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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



545
Anon., Epistle Of Barnabas, 4.8


ἀλλὰ ἐπιστραφέντες ἐπὶ τὰ εἴδωλα ἀπώλεσαν αὐτήν. Exod. 82, 7 Deut. 9, 12 λέγει γὰρ οὕτως κύριος. Μωϋσῆ Μωϋσῆ, κατάβηθι τὸ τάχος, ὅτι ἠνόμησεν ὁ λαός σου, οὓς ἐξήγαγες ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, καὶ συνῆκεν Μωϋσῆς καὶ ἔριψεν τὰς δύο πλάκας ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ: καὶ συνετρίβη αὐτῶν ἡ διαθήκη, ἵνα ἡ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου Ἰησοῦ ἐγκατασφραγισθῇ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν ἡμῶν ἐν ἐλπίδι τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ.But they lost it by turning unto idols. For thus saith the Lord; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for thy people whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt hath done unlawfully. And Moses understood, and threw the two tables from his hands; and their covenant was broken in pieces, that the covenant of the beloved Jesus might be sealed unto our hearts in the hope which springeth from faith in Him.
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1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 17.8-17.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.8. וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְפִידִם׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּחַר־לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְצֵא הִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק מָחָר אָנֹכִי נִצָּב עַל־רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה וּמַטֵּה הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדִי׃ 17.11. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרִים מֹשֶׁה יָדוֹ וְגָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכַאֲשֶׁר יָנִיחַ יָדוֹ וְגָבַר עֲמָלֵק׃ 17.12. וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 17.13. וַיַּחֲלֹשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵק וְאֶת־עַמּוֹ לְפִי־חָרֶב׃ 17.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן בַּסֵּפֶר וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 17.15. וַיִּבֶן מֹשֶׁה מִזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ יְהוָה נִסִּי׃ 17.16. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ מִלְחָמָה לַיהוָה בַּעֲמָלֵק מִדֹּר דֹּר׃ 17.8. Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim." 17.9. And Moses said unto Joshua: ‘Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand.’" 17.10. So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill." 17.11. And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed." 17.12. But Moses’hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun." 17.13. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword." 17.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write this for a memorial in the book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.’" 17.15. And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Adonai-nissi." 17.16. And he said: ‘The hand upon the throne of the LORD: the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 25.21-25.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.21. וַיֶּעְתַּר יִצְחָק לַיהוָה לְנֹכַח אִשְׁתּוֹ כִּי עֲקָרָה הִוא וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ יְהוָה וַתַּהַר רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 25.22. וַיִּתְרֹצֲצוּ הַבָּנִים בְּקִרְבָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־כֵּן לָמָּה זֶּה אָנֹכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ לִדְרֹשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 25.21. And Isaac entreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren; and the LORD let Himself be entreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived." 25.22. And the children struggled together within her; and she said: ‘If it be so, wherefore do I live?’ And she went to inquire of the LORD." 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.4-21.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.4. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵהֹר הָהָר דֶּרֶךְ יַם־סוּף לִסְבֹב אֶת־אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם וַתִּקְצַר נֶפֶשׁ־הָעָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.4. And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom; and the soul of the people became impatient because of the way." 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.12. שֹׁמּוּ שָׁמַיִם עַל־זֹאת וְשַׂעֲרוּ חָרְבוּ מְאֹד נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.12. Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this, and be horribly afraid, be ye exceeding amazed, saith the LORD."
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.1, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.9, 2.10, 3.6, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 5.11, 9.1-10.12, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 11.11, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 13.1, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 15.1, 15.4, 15.5, 15.8, 16.1, 16.2, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. I Bid you greeting, sons and daughters, in the name of the Lord that loved us, in peace.
9. Anon., Didache, 2.2, 2.4, 9.1-10.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
11. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
12. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.1-10.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.12. Thereforelet him who thinks he stands be careful that he doesn't fall. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it.
13. New Testament, Acts, 6.7, 7.51-7.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 7.51. You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers.
14. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11-2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead.
15. New Testament, Galatians, 4.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.
16. New Testament, Romans, 9.6-9.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.
17. New Testament, Mark, 12.35-12.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.35. Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? 12.36. For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.' 12.37. Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?"The common people heard him gladly.
18. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.3.3, 3.11.8-3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 46.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Justin: There will be no other God, O Trypho, nor was there from eternity any other existing, but He who made and disposed all this universe. Nor do we think that there is one God for us, another for you, but that He alone is God who led your fathers out from Egypt with a strong hand and a high arm. Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. But we do not trust through Moses or through the law; for then we would do the same as yourselves. But now -(for I have read that there shall be a final law, and a covet, the chiefest of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the inheritance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone; but this is for all universally. Now, law placed against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covet which comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one; and an eternal and final law - namely, Christ - has been given to us, and the covet is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no ordice. Have you not read this which Isaiah says: 'Hearken unto Me, hearken unto Me, my people; and, you kings, give ear unto Me: for a law shall go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in My arm?' And by Jeremiah, concerning this same new covet, He thus speaks: 'Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covet which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt' Jeremiah 31:31-32). If, therefore, God proclaimed a new covet which was to be instituted, and this for a light of the nations, we see and are persuaded that men approach God, leaving their idols and other unrighteousness, through the name of Him who was crucified, Jesus Christ, and abide by their confession even unto death, and maintain piety. Moreover, by the works and by the attendant miracles, it is possible for all to understand that He is the new law, and the new covet, and the expectation of those who out of every people wait for the good things of God. For the true spiritual Israel, and descendants of Judah, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham (who in uncircumcision was approved of and blessed by God on account of his faith, and called the father of many nations), are we who have been led to God through this crucified Christ, as shall be demonstrated while we proceed.
20. Melito of Sardis, On Pascha, 58



