוּי אַתָּה לְפַיֵּס אֶלָּא יְהִי אוֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ (איוב י, ד): הַעֵינֵי בָשָׂר לָךְ, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אָבִיו בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָשָׁל לְתַלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר שֶׁגָּנַב בֵּיצַת יוֹצְרִים וְעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, מֶה עָשָׂה עָמַד וַעֲשָׂאוֹ כְּלִי וְתָלוֹ בְּפָנָיו, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי בֶּן פְּרָטָא כְּתִיב (דברים לב, יח): צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתֶּם כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. מָשָׁל לְצַיָּר שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְצָר אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, מִשֶּׁהוּא גּוֹמְרָהּ בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ נִתְחַלֵּף הַמֶּלֶךְ, מִיָּד תָּשׁוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, כָּךְ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹסֵק בְּצוּרַת הַוָּלָד וּלְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הִיא הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְקַלְקֶלֶת עִם אַחֵר, מִיָּד רָפוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, הֱוֵי: צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתָּ כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. יו"ד זְעֵירָא וְלֵית בִּקְרָיָה כַּוָּתָהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָצִינוּ כָּל עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרוֹת הַגּוֹנֵב נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְנָב מַפְסִיד, הַגּוֹזֵל נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְזָל מַפְסִיד, בְּרַם הָכָא שְׁנֵיהֶם נֶהֱנִין מִי מַפְסִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא מְאַבֵּד סַמָּנָיו.
9. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 258 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. מעטרה ולמעלה אסור,אמר רב המקשה עצמו לדעת יהא בנדוי ולימא אסור דקמגרי יצה"ר אנפשיה ורבי אמי אמר נקרא עבריין שכך אומנתו של יצר הרע היום אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו לך עבוד עבודת כוכבים והולך ועובד,איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אמי כל המביא עצמו לידי הרהור אין מכניסין אותו במחיצתו של הקב"ה כתיב הכא (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' וכתיב התם (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו אלו המנאפים ביד תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (שמות כ, יג) לא תנאף לא תהא בך ניאוף בין ביד בין ברגל,ת"ר הגרים והמשחקין בתינוקות מעכבין את המשיח בשלמא גרים כדר' חלבו דא"ר חלבו קשין גרים לישראל כספחת אלא משחקין בתנוקות מאי היא,אילימא משכב זכור בני סקילה נינהו אלא דרך אברים בני מבול נינהו,אלא דנסיבי קטנות דלאו בנות אולודי נינהו דא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,באנשים תקצץ איבעיא להו דינא תנן או לטותא תנן דינא תנן כי הא דרב הונא קץ ידא או לטותא תנן,ת"ש דתניא רבי טרפון אומר יד לאמה תקצץ ידו על טבורו אמרו לו ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו א"ל לא אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,אי אמרת בשלמא דינא תנן היינו דאמרי והלא כריסו נבקעת אלא אי אמרת לטותא תנן מאי כריסו נבקעת אלא מאי דינא תנן לא סגי דלאו על טבורו,אלא ה"ק רבי טרפון כל המכניס ידו למטה מטבורו תקצץ אמרו לו לרבי טרפון ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו אמר להן לא והלא כריסו נבקעת אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big החרשת והשוטה והסומא ושנטרפה דעתה אם יש להן פקחות מתקנות אותן והן אוכלות בתרומה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חרשת איהי תבדוק לנפשה דתניא אמר רבי חרשת היתה בשכונתינו לא דיה שבודקת לעצמה אלא שחברותיה רואות ומראות לה,התם במדברת ואינה שומעת הכא בשאינה מדברת ואינה שומעת כדתנן חרש שדברו חכמים בכל מקום אינו שומע ואינו מדבר,הסומא איהי תבדוק לנפשה ותיחזי לחבירתה א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא סומא אינה משנה,ושנטרפה דעתה היינו שוטה שנטרפה דעתה מחמת חולי,תנו רבנן כהן שוטה מטבילין אותו ומאכילין אותו תרומה לערב ומשמרין אותו שלא יישן ישן טמא לא ישן טהור,רבי אליעזר ברבי צדוק אומר עושין לו כיס של עור אמרו לו כל שכן שמביא לידי חימום אמר להן לדבריכם שוטה אין לו תקנה,אמרו לו לדברינו ישן טמא לא ישן טהור לדבריך שמא יראה טפה כחרדל ותבלע בכיס,תנא משום רבי אלעזר אמרו עושין לו כיס של מתכת,אמר אביי ושל נחשת כדתניא רבי יהודה אומר רואין אותן גבעולין של אזוב כאילו הן של נחשת,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה מכנסים אסורים והכתיב (שמות כח, מב) ועשה להם מכנסי בד לכסות בשר ערוה,ההוא כדתניא מכנסי כהנים למה הן דומין כמין פמלניא של פרשים למעלה עד מתנים למטה עד ירכים ויש להם שנצים ואין להם לא בית הנקב ולא בית הערוה,אמר אביי 13b. bFrom the corona and above,toward the body, it is bprohibited. /b,§ bRav says: One who intentionally causes himself an erection shall be ostracized.The Gemara suggests: bAnd letRav bsaysimply that it is bprohibited.The Gemara explains that it is proper to ostracize such a man, bas he arouses the evil inclination upon himself. And Rabbi Ami says: He is calleda habitual btransgressor, as this is the craft of the evil inclination. Today he says toa person: bDo thissin, bandwhen the individual obeys his inclination, bon the following daythe evil inclination bsays to him: Do thatsin, band on the following day he says to him: Goand bworship idols, and he goes and worshipsidols., bSome saythat bRabbi Ami says:With regard to banyone who brings himself intoa state of barousal,they bdo not bring him within the boundary of the Holy One, Blessed be He.The proof is that bit is written here,with regard to O, son of Judah: b“And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord,and He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10), band it is written there: “For You are not a God who has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with You.The boasters shall not stand in Your sight…But as for me, in the abundance of Your kindness will I come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy Temple in fear of You” (Psalms 5:5–8). This demonstrates that whoever does evil, like O, shall not sojourn with God., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says,with regard to the severity of this transgression: bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And when you spread forth your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear; byour hands are full of blood”(Isaiah 1:15)? bThese arethose men bwho commit adultery with the hand,by masturbating. Likewise, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:When it is stated in the Ten Commandments: b“You shall not commit adultery”(Exodus 20:13), this means that bthere shall not be adultery among you, whetheryou masturbate bby handor bwhether withone’s bfoot. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bConverts and those who play with children delaythe coming of bthe Messiah.The Gemara asks: bGrantedwith regard to bconverts,this is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥelbo, as Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scabon the skin, as they are not proficient in the performance of the mitzvot and born Jews learn from them. bButwith regard to the category of bthose who play with children,to bwhat is itreferring?, bIf we saythat this is referring to bhomosexuality,such men bare liable tobe executed by bstoning,and their behavior is criticized not simply because they delay the Messiah. bRather,one might suggest that this is referring to those who emit semen bby way ofother blimbs,i.e., without engaging in intercourse; if so, bthey areconsidered as though they are bringing a flood, and are therefore bliable tobe punished themselves with ba flood. /b, bRather,the ibaraitameans bthat they marry minor girls who are notyet bcapable of bearing children,consequently emitting semen for naught. bAs Rabbi Yosei said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). The verse is interpreted as follows: The spirit, i.e., the souls about which it has been decreed by Me that they are to be born, if they are not born, they enwrap the Messiah and prevent him from coming.,§ The mishna teaches that with regard to any hand that is diligent to examine bodily emissions, bamong men,such a hand bshould be severed. A dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bDo we learnthis statement as a practical ihalakha /i,i.e., that the court should actually sever his hand, bor do we learnit as a mere bcurse,but not as an actual instruction to punish him in that manner? The Gemara elaborates: bDo we learnit as a practical ihalakhalike thatprohibition against striking another, in which the same expression is used: With regard to anyone who raises his hand upon another, his hand should be severed, and bRav Hunaindeed acted accordingly and bsevered the handof an offender? bOrperhaps bdo we learnit as a mere bcurse? /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Tarfon says:If one’s bhandgoes btohis bpenis, his hand should be severed upon his navel.The Rabbis bsaid to him:If so, in a case where ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:Indeed, he should bnotremove it, and if he does so his hand should be severed. The Rabbis replied: bButif his hand is severed while it is upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that the belly ofone who acts in this manner bshould be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b,The Gemara analyzes this discussion: bGranted, if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a practical ihalakha /i, this isthe meaning of that bwhichthe Rabbis bsaid: Butif his hand is severed upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open? But if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a mere bcurse, whatis the meaning of the phrase: Won’t bhis belly be split open?The Gemara responds: bRather, whatexplanation is the alternative? That bwe learnthe mishna as stating a practical ihalakha /i?That would not explain the exchange between the Rabbis to Rabbi Tarfon, because is it bnot sufficient thatthe hand be severed bnot upon his navel?In other words, even if the hand must actually be severed, it is not clear why it should be severed while it is upon his navel., bRather, thisis what bRabbi Tarfon is saying:With regard to banyone who inserts his hand below his navel,his hand bshould be severed.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon:If ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:He should bnot.They responded: bBut won’t his belly be split opendue to the thorn? Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that his belly be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of a woman bwho is deaf [ ihaḥereshet /i], or an imbecile, or blind, or who went insane,and is therefore unable to examine herself reliably, bifsuch women bhave competentfriends, those friends bprepare themby examining them and immersing them in a ritual bath. bAndon that basis the incompetent women bmay partake of iteruma /iafter the sun sets., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that competent women must assist ba deaf woman.The Gemara asks: bLet her examine herself; as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There was a deaf woman in our neighborhoodwho was so proficient in these matters that bnot only did she examine herself, butwhen bher friends would seestains similar to blood bandwere unsure whether or not the stains were ritually impure, they would bshow herthe stains.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is referring btoa woman who bcan speak but cannot hear.It is possible for such a woman to be an expert in examining blood. But bhere,the mishna is dealing bwitha woman bwho can neither speak nor hear,and she is therefore considered incompetent and incapable of examining herself. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot1:2): The bdeaf personof bwhom the Sages spoke everywhereis one bwho can neither hear nor speak,i.e., a deaf-mute.,§ The mishna further teaches that competent women must assist ba blindwoman. The Gemara similarly asks: bLet her examine herself and showthe cloth bto her friend. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The correct version of the bmishnadoes bnotmention ba blindwoman.,§ The mishna also states that competent women must assist ba woman who went insane.The Gemara asks: With regard to her ability to examine herself, bisn’t thisthe same as ban imbecile,who is already mentioned in the mishna? The Gemara answers: Here, the mishna is referring to a woman bwho went insane due to illness,which is a different category than that of an imbecile.,The Gemara further discusses ihalakhotpertaining to an imbecile. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ban imbecile priestwho was ritually impure, competent men deal with his purification: bThey immerse him, andthen benable him to partake of iterumain the evening,like any other priest who was impure. bAndthose taking care of him must bwatch over himto ensure bthat he does not sleepbefore he partakes of iteruma /i, in case he experiences a seminal emission, which would render him impure. If bhe slept,he is once again bimpure,and may not partake of iteruma /i; if he bdid not sleephe is bpure. /b, bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, saysthat there is another method of allowing an imbecile priest to partake of iteruma /i: bOne prepares for him a leather pouch,which is wrapped around his penis, and before giving him iterumato partake of one checks this pouch to see if he has emitted semen. The other Sages bsaid to him:It is improper to do this, as ball the more sohe will be prevented from partaking of iteruma /i; this pouch bwarms himand increases the likelihood of a seminal emission. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, bsaid to them: According to your statement, an imbecilepriest bhas no remedythat will enable him to partake of iteruma /i., bThey said to him: According to our statementthere is a way he can partake of iteruma /i, as stated above: If bhe slept,he is bimpure;if he bdid not sleephe is bpure.But baccording to your statement,that one wraps a pouch around his penis, this is not a reliable method, as bperhaps he will see,i.e., experience the emission of, ba dropof semen as small bas a mustardseed, band it will be absorbed in the pouchand will not be noticed, which would mean that he is eating iterumain a state of ritual impurity.,The Gemara continues to discuss the methods by which an imbecile priest can partake of iteruma /i. It was btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar: One prepares for him a metal pouch,which is placed on his penis and does not warm it.,In explanation of this statement, bAbaye says: Andwhen this itannaspeaks of metal, he means that the pouch should be made bof copper,which does not absorb liquid, and therefore any drop of semen would be visible. This is bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iPara12:5), with regard to the amount of water of purification that must be sprinkled on an individual who is impure due to impurity imparted by a corpse, that bRabbi Yehuda says: One considers those hyssop stems,with which the waters of purification are sprinkled, bas though they aremade bof copper,which does not absorb any of the water., bRav Pappa says:One can blearn fromthe statement of the Rabbis that a pouch wrapped around one’s penis can warm it enough to cause a seminal emission, that btrousers are prohibitedto be worn, as they too warm the penis, by being placed so they are tight against it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the priestly garments: b“And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness,from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach” (Exodus 28:42)?,The Gemara explains: bThatgarment, the trousers worn by priests, was different, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe trousers of priests, to what are they comparable?They are bsimilar to riding trousers [ ipamalanya /i] of horsemen,and this is what they look like: bAbove,they reach bup tothe bloins; below,they go bdown tothe bthighs, and they have straps, and they have no opening,neither bat the back nor at the front. /b, bAbaye says: /b
13. Augustine, The City of God, 13.14, 14.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.14. For God, the author of natures, not of vices, created man upright; but man, being of his own will corrupted, and justly condemned, begot corrupted and condemned children. For we all were in that one man, since we all were that one man, who fell into sin by the woman who was made from him before the sin. For not yet was the particular form created and distributed to us, in which we as individuals were to live, but already the seminal nature was there from which we were to be propagated; and this being vitiated by sin, and bound by the chain of death, and justly condemned, man could not be born of man in any other state. And thus, from the bad use of free will, there originated the whole train of evil, which, with its concatenation of miseries, convoys the human race from its depraved origin, as from a corrupt root, on to the destruction of the second death, which has no end, those only being excepted who are freed by the grace of God. 14.24. The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly.
14. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 16 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

15. Anon., Kallah Rabbati Higge, 9.13



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
aphrodite Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143; Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 263
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
clothes, bathing suits Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
creation Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
death Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
eve Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
free will Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
gamaliel, rabban Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
garden Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
god of israel Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
grace Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
hallah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
hellenistic judaism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
idolatry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
inclination (evil) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
interior and structure, licentious atmosphere Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
jewish society, liturgy (prayer) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
life, spirit/breath of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
lust Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
manichean Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
mediterranean, roman Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
mezzuzah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
milk Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
mixed (and separate) bathing for men and women Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
nudity Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
paul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
philosophy and philosophers Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
phylacteries Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
priest/priesthood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
rabbis, as legal scholars Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
rabbis, attending the baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
serpent Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
sexual relations Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
sin, original Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
snake' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 57
soul, individual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 162
torah (pentateuch) and its study Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143
tosefta Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 143