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adversus iudaeos literature Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 19
age, childhood, child Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
ascension of isaiah Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
authority Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
barnabas, letter of, the two ways Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
barnabas, letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151, 516
bible, christian appropriation Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 19
biography (lives) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
birkat ha-minim Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
boniface, saint Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
book Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
canon, canonization, and prophecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
canon, canonization Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151
circumcision Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
clement of alexandria Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
conversion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
cosmology, cosmogony Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
covenant Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151
damascus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
didache Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 153
disciple, peter Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
epistle of barnabas, and christology Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 281
epistle of barnabas, and covenant Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 281
epistle of barnabas, and food laws Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 281
epistle of barnabas, and salvation Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 278
esau Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
eschatology Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
exegesis Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
exodus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
ferguson, everett Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
flesh Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
forgetting Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
frankfurter, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
gnosticism, gnostics Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
golden calf Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
hagar Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
harnack, adolf Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
heart Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
hebrews, letter to Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151
history, rewritten by christians Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
holiness, holy spirit Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
idolatry Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
ignatius of antioch, letters Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
irenaeus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
isaac Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
ishmael Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
israel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
jacob Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 80
jamnia Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 151
jew(ish), sabbateans Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
judaism, christian criticism of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
justin martyr, viin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
justin martyr Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 19
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
lieu, judith m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
luz, ulrich Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
marcion Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
mcdonald, lee martin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
melito of sardis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
messianism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
metals, gold Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
mimouni, simon claude Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 153
mind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
montanism Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
moses Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 153; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
nestorian tracts Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
new testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
novelty, viii-ix, christian embrace of, viii-ix Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
obedience/disobedience Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
old testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
optatus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
patriarchy, patriarchs Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
persecution Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
peter Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
petrine community Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
pharisees Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
prophecy, and canon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
prophecy, cessation of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
prophecy, israelite Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
qumran, dead sea sect Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
redemption Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
religion passim, idolatry Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
religion passim, priest(hood) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
replacement theology Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 19
rhetoric, allegory, symbolism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
rhodes, james n. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 153
rufinus of aquileia Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
räisänen, heikki Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
sacrifice Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
sarah Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
spirit, divine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
stephen Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
stewart (-sykes), alistair Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 150
stoicism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
temple Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
theology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
two angels tradition Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
two way document Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
two ways Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 153; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 178
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58
women' Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 58